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Chronological History of Namibia - Klaus Dierks

Chronological History of Namibia - Klaus Dierks

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CONTENTS

PREFACE NOTE TO THE READER PRE-THE HISTORICAL PERIOD BC TO 1485 THE PERIOD OF THE EXPLORERS, HUNTERS AND TRADERS 1486–1800 THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD: THE MISSIONARIES
THE MISSIONARIES ARRIVE IN THE TERRITORY 1805–1840 THE MISSIONARIES INTERFERE IN LOCAL POLITICS 1842–1883

1. 2. 3.
3.1 3.2

4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
INITIAL PERIOD OF GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA (SWA) 1884–
1889

THE ACTIVE RESISTANCE STRUGGLE BEGINS 1890–1903 THE RESISTANCE STRUGGLE CULMINATES IN GENOCIDE
1904–1906

GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA CONSOLIDATES 1907–1914

5.
5.1 5.2

THE COLONIAL PERIOD: SOUTH AFRICAN RULE
SOUTH WEST AFRICA UNDER SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY RULE 1915–1918 SOUTH WEST AFRICA BECOMES A LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATE 1919–1945

5.3 5.4 5.5

SOUTH WEST AFRICA BECOMES A UNITED NATIONS TRUSTEESHIP AREA 1946–1956 THE STRUGGLE AGAINST SOUTH AFRICA BEGINS 1957–1974 THE INDEPENDENCE PROCESS: PERIOD OF INTERIM ADMINISTRATIONS 1975–1987

6. 7.
7.1

THE INDEPENDENCE PROCESS LEADS TO NAMIBIA’S FREEDOM 1988–1990 THE PERIOD AFTER NAMIBIA'S INDEPENDENCE
THE FIRST TEN YEARS 1990-2000

8. 9. 10. 11. 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7

LIST OF ACRONYMS REFERENCES PHOTOS AND MAPS INDEX OF SPECIAL TOPICS INDEX: BATTLES AND SKIRMISHES IN THE HISTORY OF NAMIBIA INDEX: TRADITIONAL LEADERS IN THE HISTORY OF NAMIBIA INDEX: POLITICAL PARTIES IN NAMIBIA INDEX: UPRISINGS AGAINST COLONIAL POWERS INDEX: WARS IN THE HISTORY OF NAMIBIA INDEX: STAMPS IN NAMIBIA INDEX: IMPORTANT ACTS, LAWS AND PROCLAMATIONS IN THE HISTORY OF

NAMIBIA INDEX: IMPORTANT COMPANIES IN THE 11.8 HISTORY OF NAMIBIA 11.9 INDEX: TRADE UNIONS IN NAMIBIA INDEX: IMPORTANT TREATIES IN THE 11.10 HISTORY OF NAMIBIA INDEX: UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATIONS 11.11 AND RESOLUTIONS ON NAMIBIA INDEX: FIRST OCCURRENCES IN THE 11.12 HISTORY OF NAMIBIA INDEX: FOUNDING OF TOWNS, VILLAGES, 11.13 COMMUNITY CENTRES INDEX: IMPORTANT CONFERENCES IN THE 11.14 HISTORY OF NAMIBIA INDEX: IMPORTANT COUNCILS IN THE 11.15 HISTORY OF NAMIBIA 11.16 SPEECH: WITBOOI DAY: 29.10.1995: GIBEON SPEECH: RED NATION DAY: 01.12.2004: 11.17 HOACHANAS [Return to Frontpage]

PREFACE
An updated and well-researched chronology of Namibian history is long overdue. In particular, a chronological and properly indexed delineation of the pre-colonial and mandate periods following World War I, and of the period leading up to Namibia’s independence, has long been lacking. This chronology depicts "Namibia’s Road to Freedom"; the country’s striving for freedom and independence is the red thread woven through the rich tapestry of its history since long before the onset of formal colonialism in 1884. The advent of colonialism in the last quarter of the 19th century serves as the starting point for this research, and the seemingly endless yarn of facts and figures that flowed from the colonial presence is followed to its logical conclusion – the birth of the Republic of Namibia on 21 March 1990. Community awareness of ancient historical roots, associated with oral traditions about the origins and

migrations of many Namibian communities play an important role in the revival of their cultures in post-independent Namibia and is reflected in this chronology. The author, being an engineer by profession as well as a historian, has applied an "engineering approach" to this chronicle, which serves to advance its accuracy. Chronologies tend to be tiresome to read, but they are informative and useful, particularly if they incorporate a comprehensive index, as this one does. This chronology can be used as a reference source in researching, for instance, what events took place in a specific year, the delimitation over time of Namibia’s boundaries, the full spectrum of United Nations resolutions adopted on Namibia, or the leadership and dates of birth and dissolution of political parties and other interest groups. It must be noted, however, that the chronologies of Namibian history produced to date, including this one, are

inevitably problematic in that, because the country’s archaeology is still in its infancy, a comprehensive account of its pre-colonial history cannot be produced with any certainty. For this reason also, historical evidence on the whereabouts, lifestyle and development of many Namibian communities is scarce, if not totally lacking. This chronology has been divided up as follows. The first section chronicles the pre-historical period from the southern African Middle Stone Age to approximately 1200 AD, at which time the first archaeological evidence of human-made pathways in Namibia came into being. The next section takes us into the period of the explorers, hunters and traders who resided in Namibia between 1486 and 1800. This period is followed by the pre-colonial period of the missionaries, and the section on the missionary period is divided into two sub-sections: the period of missionaries arriving to work in Namibia, and that of the missionaries interfering in Namibian

politics. We then enter the formal colonial period, which began with the advent of German rule in 1884. This formal colonial period is divided into four sub-periods: the initial period of occupation from 1884 to 1889, the period from 1890 to 1903 which saw the initiation of active resistance against the German administration (nineteen uprisings by various Namibian communities against the Germans during this period, all in all there have been thirty uprisings against the German/South African colonial authorities between 1890 and 1959), the period from 1904 to 1906 when the resistance culminated in central and southern Namibia, and finally the period from 1906 to World War I when the Germans consolidated their power. The next section chronicles the period of South African rule in Namibia, and this period is divided into five sub-periods: the period of South African military rule from 1915 to 1918, the period from 1918 to 1945 when Namibia became a Mandate of the League of Nations, the period from 1946 to 1956 when the

United Nations endeavoured to make Namibia a UN Trusteeship Area, the period from 1956 to 1974 when the struggle against South Africa commenced, and finally the period from 1975 to 1987 which saw a succession of South African interim administrations and the start of the attenuated process leading to independence. The next section covers the period immediately preceding independence in 1990. The Chronology is continued for the first ten years after independence until the year 2000. Due to the fact that the author as an elected Member of Parliament and Minister of the Government was directly involved in the founding years of the new emerging state, his projects use up a relatively wide room. They have not only to be regarded as part of Namibian history but also his personal memoirs. The historical researcher is presented with several unique problems in relation to the earlier periods of Namibian history. Apart from the fact that information sources on these periods are

fragmentary, contradictory, or just non-existent, the Gothic-like handwriting of German missionaries and officials makes the available sources exceptionally difficult to work with. It is particularly difficult to trace reliable data on the pre-German period and the period prior to 1890, and although the German and South African colonial periods from 1898 onwards are well documented, in many cases the documentation is strongly biased in favour of the relevant colonial interests, so its veracity is not easily ascertainable. The starting point for all research on the precolonial period is the work of Heinrich Vedder. Frequently, however, it is necessary to read his texts with caution because they do not derive directly from any primary historical source. The narratives of the early travellers and the reports of the missionaries and traders expand on Vedder’s work, and particularly important sources of this nature are the diaries of Carl Hugo Hahn and Emma Sarah Hahn, as well as

the Andersson papers. Other data referring to the pre-colonial period can be found in the records of the Rhenish and London Missionary Societies. Regarding the missionary reports, the outstanding works of Wesleyan missionary Benjamin Ridsdale should be mentioned. Reliable reports on the pre-colonial period from travellers, traders and settlers are very scant. However, important data is accessible in publications of the Van Riebeeck Society in Cape Town, in the records of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, in the extensive 1915 treatises of E. Moritz, and in the Jahresberichte (Annual Reports) of the Rhenish Missionary Society. A few isolated sources obtainable from the Cape Archives, such as the reports of Palgrave, Special Commissioner of the Cape Government in the 1870s, and from the Cory Library in Grahamstown, also provide some useful data. The early history of Namibia cannot be distinguished from the period of the early

European explorers, adventurers, traders and missionaries who opened this country up to the outside world in the 19th and early 20th centuries and who, in doing so, created the basis for Namibia’s colonial status which lasted all the way up to 1990. An evaluation of the manifold records of the German colonial period from the 1890s to 1915, as well as some secondary literature, was carried out with a view to documenting the colonial character of Namibia’s history, whose grim consequences for Namibian indigenes were their being dispossessed of land and assets and deprived of human rights. The mandatory rule of the Union of South Africa and later the Republic of South Africa in many respects perpetuated the objectives of the German colonial power. The construction of a comprehensive chronological picture of South African rule from 1920 to 1989 necessitated an investigation of the records in the Windhoek State Archives, such as the reports of the Union of South Africa to the League of Nations, and the

findings in the case on Namibia brought before the International Court of Justice in The Hague. Efforts were also made to verify as many facts as possible by comparing these reconstructive works with the personal experience of the author, who has been involved in Namibian politics since 1977. A special effort was made to assess the history of all political parties in Namibia since 1919, with more than a hundred and eighty such parties, political organisations and lobby groups having come into existence between that year and the year of independence. The first ten years after Namibia’s independence reflect not only a fascinating period of the country’s history, but also the personal memoirs of the author who, as member of the Namibian Government and Parliament, played an active role in coining the first era after the hard won freedom. Where a precise date of an event could not be established, the event is listed under the relevant year. The click sounds of the Khoesan, the #Nu-Khoen and the Khoe (Nama) are

represented by the following symbols: ! (cerebral click), | (dental click), || (lateral click) and # (palatal click).
African society is little understood and under evaluated. Who are the Africans, where are they coming from? Which are the moving forces of Namibian history? I would like to argue that the moving forces are not ethnic or racial in nature but social and economic. As implied above, one major shortcoming of Namibia’s historical records has to be borne in mind: the indigenes were considered to be nothing but objects of European intervention. They do not turn up as makers of history, and the impression is created that they lived "outside" the country’s history. The chronology before you makes an honest attempt to rectify this bias, but it has to be understood that this effort is merely an additional stepping stone in the cumulative effort to write up the very complex history of this young nation state. Another major shortcoming of the records is that references to the role of Namibian women

in the making of their country’s history, and in bringing about its liberation, are all too rare, and this topic is deserving of much additional research in the future. Women’s oppressed status in Namibian history is clearly manifested in the fact that they are not mentioned in most of the historical sources. Their work is not valued according to its scope, importance, or degree of skill. An additional problem is the difficult or even impossible access to the files of contemporary political parties and trade unions. My special thanks go to André du Pisani of the University of Namibia and Gunther von Schumann of the Namibia Scientific Society for their invaluable suggestions and stimulating ideas, and to Werner Hillebrecht of the National Library of Namibia for guiding me to the appropriate reference sources.

Perri Caplan and Sally Harper looked

closely at the final version for English style and grammar, correcting both and offering suggestions for improvement.
Any erroneous facts or assessments, and any omissions, must be charged to my account.

Dr. Klaus Dierks January 2003
[Return to Table of Contents]

CHRONOLOGY OF NAMIBIAN HISTORY
From Pre-historical Times to Independent Namibia (December 2000)

Klaus Dierks
02 January 2005
Copyright Š 1999-2005 Dr. Klaus Dierks

LIST OF PHOTOS

Table of Contents

FRONTPAGE OF WEBSITE

LIST OF PHOTOS AND MAPS
Photo 1.1a: Oldest Rockart in Africa: Apollo XI Cave:
27000 - 23000 B.C.: Uitsig/Huns Mountains: Karas Mountains Photo 1.1b: Rockpainting: Omandumba East: Erongo Mountains Photos 1.2-1.3: Landscape near ||Khauxa!nas: Warmfontein: Gurus River: Karas Region Photo 1.4-1.7: Rockpainting near ||Khauxa!nas: Warmfontein: Gurus River: Karas-Region Photo 1.8: The "Große Spitzkoppe" from the North Photo 1.9: Rockpainting in the "Große Spitzkoppe" Massif (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.) Photos: 1.10-1.11: The "Bushmen Paradise" in the Spitzkoppe Massif: Erongo-Region Photos 1.12-1.13: Cave in the "Bushmen Paradise" in the Spitzkoppe Massif Photos 1.14-1.15: Rockpainting in the Cave in the "Bushmen Paradise" (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.) Photo 1.16: Scene in the Spitzkoppe Massif: ErongoRegion Photo 1.17: The Brandberg with the Königsstein is Namibia's highest Mountain: 2 573 m: View from the East: Erongo-Region Photo 1.18: The Brandberg from the East into the Tsisab Gorge: with District Road 2359: Erongo Region

Photo 1.19: The Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg: Erongo
Region

Photos 1.20-1.21: Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture
of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (Around 1500 A.D.): View to the North-East: Erongo Region, March 2003 Photo 1.22: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The famous "White Lady" Rockpainting Photos 1.23-1.24: The Rock Paintings in Maack's Shelter with "White Lady" Photo 1.25: Ascent from Maack's Shelter to the Giraffe Cave in the Brandberg, Tsisab Gorge: View to the West Photo 1.26: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The Giraffe Cave Photo 1.27: Ascent from the Giraffe Cave to the Ostrich Cave in the Brandberg, Tsisab Gorge: View to the North East Photo 1.28: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The Ostrich Cave Photo 1.29: Ascent from the Ostrich Cave in the Brandberg to Jochmann's Shelter, Tsisab Gorge: View to the South Photo 1.30: View from Jochmann's Shelter, Tsisab Gorge: View to the North East Photo 1.31: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Lion)

Photo 1.32: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the
Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Snake and Giraffe) Photo 1.33: Good Look Cairn" (Nama: Heitsi-Eibib or Haitse-aibeb) established by Pastoral Nomads in the Brandberg: Approx. 1500 A.D.: View from the West into the Hungorob Gorge Photo 1.34: View from the East into the Ugab Valley (Boundary between Erongo and Kunene Regions) Photo 1.35: View from the East into the Ugab Valley and a Valley leading to the Doros Crater and the Mikberg Mountains Photos 1.36-1.37: Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 1 Photo 1.38: Prehistoric Pathway used by Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Access to Site 1 Photo 1.39: Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 2 Photos 1.40-1.41: Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 5 Photo 1.42: Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 11 Photo 1.43: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Between Doros

Crater and Huab River: For Millenniums the Hunter Gatherers and later the Nomadic Pastoralists used the Waterhole of Gai-As: Now the Hole is visited by Desert Elephants and Desert Rhinoceros: Kunene Region Photos 1.44-1.45: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 1: Rock Engravings by Hunter-Gatherers: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: Approximately 2000 Years Old: Kunene Region Photos 1.46-1.47: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 2: Rock Engravings by Hunter-Gatherers: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: Approximately 2000 Years Old: Kunene Region Photos 1.48-1.51: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 3: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: "High Buildings": Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: Kunene Region Photos 1.52-1.54: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 9: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: North West Settlement: Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: Kunene Region Photos 1.55-1.56: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 6: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: South West Settlement: Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: Kunene Region Photos 1.57-1.59: Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 11: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: East Settlement: Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: Kunene Region

Photo 1.60: Twyfelfontein in the Kunene Region: with the
Famous Rock Engravings and Rockpaintings Photos 1.61-1.63: Images of the Rocky Crater of Twyfelfontein Photo 1.64: Twyfelfontein with pre-historic Stone Circle of Nomadic Pastoralists (Possible Transition from Windshields to Hut Foundations: D Period between A.D. and 1200 A.D.): Kunene Region Photos 1.65-1.66: Twyfelfontein: Rock Engravings: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D. Photos 1.67-1.85`: Twyfelfontein: Rock Engravings: Later Stone Age Hunter-Gatherer Culture: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: Some of the Engravings may be as old as 7000 Years: The Abstract Designs were probably done by Earlier Artists: Kunene Region Photos 1.86-1.88: Twyfelfontein with Rockpaintings: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: The Rockpaintings are younger than the Rockengravings: Kunene Region Photos 1.89-1.90: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to the Caves with San Rockpaintings: Karas Region Photo: 1.91: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: View from Cave 1 to the North with Khoichab Dunes in the Background Photos 1.92-1.94: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 1 with recently discovered San Rockpaintings: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D.

Photo: 1.95: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib
Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Waterhole near Cave 1 Photos 1.96-1.98: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent from Cave 1 to Cave 2 Photos 1.99-1.100: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 2 with recently discovered San Rockpaintings: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D. Photo 1.101: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 2 with recently discovered San Rock Engraving: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D. Photo: 1.102: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to Cave 3 from the Base Photos 1.103-1.104: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to Cave 3: Building Remains in the Form of Stone Circles at the Kirchberg Settlement Site built by Pastoral Nomads in the Namib: Karas Region Photo: 1.105: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to Cave 3: Possible Grave or a "Good Look Cairn" (Nama: HeitsiEibib or Haitse-aibeb) established by Pastoral Nomads in the Namib: Karas Region Photos 1.106-1.108: Khoichab Pan Restricted Area:

Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 3 with recently discovered San Rockpaintings: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D. Photos 3.1-3.2: The Genealogy of the Kai5khaun (Red Nation) Chiefs of Hoachanas: Since Chief #Hâb: 1695: Old Cemetry: Hardap Region Photo 5.1: The Great Karas Mountains from the East: Landscape of ||Khauxa!nas: Oldest Ruined Settlement in an Engineering Sense in Namibia Photos 5.2-5.5: ||Khauxa!nas: General View from West Photo 5.6: Warmbad: The "Old Pastorie" which was built on the Foundations of the First Missionary House, 1805 Photo 6.1: Landscape east of ||Khauxa!nas: With View to the Great Karas Mountains in the West Photo 6.2: Landscape east of ||Khauxa!nas: With View to the Gurus River in the South: District Road 612 Photo 6.3: ||Khauxa!nas: Protection Walls from East Photos 6.4-6.5: ||Khauxa!nas: Views from the Air Photos 6.6-6.37: Various Views and Details of ||Khauxa!nas Photos 6.38-6.39: The Rectangular Building in ||Khauxa!nas: "Marengo's House" Photos 6.40-6.41: ||Khauxa!nas: Tomb Stones at the Eastern Side of the Fortress Mountain or "Good Look Cairn" (Nama: Heitsi-Eibib or Haitse-aibeb) Photo 6.42: NamPost Stamps on the ||Khauxa!nas Ruins, 06.02.1997 Photos 7.1-7.2: The Graves of the Rhenish Missionary

Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and his Wife Hanna, née Schmelen at Otjimbingwe Photos: 8.1-8.3: Bethany: London Missionary Schmelen's House: 1814: Karas Region Photos 11.1-11.3: "Robber Henrick's Place": Narudas Photo 11.4-11.5: The Ruins of Narudas: View to the South West into the Great Karas Mountains Photos 11.6-11.7: The Narudas Ruins: View to the North, to the Narudas Peak Photos 11.8-11.9: Access Climb to the Narudas Ruins from the North Photos 11.10-11.11: View from the Narudas Ruins to the Northwest into the Narudas Gorge Photos 11.12-11.16: View from the Narudas Ruins to the South to the highest Point of the Ruins Photo11.17: View from the Narudas Ruins to the East in direction of ||Khauxa!nas Photo 11.18: The highest Point of the Narudas Ruins Photos 13.1-13.4: The Remains of the Rhenish Mission Station at Otjikango (later called Gross Barmen by Rhenish Missionary Carl Hugo Hahn) in October 2004: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 14.1-14.2: Otjimbingwe in the Swakop Valley: The first Rhenish Missionary working in Otjimbingwe in 1849 is Johannes Rath Photos 15.1-15.3: Rhenish Missionary Church in Okahandja: The Missionary Station is established on 22.03.1850 by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe:

Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photos 15.4-15.6: Berseba: founded by Rhenish Missionary Samuel Hahn: 17.10.1850: the Church is built by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber: 1857 Photo 16.1: Bethany: Rhenish Missionary Cemetry: Matthäus Gorth: died on 05.01.1853: #Goais (Grootfontein South) Photos 18.1-18.4: Berseba: founded by Rhenish Missionary Samuel Hahn: 17.10.1850: the Church is built by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber: 1857 Photo 18.5: Bethany: Rhenish Missionary Cemetry: Johannes Heinrich Bam: died on 26.09.1891 Photos 18.6-18.7: The Renish Missionary Church of 1857: Hoachanas: built by Missionary Vollmer: Hardap Region Photo 18.8: Grave near the Renish Missionary Church in Hoachanas: Hardap Region Photo 19.1: Carl Hugo Hahn Photos 19.2-19.6: Original Treaty of Hoachanas, 1858 Photo: 20.1: Bethany: First Rhenish Missionary Church: 26.06.1859: Karas Region Photos 20.2-20.3: Omandongo: Omandongo, south of Onayena is the Residence of Ondonga King Shikongo sha Kalulu Photos: 21.1-21.2: Grave of Jonker Afrikaner, who died on 18.08.1861 in Okahandja: The Grave is in the Vicinity of the Orlam Afrikaner Stettlement near the Rhenish Missionary Station: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003

Photo: 21.3: Access to the Ovaherero Graves of the
Maharero Dynasty in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo: 21.4: Ovaherero Graves of the Maharero Dynasty in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photos 22.1-22.2: Gibeon, founded by Rhenish Missionary Jacob Knauer in 1863: Hardap Region Photos: 23.1-23.2: The Kunene River at Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld Photos 23.3-23.4: Eduard Hälbich establishes a successful Trading Company at Otjimbingwe in 1864. The left photo shows the Hälbich Store and the right one the "Powder Magazine" which is erected in 1872 by Hälbich as a Protection Tower in Periods of Unrest Photos 23.5-23.6: The Graves of the Rhenish Missionary Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and his Wife Hanna, née Schmelen at Otjimbingwe Photo: 24.1: Carl Hugo Hahn's Rhenish Church at Otjimbingwe Photo: 24.2: Rhenish Church at Keetmanshoop Photos 27.1-27.2: Omandongo: First Finnish Missionary Station in Ovamboland Photo 27.3: Rhenish Missionary Church of Okombahe: Founded on 17.11.1870: Erongo Region Photo 27.4: Rhenish Missionary Cemetry of Okombahe: Grave of Missionary Caspar Heinrich Niederwelland: Erongo Region Photo 28.1: The Finnish Missionary Church at Olukonda

of 1871

Photo 28.2: The Cemetery of the Finnish Missionary
Society at Olukonda Photos 29.1-29.3: The Ruins of the Rhenish Missionary Station which was established by Missionary Carl Heinrich Beiderbecke on 15.11.1873 at the Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 30.1: Gibeon Cemetery: Grave of the Witbooi Captain Kido (Cupido) Witbooi who died in 1875 Photo 31.1: Bethany: Rhenish Missionary Cemetery: Hermann Heinrich Kreft: died on 03.05.1878 Photos 31.2-31.4: The Church of the Rhenish Missionary Society at Warmbad, inaugurated by Missionary Weber in 1877 Photo 32.1: Oxwagon Road: Grootfontein (South): 1876: Palgrave Album Photo 32.2: Oxwagon Road: Berseba-Bethany: 1876: Palgrave Album Photo 33.1: Ruins of Houses of the Dorslandtrekkers of 1879 at the Waterhole of Rietfontein (Etosha Pan) Photos 33.2-33.4: Monuments of the Dorslandtrekkers of 1879 at the Waterhole of Rietfontein (Etosha Pan) Photo 33.5: Ruins of the Dorslandtrekker Church of Kaoko Otavi of the Year 1879 Photos 33.6-33.8: Dorslandtrekker Monument and Grave at Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld Photos 33.9-33.15: Images of the Otjiyandjasemo Hot Springs west of Okonguati in the Kaokoveld

Photos 35.1-35.3: Dorslandtrekker Monument and Grave
at Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld Photos: 36.1-36.2: Bethany: Chief Frederik's House: Karas Region Photos: 36.3-36.10: On a Search Trail for new Precolonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: From Narudas via Witkrans, Garies to Sandmund Photo 36.11: Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Garies Possible Watch Tower over a Waterhole in a Riverbed: In the Background: Garies Hill with numerous Ruins Photo 36.12: Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Garies Possible Watch Tower over a Waterhole in a Riverbed Photo 36.13: Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Sandmund: In the Background: Narudas Poort Photo 36.14: Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Sandmund: View to the South Photos 36.15-36.17: Recently discovered Precolonial Nama Ruins: Top of the Great Karas Mountains: View to the South: Garies: Possible Secret Fortress built by Jakob Marengo: Found: April 2003 Photo 36.18: Recently discovered Precolonial Nama Ruins: Top of the Great Karas Mountains: View to the Southeast: Garies: In the Background the Narudas Poort Photo 36.19: Recently discovered Precolonial Nama Ruins: Top of the Great Karas Mountains: View to the West: Garies: In the Background the Lord Hill

(Schroffenstein), highest peak in the Great Karas Mountains Photo 37.1: Lüderitz - ca 1903 Photo 37.2: The "German Era" commences Photo 38.1: Memorial Plaquette of Adolf Lüderitz at Shark Island (later Lüderitz) Photo 40.1: Rhenish Missionary Cemetery of Okombahe: Grave of Christian Baumann: Erongo Region Photos 40.2-40.1: View from the Roman Catholic Mission Station at Andara to Tanhwe Island, Caprivi Region Photo 41.1: Missionary Grave: Heinrich Friedrich Gottlieb Rust: Auob Valley: Gochas: Hardap Region Photo 42.1: Gibeon Cemetery: Graves of the Witbooi Captain Moses David Witbooi and Adam Klaasen who died on 22.02.1888 Photo 43.1: The Cemetery in Warmbad: With a Grave reflecting the History of the Kharaskhoma Syndicate of the South Photo 44.1: German "Schutztruppe": around 1890 Photo 44.2: German War Graves: Naukluft Mountains, 1894 Photos 45.1-45.6: The Ruin of the "Kurt von Francois Fortress" which was established in January 1890 to protect the Road from Otjimbingwe via Tsaobis to the new Capital of German South West Africa (Windhoek) at Heusis (Alt Heusis) in the Khomas Hochland Photo 48.1: Gibeon Cemetery: Remembrance of the Hornkranz Battle between Witbooi Nama and Germans,

April 1893

Photo 50.1: German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting
the Crushing of various Nama Uprisings during 1895 in the Kalahari Desert Photos 50.2-50.3: Carl Hugo Hahn's Grave at Paarl at the St. Petri Cemetery in the Cape Colony Photo 51.2: Post Transport with Donkeys Photo 51.2: Kubub Military Station, 1896/97 Photos 52.1-52.3: The "Old German Fort" in Grootfontein: Built between 1896 and 1900: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 52.4: Grave of Nikodemus Kavikunua in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photos 53.1-53.2: Port Railway Line: Walvis Bay: Second Railway Line in Namibia: 1897 Photo 53.3: The German War Cemetery at Outjo (Kunene Region) remembers also the Uprising of the Topnaars and ||Khau-|goan (Swartboois) against the German Colonial Power in 1897 and 1898 Photos 54.1-54.2: Historical Graves on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Omaruru, Erongo Region, 1898 Photo 54.3: Historical Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region, 1898 Photo 55.1: Historical Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region, 1899 Photo 56.1: Post Office in the "Schutzgebiet" Photo 56.2: Railway Station Okahandja, 1902

Photo 58.1: Grave of the Rhenish Missionary Friedrich
Wilhem Gottlieb Viehe, Preses of Hereroland and Leader of the Augustineum in Okahandja who died on 15.01.1901: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photos 58.2-58.4: The German Fort (built by Karl Schmidt 1904-1906 and rebuilt as Lodge in the 1990s) and the German Cemetery at Zesfontein (Afrikaans: Sesfontein) Photos 60.1-60.3: Ovaherero Graves on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photos 60.4-60.8: Cemetery of Chief Kambazembi at the Waterberg Photos 60.9-60.13: Possible Precolonial Ovaherero Graves: Southwest of the Kambazembi Cemetery: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 60.14-60.15: The Grave of the Bondelswart Chief, Jan Abraham Christian (Tôasib: |Nanseb Kaib #Naoxamab), in Warmbad (Old Location) who fell against the Germans (Walter Jobst) on 25.10.1903 and initiated the German-Namibian War, 1903-1909 Photos 60.16-60.17: The Cemetery in Warmbad with many German War Graves of the various Battles and Skirmishes between 1903 and 1905: Walter Jobst' Grave is the big Tomb Stone in the Background Photo 60.18: Samuel Maharero and Julius Maharero (left): Okahandja: 1895 Photo 60.19: Remains of the German Fort at Warmbad Photo 60.20: Remains of the German Garrison and

Doctor's House at Warmbad Photo 61.1: German Soldiers on the Kaiser Wilhelm Mountain: Okahandja: January 1904: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 61.2-61.11: German War Graves on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 61.12-61.13:German War Graves on the Cemetery in Gross Barmen: Between 12.01.1904 and March 1904: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.14: German War Graves on the Farm Klein Barmen: 12.01.1904: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.15: The Rebuilt German Police Station which was destroyed by Ovaherero Resistance Fighters during January 1904: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 61.16-61.18: The German War Cemetery which reflects the Occurrences of the Ovaherero/German Resistance War between January and November 1904: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 61.19-61.22: German War Graves picturing the Beginning of the Great Resistance War 1904 during January 1904 at the Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.23: German Memorial Plate for the fallen Ovaherero Soldiers at the Waterberg Cemetery: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.24: Historical Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region, Battle of Uitkomst,18.01.1904 Photos 61.25-61.26: Fort Namutoni in the Etosha Pan: Oshikoto Region2

Photo 61.27: Memorial Tablet: Battle of Namutoni in the
Etosha Pan: 28.01.1904 Photos 61.28-61.30: The "Franke Tower" in Omaruru, remembering the Battle of Omaruru between Germans and Ovaherero, 17.01.-04.02.1904, Erongo Region Photo 61.31: Historical Grave of a German Missionary on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region Photos 61.32-61.34: German War Graves at the German Waterberg War Cemetery showing the various Battles and Skirmishes between May and July 1904: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.35: Historical Grave of a German Officer on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region Photos 61.36-61.38: German War Graves from the Battle at the Hamakari/Waterberg: August 1904: Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.39: Historical Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region Photo 61.40: Grave of the German Unit "Nikolai von Stempel": at Gugunas South (||Khauxa!nas): 30.08.1904: The Skirmish with Jakob Marengo initiated the Nama War in the South Photo: 61.41: German War Grave at the Waterberg Cemetery from the Battle at Owinauanaua (Omaheke): September 1904: Otjozondjupa Region Photo: 61.42: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the many Battles and Skirmishes between 1904

and 1908, between Germans and Nama (mainly Witbooi Nama under Hendrik Witbooi (until 1905) and Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper (until 1908)) Photos 61.43-61.44: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the first Skirmishes of the Nama War at Gochas and Schürfpenz: between Germans and Witbooi Nama: October 1904 Photo: 61.45: The German Police Station at Kub at the Upper Fish River near Kalkrand: Hardap Region Photo: 61.46: German War Grave of the Kub Battle: 22.11.1904 Photo 61.47: German War Grave of the Naris Battle: 07.12.1904 Photos 61.48-61.50: German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting the many Battles and Skirmishes between Germans and Nama in the Kalahari Desert: Between 1904 and 1912 Photos 61.51-61.52: German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting the Battle between the German Unit "Lengerke" and the ||Hawoben (Veldschoendragers) under the Command of Chief Jan Hendrik: 15.12.1904 Photos 61.53-61.55: Epata in the Omuramba Eiseb where the Tragedy of the fleeing Ovaherero unfolded during the Ovaherero-German War of 1904 Photos 61.56-61.57: The German War Cemetery at Outjo (Kunene Region) remembers also the Great Resistance War between Germans and Ovaherero in the Year 1904: The Fighting went on until December 1904 (Skirmish of

Gr. Tsaub)

Photos 62.1-62.2: Memorial for the Gross Nabas Battle
between Germans and Witbooi Nama: 02.-04.01.1905: Auob Valley: Hardap Region Photo 62.3-62.5: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the many Battles and Skirmishes between Germans and Nama (mainly Witbooi Nama under Hendrik Witbooi (until 1905) and Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper (until 1908)) Photos 62.6-62.7: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Gross Nabas Battle between Germans and Witbooi Nama: 02.-04.01.1905 Photos 62.8-62.9: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Haruchas between Germans and Witbooi Nama: 03.01.1905 Photos 62.10-62.11: The German War Memorial at Haruchas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Haruchas: 03.01.1905 Photo 62.12: German War Cemetey at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Urikuribis: 28.01.1905 Photo 62.13: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Klein Nabis: 04.03.1905 Photo 62.14: The Great Karas Mountains from Aob (Gaitsanes) Photo 62.15: German War Memorial: Reflecting the Battle of Aob between Jakob Marengo and Captain Kirchner: 10.03.1905 Photo 62.16: Robber Henrick's Place (Narudas) or Klip

Fontein south-west of ||Khauxa!nas, possibly Marengo's Camp during February/March 1905 Photo 62.17: Narudas Ruins: View to the East: This Part was used by Abraham Morris during the March 1905 Battle of Narudas Photo 62.18: Jakob Marengo, 1906 Photos 62.19-62.25: German War Graves at the Narudas Cemetery Photo 62.26: Extract from Marengo's Diary Photos 62.27-62.28: German Postcard of the Execution of Nama Soldiers at Gibeon, around 1905: Namibian Children and Women acting as Spectators Photo 62.29: German War Graves at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Kowes: 17.05.1905 Photo 62.30: Shark Island near Lüderitz where a German Concentration Camp existed,1905-1907 Photos 62.31-62.32: Shark Island: Images of Prisoners and German Soldiers at the Prison Camp: 1905 Photos 62.33-62.35: Marengo's House at ||Khauxa!nas: Site of the 1905 Peace Negotiations Photo 62.36: Warmfontein: Grave of the Mother of Johannes Louw, Advisor to Jakob Marengo Photo 62.37: Warmfontein: Grave of Johannes Louw, Advisor to Jakob Marengo: Interesting is that the Grave has been "vandalised" Photo 62.38: Warmfontein: Next to the Grave of Johannes Louw, Advisor to Jakob Marengo are some unnamed Nama graves, probably one could belong to Johannes

Louw's Nama Wife

Photos 62.39-62.42: German War Graves from the
various Battles against Hendrik Witbooi,1905 Photo 62.43: Hendrik Witbooi's last Photo (probably beginning 1904: see the German Colours "black-whitered" at his left Arm (maybe retouched ?)) Photo 62.44: Gibeon Cemetery: Remembrance Stone for Hendrik Witbooi Photo 62.45: German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting various Skirmishes around Koës between January and October 1905 Photo 62.46: German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting the Skirmish between surviving Witbooi Nama and Germans at Kirris Ost: 02.11.1905 Photos 62.47-62.52: The Kai5khaun Heroe's Day (05.12.2004): Death of Chief Manasse !Noreseb Gamab against the Germans on 01.12.1905 at Gubuoms Photos 62.53-62.56: The Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line, 1905/06 Photo 63.1: Governor Von Lindequist visits Usakos, 1906 Photo 63.2: German War Cemetery at Koës: One of the many Casualties in the Kalahari Sand Dunes during the German Nama War in the Kalahari from 1904 to 1912 Photos 63.3-63.4: War Cemetery at Holoog Station: Railway Line: Grünau-Seeheim Photos 63.5-63.6: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: Station Grasplatz: 24 km from Lüderitz: August 2002: From 2003 onwards the Line will be rebuilt

Photo 63.7: The Cemetery in Warmbad: Skirmish on the
Road between Warmbad and Kalkfontein Süd: 20.06.1906 Photo 63.8: On June, 21st 1906 Gabis, west of Warmbad, is attacked by !Gami-#nun Leader Johannes Christian Photo 63.9: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 185: West of Aus: Removal of old German "Krupp-Rails", nearly 100 Years old: View to the West: Direction Garub: Progress to Date: September 2002 Photos: 63.10-63.11: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 189 + 400: West of Aus: Old German Steel Bridge: Progress to Date: September 2002 Photo 63.12: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 190: West of Aus: The old German Steel Sleepers are stacked: View to the West: Progress to Date: September 2002 Photo 63.13: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 195: West of Aus: Station Ausweiche, where the steep Ascent to Aus Nek commences: September 2002 Photo 63.14: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 200: Border between Farming Area west of Aus and the "Diamond Sperrgebiet": September 2002 Photo 63.15: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 252: End of Contract at Haalenberg": September 2002 Photo 64.1: Treckkoppje Railway Station, around 1900 Photo 64.2: Executed Namibians during the Great Resistance War, 1903-1909 Photos 65.1-65.2: Race Anatomical Research at Nama

Heads at the Heads of perished Prisoners of War (left) and the Loading and Packing of Skulls of perished Ovaherero by German Soldiers for German Universities and Museums: Research by Eugen Fischer Photo 65.3: Eugen Fischer Photos 65.4-65.6: The Ruin of the Manager's House of the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Ltd. of 1907 at Heusis (Neu Heusis) in the Khomas Hochland Photo 66.1: German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting the Skirmish of Kubub between Germans and the Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper: 08.03.1908 Photo 66.2: German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Battle of Seatsub in British Bechuanaland between Germans and the Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper: 16.03.1908 Photo 66.3: German State Secretary Dernburg visits Omaruru, 1908 Photos 66.4-66.7: The Diamond Town of Kolmanskop, 1908 Photos: 66.8-66.11: Fish River Railway Bridge at Seeheim: Seeheim-Aus Railway Line Photo 66.12: The Streitwolf-Expedition crosses the Linyanti River on 25 January 1909 Photo 67.1: The "Goerke House" at Lüderitz, 1909 Photos 67.2-67.6: The Duwisib Castle, southwest of Maltahöhe, 1909 Photo 67.7: Graffiti by the German Surveyor, Lieutenant

Jochmann: from the Year 1909 in Jochmann's Shelter: Erongo Region Photo 67.8: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Lion) Photo 67.9: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Snake and Giraffe) Photo 67.10: German War Cemetery at Gochas: The War between Germany and the Nama continued until 1912/13 (Mostly with the surviving Followers of Simon Koper and Jakob Marengo) Photos 67.11-67.12: Roman Catholic Mission Church at Andara, Caprivi Region Photos 67.13-67.14: Railway Bridge over Holoog River: Railway Line: Grünau-Seeheim: Karas Region Photo: 68.1: Arrival of the new Governor, Theodor Seitz, in Swakopmund, 1910 Photo: 69.1: View from the Epupa Falls to the Baynes Mountains Photos 69.2-69.3: Railway Bridge: Asab River: Hardap Region Photo: 70.1: The colonial Monument "Reiterdenkmal" in Windhoek depicts not only the German Era of Namibia's History but glorifies also the "German Victims" of the Resistance Wars of the Indigenes with the resulting Genocide to some Namibian Communities like Ovaherero and Nama

Photos 70.2-70.3: "Mastering Colonial History the
Namibian Way": Contemporary Wall Painting showing the "Reiterdenkmal" fifteen Years after the Namibian Independence on 21.03.1990 Photos 70.4-70.7: Colonial Architecture in Lüderitz, 1909 Photos 71.1-71.2: Recently discovered Photo Images in the German Records (Namibia State Archives): Taken by the Rhenish Missionary Johann Jakob Irle: Namibian whipped by the German Farmer Ludwig Cramer, 1912/13 Photo 71.3: Turnhalle Building, 1913 Photo 72.1: World War One 1914/15: Defence Tower erected by German Settlers against feared Uprisings by Namibian Indigenes (Rehoboth Baster): Klein Nauas: between Dordabis and Uhlenhorst: Khomas Region Photos 72.2-72.5: The German War Cemetery at Outjo (Kunene Region) remembers the Skirmish of Naulila in Angola during World War One, October and December 1914 and various Skirmishes and Battles during the Uprisings of Namibians against the German Colonial Power between 1897 and 1904 Photos 72.6-72.7: Germans blast the Railway Line between Lüderitz and Aus, World War I Photo 72.8: South African Prisoners of War in Windhoek, 1914/15 Photo 72.9: SA Anti-Aircraft Guns against German Planes: World War I Photo 73.1: The Cemetery in Warmbad: Graves of German and South African Soldiers who fell during World

War I

Photos 73.2-73.3: View to the South into the Khan River
Valley at the Station Stingbank in the Namib Desert near Ebony: 30 km west of !Usakos: 04.09.2004 at Sunset: The Night is approaching from the East Photo 73.4: View to the South into the Khan River Valley at the Station Stingbank in the Namib Desert near Ebony: 30 km west of !Usakos: 04.09.2004 at Sunset: German Fortifications from World War One near PforteJakkalswater-Riet against the from Swakopmund invading South African Troups in March 1915 Photo 73.5: Warmfontein: Grave of a German Soldier who was killed 1915 during World War One in Vellicke Photos 73.6-73.10: The Cemetery at Berseba: Karas Region Photos 73.11-73.14: War Graves of German and South African Soldiers fallen in World War I in the Battles around Gibeon: April 1915: Gibeon Station Cemetery: Hardap Region Photos 73.15-73.16: The Prisoner-of-War-Camp at Aus, 1915-1919 Photos 73.17-73.22: The War Cemetery at Aus Photo 73.23: Grave of a German Soldier on the "German Cemetery" in Grootfontein: Otjozondjupa Region Photos 74.1-74.7: Images of the Otjiyandjasemo Hot Springs west of Okonguati in the Kaokoveld Photo 74.8: Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The famous "White

Lady" Rockpainting in the Maack Cave Photos 74.9-74.11: The Rock Paintings in the Maack Cave with "White Lady" Photo 74.12: Decapitated Body of King Mandume: 06.02.1917 Photo 74.13: Ondoto River near Epembe east of Okonguati, Kaokoveld Photos 74.14-74.15: Omuhimba at Epembe Photos 78.1-78.2: Abraham Morris and his poorly-armed !Gami-#nun are defeated by the South Africans with their War Planes in the Battle of Guruchas (in the Hills in the Background). Morris fights his last Battle at Bergkamer near Uhabis where he is killed Photo 79.1: Herero Day (Red Flag Day) in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: With Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) in the first Row (left): Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photos 79.2-79.15: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Mahaerero: 26.08.1923: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 79.16: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Mahaerero: 26.08.1923: First Row in the Middle: Katuutire Nathaniel Kaura: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photos 79.17-79.20: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel

Mahaerero: 26.08.1923: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photos 79.21-79.22: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: The Guard of Honour approaches the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photos 79.23-79.29: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: The Guard of Honour prays at the Grave of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 79.30: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Omuherero from Botswana: With Extermination Order of Lothar von Trotha: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 79.31: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Katuutire Nathaniel Kaura at the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photos 79.32-79.41: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: At the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 79.42: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chiefs honour the late Chiefs at the Grave on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery: Otjozondjupa Region:

24.08.2003

Photo 79.43: San People at Namutoni, 1923 Photo 82.1: The Grave of the Finnish Missionary
Rautanen (Nakambale) at Olukonda Photos 83.1-83.3: Dorslandtrekker Monument and Grave at Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld Photo 83.4: Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for Isaak (Izak) Witbooi Photos 85.1-85.3: Border Beacon at the Katima Rapids near present-day Namibia/Zambia Border Photo 86.1: Uukwambi King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo, 1930 Photo 89.1: The Grave of Chief !Hoëb 5Oasmab (alias Fritz Lazarus 5Oaseb) of Hoachanas: Old Cemetery: Hardap Region Photo 89.2: The Genealogy of the Kai5khaun (Red Nation) Chiefs of Hoachanas: Since Chief !Hoëb 5Oasmab: Old Cemetery: Hardap Region Photo 91.1: Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua: One of the first SWAPO Stalwarts: August 2003 Photo 93.1: The Cemetery in Warmbad: With the Grave of the Bondelswart Chief of Jakobus Christian of Warmbad Photo 93.2: Grave of Ovaherero Chief Traugott Maharero on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo 93.3: Augustineum Class, Okahandja, 1941 Photo 94.1: Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for Markus Witbooi

Photo 94.2: Hosea Kutako Photo 95.1: The Grave of |Hai-|khauan Chief Diederik
Ruben Goliath of Berseba in Hoachanas: Hardap Region Photo 95.2: The Grave of Noach Tsaib Tsaib, Success or of Chief !Hoëb 5Oasmab (alias Fritz Lazarus 5Oaseb) of Hoachanas: Old Cemetery: Hardap Region Photo 97.1: Grave of Frederick (Friedrich) Maharero in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo 97.2: The Leader of the Ovambanderu Community: Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II (right, Prof. Mburumba Kerina left)at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 97.3: The Leader of the Ovambanderu Community: Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 97.4: One of the Councillors of the Ovambanderu Community: Peter Nguvauva at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photos 97.5-97.10: Councillors of the Ovambanderu Community at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 97.11: The Cemetery in Warmbad: Grave of the

Bondelswart Chief Nathanel Christian of Warmbad Photo 98.1: Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for David Witbooi Photo 98.2: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Mburumba Kerina: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 99.1: Grave of the Rhenish Missionary Andreas Kukuri on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo 100.1: The Leader of the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: Ben Amathila: 8.07.2003 Photo 101.1: Old Location Windhoek: 1950s Photos 101.2-101.4: Windhoek: Hochland Park: Old Location: Cemetery Photo 102.1: Reverend Markus Kooper of Hoachanas: Petitioner at the United Nations for Namibia: 1960s: Hardap Region Photo 102.2: Sam Nujoma with Bishop Colin Winter and Shapua Kaukungua, 1960s Photo 106.1: 83 Years old Anna Veldskoen, Grand Daughter of Abraham Morris, living in Gabis, west of Warmbad Photo 108.1: Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo: SWAPO Leader: August 2003 Photo 108.2: Gerson Veii: SWANU Leader: August 2003 Photos 108.3-108.4: The Omugulu-gOmbashe Monument

remembers the Beginning of the armed Struggle against the South African Colonial Authority on August 26, 1966 (northwest of Tsandi in the Omusati Region) Photo 110.1: Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo: SWAPO Leader: August 2003 Photo 110.2: John Otto Nandhudu: PLAN Commander: August 2003 Photo 110.3: Helao Shityuwete (Kandindima): PLAN Commander: August 2003 Photos 111.1-111.2: Okonja (near Otjinene): Ovambanderu Community of the Maharero Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): 28.07.2003 Photo 111.3: Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero of the Ovambanderu Community of the Maharero Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): Okonja: 28.07.2003 Photo 111.4: Herero Day (Red Flag Day) in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: With Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) in the first Row (left): Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 111.5: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) at the Grave of Hosea Kutako:

Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 112.1: Grave of Hosea Kutako, who died on 18.07.1970: Okahandja: The Grave is next to the Grave of Jonker Afrikaner: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo 112.2: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako at the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 112.3: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) at the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 114.1: House of the Rhenish Missionary Heinrich Vedder on the Land of the Rhenish Missionary in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo 115.1: Clemence Kapuuo and Dirk Mudge, 24.09.1973 Photos 115.2-115.3: Ovambanderu Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II: Epukiro: 09.09.2002 Photo 117.1: Turnhalle Building, 1975 Photo 117.2: The Grave of Ondonga King Filemon Elifas Shuumbwa at Olukonda Photo 120.1: Grave of Clemence (Clemens) Kapuuo in Okahandja, who is killed on 27.03.1978 in Windhoek (Katutura): The Grave is next to the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003 Photo 120.2: The Ruacana Falls in the Kunene River

during the Dry Season in the Omusati Region: With the Calueque Control Weir (in Angola) to Regulate the Inflow into the Ruacana Power Station in the Background Photos 120.3-120.6: View from the Top of the Ruacana Power Station (Surge Headbay) to the West: In the Direction of the Kaokoveld and the Lower Kunene River Photo 120.7: Ruacana Power Station: Overview: Situated 130 m Deep inside the Hill South of the Palmwash Ravine: Southwest of the Ruacana Falls: The Power House Consists of Three Long Parallel Running Caverns: Turbines/Generator Tunnel; Transformator Tunnel and Tailrace Tunnel Photos 120.8-120.9: Ruacana Power Station: Turbines/Generator Tunnel: Three Francis Turbines: 80 MW Each: Provision is Made for a Fourth One Photos 120.10-120.13: Ruacana Power Station: Turbine/Generator No. 1: Is Currently Under Maintenance: October 2002 Photos 120.14-120.15: Aerial View of the Landscape Southeast of Ruacana Town: Omusati Region Photos 120.16-120.18: Sunset in Ovamboland Photo 120.19: Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for Hendrik Samuel Witbooi Photo 120.20: Children in Katutura (Windhoek) Photo 121.1: G Viljoen (new Administrator-General for SWA) at Press Conference after his Arrival, August 1979 Photo 122.1: South African Army in the North of Namibia, 1980s

Photo 128.1: Bryan O'Linn: Leader of the NPP-435
Group: August 2003 Photo 129.1: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 129.2: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako marches from the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty to the Graves of Hosea Kutako and Clemence Kapuuo: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photo 130.1: The Kai5khaun (Red Nation) Chief of Hoachanas, Petrus Simon Moses Kooper, Son of Reverend Markus Kooper: Hardap Region Photo 130.2: The Mukurob (Finger of God), near Asab, collapsed on 04.12.1988. An old Nama story narrates that the rule of the "white" man will come to an end when this rock falls Photo 131.1: Monument at Ondeshifiilwa remembering the Occurrences of April 1st, 1989 Photos 131.2-131.3: Meeting between the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) and the Council of the Royal Kambazembi House: Okakarara: 29.07.2003 Photos 131.4-131.8: Ovaherero Community of the Kambazembi Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the

Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): Okakarara: 29.07.2003 Photo 131.9: Chief Tjikuua of the Ovaherero Community at Okakarara at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): 29.07.2003 Photo 131.10: Martti Ahtisaari and the SA AdministratorGeneral for Namibia, Louis Pienaar at the Press Conference on 31 March 1989 Photo 131.11: UNTAG Helicopter, 1989 Photo 131.12: Voters during the November 1989 Election Photos 132.1-132.13: New Roads built in Ovamboland after Independence Photo 133.1: The Trans Caprivi Highway near Mupapama, km 45 east of Rundu, Kavango Region Photo 133.2: The Trans Caprivi Highway at the Omuramba Omatako, Section: Takwasa - Nyangana, km 60 east of Rundu, View to the East, Kavango Region Photo 133.3: The Trans Caprivi Highway at the Omuramba Omatako, Section: Takwasa - Nyangana, km 60 east of Rundu, View to the West, Kavango Region Photo 133.4: The Trans Caprivi Highway, Section: Takwasa - Nyangana, km 75 east of Rundu, View to the West, Kavango Region Photo 133.5: The Trans Caprivi Highway, Section: Takwasa - Nyangana, km 95 east of Rundu, near Ndiyona, View to the East, Kavango Region Photo 134.1: The Trans Caprivi Highway, Section: Nyangana - Divundu, km 150 east of Rundu, View to the

East, Kavango Region Photos 134.2-134.4: Trunk Road 4/2: Goageb - Aus: built 1992/93: Karas Region Photo 136.1: Sam Nujoma during the Re-integration of Walvis Bay into the Republic of Namibia, 1994 Photo 136.2: The Representatives of the South African ANC, Walter Sisulu and Thabo Mbeki during the Reintegration of Walvis Bay into the Republic of Namibia, 1994 Photos 137.1-137.2: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: Near Kolmanskop: km 300 (from Keetmanshoop: 20 km from Lüderitz) Photos 137.3-137.4: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: Station Grasplatz: km 296 (24 km from Lüderitz) Photos 137.5-137.7: Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 290 (approx. 30 km from Lüderitz) Photo: 138.1: District Road 3605: End of Seal (Oluno) to Uukwiyu: View to the North-East Photos 138.2-138.7: District Road 3636: From Main Road 92 (Northwest of Ondangwa) to End (Onakamwandi): Labour-based Construction: Task Work: 4 mł per Task for approx. US$ 2,20 per Task: Up to 4 Tasks can be managed by some People: Labour-based Road Building was introduced in Namibia, against the Resistance of many conservative, South Africa trained Engineers, by the Author of this Chronology at Independence: After many Years of Research and many Trials, Namibia is now a Leader in Labour-based

Technology in Africa: Project financed by German Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau Photo 139.1: Councillors of the Ovambanderu Community of the Hoveka Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 139.2: Chief Silvanus Hoveka of the Ovambanderu Community of the Hoveka Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 139.3: Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Silvanus Hoveka: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003 Photos 139.4-139.9: Councillors of the Ovambanderu Community of the Hoveka Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 139.10: Bishop Kamburona of the Ovambanderu Community of the Hoveka Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003 Photo 139.11: The Trans Caprivi Highway (German Section), Km 9 east of Divundu, View to the West

Photo 139.12: The Trans Caprivi Highway (German
Section), Km 15 east of Divundu, View to the East Photo 139.13: The Trans Caprivi Highway (German Section), Km 50 east of Divundu, View to the West Photo 139.14: The Trans Caprivi Highway (German Section), Km 50 east of Divundu, View to the East Photo 139.15: The Trans Caprivi Highway (German Section), Km 60 east of Divundu, View to the West Photos 139.16-139.17: The Trans Caprivi Highway (German Section), Km 69 east of Divundu (Omega Interchange), View to the West Photos 139.18-139.20: The Trans Caprivi Highway (European Section), Between Km 120 and Km 160 east of Divundu Photo 139.21: NamPost Stamps on the ||Khauxa!nas Ruins Photo 141.1: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Pilot Project: 3 km from Km 0: Km 0: Southern Leg of Fork-Junction: Joining the Existing Railway Line: Tsumeb - Otavi through the Bobos Mountains Photo 141.2: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Pilot Project: 3 km from Km 0: Fill Section at Km 1 Photo 141.3: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Pilot Project: 3 km from Km 0: Excavation Section at Km 2 Photos 141.4-141.6: Northern Extension Railway Line:

Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Manufacturing of Concrete Sleepers: Tsumeb: With "Green Hill at Background: Grinaker-LTA/TransNamib Holdings Ltd. Joint Venture Photos 141.7-141.8: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Manufacturing of Concrete Sleepers: Tsumeb: GrinakerLTA/TransNamib Holdings Ltd. Joint Venture Photos 141.9-141.10: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Equipment-Based Contract 1: from Km 3 to Km 48: Fill Section at Km 5: Second A Layer under Construction Photo 141.11: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Equipment-Based Contract 1: from Km 3 to Km 48: Fill Section at Km 25: Second A Layer under Construction Photo 141.12: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Equipment-Based Contract 1: from Km 3 to Km 48: Fill Section at Km 25: Second A Layer under Construction: The Chief Executive Officer: TransNamib Holdings Ltd., John Shaetonhodi Photo 141.13: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Equipment-Based Contract 2: from Km 48 to Km 91,68: Fill Section at Km 99: Formation Layer under Construction Photo 141.14: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Equipment-Based Contract 2: from Km 48 to Km 91,68: Bridge Excavation at

Km 99: Bridge over Omuramba Ovambo, South of Oshivelo Photos 141.15-141.17: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 1: from Km 109,58 to Km 131: Construction of Formation Layer: Approx. Km 115 Photos 141.18-141.21: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 1: from Km 109,84 to Km 131 Photos 141.22-141.23: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 1: from Km 109,84 to Km 131: Construction of Labour-Based Concrete Culvert (Pipe Culvert): Km 125 Photos 141.24-141.25: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 1: from Km 109,84 to Km 131: Approx. Km 125: Construction of First A- Layer by Labour-Based Means Photo 141.26: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Labour-Based Contract 1: from Km 109,58 to Km 131: Construction of Formation Layer: Approx. Km 128 Photos 141.27-141.30: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 1: Roads Contractor Company (RCC): from Km 109,84 to Km 131:Construction of Formation Photos 141.31-141.32: Northern Extension Railway Line:

Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 2: Roadhart: from Km 131 to Km 149:Excavation and Construction of Formation Photos 141.33-141.38: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 3: Storbou Construction: from Km 149 to Km 167 (Omuthiya): Hand-Imported Construction of Formation Photo 141.39: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Labour-Based Contract 3: Storbou Construction: from Km 149 to Km 167 (Omuthiya): Removal of an Anthill Photos 141.40-141.41: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: LabourBased Contract 4: Roadhart: from Km 167 (Omuthiya) to Km 185: Roadbed Preparation and Compaction Photo 141.42: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Labour-Based Contract 4: Roadhart: from Km 167 (Omuthiya) to Km 185 Photo 141.43: Northern Extension Railway Line: Phase 1: Tsumeb - Ondangwa: approx. 250 km: Labour-Based Contract 4: Roadhart: from Km 167 (Omuthiya) to Km 185: Compaction of Formation Layer Photos 141.44-141.70: Construction of Zambezi River Bridge (Bridge 508) between Katima Mulilo and Sesheke in Zambia (February and May 2003) Photos 141.71-141.72: Memorial for Gottlieb Nathaniel near the Accident Spot at the Junction of Main Road 36

with District Road 1983 east of Walvis Bay Photos 142.1-142.7: The Popa Falls in the Okavango River near Bagani, Caprivi Region Map 1: Pathways in the Hungorob Gorge in the Brandberg: ca 1250 A.D. Map 2: Map of southern Africa: 1790-1830 Map 3: Southern Namibia with ||Khauxa!nas and Narudas (Robber Henrick's Place) Map 4: Detailed Site Plan: ||Khauxa!nas Mountain Fortress Map 5: Ox-Wagon Roads Network: 1879 Map 6: Ox-Wagon Roads Network: 1894 Map 7: Ox-Wagon Roads Network: 1904 Map 8: Ox-Wagon Roads Network: 1909 Map 9: Modern Road Network: Simplified System: 2001

[Return to Table of Contents]

1. THE PRE-HISTORICAL PERIOD
BC TO 1485
300000 to Southern African Middle Stone Age. Painted rock fragments in Apollo-11 Cave, Huns Mountains, southern Namibia are in existence. The painted slabs were discovered by Wolfgang Wendt in 1969.

Oldest Rockart in Africa: Apollo XI Cave: 27000 - 23000 B.C.: Farm Uitsig: Huns Mountains
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks: Courtesy: National Museum of Namibia The oldest rock paintings can be dated to between 27000 and 23000 B.C. It can be inferred that the population (s) responsible for these art remains did hunt and gather. The oldest communities still living in Namibia are the San (Khoesan or Ovokuruvehi (meaning in Otjiherero: original people))(also called "Bushmen" by Europeans) and the #NuKhoen (Daman or "black" people)(Dama or Damara as it was later generally applied)(language: #Nu- Khoegowab). The click sounds of the Khoesan, the #Nu-Khoen and the Khoe (Nama) are represented by the following symbols: ! (cerebral

click), | (dental click), || (lateral click) and # (palatal click). These groups are probably not the original inhabitants of Namibia.

27000 B.C. Circa

Rockpainting: Omandumba East: Erongo Mountains
Namibia Scientific Society

Warmfontein: Gurus River: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpainting near ||Khauxa!nas: Warmfontein: Gurus River: March 1996
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpainting near ||Khauxa!nas: Warmfontein: Gurus River: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The A Period occurs in northern Namibia between 10000 and 7000 B.C. It is typified by stone implements and cores as well as ostrich eggshells, ostrich beads and the first potteries. The "Otjiseva Man" may have lived in the area of present-day Namibia. Later Stone Age in southern Africa: The B (between 7000 and 4400 B.C.) and C1 (between 4400 and 1200 B.C.) periods show stone implements and cores as well as ostrich eggshells and ostrich beads and potteries and also first rock paintings and engravings. 5000 B.C. In the 1960s archaeologists uncover a Stone Age tool around workshop on site at the present-day "Zoo Park" in Windhoek, and found tools there manufactured from elephant bones. 10000 B.C. around

Abbé Breuil, French priest and one of the most influential scholars of European prehistoric art, publishes the first radiocarbon date that is associated with rock art in Namibia in 1957. Art remains in the Phillips Cave in the Erongo Mountains are calculated to be 3 368ą200 years old. First iron-ore working can be found in Africa (Egypt). In Namibia the C2 Period occurs between 1200 B.C. and A.D. It 1000 B.C. includes stone implements and cores as well as ostrich eggshells, ostrich beads, potteries. and many rock paintings and engravings. First Iron Age sites can be found in Africa south of the Equator. Early in the first millennium AD perhaps, the Khoe begin to arrive in south-western Africa. They are the antecedents of the present Nama. The Khoe are nomadic pastoralists and they introduce the first of the cultural revolutions that transforms the relative equanimity of southern Africa’s stone age. Early settlements along the Atlantic coast, especially at the Kuiseb and Uniab mouths and the Namib Desert are witness of the rise of the pastoral economy of the Central Namib Desert. Numerous settlements can be found at Namibia’s highest mountain, the Brandberg (2 646 m)(meaning "Burnt or Fire Mountain" – "Brandberg" in German, "Dâunas" or "Dâureb" in the Khoekhoegowab language (Nama/Dama), " Omukuruwaro" in Otjiherero) and between the Ugab and Huab rivers (settlement of Gai-As which probably came into existence only after 1500 A.D.). Archaeological research reveals that the Hunter- Gatherer communities existed even at the period when the rock art tradition began to disappear giving way to pastoral nomadism in many parts of Namibia. The first contact with Europeans in the 15th Century leads to the collapse of nomadic pastoralism (D Period between A.D. and 1 000 A.D.).

The "Große Spitzkoppe" from the North
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpainting in the "Große Spitzkoppe" Massif (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The "Bushmen Paradise" in the Spitzkoppe Massif: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Cave in the "Bushmen Paradise" in the Spitzkoppe Massif
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpainting in the Cave in the "Bushmen Paradise" (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.)
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Scene in the Spitzkoppe Massif: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Brandberg with the Königsstein is Namibia's highest Mountain: 2 646 m: View from the East into the Tsisab Valley: The Mountain is composed of a single mass of granite created 120 Million Years ago, a Time of tremendous geological Upheaval in the Earth's History, when the old Gondwana Continent broke apart, separating Africa from South-America: Erongo Region: April 1971
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Brandberg from the East into the Tsisab Gorge: with District Road 2359: Erongo Region, March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg: Erongo Region: View to South West: There are so far approximately 1 000 painted Shelters with 45 000 individual Paintings in the Brandberg Massif identified
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (Around 1500 A.D.): View to the North-East: Erongo Region, March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The famous "White Lady" Rockpainting in Maack's Shelter: Recent Research shows that the Figures are of pure Namibian Origin, April 1971
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Rock Paintings in Maack's Shelter with "White Lady" in March 2003: A Number of the Figures, including the "White Lady", display both white and red Body Paint and are highly decorated: There is a lavish Use of Bead Strings and Bands to decorate the Knees, Ankles, Arms, Neck and Hair of the Figures: Since the older Layers of Paintings and the simpler monochrome Figures could perhaps be called "Bushman-Style", it is possible that the San (Bushmen) were in the area in the distant Past: The more complex Figures appear to have been painted later, since they mostly overlie the "Bushman Style" Paintings: We can assume that the Age of these Paintings is at least 2000 Years

old and many are much older

Ascent from Maack's Shelter to the Giraffe Cave in the Brandberg, Tsisab Gorge: View to the South West, March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The Giraffe Cave: The Paintings are, usually realistic Portrayals, although they are often drawn with a twisted Perspective: The human Figures have the Trunk, Legs and Head painted in Profile while the Shoulders and Arms are depicted from a Frontal Perspective, March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ascent from the Giraffe Cave to the Ostrich Cave in the Brandberg, Tsisab Gorge: View to the North East, March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The Ostrich Cave in March 2003: Many of the Paintings display Brush Marks, therefore we can assume that the Tools used were probably Animal Hair Brushes: The Colours used were Earth Colours, Red Hematite, Yellow Ochre, Charcoal, Black Manganese and Calcium Carbonate
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ascent from the Ostrich Cave in the Brandberg to Jochmann's Shelter, Tsisab Gorge: View to the South to the TsisabSpitze 2228 m, March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from Jochmann's Shelter, Tsisab Gorge: View to the North East, March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Lion), March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Snake and Giraffe), March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Good Look Cairn" (Nama: Heitsi-Eibib or Haitse-aibeb) established by Pastoral Nomads in the Brandberg: Approx. 1500 A.D.: View from the West into the Hungorob Gorge: March 2003: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the East into the Ugab Valley (Boundary between Erongo and Kunene

Regions): March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the East into the Ugab Valley and a Valley leading to the Doros Crater and the Mikberg Mountains: March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 1: March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Pathway used by Nomadic

Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Access to Site 1: March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 2: March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 5: March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Ugab Valley (Ugab Crossing)(Around 1600 A.D.): Site 11: March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Early A.D.

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Between Doros Crater and Huab River: For Millenniums the Hunter Gatherers and later the Nomadic Pastoralists used the Waterhole of Gai-As: Now the Hole is visited by Desert Elephants and Desert Rhinoceros: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 1: Rock Engravings by Hunter-Gatherers: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: Approximately 2000 Years Old: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 2: Rock Engravings by Hunter-Gatherers: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: Approximately 2000 Years Old: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 3: Stone

Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: "High Buildings": Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 9: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: North West Settlement: Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 6: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: South West Settlement: Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Prehistoric Site of Gai-As: Site 11: Stone Circle Architecture of Nomadic Pastoralists: East Settlement: Approximately between 1500 and 1900 A.D.: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Twyfelfontein in the Kunene Region: with Africa's largest known Collection of Rock Engravings, April 1980
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Images of the Rocky Crater of Twyfelfontein:

March 2003: In 1921 Reinhardt Maack makes known his Discovery of the Petroglyphs and Rock Paintings on the Sandstone of the Etjo Formation at Twyfelfontein (Ui-Ais)(C1 to E periods: 4400 B.C. - 1400 A.D.). The Petroglyphs are recorded by Ernst Rudolph Scherz from 1950 onwards. He reports that there are 2 500 Rock Engravings on more than 200 Sandstone Slabs: He also discovers some Rockpaintings housed in Sandstone Rock Shelters
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Twyfelfontein with pre-historic Stone Circle of Nomadic Pastoralists (Possible Transition from Windshields to Hut Foundations: D Period between A.D. and 1200 A.D.): Kunene Region: March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Twyfelfontein: Rock Engravings: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: April 1980
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Twyfelfontein: Rock Engravings: Later Stone Age Hunter-Gatherer Culture: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: Some of the Engravings may be as old as 7 000 Years and even much older: The Abstract Designs

were probably done by earlier Artists: March 2003: Kunene Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Twyfelfontein with Rockpaintings: C1 to E Periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.: The Rockpaintings are younger than the Rockengravings: Kunene Region: March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to the Caves with San Rockpaintings: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: View from Cave 1 to the North with Khoichab Dunes in the Background: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 1 with recently discovered San Rockpaintings: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D.: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Waterhole near Cave 1: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent from Cave 1 to Cave 2: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 2 with recently discovered San Rockpaintings: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D.: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 2 with recently discovered San Rock Engraving: Estimated C2 Period: 1200 B.C. to A.D.: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to Cave 3 from the Base: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib

Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to Cave 3: Building Remains in the Form of Stone Circles at the Kirchberg Settlement Site built by Pastoral Nomads in the Namib: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Ascent to Cave 3: Possible Grave or a "Good Look Cairn" (Nama: Heitsi-Eibib or Haitse-aibeb) established by Pastoral Nomads in the Namib: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Khoichab Pan Restricted Area: Namib Desert: Kirchberg: East of Khoichab Pan: Cave 3 with recently discovered San Rockpaintings: Estimated C2 Period: 1200

B.C. to A.D.: November 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The first contact with European visitors in the 15th century leads to the eventual collapse of nomadic pastoralism (D Period between A.D. and 1200 A.D.). Human-made pathways in the Hungorob valley of Namibia’s highest mountain, the Brandberg (meaning "burnt mountain" or "fire mountain" – "Brandberg" in German, "Dâunas" or "Dâures" in the Khoekhoegowab language (Nama/Dama), "Omukuruwa" in Otjiherero). These pathways are evidence for the interaction of human settlement, the rich rock art and the local environment (E Period between 1200 and 1400 A.D.).

1200 A.D.

Pathways in the Hungorob Gorge: Brandberg: ca 1250 A.D.
John Kinahan

[Return to Table of Contents]

2. THE PERIOD OF THE EXPLORERS, HUNTERS AND TRADERS
Around 1400–1800
The earliest accounts of mining date back some 500 years, according to archaeological evidence of copper smelting near what is today known as the Matchless Mine in the Khomas Hochland. Also in the Otavi Mountains copper has been mined, processed and traded for hundreds of years. The copper ore is smelted in anthills with the aid of charcoal. Around this time probably the first Ovambo enter present-day Namibia. The Ovambo language
Oshivambo and the related Otjiherero of the

Around Ovaherero is still spoken around Lubango and among the Mwila and Kipungu peoples of 1400

Matala up to Bailundo of the Iimbundu people in Angola. Some historians believe that the ancestors of the Ovambo and Ovaherero peoples moved through Central Africa to Angola and later Namibia, originating from the areas around the Great Lakes in East Africa where people still speak languages related to Oshivambo, Otjiherero, Shona of Zimbabwe,

Kalanga of Botswana and Tonga of Zambia.

Between 1400 and 1600 A.D. the F Period occurs in Namibia. January Diogo Cγo sets foot on Namibian soil and erects a padrγo at Cape Cross (21°47'S). So begins 1486
the seizure of Namibia by European advances. The purpose of the colonial conquest is to acquire wealth, and the way to acquire wealth is to acquire land.

1487 04.12. 08.12. 23.12. 26.12.

1488 24.07.

1489

Bartholomeu Diaz visits a place on the Namibian coast which he calls "Terra de Santa Barbara" (probably located near present-day Swakopmund). Angra da Conceiηγo is visited and identified as present-day Conception Bay. Golfo de Santa Vitσria is visited and identified as present-day Hottentot Bay. Golfo de Santa Estevγo is visited and identified as present-day Elizabeth Bay. Bartholomeu Diaz erects a padrγo, which he dedicates to Sγo Tiago, at a bay he names Angra de Sγo Christσvγo. Later the bay is renamed Angra Pequeρa (present-day Lόderitz). Angra das Voltas, which is also used as an anchoring site, is located further south – at the Oranje River mouth. The oldest map depicting the Namibian Atlantic coast is Heinrich Hammer’s world map, Insularium

Illustratum.
The migrating Ovaherero enter present-day Namibia. The Sub-Group of the Ovambanderu Around settles around Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. 1500 Later they are expelled by the community of the Ngwaketse and escape to the eastern areas of Namibia. Andrew Battels, an Englishman captured by the Portuguese in Brazil, is sent to Angola as a soldier. He deserts and lives for sixteen months 1589 among the Ovambo in present-day Namibia. Probably he is the first "white" man to see the interior of the territory. He writes the earliest description of Ovamboland. The First Ondonga (Aandonga) king is King Nembulungo lyNgwedha from the Aakwanekamba (Hyena Clan)(ca. 1650-1690) wo was born around 1620. He might have been an Ondonga king around the time of the third King Heita yMuvale or the fourth King Hautolonde uaNdja of the Uukwanyama area 1650 (the first Uukwanyama-Kings, Kambungu kaMuheya and Mushindi uaKanene, as well as the second Uukwanyama King, Kavonga kaHaidongo, cannot be dated). During Nembulungo’s reign the Aambwenge (Uukwangali Kingdom) from the Kavango invade the Ondonga area and Nembulungo’s rule is

terminated.

1670 March 14.04. 26.04. 01.05. 26.05.

Grundel reaches the Namibian coast for the first time. The vessel "Grundel" leaves Cape Town under the command of Captain GR Muys. Grundel lands at Angra Pequeρa. Grundel reaches Sandwich Harbour, south of presentday Walvis Bay. Grundel reaches Cape Town again. [Return to Table of Contents]

1677

20.01. 17.02. 22.02. 05.03. 1690

The vessel "Bode", under the command of Captain CT Wobma, sails to the Kuiseb River mouth from Cape Town and is involved in a skirmish with the local Nama community. This is the first recorded occurrence of armed resistance by Namibians against European infiltration. Bode leaves Cape Town. Bode reaches the Namibian coast. Bode reaches Angra Pequeńa. Bode reaches Sandwich Harbour where the skirmish between the Dutch and the Nama takes place. After the fall of Ondonga King Nembulungo lyNgwedha, his successor is the second Ondonga King Shindongo shaNamutenya gwa Nguti. The Nama Chief, #Hâb,of the Kai||haun (also called Red Nation), the main group of all Nama groups in Namibia, is probably the first Chief of this community. He is involved in several conflicts with San and Dama groups. #Hâb unifies the Namibian Nama groups (Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun); Topnaar (#Aonin); Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen); Veldschoendrager (||Hawoben); Groot Doden (Ô||gain); Swartboois (||Khau-|gőan) and the Kharo-!oan from presentday Keetmanshoop), whereby the Kai||khaun play a leading role. Later the ||Khau-|gőan and the Kharo-!oan are the first groups to separate from the Kai||khaun. The community government (Nama: !haos di #hanub) consists of the chief (Nama: gao-aob) and some councillors (Nama: |abe-ma-aogu). The family chiefs (Nama: gai-khoin) and the councillors elect among the candidates the most suitable. All candidates must, however, belong to the family of the chief (Nama: gaosib khoin).

1695

The Genealogy of the Kai||khaun (Red Nation) Chiefs of Hoachanas: Since Chief #Hâb: 1695: Old Cemetry: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1700 1710

1723

1725

1731 1733

Ondonga King Shindongo shaNamutenya gwa Nguti is defeated by Nangombe yaMvula who becomes the third Ondonga King. He lives in Oshamba village. The Nama Chief #Hâb dies. His successor is ||Khomab #Hâmab. The Dutch West India Company (founded 1621 for trading in the Atlantic Ocean and along the West African Coast) sends the ship "Waerwijck" to Walvis Bay (named by the Dutch between 1720 and 1730) to catch whales and barter along the African west coast. Other ships to be sent to Walvis Bay are "Acredam" and "Sonnesteijn". ||Khomab #Hâmab dies, and is suceeded by ||Khaub gaib ||Khomab. During his reign a split occurs between the Kai||khaun and the ||Khau-|gőan after which the ||Khau-|gőan leave Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!nâs) and settle at |Anhes (Otjiherero: Otjomevamomutumba: Place of water between dunes)(Carl Hugo Hahn proposes on 13.05.1843 to name |Anhes "Rehoboth"). The Dutch West India Company terminates its whaling expeditions to Walvis Bay. The Frenchman, Count Jean de Maurepas, compiles the first map of Angra Pequeńa.

European settlers Pieter de Bruyn and Willem van Wyk from the South African Dutch East India Company (founded 1602 to trade in the Indian and Pacific oceans) reach the Oranje River from the south. The Chief of the Kai||khaun, ||Khaub gaib ||Khomab, dies. His 1740 successor is #Ô-||nâib ||Khaumab. Setting out from the Kaokoveld, Ovaherero leader Mutjise, son of Mbunga, son of Tjituka, son of Kengeza of the oruzo orwohorongo (community or clan, also religious group from the father’s side, while eanda is a socio-economic group to which the mother belongs), moves to Okahandja (probably around 1785). Mutjise’s son, Tjirwe, builds a settlement at Otjikune, east of Okahandja. Possibly the Ovaherero came from the north-east because in Otjiherero "Okunene" could mean "the right-hand side" or "that which lies to the right", while "Okavango" could mean "the small hip" or "that which lies to the left". It is quite possible that other theories on the origin of the two river names exist. Oral tradition has it that the community of the Yeyi (Mayeyi) migrates from Diyeyi (land of the Mayeyi), in the area of Linyanti and Sangwali, in three groups (under the leadership of three community chiefs: Shikati (Chief) Hankuze, Shikati Qunku and his brother Qunkunyane and Shikati Matsharatshara to the Okavango Delta in present-day Botswana. Later they return to the present-day Namibia (Caprivi Strip), to Linyanti and Sangwali. The first queen of one of the Kavango communities, Mate I, which is called Hompa, leaves the area of the Mashi River and settles at the Okavango River at Makuzu, west of Nkurenkuru in present-day Angola. She rules around 1700 or even before. Her sister, Kapango, settles in the Mbunza area (the origin of the Uukwangali Kingdom lies in the split between the Kwangali and the Mbunza areas). Oral tradition Circa 1750 reports that these groups were part of a general westwards migration from the East African Great Lakes region. The Kavango languages of these groups are Rukwangali, Rumanyo (Gciriku and Shambyu communities), 1738

1755

Thimbukushu and Mbunza and are all related. During the reign of Uukwangali Queen Nankali (around 1775) friction develops with the neighbouring communities and the Kwangali move from Makuzu to Sihangu (near Mukukuta). Queen Simbara, sister of Mutenda, becomes the next ruler in 1785 (until 1800). From Mukukuta the Kwangali group settles at Karai, still in Angola, opposite Nkurenkuru in present-day Namibia. Queen Simbara is followed by Queen Mate II (ca. 1800-1818). The Ondonga King Nangombe yaMvula dies. He is followed by the fourth Ondonga King Nembungu lyAmutundu who rules until ca. 1820 (1810 according to different oral evidence). The Uukwambi kings Nakantu kaNakwedhi (eighth Uukwambi King: ca. 1750-1780) and Nuukata waTshiinga (ninth Uukwambi King: ca. 1780-1800 who is followed by the tenth Uukwambi King, Iilonga yaNyango) as well as the seventh Uukwanyama King Hamangulu yaNahambo (ca. 1807-1811) are King Nembungu’s contemporaries (the 5. and 6. Uukwanyama-Kings are: Shimbilinga shaNailambi und Haihambo yaMukwanuli). Earlier Uukwambi Kings cannot be dated (they are in a descending order: Nakwedhi (Mukwiilongo); Nuyoma wAmutako; Neyema; Niigogo ya Natsheya; Mbulungundju; Nakano und Mukwambi. The Nama Chief #Ô||nâib ||Khaumab dies. His successor is |Hanab #Ô ||nâimab.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1760

1761

1770

Jacobus Coetzee (Jacobus Coetsé Jansz) is probably the first "white" to cross the !Garib River (Great River: later named Oranje River in honour of the Royal Dutch House by Robert Jakob Gordon). He reaches Dabegabis, north of Warmbad (Nama: |Aixa-aibes) in Great Namaqualand. He reports about the high social order of the self-sufficient Nama groups and their rich livestock (including cattle) as well as the abundance of game (elephants, rhinoceros and hippotamus in the Oranje River). Fragmentary as these notes are, they do give a clear impression of independent, resourceful and traditional African societies. Hendrik Hop, together with the surveyor Carel Frederik Brink (first map of the southern interior) and the botanist Johannes Andreas Auge, reaches the Chamob (Löwen River) and the Fish Rivers. The objective of this expedition to find the Damroquas (Dama, probably Ovaherero as mentioned by Jacobus Coetzee the year before), is not achieved. Hop reports in his diaries the occurrence of copper resources, the peaceful character of the visited Nama groups, their rich livestock and their trade with iron products and glass beads. He uses a route east of the Great Karas Mountains. He treks from Ramansdrift, later called Compagniefurt, at the Oranje River via Sandfontein to the Hom River, from there via Alurisfontein to Warmbad, and further via Gorechas to the Draay River (Kainab River), which is reached on 11.10.1761. From there he treks to Klipkuyl (Klip Fontein or Robber Henrick’s Place, the ||Hawoben capital at Narudas) and Patensie Hoek (Naos) and further to the Buffels River (Gausob River). At 22.11.1761 Hop reaches the farthest point of this journey at Keerom (Gründorn at Brauss) at the Chamob River. Hop does not mention ||Khauxa!nas but the possible founder of ||Khauxa!nas, Klaas Afrikaner, is mentioned in a South African document. The Nama Chief |Hanab #Ô ||nâimab dies. His successor is !Gaob |Hanamab.

1777

Robert Jakob Gordon visits the Oranje River. Hendrik Jacob Wikar explores the area around the Oranje River (formerly called the !Garib River). He mentions the 1778/79 leader of the Red Nation, !Gaob |Hanamab under whom the Nama controlled area stretches from the upper Fish River to the Oranje. William Paterson explores the Oranje River area December accompanied by Sebastiaan Valentijn van Reenen and Klaas Afrikaner. Klaas Afrikaner is at Warmbad. 1780 Kido Witbooi (or #A-||ęib) is born in Pella (?), South Africa. François le Vaillant travels in the vicinity of the Oranje River. 1784 His claimed trips to the north of the Oranje River must be regarded as imaginary. 1784-86 The British expedition under Home Riggs Popham visits Angra Pequeńa and mentions the padrăo. The first "white", Guilliam Visagie, settles at #Nu#goaes 1785 (Swartmodder, present-day Keetmanshoop). The British vessel "Nautilus" under the command of Thomas Bolden Thompson surveys sections of the coastline between Angra Pequeńa and the Oranje River mouth. Thompson has secret orders from the Admiralty to find a suitable place on 1786 the Namibian coast to open a strategic port and start a penal colony, as Great Britain has nowhere to send convicts after losing its American colonies. In the end, not Namibia, but Australia is elected. Ovaherero leader Ua Tjirue Tjamuaha is born at Otjikune. Circa 1790 Jonker Afrikaner (or |Hara-műb) is born at Groot Vlakte in the Cape Colony. His father is Jager Afrikaner (1760-1823) and his grandfather is Klaas Afrikaner. Willem van Reenen and Pieter Brand explore the south as far north as the vicinity of Rehoboth and the Auas Mountains (between 17.09.1791 and 20.06.1792). They travel from Ramansdrift at the Oranje River on a route between the Little

1791/92

and Great Karas Mountains to #Nu#goaes (Swartmodder, present-day Keetmanshoop). From there they travel via the Fish River and the Lewer River to the places of Rehoboth and "|Ai-||Gams" ("fire water" in Nama), present-day Windhoek. Brand also visits the Swakop River. They report about the occurrences of copper and gold in these areas.

[Return to Table of Contents]

The Dutch vessel "Meermin", under Captain Duminy, proclaims sovereignty over Angra Pequeńa, Halifax Island and Walvis Bay (26.02.). This expedition, which also explores the Swakop River valley from the coast, is accompanied by the brothers Sebastiaan Valentijn and Dirk van Reenen as well as Pieter Pienaar. The journey leaves Cape Town on 03.01., reaches Angra Pequeńa on 13.01., Walvis Bay on 23.01. and returns to Cape Town on 10.04.1793. There are again reports about copper mines south east of 1793 Walvis Bay and copper processing by the Dama. On 27.02. there is a violent clash between the local Nama community and the Europeans. Klaas Afrikaner conducts a commando campaign against the Nama and reaches #Nu#goaes (Swartmodder, present-day Keetmanshoop). The "white" farmer Guilliam Visagie defeats the Orlam Afrikaner (Orlams in Nama: !Gű-!gôun or Nauba-xu gye |ki-khoen) and Titus Afrikaner escapes at the last moment. The British vessel "Star", under Captain T Alexander, takes all potential harbour sites up to 15° south (Namibe/Angola) into 1795 possession for the British Crown. Moses Witbooi is born in Pella (?) in South Africa. After the shooting of the Dutch farmer Pieter Pienaar (1796) the Orlam Afrikaners leave South Africa permanently and begin to settle in present-day Namibia. They erect the fortified settlement of ||Khauxa!nas. This unique site is the first systematically-built 1796-1798 settlement in the engineering sense, and it reflects the evolutionary potential of the Nama community at a crucial moment in history – immediately prior to the rise of armed resistance against colonial rule. The stone-walled settlement is discovered in 1986 by Klaus Dierks. 1797/98 John Barrow reports about copper mining activities by the Dama. Five unsuccessful pursuit actions are mounted against the Orlam 1798-1811 Afrikaners by the Cape Colony authorities.

The Great Karas Mountains from the East: Landscape of ||Khauxa!nas: Oldest Ruined Settlement in an Engineering Sense in Namibia
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: General View from West: With Protection Wall in

the Background
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Map of southern Africa (17901830). It shows: the expansion of the South African Cape Colony and the expanding African states seeking to control land and trade and defend themselves from Boer, Orlam and other African raiders. The block shows the next map with ||Khauxa!nas and Narudas (Robber Henrick's Place)
Longman Namibia: Anne Westoby

Southern Namibia with ||Khauxa!nas and Narudas (Robber Henrick's Place)
Longman Namibia: Anne Westoby

The old "Pastorie" of Warmbad which is built on the Foundations of the House which was established by the London Missionary Society Brothers Abraham and Christian Albrecht in 1805
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

PHOTO DOCUMENTATION OF ||KHAUXA!NAS

of ||Khauxa!nas: With View to the Great Karas Mountains in the West: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Landscape east

Landscape east of

||Khauxa!nas: With View to the Gurus River in the South: District Road 612: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: Protection Walls from East: 1987
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: View from the Air: May 1987
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: View from the Top of the Ruins to the East: With Protection Wall in the Background: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: Top of the Ruins: Details of Structural Elements: April 2003

Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: View from the Top of the Mountain: Onto the Back River: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The View to the Southeast
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the highest Point to the West into the Direction of the Great Karas Mountains: 1988
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas: View from the Top of the Ruins to the West: With the Great Karas Mountains in the Background: April 2003

Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas from the West in the Direction of the Protective Wall
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas Ruins: View to the East
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Pathway leading to the Top of the ||Khauxa!nas Fortress: 1988
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the Pathway to the Bak River: 1988
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Precolonial Pathway to the Top of the ||Khauxa!nas Ruins: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Bak River at ||Khauxa!nas east of the Great Karas Mountains: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the ||Khauxa!nas Fortress to the Bak River (View

to the South East)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Typical Building Elements at the ||Khauxa!nas Ruins
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Khauxa!nas Structures at the northwestern Corner of the Mountain Plateau
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Details of the walled Buildings in ||Khauxa!nas
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Small Openings near the Bottom Edges (Drainage openings)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Possible House of Klaas Afrikaner on the ||Khauxa!nas Mountain: March 2001
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Possible House of Klaas Afrikaner on the ||Khauxa!nas Mountain: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Protective Wall around the ||Khauxa!nas Mountain Plateau: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Rectangular Building in

||Khauxa!nas: "Marengo's House": April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Tombstones on the eastern Side of the ||Khauxa!nas Mountain Fortress or "Good Look Cairn" (Nama: HeitsiEibib or Haitse-aibeb): 1987
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Tombstones (Heitsi Eibeb) on

the Eastern Side of the ||Khauxa!nas Mountain Fortress: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Detailed Plan of the ||Khauxa!nas Mountain Fortress
Longman Namibia: Anne Westoby

NamPost stamps on the ||Khauxa!nas Ruins, 06.02.1997
[Return to Table of Contents]

3. THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD: THE MISSIONARIES
3.1 THE MISSIONARIES ARRIVE IN THE TERRITORY: 1805-1840
Philippus Katjimune, a Omuherero by birth, is born in Namaland. Several Dama groups with various local identities and different leadership structures live peacefully together with the Ovaherero. These communities are widespread across the country and at least twelve groups can be identified: the |Khomani-daman from the Khomas Hochland (Khoekhoegowab language (Nama/Dama): |Khomas), the Auas Mountains (|Auas) and the Eros Mountains (#Eros); the * Gowanin between Rehoboth and Hoachanas; the Tsao-xoudaman in the Swakop valley; the !Oe-gan in the Erongo Mountains (Khoekhoegowab: !Oe#ga Mountains); the !Omen from the Waterberg: (Khoekhoegowab: !Hob Mountains) and at the Omaruru River; the Aro-daman from the Waterberg; the Animin from Okahandja; the Oumin, east of the Waterberg; the * Geio-daman from Outjo (Khoekhoegowab: Tsuob); the Aobe-5 ain from Omaruru; the Dâunas-daman from the Brandberg; the Ao-guwun from Zesfontein and the GobabisDama (* Gopani). The leader of the Kai||khaun (also called "The Red Nation"), !Gaob |Hanamab dies at Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!nâs), the Kai||khaun headquarters or at the Koaeib River (present-day Olifant’s River (#Khoa-aib River)). His successor is Gaméb !Gaomab. The London Missionary Society establishes itself in Blydeverwacht (Blyde Uitkomst), represented by the brothers Abraham and Christian Albrecht who are the first missionaries to come to the territory.

1800

1805 February

October

1806

1811

The brothers Albrecht move to Warmbad and live there until 1810/1811, when they are compelled to evacuate the mission station on account of an impending attack by the Orlam Afrikaners. Abraham Albrecht reports about the Nama communities of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun)(the first four mythological group leaders are !Hűb, |Nanub, |Aib and #Oab) and the Veldschoendrager (||Hawoben). The brothers Albrecht are followed by Jan Magerman (1810 to January 1811) and Johann Leonhard Ebner (1812-1819 (?)). Right from the beginning missionaries are the main suppliers of guns and ammunition to local communities. The first mission station is erected in Warmbad by the brothers Albrecht ( first bricks made on 03.02.1806). The Warmbad mission station is destroyed by the Orlam Afrikaners under Jager and Titus Afrikaner. The eighth Uukwanyama King Haimbili yaHaufiku (ą1811-1858) (Omukwaniilwa in the Oshivambo language) follows King Hamangulu yaNahambo in Ovamboland. He strengthens his kingdom by waging wars against neighbouring territories. His capital is Onehula. Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt is born at Blasheim in Germany.

1812 25.10

The Graves of the Rhenish Missionary Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and his Wife Hanna, née Schmelen at Otjimbingwe
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

1814

The leader of the Kai||khaun, Gaméb !Gaomab dies. His successor is Tsawúb Gamab. Johann-Heinrich Schmelen of the London Missionary Society establishes a mission station in Bethany (also called |Ui#gandes or Klipfontein), where the Orlam family Boois (also called Frederiks) has lived since 1804. Jan Boois (or Jan Frederiks), son of Captain Kobus Boois (or Kobus Frederiks), later becomes Schmelen’s interpreter. Schmelen reports about the threatening antimissionary attitude of Titus Afrikaner. The Bethany Orlams are called "Bethany Nama" or "!Aman". Amraal Lambert (or #Gai|nub), a relative of Jonker Afrikaner from the Kai|khauan (later called "Khauas Nama"), accompanies Schmelen.

27.07.

Bethany: London Missionary Schmelen's House: 1814: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

1815

22.01.

Jager Afrikaner is baptised by Ebner of the London Missionary Society. Reverend John Campbell of the London Missionary Society reports about the Nama and Dama as well as the Orlam Afrikaner. During the Vienna Conference – which is followed by the treaty of 18.07.1817 – the British Crown renounces all claims to 15° south and restricts herself to 18°24' south (Cape Frio).

1816

1818

18.10. 1819

1820

1821

Hendrik van Zyl lives at the farm Uitkomst (until 1843), where virtually all missionaries stop over on their journeys to and from Damaraland and Hereroland. Robert Moffat of the London Missionary Society works among the Orlam Afrikaners. In the Kavango the Uukwangali Queen Mate II is followed by King Siremo (1818-1822). Siremo’s brother, Mpepo, with the support of the Uukwanyama community in Ovamboland, overthrows and kills Siremo. Mpepo becomes the next Uukwangali King (1822-1833). He abuses his privileges and is alleged to have violated the wives of some of his subjects who, consequently, desert him. Carl Hugo Hahn is born near Riga in Latvia. Moffat abandons his mission with the Orlams and returns to Cape Town. Maharero (or Kamaharero) is born (ca. 1820) to Ua Tjirue Tjamuaha and his first wife Otjorozumo, daughter of Ndomo, daughter of Peraa, daughter of Mbondo, daughter of Mukuejuva of the eanda yomukueyuva (community or clan). Maharero, although later on good terms with Carl Hugo Hahn, never converts to Christianity. The Wesleyan Missionary Society begins its mission work among the Nama. The first Wesleyan missionary is Barnabas Shaw. James Kitchingman of the London Missionary Society, together with Shaw and Schmelen, visits the Chief of the Kai||khaun (also called "The Red Nation"), Tsawúb Gamab. The fourth Ondonga King Nembungu lyAmutundu who had his capital at Iinenge dies in Ovamboland. His successor is King Nangolo dAmutenya (ca. 1820-1857). He establishes the capital Ondonga. During his reign his kingdom grows in power and wealth. Wesleyan missionary James Archbell establishes a mission station in Grootfontein (in the south of the country) together with Jacob Links (until 1822). Schmelen leaves Bethany due to Orlam dissatisfaction with

1822

missionary work among the Kai||khaun (also called "The Red Nation")(after he "almost begged them upon my knees that they should come to church but they would not"). Archbell leaves Grootfontein (south) also due to Orlam dissatisfaction with missionary work among the Kai||khaun.

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1823 1824

23.01.

1825

1826 1827

1828

Jager Afrikaner dies in Blydeverwacht. The leader of the Kai||khaun, Tsawúb Gamab dies. His successor is !Na-khom Gamab. Missionary Schmelen crosses the Namib Desert along the Kuiseb River. He reaches Walvis Bay. Captain Chapman from the vessel Espičgle sails along the Namibian Atlantic coast and "discovers" the Kunene Mouth. He calls the river Nourse’s River. Jonker Afrikaner wishes to establish a mission station for his people. Schmelen meets Jonker Afrikaner and his people in Tsebris, an area west of present-day Rehoboth. Kobus Frederiks ("Ou Kobeb") is followed by Captain Josef Frederiks I. Following the killing of William Threlfall, missionary in Lily Fountein (Cape Colony), by the San Naughaap (probably August 1825, north west of Warmbad), Europeans shun Great Namaqualand until the mid-1830s. Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen and Captain Vidal from the vessel Barracouta survey the Atlantic coast to the Kunene Mouth. Wesleyan missionary Barnabas Shaw returns to Cape Town. Missionary Schmelen visits the Ovaherero settlement Okahandja. Carl Hugo Hahn names it later (09.02.1843) "Schmelenshoop" or "Schmelensverwachting". Schmelen is probably the first "white" to visit Okahandja. The US Captain Benjamin Morrell anchors off the mouth of the Oranje River in his vessel Antarctic. From here he continues to Angra Pequeńa, where he trades with local Nama and Dama. He reports on the possibility of exploiting guano along the Atlantic coast at the Atlantic coast island Ichaboe (06.10.1828). The South African Kololo, a faction of the Sotho people, under King Sebitwane (? - 1851), establish their capital in Linyanti

1830s 1830 1833 1834

16.07.

in the Fwe (or Mafwe) and Yeyi (Mayeyi) area (present-day Caprivi Strip). They destroy the social and political structures of the Fwe inhabitants. From here they conquer the whole Barotseland in present-day Zambia. Jonker Afrikaner establishes sovereignty in the southern and central regions of the territory. An alliance between the Afrikaners and Kai||khaun is established. Hendrik Witbooi, later also called "!Nanseb |Gabemab" is born in Pella (?) in South Africa. In the Kavango the Uukwangali King Mpepo is murdered. His successor is Sikongo who reigns up to 1870. He brings a period of peace and prosperity to the Kwangali area. The Wesleyan Missionary Society takes over all missionary activities from the London Missionary Society (until 1840). Wesleyan missionary Edward Boyer Cook (until 09.03.1843) revives the missionary work in Warmbad. He calls Warmbad "Nisbett Bath" in honour of Josiah Nisbett who provided the funds. He works with Peter Links (until 1839).

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1836

1836/37

1837

1838

Urieta Kazahendike, Rhenish missionary Carl Hugo Hahn’s later linguist and interpreter in four languages (from 1844 until 1873), is born in Ongandjira near Okahandja. James Edward Alexander undertakes an expedition into the interior of the territory where he mentions the ||Hawoben (Veldschoendrager) capital, "Robber Henrick’s Place". Robber Henrick’s Place (Narudas) is discovered in 1988 by Klaus Dierks. Alexander reaches an area known as "|Ai-||Gams" ("fire water" in Nama) and calls it "Queen Adelaide’s Bath" (present-day Windhoek). He moves on to reach Rehoboth, the Orlam Afrikaner settlement of Tsebris and Walvis Bay. Jonker Afrikaner urges Alexander to "organise" him a missionary. Jonker settles at Niais, approximately 80 km south-west of Windhoek, with approximately 1 200 followers. Alexander reports on copper deposits along the route he is travelling. Hendrik Henricks (!Nanib gaib #Arisemab), son of #Ariseb (Kannamab) and !Nanis, becomes leader of the ||Hawoben. |Ai-||Gams is chosen by the Orlam Afrikaners from ||Khauxa!nas under Jonker Afrikaner as their permanent settlement, with Ovaherero consent, and is called "Windhoek" (confirmed for the first time on 12.08.1844). The Ovaherero call the place "Otjomuise" ("place of smoke"). Later the Owambo call the place "Omukuto gwaKaisera". The settlement has more than 2 000 inhabitants. Orlam Afrikaners are also known as "||Eixa-||ain". Klein Windhoek is later called "Elberfeld" (and Groß Windhoek "Barmen") by the Rhenish missionaries. On Jonker Afrikaner’s initiative roads are built across the Auas Mountains, from Windhoek to Walvis Bay (Northern Bay Road), from Bethany to Berseba and on to Angra Pequeńa (Southern Bay Road). ||Hawoben begin to settle at ||Khauxa!nas. The Wesleyan missionaries Joseph Tindall, Benjamin Ridsdale and John A Bailie work among the ||Hawoben.

Rich guano deposits are discovered along the Atlantic coast (on 12 offshore islands).

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Wesleyan missionary Joseph Tindall works with missionary Cook at Warmbad (until April 1842). Tindall is followed by Benjamin Ridsdale (01.02.1844-1847) who meticulously describes ||Khauxa!nas (or Schans Vlakte). He is followed by 1839 December missionaries Macleod (from 01.02.1844), John A Bailie (1848-1850), Richard Ridgill (1855-1858), John Thomas (1857-1859), J Priestley (1859-1864) and Timotheus Sneeue (1863-1864), as well as M Godman (1864-1866), the last of the Wesleyan missionaries. The London Missionary Society transfers its activities to the Rhenish Missionary Society. A sizeable whitewashed stone church seating 500-600 people is built by Jonker Afrikaner in Windhoek (Klein Windhoek; present-day St Paul’s College). Amraal Lambert settles at Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville). The Patriarch "King", Dawid Dawids (approx. 1840-1940), of a group later called the Riemvasmakers, is born. He is believed to have been an Omuherero whose descendants were suppressed by the Nama. Dawids led his group, also called Nama speaking Ovaherero (Herero-Orlams), through the south of the territory (later, after their return from South 1840 Africa in 1895, to be relocated at Vaalgras/Koichas (|Hai|Gâsib)(1908)) to the north-western Cape in the 1860s, to settle in the Augrabies area. Oral history has it that during the drought 1829/1830 these Ovaherero groups moved south where they came into conflict with the local Nama communities (Kai||khaun in alliance with Jonker Afrikaner)(Goman torob: the Cattle War). They are also thought to be direct descendants of Ovaherero prisoners of war captured during the Orlam wars in the 1860s. The leader of the Kai||khaun, !Na-khom Gamab, dies. His successor is Chief ||Oaseb !Na-khomab. ||Oaseb and his Nama community settle an area in the vicinity of their Orlam allies, Jonker Afrikaner, in the valley of the Skaap River (Kubakop River), Rehoboth (|Anhes) and Tsebris.

08.02.

Wesleyan missionaries Edward Cook and Joseph Tindall together with James Backhouse and GW Walker, visit Afrikaner’s Kraal at Blydeverwacht (Jerusalem). They meet Chief David Afrikaner (Hendrik Afrikaner) and Titus Afrikaner (who is baptised in the mean time) as well as the group leaders of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Jan Ortman and Jantjie van der Byl. The Orlam Afrikaners from Jerusalem separate from Jonker Afrikaner.

"Robber Henrick's Place": Narudas: March 1988
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Narudas Ruins:

Details of the Walls: View to the East: March 2001
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View onto the Narudas Fort in a southerly Direction: March 2001
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Narudas Ruins:

View to the Southwest into the Great Karas Mountains: March 1988 and 2001
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Narudas Ruins:

View to the North, to the Narudas Peak: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Access Climb to the Narudas Ruins from the North: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the Narudas Ruins to the Northwest into the Narudas Gorge: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the Narudas Ruins to the South to the highest Point of the Ruins: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the Narudas Ruins to the East in direction of

||Khauxa!nas: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The highest Point of the Narudas Ruins: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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3. THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD: THE MISSIONARIES
3.2 THE MISSIONARIES INTERFERE IN LOCAL POLITICS 1842-1883
Namaland undergoes a rapid social change in the first half of the 18th century, from a kinship-based, pastoral, selfsufficient society, to military oligarchies supported by European missionaries, which are dependent for production on a destructive trade network of European traders and hunters. These dependencies lead to increased "underdeveloping qualities". Natural resources are irreparably destroyed (between 1760 and 1880 immense populations of seals, elephants, rhinoceroses and even giraffes in southern and central Namibia are wiped out) old, well established skills such as the digging of wells with hard labour (or the manufacturing of household utensils) are lost with resulting dependencies on springs and fountains which again lead to the closure of whole settlements. The destructive trade network with the Cape Colony drains the country of assets and productive resources and receives nothing comparable in exchange. This is in spite of the fact that the Orlam Afrikaners and their allies do issue certain controls in order to keep in check the trade links with the Cape. New diseases are introduced from the Cape Colony, i.e. smallpox, venereal diseases and alcoholism. The social and historical distinctions between original Nama groups and the Orlams as well as the old group structures have all but vanished by the time these polities emerge. From now on mission stations are planned as military

Early 1840s

centres, even the churches. The missionary campaign to christianise Africa not only converts "heathens" into Christians, but also tries to convert Africans into Europeans. Many of the African (and Namibian) traditions disappear not so much because of theologicallybased criticism, but rather because of the cultural imperialism of the early European missionaries. Historical and anthropological studies show that the advent of Christian mission change the cultural imagination of Africans fundamentally. The efforts of Christian missionaries are decisive in the imposition of a new mode of being, the reconstruction of religion, aesthetics, knowledge, bodily representation, sexuality, gender relations, social institutions, such as marriage and the family, and indeed most of aspects of people’s living. Thus, the cultural implications of Christian missions cause a cardinal reconstruction of identity and the social space. For instance, most missionary societies in Namibia are most fervently opposed to traditional life styles such as "pagan customs". The two Lutheran missionary societies, the Rhenish and the Finnish Missionary Societies are especially strict..The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches are much more permissive in terms of allowing indigenous customs and cultural expressions such as the Efundula, the traditional wedding in Ovamboland. But these two churches also contribute little to the preservation and survival of such customs. Particularly Carl Hugo Hahn from the Rhenish Missionary Society tries later to establish a politically and economically autonomous mission colony in Otjimbingwe by "Mission through colonisation". Adam Kraai, a "dependant" of Jonker Afrikaner, lives with his followers in Rehoboth, to where he had moved from the upper Fish River area. Captain William Messum lives near Cape Cross and the Brandberg.

1841

1842

06.10.

03.11.

09.12

24.12.

The Chief of the Kai|khauan, Amraal Lambert, initiates a peace treaty with ||Oaseb, the leader of the Kai||khaun. Missionaries Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt (October 1842) and Carl Hugo Hahn (December 1842) of the Rhenish Missionary Society arrive in Windhoek at Orlam Afrikaner's request. Tjamuaha settles at Otjipuna (present-day "Pokkiesdraai", named as such because missionary Wilhelm Eich had to return there when smallpox broke out in Windhoek). Jan Boois (or Jan Frederiks), eldest son of Kobus Frederiks, is a wealthy leader of the people living at Bethany until 1846. The early missionaries are not very successful with their Christian mission. The Rhenish missionary Johann Jakob Irle reports later that the first Omuherero is baptised in 1858 (25.07.1858). Kleinschmidt starts working in Windhoek (until 03.10.1844). Kleinschmidt reports on road building activities by Jonker Afrikaner in the Auas Mountains, south of Windhoek. Jonker levies tolls to use these roads. Philippus Katjimune, who speaks not only Otjiherero but also Nama and Dutch, becomes Kleinschmidt’s interpreter in the 1840s, and later interprets for Andersson and Galton as well. Hans-Christian Knudsen, together with Johannes Hendrik Bam, brother of Johann-Heinrich’s Schmelen’s second wife, starts work as a Rhenish missionary at Bethany, supported by Jan Boois. Knudsen produces the first legal code for the Nama of Bethany, Berseba and Rehoboth. Hahn starts working in Windhoek (until 03.10.1844). He calls Klein-Windhoek "Elberfeld" and Groß-Windhoek "Barmen". The Ovaherero Tjamuaha (born ca. 1790) and Maharero (born 1820) settle in Windhoek on Jonker’s demand. The two Ovaherero groups under their leaders Oove ua Muhoko Kahitjene and Tjamuaha form an alliance with Jonker Afrikaner (Christmas Peace 1842).

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1843

09.03. 14.04.

19.08.

03.10. 09.12.

1844

02.03.

Guano exploitation starts on the Atlantic offshore islands. David Livingstone visits for the first time an area which later becomes known as the Caprivi Strip. His efforts to establish a mission station there fail. The Wesleyan Missionary Society establishes a mission station at Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville). The first missionary there is Joseph Tindall (1843-1844, 1847-1851), who is followed by his son, Henry Tindall (November 1852 to July 1855). The Wesleyan missionary Edward Cook dies at Warmbad. The Chief of the Kai||khaun, ||Oaseb, visits Windhoek. Chief Jonker Afrikaner requests missionary Kleinschmidt to write a letter to the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Abraham, to refrain from plans to attack, together with the Kai||khaun, the Ovaherero. The relationship between Jonker and the Kai||khaun is from the very beginning characterised by a combination of alliance and conflict. Carl Hugo Hahn marries Emma Hone, from the Victorian London. She introduces into Hereroland the Victorian dress which remains popular until the present day. Hahn reports during his trip to Cape Town on the many lions which plague Bethany. ||Oaseb attacks Ovaherero leader Oove ua Muhoko Kahitjene without Jonker Afrikaner lifting a finger to help the latter. Kahitjene’s defeat can be directly attributed to his attempts to win independent access to guns, horses and information with assistance of a European missionary, Hahn. This leads finally to his downfall in 1851. The first permanent European colonists, the families of Sidney Dixon, James Morris and Frank Bassingthwaighte, settle in Walvis Bay. Carl Hugo Hahn reports during his journey from Windhoek to Walvis Bay (25.12.1843 to 18. 03.1844) that he intends to establish a mission station near Walvis Bay. He names this

06.07.

August

28.09. 03.10.

station Keetmansdorf (later Scheppmannsdorf, present-day Rooibank (|Awang||hans)). Rhenish missionary Hans-Christian Knudsen reports on Jonker Afrikaner’s road building activities in the Auas Mountains, south of Windhoek and the Northern Bay Road to Walvis Bay. More than four hundred ships are moored at the Atlantic coast island Ichaboe (as also reported by missionary Scheppmann on 02.01.1845). Hundreds of sailors clear 250 000 tons of guano in a relatively small period. The absence of any orderly state control leads to chaotic conditions on the island. In 1845 the British Royal Navy steps in to restore order. Jonker Afrikaner invites the Wesleyan missionaries Richard Haddy and Joseph Tindall to settle in Windhoek, which they call "Concordiaville". Subsequently Hahn and Kleinschmidt leave Windhoek, which they now call "Esek" ("fountain of the quarrel"), and go to Okahandja to work among the Ovaherero, but then they have to leave Okahandja due to lack of water, and move on to Otjikango (29.10.1844)(Nama: ||Katsabias; present-day Groß Barmen, which Hahn called "Neu-Barmen"). Hahn reports that the Kai||khaun Chief ||Oaseb has established a kind of efficient "tourist police" to assist foreigners. The Wesleyan missionaries Haddy (until 1846), Tindall (until 1845) and Timotheus Sneeue (until 1848) start working in Windhoek. A mission station is established at Otjikango and is run by its founding missionaries Hahn (until 18.06.1852), Kleinschmidt (until May 1845) and Johannes Hendrik Bam (until 1848), followed by Heinrich Scheppmann (1844-1845), Johannes Rath (09.04.1845-1849), Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe (23.04.1848-1851), Heinrich Schöneberg (19.01.185121.11.1853), Matthäus Gorth (1852), again Hahn (28.03.185626.06.1859), Peter Heinrich Brincker (20.02.1864-1878), Johann Jakob Irle (1869-1870) and Freerk Meyer (from 1877).

31.10.

The Remains of the Rhenish Mission Station at Otjikango (later called Gross Barmen by Rhenish Missionary Carl Hugo Hahn) in October 2004: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

With Jonker’s and his ally Tjamuaha’s approval, many poor and cattleless Ovaherero (Ovatjimba) settle at Otjikango and later at Otjimbingwe. They form the core population in these two mission stations. The Ovaherero Chief Katjari (Chief of the Otjirungu group under the leadership of John Samuel Aron Mungunda from Otjombuindja in the Ozongoto area, son of Chief Tjoro, son of Chief Tjihahu) takes a defiant attitude against the strong social influence exercised by the Rhenish missionaries in Otjikango. The Walvis Bay traders Sidney Dixon and James Morris attempt to export cattle to St Helena via Walvis Bay. William Latham works for Dixon at Sandfontein, and later works for Charles John Andersson, supporting him in his war efforts against the Orlam Afrikaners. Cattle are traded for wagons, guns, ammunition and alcohol.

16.12.

1845

11.05.

July

04.12.

The profits of the European traders are exorbitant: 1 500 to 2 000 % gross profit and never less than 100 % net profit. Missionary Hahn, as one of the major traders, pays for example 42 % commission to one of his traders (May 1868). The credit system evolves as early as the 1840s and starts to destroy the economic structures of many Namibian communities. Jonker Afrikaner is known, in the mid-1840s, to have incurred heavy debts with the trader Morris. There are indications that Jonker’s raids on the Ovambanderu (1846) are a direct response to pressure from Morris. TE Eden, a London surgeon, surveys the Atlantic coast and guano islands for minerals. The first school book in the Nama language is printed by missionary Hans-Christian Knudsen. The first detailed map of the southern region of present-day Namibia is published by missionary Heinrich Richter. Missionary Kleinschmidt moves to Rehoboth where he establishes and runs a mission station (until 1861 and again during 1864). Other missionaries in Rehoboth are Franz Heinrich Vollmer (03.05.1848-1853) and Friedrich Simon Eggert (20.08.1854-1855). The foundation stone for a church is laid in the presence of missionary Hahn on 30.08.1845. Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab), Chief of the Swartbooi community (||Khau-|gőan) from the 1830s (and probably much earlier), settles with his people at Rehoboth. The Swartboois originate from the areas of Warmbad, Bethany and the upper Fish River and are.originally part of the Kai||khaun. They are the only Namaland group who do not later form an alliance with Jonker Afrikaner, but rather become allies of the Ovaherero. Wesleyan missionary Joseph Tindall establishes a mission station in Gobabis (until 1847). The Rhenish missionary Heinrich Scheppmann establishes and runs (until 29.08.1847) a mission station at Rooibank near Walvis Bay. He is followed by Johannes Hendrik Bam (22.03.1848-08.05.1856), Heinrich Schöneberg (1853-

04.06.1855), Engelbert Krapohl (04.09.1857-1859), Friedrich Simon Eggert (26.07.1859-1868) and Christian Baumann (from 1878).

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Tjamuaha settles at Okahandja after another Ovaherero leader, Oove ua Muhoko Kahitjene, has already settled there, and after Jonker Afrikaner raids Tjamuaha’s cattle in March. The first school book in Otjiherero is printed by the 1846 missionaries Hahn and Johannes Rath. Aaron de Pass establishes a coastal shipping trade at Walvis Bay, dealing in guano, seal skins, whale products and the export of shark’s liver oil. He maintains stations at Walvis Bay, Sandwich Harbour and Ichaboe Island. In a letter to Hahn, Jonker levels serious accusations against 21.03. the missionary, whom he considers responsible for the outbreak of hostilities between the Nama and the Ovaherero. Hahn requests the British authorities in the Cape Colony to 27.04. establish a border between Nama and Ovaherero. December The Kai||hhaun under Chief ||Oaseb attack the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu. 03./04.12. Orlam Afrikaners decide on their return from a visit to Walvis Bay, to plunder Ovaherero villages. Hahn accuses the Wesleyan Missionary Society of supporting Jonker Afrikaner's raids against the Ovaherero. He also 12.12. reports that the Orlam Afrikaners under Jonker Afrikaner and the Kai||khaun under Chief ||Oaseb are the centre of the resistance against missionaries. Bethany creates its "Ryksboek" (Code of Law) and Windhoek, Warmbad, Rehoboth (1849) follow suite. Patriarchy is entrenched by the Ryksboek (for Bethany and Rehoboth). It states that chieftaincy is hereditary, never to be vested in a woman but in the eldest son following his father. The chief has two main counsellors assisting him as ell as 10 secondary group leaders. Decisions are taken by majority vote. The Code of Law includes a set of regulations for "citizens", "bywoners" and "servants". Citizens are obliged to do military service and labour on public works. These sections of the Rehoboth Code of Law are followed by a body of general regulations of conduct. Marriages have to be

1847

29.08. 23.12.

1848

24.01. 1849

of general regulations of conduct. Marriages have to be monogamous. In case of theft the thief has to make good double the amount of damage. The laws are very strict and precisely formulated. Thus, this code gives a clear indication of social hierarchies that are based on the private ownership of means of production, namely guns and cattle. The death sentence is not enforced, very much to the dismay of the European missionaries. Missionary Bailie replaces Ridsdale. Johannes Hendrik Bam is responsible for the mission station of Rooibank (called "Scheppmannsdorf"). The elephant hunter Hans Larsen moves from Otjikango to Gobabis. Heinrich Scheppmann dies in Rehoboth. Harry Smith, Governor of the South African Cape Colony, establishes the southern bank of the Oranje River as the colony’s northern boundary. A ||Hawoben revolt against the missionary work of Bailie of the Wesleyan Missionary Society takes place at Schans Vlakte (||Khauxa!nas). The British trader Frank Bassingthwaighte settles at Rehoboth to work as blacksmith. During Knudsen’s temporary absence in 1847 Johann Samuel Hahn takes over the mission station Bethany. John Spence, working for Gibson, Linton and Co., founds a fishing industry in Sandwich Harbour. January Kamukamu, brother of Oove ua Muhoko Kahitjene, is killed by Jonker Afrikaner when the Orlam Afrikaners, returning from a raid on Walvis Bay, decide to plunder Ovaherero villages. The Rhenish missionary Johannes Rath works among the Ovaherero in Otjimbingwe (until 12.03.1861). He is followed by Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe (1851-1852), Barnabas Hörnemann (1855-12.03.1861), Brincker (12.07.1863-1864), Hahn (08.02.1864-14.02.1873), Johann Carl Eduard Hälbich

09.07.

(01.06.1864-1870), Franz Tamm (01.06.1864-1865), Christian Baumann (1866-1874), Johann Wilhelm Redecker (01.06.1867-1874), Heinrich Felling (01.06.1867-1873), Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlieb Viehe (01.06.1867-1870), Carl Gotthilf Büttner (01.02.1873-17.07.1880) and Peter Friedrich Bernsmann (from 01.01.1874).

Otjimbingwe in the Swakop Valley: The first Rhenish Missionary working in Otjimbingwe in 1849 is Johannes Rath
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

December ||Oaseb supports Jonker Afrikaner in raiding the Ovambanderu.

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James Morris hands over his business to his nephew, Thomas Morris. The price of copper begins to soar and various prospectors begin to explore the area for copper deposits. Aaron De Pass later establishes a mining company, the Pomona Mining Company. Jonker Afrikaner opens an informal copper mine at the Natas Mine and trades the ore at Walvis Bay. Shikongo shIipinge (ą1850-1902) follows the seventh 1850 Uukwaluudhi King, Uushona uEndjila. Against his enemies from other Ovambo kingdoms he builds a thorn fence (3 - 4 m high and 2 -3 wide) about a 100 km long from Iikokola at the Ongandjera border to the Ombalantu border. But this fence does not protect the Uukwaluudhi people because it is burnt down by Ongandjera warriors. Earlier Uukwaluudhi Kings cannot be dated. They are in a descending order: Niilenge ya Shipula; Shikwa shAmupindi (Kayambu); Natshilongo shIikombo; Kamongwa; Nakakwiila and Amukwa yAmunyela. ||Oaseb seeks the support of Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab) against Jonker Afrikaner, but Swartbooi refuses. February The group leader Tseib splits during this time from the Kai||khaun and later forms the group of the Kharo-!oan in Keetmanshoop. Rhenish missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe establishes a mission station at Okahandja, after Hahn's unsuccessful attempt in 1844.

22.03.

Rhenish Missionary Church in Okahandja: The Missionary Station is established on

22.03.1850 by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

25.04. 20.08.

23.08.

13.09.

17.10.

Manasse Tyiseseta is born in Otjimbingwe (from 1867 he lives in Omaruru). He rules from 25.11.1884 to 26.07.1898. British traveller and scientist Francis Galton arrives in Walvis Bay. His interpreter is the Omuherero Onesimus who later becomes a "petty chief" in Otjimbingwe. Jonker Afrikaner attacks Okahandja (Chief Kahitjene and missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe) because he fears the loss of Orlam Afrikaner control. The Okahandja mission station is destroyed and Kolbe leaves Damaraland permanently. Missionary Samuel Hahn reports on the worthy road building activities by the Goliath Nama at the Brukkaros Mountain (Khoekhoegowab: Kaitsi !Gubeb). Against the wishes of Captain David Frederiks of Bethany, the Goliath Nama (the group’s elected headman being Paul Goliath or #Hobexab (his predecessor was |Aiob ||Ęigaosenmab or Dirk Isaak: no dates could be traced), assisted by Christoph Tibot) move to !Autsawises from Gulbrandsdalen, named by Hans-Christian Knudsen and situated east of Bethany. At !Autsawises a new mission station of the Rhenish Missionary Society, named Berseba, is founded by Rhenish missionary Samuel Hahn (until 30.04.1852). The Berseba Orlam are called "|Hai-|khauan". This community is dependent on the Kai||khaun (also called "The Red Nation") Chief ||Oaseb. From this time, more than 150 years, there is a power struggle between the Goliath and Isaak clans of Berseba.

Berseba: founded by Rhenish Missionary Samuel Hahn: 17.10.1850: the Church is built by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber: 1857
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1851

11.02.

12.03.

Francis Galton arranges for a peace treaty between Jonker Afrikaner and the Ovaherero. Jonker Afrikaner, however, is still determined to prevent the establishment of any relations between European missionaries and Ovaherero chiefs independent of his control. Missionary Hans-Christian Knudsen is expelled and banished from Bethany by Captain David Christian Frederiks (or ||Naixab). Galton offers to arrange for a peace treaty between the Ovaherero communities of Oove ua Muhoko Kahitjene, one of Jonker’s former allies, and Chief John Samuel Aron Mungunda from Otjombuindja in the Ozongoto area, but Kahitjene declines the offer. In a subsequent skirmish between Mungunda’s sons and Kahitjene, the latter is killed. The Ovaherero decide that the Mungunda community should settle together with Tjamuaha’s son, Maharero (or Kamaharero). Kahitjene’s downfall can be directly attributed to his attempts to win direct access to arms with the assistance of missionary Hahn. Maharero leaves Otjimbingwe and returns to Tjamuaha’s place, Okahandja. Missionary Kolbe completes first hymn book in the Otjiherero language.

01.06. 07.07. 31.08. 31.12.

Galton and Charles John Andersson are the first Europeans to reach the Etosha Pan and the informal copper mines of Tsumeb. They proceed further north into Ovamboland. The Kololo King Sebitwane dies, shortly after meeting David Livingstone. He is followed by his son Sekeletu (1851 - 1863). Rhenish missionary Johann Georg Krönlein works at Berseba. Rhenish missionary Matthäus Gorth arrives at Walvis Bay and proceeds to Otjikango (Groß Barmen).

[Return to Table of Contents]

1852

22.07.

Jonker Afrikaner, extremely anxious to prevent Europeans from exploring Hereroland and Ovamboland and supplying Ovaherero with arms, attacks Tjamuaha and Maharero at Otjosemba. Even Hahn loses his cattle. Jonker moves on to Omambonde and the Omatako omuramba (fossil river)(Khoekhoegowab: ||Khuob) at the Omatako Mountains (#Hakha) and attacks Otjihinamaparero and the community of Chief Katjikurure. He extends his attacks as far north as the Ondonga area in Ovamboland. Rhenish missionary Matthäus Gorth travels to the south in order to take over the mission station Bethany. Gorth arrives at #Goais near Bethany where he dies on 05.01.1853.

27.10.

Bethany: Rhenish Missionary Cemetry: Matthäus Gorth: died on 05.01.1853: #Goais (Grootfontein South)
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

||Oaseb, as requested by missionary Vollmer, again settles at Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!nâs), the Kai||khaun headquarters. Most of his followers, however, refuse flatly to follow the Chief from the Skaap River (Kubakop River) to Hoachanas because they are not interested in a missionary. Missionaries Kleinschmidt and Vollmer complete their writing of the biblical history in the Nama language. Rhenish missionary Heinrich Schöneberg works at Otjikango, but is expelled by Jonker Afrikaner.

1853

23.05

Due to Jonker's increasing resistance against the Rhenish missionaries, Hahn leaves Hereroland and returns to Cape Town and from there for two years to Europe. Missionary Friedrich Simon Eggert works in Berseba, Rehoboth, Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville), Gobabis (meaning in Nama, "Place where the people argued"; also known by the Ovaherero as "Epako" or "Elephant’s Fontain") and Rooibank. Charles John Andersson and Galton reach Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland (present-day Botswana). They are accompanied by a guide from Bechuanaland, Jonathan Afrika. The Witbooi Nama Jesaias Witbooi is born in Pella (?) in South Africa. Rhenish missionary Franz Heinrich Vollmer establishes and runs a mission station at Hoachanas (until 03.02.1867) when the mission station has to be abandoned due to the Ovaherero-Nama war of the 1860s. He is followed by Eduard Heider (from 27.06.1874 until 1881, when the mission station again has to be abandoned due to the outbreak of the new Ovaherero-Nama war of the 1880s). Before this Heider worked in Berseba. Missionary Heider dies in Hoachanas on 16.06.1881. Jonker Afrikaner settles at Tjamuaha’s Okahandja settlement, at the site where the Rhenish Missionary Society’s church would be built in 1875, in order to have better control over the Ovaherero. Jonker’s raids into Hereroland lead even Ovaherero to flee from places like Otjitambi and Otavi into the Kaokoveld. ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun attacks Jonker Afrikaner, who again had earlier attacked the Topnaar-Nama (#Aonin) who were under the protection of ||Oaseb. The Topnaar under the command of Chief Piet ||Haibeb (Piet Haibib)(his predecessor is Chief Khaxab) are deeply divided. They are deeply divided, and the elements of choice in their decision cannot be perceived from the written missionary sources. Some join Jonker, others the Swartboois, others

remain apart from these conflicts and stay in Walvis Bay (Rooibank) or escape either into the Erongo Mountains, or move to the Kaokoveld or Franzfontein. Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab) plans a raid on Jonker but missionary Kleinschmidt advises him not to do so, not for moral reasons but because of lack of ammunition. This shows the missionary double-standards: a raid against Jonker, considered as an enemy by the Rhenish Missionary Society is not immoral, whereas Jonker’s raids were denounced as expressions of the anti-Christ. Hermann Heinrich Kreft, a Rhenish missionary from Bethany, mentions that he and Krönlein had finished translating Luther’s Catechism into the Nama language. The Swedish explorer Johann August Wahlberg lands in Walvis Bay. He spends nearly one year in the territory before he is trampled to death by an elephant. The territory’s southern region experiences a severe smallpox epidemic (lasting until the early 1860s). Later comes the lungsickness. These two diseases add to the demise of Mid-1850s Orlam power in Namibia. The Witbooi Nama (|Khowesin), under the leadership of Kido Witbooi (or #A-||ęib), move from Pella in South Africa to Gibeon (Khaxa-tűs) where they settle in 1863 (with Jacob Knauer as missionary). 1854

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18561860

The Cape-based Walfish Bay Mining Company and the Great Namaqua Mining Company try to exploit the copper deposits in central and southern Namibia. The first company exploits the deposits of the Matchless Mine located west of Windhoek in the Khomas Hochland. It is not clear who discovered the Matchless Mine. Informal historical evidence claims that it was Jonker Afrikaner together with Frank Bassingthwaighte. Andersson, the major trader between the Oranje and Kunene Rivers, later serves as their manager, supported by Reid. Copper mining is soon abandoned, however, due to, inter alia, the high transport costs, although Andersson had improved the Bay Road from Windhoek via Remhoogte, Otjimbingwe, Tsaobis and Tinkas to Walvis Bay originally built by Jonker Afrikaner. Piet Gertse works for the Walfish Bay Mining Company. The Great Namaqua Mining Company negotiates mining rights with David Christian Frederiks from Bethany. However, there are no developments worth mentioning. The European mining companies pay minimal or no levies to the local communities for the mining rights. The arrival of European miners intensifies various conflicts between Jonker Afrikaner and other Namaland chiefs, such as ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun and Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab) from Rehoboth. Jonker has Hendrik Henricks (or !Nanib gaib #Arisemab) of the ||Hawoben and Piet Koper !Gamab (successor of Captain Willem Franzman who died in February 1854) of the Fransman Nama or !Khara-khoen as allies. In the end, the Kai||khaun-Swartbooi alliance becomes the weaker party. Jonker is, however, not successful in winning over Kido Witbooi (or #A-||ęib). But the dividing lines between Jonker and the other Nama groups are not clear cut. Jonker attempts to induce his relatives in Blydeverwacht as well as the Bethany and Goliath Nama from Berseba, to fight against the Swartboois and the ||Oaseb group. However, the communities of Berseba and Bethany are strongly admonished by their Rhenish missionaries and are not

1855

March

actively involved. At the same time ||Oaseb, apart from coveting his strong alliance with the Swartboois, tries to motivate his old Nama associates, the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun) and even Jonker's allies, the Goliath Nama, to move against Jonker’s allies. The Bondelswarts, as before, largely remain uninvolved in the conflicts in Namaland. They can afford to do so primarily because of their position as "border police", which is a source of income and protection from the Cape Government. Jan Boois or Jan Frederiks from Bethany fights firstly with ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun and the Swartboois and switches later to Jonker Afrikaner’s side. Piet Koper !Gamab of the Fransman Nama and Hendrik Henricks of the ||Hawoben join Jonker. The first printing press is established in Rooibank (later called Scheppmannsdorf") near Walvis Bay.Amraal Lambert from the Kai|khauan moves from Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville) to Gobabis. James Chapman, one of the first people to take photographs in the territory, travels from Lake Ngami in present-day Botswana, via South Africa to Walvis Bay. James Todd arrives as a copper prospector in the country. JH van Reenen prospects for copper at Baker’s Cove, south of present-day Lüderitz. He also prospects near Bethany, but when the Bethany chief denies him permission to prospect at Aus, he terminates his prospecting activities. Barnabas Hörnemann serves as a mission worker at Otjimbingwe (until 1861). The first crew of the Walfish Bay Mining Company under the leadership of the mining prospector Stead land in Walvis Bay. They first contact Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab) to get permission to exploit some promising copper deposits at Klein Aub, south-west of Rehoboth. Also ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun derives profit from these activities. However, the mine doesn’t materialise and the company establishes itself in 1856 at the Matchless Mine. Missionaries Kleinschmidt and Vollmer complete a Nama-

02.03. 13.04. 21.04. 18.11.

Missionaries Kleinschmidt and Vollmer complete a NamaDutch dictionary. The Rhenish Missionary Society resumes its work at Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville) with Friedrich Simon Eggert as missionary (until 19.08.1856). Rhenish missionary Franz Heinrich Vollmer proposes to use the Nama language instead of the Dutch language in the Nama mission. David Livingstone is the first European to discover the Zambezi Falls (present-day Victoria Falls).

[Return to Table of Contents]

1856

28.03. March

19.08.

Samuel Maharero (Katjikumbwa or Ourihuuna) is born to Maharero. The Walfish Bay Mining Company starts mining copper at the Matchless Mine and at Tsaobis or Pot Mine in the Swakop River valley. ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun attacks together with Hendrik Henricks of the ||Hawoben, the Ovaherero leader Ua Tjirue Tjamuaha, without any success. Carl Hugo Hahn returns to Otjikango (Groß Barmen) which he finds deserted and partly destroyed. A missionary conference is held in Otjimbingwe (10.03.13.03.), during which the Rhenish Missionary Society negotiates on future missionary work in Ovamboland. Rhenish missionary Friedrich Simon Eggert re-establishes and runs a mission station at Gobabis (until 1859), and is followed by Friedrich Wilhelm Weber (1860-1865) and Engelbert Krapohl (1859-11.04.1865). Krapohl later establishes a profitable trading business in the Gobabis area. Hendrik Henricks of the ||Hawoben becomes an ally of the Orlam Afrikaners. Hahn publishes the first Otjiherero dictionary. Rhenish missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber works in Berseba (until 1860). He builds the church there.

Berseba: founded by Rhenish Missionary Samuel Hahn: 17.10.1850: the Church is built by Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber: 1857
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Johannes Hendrik Bam is ordained as a missionary of the Rhenish Missionary Society, after much resistance from Germany owing to his classification as "coloured".

1857

Bethany: Rhenish Missionary Cemetry: Johannes Heinrich Bam: died on 26.09.1891
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rhenish missionary Franz Heinrich Vollmer builds a church in Hoachanas in the years 1857 to 1863. A church tower is added in 1902 by missionary Philipp Diehl. This occurs on the advent of the important peace conference in Hoachanas in January 1858.

The Renish Missionary Church of 1857: Hoachanas: built by Missionary Vollmer: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Grave near the Renish Missionary Church in Hoachanas: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Charles John Andersson becomes manager of the Walfish Bay Mining Company. Aaron De Pass together with John Spence establishes in Walvis Bay the company De Pass, Spence and Company which mainly becomes involved in the guano business. 08.06. Kreft and Krönlein complete a Nama dictionary. Hahn, Rath and Frederick Joseph Green (also known as Frederick Thomas Green) travel into Ovamboland. Hahn’s purpose is to start missionary work in Ovamboland and to investigate the possibility of a port site at the Kunene mouth. But they do not achieve their objectives but have rather to flee the indigenes because they had seriously violated the

31.07.

Ondonga customs and taboos. On the European side, Rath’s employee Kambararapeke is killed. In the Ondonga area, the son of King Nangolo dAmutenya, Namupupa, is killed in the ensuing battle. The King himself dies of a heart attack shortly after or during the battle. He is succeeded by the sixth Ondonga King Shipanga shAmukwiita (1857-1859). Green is a close associate of Charles John Andersson, whom he helps to organise the Ovaherero army against the Nama in the 1860s.

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Carl Hugo Hahn
Namibia National Archives
Portuguese traveller F Da Costa Leal reaches the lower course of the Kunene River. Charles John Andersson resigns from the Walfish Bay Mining Company. Robert Lewis comes to Nama- and Damaraland to hunt and trade. The eight Uukwanyama King Haimbili yaHaufiku dies in Ovamboland. His successor is Haikukutu yaShinangola (1858-1859). In the Ongandjera area Amunyela gwa Tshaningwa (18581862) becomes the fifteenth Ongandjera king. He follows king Namutenya. The Ongandjera kingdom is at the peak of its power. Earlier Ongandjera kings cannot be precisely dated. In a descending order they are the following Ongandjera kings: Namutenya; Nalukale; Namatsi; Tshaanika tsha Tshiimi; Amwaama; Asino; Amunyela gwIileka; Namatsi; Nangombe; Nkandi kAmwaama; in the fourth line there are three kings:

1858

Niita yIitula, Nandigolo uIitula and Nuunyango uIitula; Amatundu ga Nima; Nangombe ya Mangundu and Niilwa. A peace agreement for Hoachanas is initiated by missionary Vollmer, and Jonker and ||Oaseb (of the Kai||khaun) form an alliance. ||Oaseb confirms the terms of the original alliance of the 1820s. He recognises Jonker as equal to him in status and as the overlord of Hereroland. ||Oaseb’s area stretches from the Kalahari to the Auas Mountains, with the Kuiseb River as border line. The treaty with 12 articles does not contain a clause for cooperation against exploitation by the traders. The treaty is ratified by 13 Nama chiefs including ||Oaseb (or #Karab), Willem Swartbooi (or !Huiseb #Haobemab), Jager #Aimab of the ||Ô-gain (or "Groot Doden"), #Garib of the Kai||khaun, Hendrik Henricks (or !Nanib gaib #Arisemab) of the ||Hawoben, Piet Koper !Gamab of the Fransman-Nama or !Khara-khoen, Kido Witbooi (or #A-||ęib), Amraal Lambert (or #Gai|nub) of the Kai|khauan, Jonker Afrikaner (or |Hara-műb), David Christian Frederiks (or ||Naixab) of the Bethany Nama (or !Aman), Paul Goliath (#Hobexab) of Berseba, and Jan and Piet Kopervoet, sons of Ua Tjirue Tjamuaha. 09.01.

The Treaty of Hoachanas, 1858
Namibia National Archives Leaders in the territory sign a treaty outlawing mining concessions and land sales to colonists, except by common agreement. End 1858 James Barry Munnik establishes a fishery at Walvis Bay. 22.04.

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1859

Philippus Katjimune settles at Otjimbingwe. The ninth Uukwanyama King Haikukutu yaShinangola dies in Ovamboland. His successor is King Sefeni shaMukuyu (18591862). The sixth Ondonga King Shipanga shAmukwiita is overthrown by his nephew Shikongo sha Kalulu (1859-1874), with military assistance from Jonker Afrikaner. Shikongo becomes new Ondonga King and Shipanga has to seek refuge with Uukwanyama King Sefeni shaMukuyu. Shikongo's royal court is in Omandongo in the Ondonga area. The Rhenish missionary Hermann Heinrich Kreft commences the construction of a church in Bethany.

Early 1859

Bethany: First Rhenish Missionary Church: 26.06.1859: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

18.03. 01.04. June 26.06.

Andersson, in search of the source of the Kunene River, reaches the Okavango River. He is probably the first to use the name "Okavango River". Johannes Rath loses his wife and four children in a marine disaster at Walvis Bay. Carl Hugo Hahn returns again to Europe and returns in January 1864. Missionary Kreft consecrates the new church in Bethany. Chief David Christian Frederiks contributes financially. Portuguese invasion efforts from Angola are beaten back by Oshivambo-speaking people.

18591860

The new political constellation as it consolidates itself in the late 1850s can be described as follows: The chiefs ||Oaseb of the Kai||khaun, Amraal Lambert or #Gai-|nub of the Kai|khauan, Piet Koper !Gamab of the Fransman Nama or !Khara-khoen, Hendrik Henricks or !Nanib gaib #Arisemab of the ||Hawoben and Jacobus Boois from Bethany support Jonker Afrikaner, while Willem Swartbooi or !Huiseb #Haobemab from Rehoboth, the chiefs from Bethany and Berseba and later Kido Witbooi or #A-||ęib from Gibeon, assisted by Chief Tseib from Keetmanshoop, represent the anti-Jonker coalition. The Rhenish missionaries greatly add to these polarisations of different Namibian groups. The intent is to destroy Jonker’s nascent state structures in order to weaken any local political power that might resist the missionaries’ objectives and later colonial annexation. Jonker’s slogan: "Africa to Africans, but Namaland and Hereroland to us" is a challenge which is not acceptable to the missionaries. Increasingly economic power slips out of the hands of the territory’s leaders and their councils and passes into the hands of European traders and missionaries. A new form of European colonial domination is unofficially introduced by the missionary-trader alliance long before the official colonial annexation takes place. This development paves the way for the overthrow of Jonker Afrikaner’s sovereignty in the 1860s. Andersson establishes Otjimbingwe – which has had a mission station since 1849 – as a trade centre after buying the local assets of the Walfish Bay Mining Company. This new Otjimbingwe-based trading network represents the greatest threat ever to the Orlam Afrikaner’s control of Hereroland. Lung sickness breaks out among cattle in the early 1860s. In 1860 the first isolated cases of the disease are reported and trade with cattle slowly begins to suffer. Jonker and other Namibian chiefs are reluctant to grant traders, especially Andersson, the right to allow contaminated cattle to pass through areas on their way to the Cape markets. Faced with

1860

27.02.

the chief’s determination to protect their own pastures and to contain the spread of the disease, Andersson reacts in two ways: No longer considering inoculation, he begins to expand support structures for his trade by purchasing two field guns in the Cape in 1860/61, and to start engaging, training and arming groups of military mercenaries stationed at Otjimbingwe. David Radford is the first European to settle in Angra Pequeńa. David Livingstone visits for the last time the Chobe River in the area which later becomes the Caprivi Strip. His efforts to establish a mission station there fail again. Ovaherero leader Ua Tjirue Tjamuaha undertakes a journey to Kaokoland to unite the Ovaherero against Jonker Afrikaner. After the death of the eleventh Uukwambi King Tshikesho becomes firstly Tshikongo and in the same year Nuyoma wIipumbu (1860-1862) the thirteenth king of the Uukwambi area in Ovamboland. Due to the frequent wars with the Ongandjera, the Uukwambi area is repeatedly devastated. Capital during this time is Iino. Johannes Rath completes the German-Otjiherero dictionary.

Omandongo, south of Onayena is the Residence of Ondonga King Shikongo sha Kalulu

Klaus Dierks

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1861

James Chapman and Thomas Baines cross southern Africa, setting out from Walvis Bay and travelling via Lake Ngami to end up at the Victoria Falls. Jonker Afrikaner stations Piet Gertse at Otjimbingwe to keep him informed on European activities there

Beginning Jonker Afrikaner again attacks Ovamboland and Kaokoland. 1861 Johannes Rath leaves Otjimbingwe together with Barnabas 13.04. Hörnemann to return to Wuppertal in the Cape. Great Britain takes possession of the Atlantic offshore island 21.06. Ichaboe. High Commissioner Smythe annexes per decree the other 11 Atlantic offshore islands (Hollamsbird, Mercury, Seal, 12.08. Penguin, Halifax, Possession, Albatross Rock, Pomona, Plum Pudding, Sinclair and Long Island) for Great Britain. Jonker Afrikaner dies in Okahandja. He is buried at the Orlam Afrikaner settlement near the Rhenish missionary station.

18.08.

Grave of Jonker Afrikaner, who died on 18.08.1861 in Okahandja: The Grave is in the Vicinity of the Orlam Afrikaner Stettlement near the Rhenish Missionary Station: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

From the time of the establishment of Windhoek around 1840 until his death, he and his Raad (Council) play a prominent

role in Nama- and Damaraland, thereby creating a powerful, if rudimentary, sovereign state. His son Christian becomes his successor. Jonker Afrikaner’s wife, Beetje Afrikaner, becomes politically active after Jonker’s death. Tjamuaha dies. His grave is situated near the Ovaherero settlement at Okahandja. Shortly after his death, his son Maharero moves to Otjimbingwe.

Access to the Ovaherero Graves of the Maharero Dynasty in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

December

Ovaherero Graves of the Maharero Dynasty in Okahandja (The Date of Death of Tjamuaha on the Tombstone (1859) is wrong, during 1859/60 Tjamuaha was still on an Expedition Trip to the Kaokoveld): Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1862

The fourteenth King Iipumbu ya Nangaku (1862-1863) of the Uukwambi area in Ovamboland follows King Nuyoma wIipumbu. He founds his capital at Okashangu. The Ondonga King Shikongo attacks the Ongandjera area, again with military assistance from Jonker Afrikaner. The fifteenth Ongandjera king Amunyela gwa Tshaningwa is killed. After that, the Ongandjera kingdom begins to decline economically and politically. Amunyela is succeeded for a short while by King Ekandjo lya Kadhila. He is overthrown by the later Queen Nakashwa. The same year sees the overthrow of Queen Nakashwa by the eighteenth Ongandjera King Tsheya tshUutshona (1862-1878). The former Ondonga King Shipanga tries to return to Ondonga and to overthrow Shikongo. He is killed at Onayena. King Sefeni shaMukuyu dies in Ovamboland. He is followed by the eleventh Uukwanyama King Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika (1862-1882). During his reign the Uukwanyama kingdom experiences a political and economical upswing. He founds the capital Ondjiva.

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1863

James Chapman attempts to farm at the farm Anawood on the banks of the Swakop River. John Spence starts prospecting activities for minerals in the inland. Aaron de Pass obtains, with the assistance of Captain Benjamin Sinclair, a prospecting licence from Bethany Chief David Christian Frederiks (or ||Naixab). Consequently the Pomona Mining Company starts mining for copper, silver and lead in 1864. The mining activities prove to be economically not feasible. Thereafter Chief Frederiks shows Sinclair another copper deposit which later results in the development of the Sinclair Mine. However, costs are also prohibitive and the mine has to close down. The fifteenth King Tshikesho tshEelu from the Uukwambi area follows King Iipumbu ya Nangaku, but dies in the same year. He establishes his capital at Onambashu. He is followed by King Nuyoma (1863-1875)(capital: Iihanguti and later Onatshiku). The Kololo King Sekeletu (185- 1863) dies at Malengalenga and is followed by his son, Mbololo (1863-1864). During this period the Tswana sub-group of the Tawana people is oppressed by the Kololo and the Ndebele and parts of the community escape into present-day Namibia. Simultaneously some Ovaherero flee the Orlam Afrikaners and move into Bechuanaland, where a friendly relationship between Ovaherero and Kololo develops. The Rhenish mission station Gibeon (Khaxa-tsűs) is founded. Its first missionary is Jacob Knauer (until 27.11.1867), who is followed by Johannes Olpp (1867-1879).

10.04.

Gibeon, founded by Rhenish Missionary Jacob Knauer in 1863: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

04.06.

15.06.

Christian Afrikaner writes to Andersson: "Furthermore, I must say that you wish to steal the land, even though you know that it has always belonged to us. Because you did not know how to get the land, you decided the following: ‘Let me instigate and support the Herero against the people’. So that they shall kill me and all my people. In this way you would get all the land. That is why you have strengthened these people with guns and powder." Christian Afrikaner, supported by ||Oaseb, Piet Koper !Gamab of the Franzman Nama and the ||Hawoben leader Karl Hendrik (Ses, or !Nanib #karib #Arisemab or |Heiguxab), brother of Hendrik Henricks (!Nanib gaib #Arisemab), is defeated by Andersson’s "private army" in the battle of Otjimbingwe, which marks the beginning of the erosion of Orlam Afrikaner power. The Orlams loose more than one third of their men. Christian Afrikaner and Piet Koper are killed. Christian's brother David Afrikaner and his uncles Jonas and Jager Afrikaner (Jr.) are also killed. Jan Jonker Afrikaner becomes Christian’s successor. Philippus Katjimune on the Ovaherero side is also killed in the battle. Neither Maharero nor any of his associates are involved in this initial battle, and they remain largely aloof until the third encounter a year later. The main purpose of Andersson's war is to guarantee a safe overland trading route to the Cape Colony. Under Jan Jonker the Orlam Afrikaners lose their position of political dominance in Nama- and Damaraland. Ovahimba Chief Vita Tom, also known as "Chief Oorlog" (Vita means war in Otjiherero (Afrikaans: war is Oorlog)), is born during the battle. He is related to Christian Wilhelm Zeraua and Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru (Omukweyuva-eanda:

12.07.

23.12. 27.12.

mother of Vita is Kaitundu, daughter of the sister of Manasse and the father is Tom Bechuana or Tom Botswana, originating from Bechuanaland). He becomes a commando leader in Kaokoland following the raids of the Swartbooi and Topnaar. Although the Ovaherero leader Christian Wilhelm Zeraua is Maharero’s senior, he declines the leadership and Maharero becomes the supreme Ovaherero Chief. The missionaries and Ovaherero call the war against the Orlam Afrikaner a "war of liberation". Explorer, hunter and trader James Chapman is one observer who believes the Ovaherero to be exaggerating their experience. All the battles of the 1860s must be seen as part of the Rhenish Missionary Society’s devastating scheme for weakening any indigenous political power that might obstruct the forthcoming German colonial annexation. Rhenish missionary Peter Heinrich Brincker moves to Otjimbingwe and becomes the teacher of Maharero’s children. Later he re-opens the station Otjikango (20.02.1864). He settles again in Otjimbingwe in 1866, after Groß Barmen (Otjikango), where he was serving as a missionary, is abandoned during the Ovaherero-Nama war of the 1860s. Khaxa-tsűs is named Gibeon. The Witbooi Nama leader Petrus Jod is born in Gibeon.

[Return to Table of Contents]

18641867

Fighting between different Namaland communities becomes increasingly violent and weakens the Nama-Orlam alliance. The first skirmishes are against the missionaries, and subsequently, to obtain cattle. Now, the very people who twentzy years earlier had been vehemently opposed to the official introduction of the death penalty (Ryksboek), are carrying out mass executions of prisoners of war. Some communities increasingly fight against European influences and interference in indigenous politics spearheaded by the missionaries of the Rhenish Missionary Society. Swartbooi and Topnaar Nama raid Kaokoland from Franzfontein and later from Zesfontein. Consequently many Ovahimba and Ovatjimba escape to Angola. The Otjimuhaka drift at the Kunene river is since then called Swartbooisdrift.

The Kunene River at Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Urieta Kazahendike marries Rhenish missionary Samuel Gertse in Otjimbingwe. Amraal Lambert of the Kai|khauan dies in the smallpox epidemic which enters the territory in 1863. Kololo king Mbololo is replaced by the Lozi King Lewanika (1864-1909) from the Barotse kingdom (in the present-day Caprivi Strip and northwestern Zambia). Lewanika forces Mbololo out the present-day Caprivi Strip. Mbololo shifts his capital from Linyanti to Sesheke-Mwandi (not to beconfused with Sesheke in present-day Zambia). After Mbololo left, there

1864

09.01.

was no Kololo left to rule. Lewanika sends his representative Simata Kabende (1864-1914). With his appointment and in accordance with Lozi tradition, the honourary title of Mamili is given to him by the king. Simata Mamili becomes Headman of the Fwe, again under Lozi (or Luyi) rule which follows the demise of the Kololo kingdom in the present-day Caprivi Strip. Simata is in control of the western part of the Eastern Caprivi Strip. He controlls not only the Fwe but also the Yeyi, Mayuni, Totela, Mbukushu and Kxoé communities. He again establishes Linyanti on the Chobe River as capital of the Fwe community. The Yeyi are very interesting because they have some clicks in their language (Shiyeyi) although they belong to the Bantu group of peoples. They remain for the next 130 years (until 1993) the subjects of the Fwe. Samuel Afrikaner, a Griqua, together with a group of Nama and San people, attack the expedition of Robert Lewis, James Todd and JJL Smuts into Kaokoland. The |Gowanin Dama under their leader Abraham ||Goreseb support the Ovaherero and as a result are allowed to settle at Okombahe. From the 1860s the !Gomen also settle at Okombahe. Carl Hugo Hahn lands with his first two mission colonists, Johann Carl Eduard Hälbich and Franz Tamm, in Walvis Bay and goes from there to Otjimbingwe. The objective of his return is to finally save the Ovaherero mission and to expand the missionary work into Ovamboland. In Otjimbingwe he hoists the Prussian flag. Hälbich, marries Friederike Amalie Bartel. He manages later one of the most successful trading companies in the country.

01.03.

Eduard Hälbich establishes a successful Trading Company at Otjimbingwe in 1864. The left photo shows the Hälbich Store and the right one the "Powder Magazine" which is erected in 1872 by Hälbich as a Protection Tower in Periods of Unrest
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

05.03.

22.03.

09.05.

Andersson’s Ovaherero army and the ||Khau-|gőan (or Swartboois), together with the ||Ô-gain (or "Groot Doden" – Chief Jager #Aimab from the Kuiseb River) under the command of Green, attack the Orlam Afrikaners in the battle of Witvley. Carl Hugo Hahn fully supports the Andersson raid to destroy the Orlam Afrikaners and their allies, and assures Andersson of "my and all the missionaries’ fullest support". Andersson and Green make a firm decision that they will now ally themselves with Maharero and raise a large army against the Nama alliance. The Orlams make a call on all Namaland chiefs "to come and help them, Andersson and the missionaries want to take the country away". At the same time Gobabis is attacked by a group of Ovambanderu. During the raid Lambert Lambert, a prominent member of the Amraal Lambert family of the Kai|khauan, is killed. After the incident the Ovambanderu retreat and avoid the Gobabis area for many years. Rhenish missionary Johann Albrecht Friedrich Böhm establishes and runs a mission station at Salem (until 1867) where the Swartboois settle to replace Jacobus Boois’ people. Queen Victoria rejects the South African Cape Colony’s annexation of the Atlantic offshore islands due to diplomatic reasons during the American Civil War. The Ovaherero, under the command of Andersson, defeat the

22.06. 25.07.

Orlam Afrikaners in the battle of Otjonguere south of Windhoek but most of them escape without harm. The Swartboois leave Rehoboth to escape the Orlam Afrikaners and move to Otjimbingwe and later to Ameib (1867), together with missionary Böhm. The Orlam Afrikaners attack Rehoboth. Fleeing missionary Kleinschmidt dies from exposure (in Otjimbingwe on 02.09.1864). Kleinschmidt’s wife, Hanna Kleinschmidt, née Schmelen, survives for more than 20 years (she dies on 018.12.1884 at Otjimbinge). She is involved in community work in Rehoboth from 1845 until 1864.

August

The Graves of the Rhenish Missionary Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and his Wife Hanna, née Schmelen at Otjimbingwe
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

24.09.

03.12.

Andersson sells all his assets in Otjimbingwe to the Rhenish Missionary Society, represented by Carl Hugo Hahn, for Ł600. Maharero and his followers desert Otjimbingwe and all communications between him and the Europeans seem to cease. ||Oaseb, Hendrik Henricks and #Aimab attack the Witbooi Nama in Gibeon, which is devastated. The ||Oaseb coalition represents the anti-missionary movement. Kido Witbooi’s grandson, Hendrik Witbooi (Moses Witbooi’s son), is wounded.

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1865

17.07.

March 25.05. 31.08.02.09.

03.09.

Maharero concludes a peace treaty with Topnaar Nama (#Aonin). Rhenish missionary Johannes Olpp becomes missionary at Berseba (1865-1867). ||Oaseb, Hendrik Henricks and #Aimab again attack the Witbooi Nama in Gibeon. This time Kido Witbooi with his allies David Christian Frederiks from Bethany and Paul Goliath from Berseba defeat ||Oaseb. Andersson sends JJL Smuts to hunt elephants in Ovamboland and Joseph Grendon to establish a trading post at Ondonga where he stays until 1866. The Witbooi Nama Isaak Witbooi is born in Gibeon. ||Hawoben leader Hendrik Henricks attacks Otjikango and takes Rhenish missionary Brincker hostage. Brincker reports later that Chief Hendrik takes a strong anti-missionary attitude: "What are you doing here in this country? I don’t want this." Orlam Afrikaners together with Hendrik Henricks again attack Otjimbingwe. They are defeated and Hendrik is later killed by Ovaherero. Hendrik is succeeded by his brother Karl "Ses" Hendrik. Carl Hugo Hahn lays the cornerstone for a church at Otjimbingwe. Eduard Hälbich is the architect and builder. On 01.12.1867 the church is consecrated. The tower is added in 1899 but collapses in 1900 and is rebuilt in 1904.

18.11.

Carl Hugo Hahn's Rhenish Church at

Otjimbingwe
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1866

19.02.

Wesleyan missionaries ask the Rhenish Missionary Society to take over their station at Warmbad. The first Rhenish missionary is Friedrich Wilhelm Weber (1867-1880). Christian Baumann, Elias Schrenck and Heinrich Felling become further mission colonists of Hahn at Otjimbingwe (until the 1870s). Swedish hunter and trader Axel Wilhelm Eriksson is sent by Captain TC Een to Ovamboland, together with the Swede Svante. King Nuyoma of the Uukwambi area makes first contacts with European traders and hunters in Ovamboland (Green). Green reaches the Kunene River from the south after having visited the Uukwaluudhi King Shikongo shIipinge. The Rhenish Missionary Society establishes a mission station at Keetmanshoop. The station is financially supported by Johann Keetman, a wealthy German businessman. Johann Georg Schröder is the first missionary (until 1871). Before his transfer to Keetmanshoop Schröder served at Berseba (1863-1866). His post at Keetmanshoop is taken over by Balthasar Dubiel (22.01.1872 to May 1872).

14.04.

Keetmanshoop: Rhenish Church: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

Samuel Afrikaner is involved in a skirmish with the expedition of William Coates Palgrave at Namutoni. Palgrave is on his way to Ovamboland. British Captain Charles C Forsyth again takes possession of 05.05. the 12 Atlantic offshore islands. Hahn reaches the Kunene River from the south after visiting 05.08. King Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika of the Uukwanyama area. ||Oaseb and #Aimab again attack Gibeon. Kido Witbooi, who 25.09. was visiting his son Moses Witbooi in Goa-műs, defends himself against ||Oaseb with the help of his ally Paul Goliath. ||Oaseb is finally defeated. His missionary, Vollmer, dies later October and Paul Goliath buries him at Hei-guru-aos (Sendlingsgrab) at the Tsaob River. ||Oaseb returns to Hoachanas where he dies. Hahn founds the Augustineum College in Otjimbingwe (named in honour of the church father Augustine). This December theological seminar is intended to train indigenous students as national assistants. Kambauruma Kazahendike is responsible for the girl’s school at Otjimbingwe. 28.04.

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1867

03.02. 27.02. 15.05. 05.07. 06.07 15.07. 19.09.

12.12.

The Orlam Afrikaners are severely beaten by the Hahn commando near Otjimbingwe. Christian Wilhelm Zeraua and Manasse Tyiseseta leave Otjimbingwe and move to Omaruru (also called Okosondje). Johann Georg Krönlein becomes head of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Namaland (until 1877). The Chief of the Red Nation ||Oaseb !Na-khomab dies in Hoachanas. His successor is #Goraxab ||Oasmab (Barnabas). Due to the turbulent times after the 1858 peace treaty of Hoachanas the mission station at Hoachanas has to be abandoned (until 27.06.1874). The annexation of the 12 Atlantic offshore islands is legalised by a British Royal Patent. Johann Wilhelm Redecker lands in Walvis Bay as one of Hahn’s colonists. William Coates Palgrave obtains permission from Maharero to move freely in Hereroland. Andersson, who is accompanied by Axel Wilhelm Eriksson, dies of blackwater fever at Omutwe-Onjambu in Angola. The Rhenish mission station Ameib is founded and its first missionary is Johann Albrecht Friedrich Böhm. Rhenish missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Weber resumes work at Warmbad (until November 1880). The Orlam Afrikaners again attack Otjimbingwe, but the turning point in their history had come with the defeats they suffered against the Ovaherero under Andersson’s command in 1863 and 1864. Jan Jonker escapes to Walvis Bay, which is plundered by the Orlam Afrikaners. Maharero moves in consequence of these events to Okahandja (January/ February 1868). The reasons for this are not only the Orlam defeats but the strong influence of the missionaries and the Europeans on the Ovaherero which he wants to escape. Hahn’s mission idea suffers a decisive defeat.

27.11.

19.12.

22.12.

Rhenish missionary Knauer leaves Gibeon and is succeeded there by Johannes Olpp (as from 09.01.1868). Missionary Olpp baptises Kido Witbooi as Moses David Witbooi in Gibeon. Kido Witbooi, David Christian Frederiks and Paul Goliath conclude a peace treaty at Gibeon ("Orlam Peace of 1867"). The treaty is aimed against Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas, #Goraxab ||Oasmab (Barnabas). A commando from Otjimbingwe surprises Jan Jonker Afrikaner and his men at Anawood. They are entirely defeated in what Hahn calls a "bloodbath".

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The Rhenish Missionary Society asks for Prussian (North German Federation) protection. Trader and hunter Robert Lewis manages the Ebony Mine. Jan./Feb. Maharero moves from Otjimbingwe via Otjikango to Okahandja. Iverson, a Danish trader and agent for Hahn, is killed at Walvis May Bay by an Orlam Afrikaner commando. European settlers in Otjimbingwe sign a petition addressed to the Cape Governor, Philip Wodehouse, requesting British protection against the Nama/Orlam communities’ efforts to 07.06. gain independence, after Jan Jonker Afrikaner had urged that all Europeans should leave the country (letter to Hahn: May 1868). The petition is signed by Palgrave who had already visited Ovamboland in 1866 (before missionary Hahn’s visit). British Commissioner Piers visits Bethany to intervene in the 09.10. various Namaland conflicts. Kido Witbooi does not participate in these. In the battle of Otjomukaru, south of Okahandja, Orlam 05.11. Afrikaners are crushingly defeated. Baster (!Gora) people under leadership of Hermanus van Wyk and accompanied by Rhenish missionary Johann Christian Friedrich Heidmann cross the Oranje River from Pella and De 16.11. Tuin and move into the territory. Claas Swart settles in Grootfontein (in the south). Other Baster communities settle in Keetmanshoop, in Mier and Haas in South Africa, and in Chamis. The Deutsche Missions-Handelsaktiengesellschaft is established by the Rhenish Missionary Society in Barmen, Germany. The company opposes the importation of arms and alcoholic beverages into the territory but trades in skins and 12.12. cattle in return for cheap goods from Germany. Trader C Conrath manages the business of the company. There is considerable conflict between him and Hahn. In the end this leads to Hahn’s resignation from the Rhenish Missionary 1868

1869

09.01.

14.02.

07.03.

15.04.

Society (05.03.1872). Carl Hugo Hahn becomes the Superintendent of the Rhenish Missionary Society in South Africa. Rhenish missionary Brincker finally returns to Otjimbingwe (until 1879) and rebuilds the mission station. Kamuzandu, who assisted Hahn in his linguistic work, dies. The Governor of the Cape Colony tries to persuade the chiefs of Bethany and Berseba to support European advances in Great Namaqualand. Jacobus Boois of Bethany responds by saying that the Europeans, and especially Hahn, have interfered in the affairs of the inhabitants of the territory and are threatening their independence and freedom. At Carl Hugo Hahn’s request, the first Finnish missionaries arrive in the territory to exteend missionary work into Ovamboland (there are thousands of needy heathens in Ovamboland). Among them are Martti Rautanen (later called Nakambale (the man with a helmet) in the Ondonga area), Botolf Bernhard Björklund, Pietari Kurvinen, Karl Leonhard Tolonen, Erkki Juntunen and Karl August Weikkolin. Some of them travel first to Otjimbingwe to learn the Otjiherero language. The Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian (#Nao Xab Xau-||ômab), is inaugurated. His predecessors cannot be dated. Jacobus Christian (Xau-||ob !Nanxamab), Wilhelm’s predecessor is the successor of Abraham Christian(!Nau Xab |Gari Numab), successor of Jan Christian (|Gariműb), successor of |O-bib, successor of Amaxab, successor of ||Nanib. Paul Goliath of Berseba dies.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1870

31.01.

Basters are settled under Hermanus van Wyk in Rehoboth following an agreement between Nama and Ovaherero chiefs, thereby forming a buffer zone between Nama/Orlam communities and Ovaherero. The original Rehoboth Baster families are the following: Benz, Beukes, Bok, Claasen (Klazen), Cloete, Coetsee, Diergaar(d)t, Engelbrecht, Gertze, Isaak, de Klerk, Koopman, Morkel, Mouton, Orlam, Schalkwyk, Slenger, Steenkamp, Vrey, Vries, Wimmer, Witbooi and van Wyk. White farmers (Jan Louw, Piet le Riche and Leonard Celliers) buy land Wilhelm Christian, Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami#nun) in the vicinity of Warmbad. A Scot named Hill, buys from Wilhelm Christian the farms Tsawasis, Holoog and Groendorn. Carl Wilhelm Walser from Switzerland buys from the Bondelswarts chief the farms Ukamas, Ariamsvlei, Nakop, Swartkop and Walsersbrunn. During the 1870s Willem Krüger lives in the Otjozondjupa area to protect the San and Dama there. He also assists Rhenish missionary Carl Heinrich Beiderbecke. Axel Eriksson establishes a business at Omaruru together with Anders Ohlssen. Rhenish missionary Samuel Gertse works among the Ovaherero converts in Omaruru as their agricultural instructor. Wilhelm Maharero marries Kambauruma Kazahendike. Hahn estimates that 80 000 Ovaherero and Ovambanderu live in the territory. In the Kavango Uukwangali King Sikongo dies. He is succeeded by King Mpasi (until 1880). Theophilus Hahn, missionary Samuel Hahn’s son, discovers the first rock paintings in Namibia in the Khoichab River. The most important point about Hahn’s discovery is that he finds an old San in that area still painting. Wilhelm Christian, Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-P nun) signs a treaty with the Cape authority to assist the Cape Government preserving peace and order along the Oranje River.

17.05.

18.05.

22.06.

08.07.

Jan Jonker Afrikaner tries to persuade Maharero to form an "anti-European alliance", but Maharero declines the peace offer under the influence of the Rhenish Missionary Society (Hahn). Missionaries Philipp Diehl and Johann Jakob Irle once again establish a mission station at Maharero’s werf (village) at Okahandja – the first since Kolbe had fled from Okahandja in 1850. Diehl works at Okahandja until 1890 when Maharero dies. Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlieb Viehe settles at Omaruru (until 1887) where he establishes a school for the children of European settlers. He is supported by Finnish missionary Antti Piirainen (as from 1872), who erects a store, and by Rhenish missionary Caspar Heinrich Niederwelland (as from 1880, he dies on 13.06.1885 at Okombahe). The first Finnish missionaries (Martti Rautanen, Botolf Bernhard Björklund, Pietari Kurvinen, Karl Leonhard Tolonen, Erkki Juntunen and Karl August Weikkolin), together with Hahn and Green, arrive in the Ondonga area, in Omandongo, King Shikongo’s capital. They try to establish mission stations in the Ondonga, Uukwambi, Ongandjera and Uukwanyama areas. The latter three stations have to be abandoned within two years of their establishment. Martti Rautanen is physically expelled from Ongandjera. No efforts are made to establish mission stations in the Ombalantu, Uukwaluudhi, Uukolonkadhi or Eunda areas. During the Ondonga king’s reign, Ondonga villages on the Onamayongo side - such as Ondangwa, Oniipa, Onamulunga and Oshigambo - are under the control of the headman of Oniipa, Shikongo sha Nangolo. The community leaders of the area are: Frans Amweenye, Gideon Mushimba, Sakeus Angula, Vilho Auala (Father of the present-day Bishop Nangolo Leonard Auala), Barnabas Iyambo, Gideon Nuuyoma and Sakeus Emvula. Thirteen years are to pass before the first six people can be baptised.

In Omandongo (Ondonga) the Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station. Botolf Bernhard Björklund, Karl Emanuel Jurvelin, Malmström (until 29.07.1871) and Juho Heinonen (11.07.1870-March 1878) are the first missionaries there.

11.07.

Omandongo, south of Onayena is the first Finnish Missionary Station in Ovamboland. One of the Children of Missionary Martti Rautanen is buried here
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

18.07.

23.09.

Elim, the Finnish mission station in the Uukwambi area, is founded. The first missionaries there are Kurvinen (until 21.05.1872), Martti Rautanen and Piirainen, followed by Weikkolin. Kurvinen has to leave due to poor relations with Uukwambi King Nuyoma. Leaders (Jan Jonker Afrikaner, Maharero, Kido Witbooi of Gibeon, David Christian Frederiks of Bethany and Jakobus Isaak of Berseba) and missionaries (Hahn, Diehl and Irle of Okahandja, Brincker of Groß Barmen, Olpp of Gibeon, seven Finns and the trader C Conrath) organise a peace conference at Okahandja. A treaty is signed in which Jan Jonker is designated "co-regent", i.e. Maharero’s subordinate. Ten years of peace follow. The decline of Orlam Afrikaner power means that European traders, hunters and missionaries can operate without any major restrictions imposed by indigenes.

Rhenish missionary Daniel Cloete, a close associate of Hahn for 30 years, establishes and runs (until 1880) a mission station at Okombahe.

Rhenish Missionary Church of Okombahe: Founded on 17.11.1870: Erongo Region
17.11.
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rhenish Missionary Cemetry of Okombahe: Grave of Missionary Caspar Heinrich Niederwelland: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Missionary Wilhelm Eich, Friedrich Eich’s younger brother, arrives in the country. Rhenish missionary Carl Ludwig Hermann Hegner moves to Berseba. He works there, with a short sojourn at 1871 Keetmanshoop, until 1900. Eriksson, Tom Bechuana and Vita Tom visit King Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika of the Uukwanyama area in Ondjiva (present-day Angola). Rhenish Missionary Johann Georg Schröder works among 27.03. the Nama of Klein Windhoek (until 28.08.1880). The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station at Rehoboth (Okahao/ Ongandjera). The missionaries are Martti Rautanen and Tobias Reijonen. The station exists until 30.04. June 1873 when the Finnish Missionary Society abandons its work in Uukwambi and Ongandjera due to differences with the two kings. Rhenish missionary Heidmann re-establishes a mission 11.05. station at Rehoboth. Finnish missionary Tolonen obtains permission from the Mid-1871 Uukwanyama King, Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika, to build a house in the area. Rhenish missionary Brincker consecrates a new church in 27.06. Otjikango. The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station in Olukonda (Ondonga). The first missionaries there are Karl Emanuel Jurvelin (until 1873) and Malmström, followed by 29.07. Gustav Mauritz Skoglund (1879-1880) and Martti Rautanen who works there until he dies (19.10.1926). The Witbooi Nama David Witbooi is born in Gibeon. October Tolonen returns to Ondonga because he is not well received in the Uukwanyama area. The Baster community writes its constitution (paternal laws). Rhenish missionary Carl Heinrich Beiderbecke arrives in Otjimbingwe, where he learns the Otjiherero language from

1872

05.03. June 09.10.

Hahn. Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlieb Viehe builds the "Old Mission House" in Omaruru. It is in this house that Viehe translates the New Testament into the Otjiherero language and erects the first meteorological station in Namibia (1885). Between 1895 and 1898 the house serves as post office under missionary Eduard Dannert. Finnish missionary Kurvinen establishes a mission station at Oniipa in the Ondonga area, which is abandoned four years later. The station is revived in 1888. Finnish missionary Weikkolin establishes a mission station at Ondjumba in the Ondonga area, but after some time it has to be abandoned. Hosea Kutako is born at Okahurimehi, near present-day Kalkfeld. His father is Mutanga who later is buried at Ehangero between Okahandja and Sukses. Maharero asks the British High Commissioner and Cape Governor, Henry Barkly, for aid. The Cape Government starts to take an interest in the affairs of the territory. Barkly directs a letter to the Nama chiefs and cautions them to "keep peace". Hahn leaves the Rhenish Missionary Society and moves to Cape Town. Joseph Grendon returns to Otjimbingwe. He later settles in Okahandja. Rhenish missionary Irle establishes the mission station Otjosazu, east of Okahandja.

The Finnish Missionary Church at

Olukonda of 1871
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Cemetery of the Finnish Missionary Society at Olukonda
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

1873

23.01. 01.11.

The Deutsche Missions-Handelsaktiengesellschaft company is dissolved, but the Rhenish Missionary Society retains its superiority in the territory. Iipumbu ya Tshilongo (son of Tshilongo Uupindi), later the king of the Uukwambi area, is born at Onatshiku near Elim during the reign of King Nuyoma. Rhenish missionary Carl Gotthilf Büttner lands in Walvis Bay and takes over from Hahn as Director of the Augustineum College in Otjimbingwe. Rhenish missionary Friedrich Eich establishes and runs (until 1884) the mission station Otjiseva. Rhenish missionary Carl Heinrich Beiderbecke establishes a mission station at Otjozondjupa (meaning "Waterberg"; in Otjiherero "Karumue katjomumbonde" or "Omuveroume Mountain"). He works there (until May 1880) with Franz Tamm (01.11.1873.-14.11.1876) and Christian Baumann (187404.11.1878).

15.11.

The Ruins of the Rhenish Missionary Station which was established by Missionary Carl Heinrich Beiderbecke on 15.11.1873 at the Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Ichaboe and Penguin Islands Act is passed, incorporating the 12 Atlantic offshore islands into the South African Cape Colony. The mission station Otjimbingwe is dissolved.

1874

21.06.

07.11.

Finnish missionary Tobias Reijonen establishes a mission station at Omulonga, but it is relinquished in 1888. When the Deutsche Missions-Handelsaktiengesellschaft company fails, Christian Baumann joins the society as a mission helper and works (until 1878) at Otjozondjupa (Waterberg). Hahn receives a PhD for his reference work on OtjihereroGerman grammar, which he compiled with the assistance of Urieta Gertse, née Kazahendike. In the presence of Green, Maharero, together with Chief Therawa from Omaruru and Chief Kambazembi wa Kangombe (Kangombe is Kambazembi's father) from Otjozondjupa (Waterberg), requests Henry Barkly as British High Commissioner in the Cape Colony to prevent a group of Transvaal Boers (Hendrik van Zyl) from settling in Damaraland. This leads the Cape authorities to consider a Special Commissioner for Damaraland. William Coates Palgrave is duly appointed. Ondonga King Shikongo sha Kalulu dies in Ovamboland. His successor is his nephew, the eighth Ondonga King Kambonde kaNankwaya (1874-1883). He establishes his capital at Onamumgondu.

[Return to Table of Contents]

The seventeenth King Negumbo lya Kandenge (1875-1907) of the Uukwambi area in Ovamboland succeeds King Nuyoma. Negumbo is a moderate king and manages to unify the Uukwambi community once again after the decline of its royal power due to the many wars of the past. Theophilus Hahn, missionary Samuel Hahn’s son, invites September Van Zyl to settle in Rehoboth. Maharero hears of this and Hahn is expelled from the territory. Kido Witbooi dies in Gibeon. His successor is Moses David Witbooi. 1875

31.12.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Grave of Kido (Cupido) Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1876

The Cape Parliament declares the areas of Nama and Ovaherero as protectorates. Finnish missionary Kurvinen translates portions of the Bible into the Oshivambo language. Karl August Weikkolin again moves to the Uukwambi area. Gert Alberts, leader of the first Dorslandtrek (Thirstland trek)(Khoekhoegowab: |Khoraoftewel |Hu) treks from the Transvaal and reaches Rietfontein on the present-day Namibian border. His adviser is Johannes van der Merwe. Two more treks arrive in the territory during this year. The second trek under the leadership of Jan Greyling reaches the Okavango River in 1877. The third trek receives a letter from Moses Witbooi written in Gibeon (09.01.1876): "To the Trekboers: Dear Boers, I have

heard that your intentions are warlike and that you wish to take this country by war. If this is true, then I say nothing, but if not true, then I say to you go back, for I do not wish to have you in this country ...". William Coates Palgrave is officially appointed as Special 16.03. Commissioner for Hereroland and Namaland. Palgrave leaves Cape Town for Walvis Bay (his first official 10.04. journey to the territory). 25.04. Palgrave lands at Walvis Bay. Frederick Joseph Green dies at Heigamchab near Walvis 04.05. Bay. Rhenish missionary Eduard Dannert establishes the mission station Omburo, east of Omaruru. Negotiations take place 16.05. between Palgrave and Petrus Swartbooi from Ameib, brother of Abraham Swartbooi, son and successor of Willem Swartbooi (!Huiseb #Haobemab)(since approx. 1864) at Otjimbingwe. June Palgrave visits Chief Kambazembi. The Ovaherero chiefs and Palgrave hold the Conference of July Okahandja, with missionary Brincker as translator. 07.-10.07. Palgrave negotiates with the Swartbooi leader Abraham Swartbooi at Ameib. The Ovaherero chiefs and Palgrave hold the Main Conference of Okahandja. Kambazembi does not attend. The letter to Cape Governor Barkly is signed by Maharero, Christian Wilhelm Zeraua from Omaruru, the Ovambanderu Chief, 04.-09.09. Salomo Aponda from Otjikango and Wilhelm Maharero, oldest son of Maharero. As witnesses the letter is also signed by missionaries Peter Heinrich Brincker, Carl Ludwig Hermann Hegner and Botolf Bernhard Björklund, and traders Heinrich Kleinschmidt, Robert Lewis and JJ Christie. Negotiations between Palgrave and Jan Jonker Afrikaner yield 23.09. no results.

05.10.

27.11. 28.11. 22.12.

Negotiations between Palgrave, Hermanus van Wyk from Rehoboth and Abraham Swartbooi from Ameib take place at Rehoboth. Later Palgrave also visits the Dama community of Okombahe and reports that the Dama are economically independent due to their intensive agricultural activities there. Negotiations between Palgrave and Jakobus Isaak are held at Berseba following Palgrave’s visit to Claas Swart in Grootfontein (in the south). Christian Wilhelm Zeraua dies in Omaruru. He is succeeded by Chief Tjaherani from Omburo (29.11.1876-24.11.1884). Negotiations between Palgrave and Wilhelm Christian, Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), take place at Warmbad.

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1877

10.04. 02.08. 27.09. October 22.11.

1878

February

12.03.

Finnish missionaries Tolonen, Gustav Mauritz Skoglund and Tobias Reijonen continue to translate portions of the Bible into the Oshivambo language. Missionary Böhm moves with the Swartboois to Zesfontein but is stopped by Palgrave because Zesfontein is "Herero territory". The Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas, #Goraxab ||Oasmab (Barnabas)dies. His successor is |Gôbeb #Goraxab (Petrus). Palgrave leaves the territory and returns to Cape Town (arrival: 24.04.). Palgrave sends a letter to Maharero informing him that the Cape Government is considering establishing Hereroland as a protectorate. Palgrave travels from Cape Town to Walvis Bay (his second official journey to the territory). Palgrave lands in Walvis Bay and travels as Civil Commissioner to Okahandja. He implements a prohibition of alcohol imports into the territory. A new church is erected under Rhenish missionary Weber in Warmbad. P Duparquet of the Roman Catholic Church (Kongo Section) is ordered to investigate the areas between the Kunene and Oranje Rivers with a view to establishing mission stations. Christian Baumann moves to Rooibank where he is ordained in 1883. Ongandjera King Tsheya tshUutshona dies. He is followed by the nineteenth King Iiyambo yIileka (1878-1887). He establishes his capital at Engonda. The first and the second Dorslandtrek under the leadership of Jakobus Botha meet at Leeupan, west of present-day Grootfontein. British Captain Richard C Dyer from the vessel "Industry" annexes Walvis Bay for the British Crown, authorised by the

12.03.

27.04.

Governor of the Cape Colony, Henry Bartle Edward Frere. The borders of the enclave are clearly delimited. The Rhenish Missionary Society re-establishes the mission station at Grootfontein (in the south). Its missionary is Heinrich Pabst. Hermann Heinrich Kreft dies at Grootfontein (in the south).

03.05.

Bethany: Rhenish Missionary Cemetry: Hermann Heinrich Kreft: died on 03.05.1878
Copyright of Photo Dr. Klaus Dierks

June 01.06. 18.06. 19.06. 08.08.

Palgrave initiates the Conference of Hoachanas, but it is only attended by Jan Jonker Afrikaner from Windhoek, Chief |Gôbeb #Goraxab (Petrus) from Hoachanas and Karl "Ses" Hendrik. D Erskine becomes British Resident Magistrate in Walvis Bay (until November 1880). Jakobus Isaak of Berseba and Moses Witbooi of Gibeon contact Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth to establish a united front due to their distrust of Palgrave. Isaak and Witbooi communicate this motion of no confidence in Palgrave to Maharero. Palgrave requests Jakobus Isaak to restore "peace and order in the north-east of Namaland".

September Duparquet arrives in Walvis Bay. A British Letters Patent ratifies the annexation of Walvis Bay, which is thereby incorporated into the Cape Colony.

14.12.

The Church of the Rhenish Missionary Society at Warmbad, inaugurated by Missionary Weber in 1877
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Ox-Wagon Road: Grootfontein (South), 1876: Palgrave Photo Album
Namibia National Archives

Ox-Wagon Road: Bethany-Berseba, 1876: Palgrave Photo Album
Namibia National Archives

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1879

06.01. 22.01.

28.04.

Friedrich Gotthard Karl Ernst Fabri, head of the Rhenish Missionary Society, authors a book entitled Germany Needs Colonies, which initiates a process of agitation in Germany for colonies to be obtained. Heinrich Friedrich Gottlieb Rust succeeds missionary Olpp in Gibeon. The first detailed map of south-western Africa is compiled by Theophilus Hahn. Missionaries Brincker and Carl Gotthilf Büttner complete their translation of the New Testament into the Otjiherero language. Duparquet travels to the Uukwanyama area of Ovamboland. Dorsland trekkers reach the Etosha Pan (Rietfontein) and settle temporarily in the Kaokoveld (Zesfontein, Otjitundua and Kaoko Otavi which they call Rusplaas). One of their descendants is Slagveld van der Merwe, originating from Zululand in South Africa. He was named after the Dorsland trekker Gert van der Merwe, nicknamed Slagveld. He lived in Ehomba in the Kaokoveld. In the Kavango Gciriku King Muhera dies. His successor is King Nyangana (1879-1924). Jan Jonker Afrikaner sends a petition (with the assistance of missionary Schröder) to the British Government seeking to protect the areas of the Orlam Afrikaners. After failing to "pacify" the Ovaherero and most of the Namaland communities, Palgrave travels to the Cape accompanied by Maharero’s sons Wilhelm and Samuel. Duparquet becomes Vice-Prefect of the new Roman Catholic mission area known as Cimbebasia. This commitment causes great concern and a threat to the Rhenish Missionary Society. Right from the beginning of the involvement of the Roman Catholic Church in Namibia, the Rhenish Missionary Society continues attempts to win over the subsequent German authorities to their side in trying to minimise Roman catholic influence in the colony. The Roman Catholic mission station at Omaruru is

24.09.

established. Palgrave travels from Cape Town to Walvis Bay (his third official journey to the territory)(Trek-Boer Relief Expedition). The purpose of this journey is to assist a group of Dorsland Trekkers who plan to erect an independent republic at the west coast. Palgrave receives orders to ensure British control over this group. But Palgrave’s interference and his offer of a permanent settlement in the Kaokoveld is rejected by the trekkers on the ground that they don’t want to live under British control. This leads to the movement of the Dorsland Trekkers to Angola (with assistance of William Worthington Jordan). Jakobus Botha is the leader of the first deputation into Angola through Swartbooisdrift. The trekkers arrive on 04.01.1881 at Humpata in Angola. Further treks into Angola take place during 1893 and 1905. During the Angola period of the Dorsland-Trekkers (until 1928) most of the elephants in the Kaokoveld are massacred by the trekkers. One of the notorious hunters is Jan Harm Robberts. Robberts’ Boers move through the Ombuku and Omuhonga Rivers to Okonguati and Otjiyandjasemo, where many elephants exist. Palgrave arrives again in Cape Town.

Ox-Wagon Roads Network for 1879

Ruins of Houses of the Dorslandtrekkers of 1879 at the Waterhole of Rietfontein (Etosha Pan)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Monuments of the Dorslandtrekkers of 1879 at the Waterhole of Rietfontein (Etosha Pan)
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

09.11.

Ruins of the Dorslandtrekker Church of Kaoko Otavi of the Year 1879, Photo taken September 2004
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Dorslandtrekker Monument and Grave at Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld, September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Images of the Otjiyandjasemo Hot Springs west of Okonguati, September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Missionary Schröder reports that the Ovaherero have moved so far to the south that Windhoek has become an "island". Missionary Beiderbecke has to abandon the mission station at Otjozondjupa due to the outbreak of the Ovaherero-Nama war. Missionary Brincker becomes head of the Augustineum College in Otjimbingwe (until 1889). Bismarck asks the British Government for protection for 1880 German mission stations in the territory. London answers that the Oranje River is the northern border of the Cape Colony and that the British Crown cannot take responsibility for areas outside her borders. In the Kavango the Uukwangali King Mpasi dies. He is succeeded by Queen Mpande (until 1886). Jakobus Christian ((Taoseb #Naoxamab) from the Bondelswarts is born. Palgrave returns to Walvis Bay (leaves Cape Town on 10.10) as magistrate and Commissioner for Hereroland (his fourth 20.01. official journey to the territory), after travelling extensively through the lands of the Nama and Ovaherero, and after the British Government had turned down Jan Jonker Afrikaner’s request for protection. CJ Michael Vos from Cape Town is one of the Rhenish February Missionary Society’s main suppliers of arms and ammunition to the territory. Other agents, for instance James Murray, export Dama labourers into the Cape Colony. Fabri asks the German Reich to take over the territory as a colony (one of many petitions sent to Britain and Germany since Fabri took command of the Rhenish Mission in 1868). Palgrave travels to Gobabis to again attempt to "pacify" the Namaland communities. The Witbooi Paul Visser and June Headman Frederik Vlermuis of Gobabis plan an uprising against Palgrave’s efforts. David Christian Frederiks of Bethany advises Palgrave to leave the territory. This is the outcome of Palgrave’s third effort to place the territory under

Cape protection. War between the Nama and Ovaherero breaks out, after the battle of Gurumanas (||Gurumâ!nâs). The Ovaherero leader Karuvingo and the Nama leader Nu-|narub are both killed in 23.08. the skirmish. The Ovaherero escape to Okahandja where Wilhelm Maharero, the oldest son of Maharero and Riarua (Nama name "Amadamap"), receives orders to repel the expected Nama attack. 25.08. Windhoek is destroyed by Maharero. Gobabis is destroyed by Ovambanderu leader Kahimemua 30.08. Nguvauva. Many Nama are killed. 04.09. Palgrave leaves the territory. 26.09. Jan Jonker Afrikaner declares war against Maharero. 28.10. Maharero loses the battle of Okangondo. November Benjamin Musgrave becomes British Resident Magistrate in Walvis Bay (until 1885), followed by Mr Guthrie (until 1891). After the killings of some Basters (McNab) near the Waterberg and in Gobabis, Hermanus van Wyk decides to follow Jan 10.11. Jonker Afrikaner. Moses Witbooi and the Nama community of the ||Ô-gain (or "Groot Doden") assemble in Seeis. The Ovaherero of Otjimbingwe and Omaruru are defeated by Abraham Swartbooi in the battle of Etusis. Otjimbingwe is 02.12. looted by Petrus Swartbooi. European missionaries under missionary Johann Albrecht Friedrich Böhm are allowed to leave Otjimbingwe unhindered. Jan Jonker Afrikaner assures missionary Bam that the Nama 03.12. will not make war against Europeans. Jan Jonker Afrikaner starts his campaign against Maharero by 10.12. moving northwards to Otjikango (Groß Barmen). Wilhelm Maharero defeats Jan Jonker Afrikaner but is wounded in the battle of Otjikango. Three sons of Chief Kukuri of Otjosazu are killed. On the Nama side David Christian

Frederiks of Bethany and Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas, |Gâberob #Goraxamab (also called with his 12.12. Christian name Petrus, probably murdered during the battle), the last offspring of the ||Oaseb dynasty, are killed. Oral evidence has it that his successor, Manasse !Noreseb Gamab (from 1881 until 1905), gave the order to murder |Gâberob.The surviving Nama, inter alia Jakobus Isaak of Berseba, escape first to Windhoek and later to Rehoboth and further south. Wilhelm Maharero dies after being wounded in the battle of 14.12. Otjikango. 23./24.12. Moses Witbooi is defeated in the battle of Otjosazu and escapes to Gibeon.

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1881

The German Ministry of the Interior budgets to fund an expedition to search for minerals in the territory. Austrian explorer Emil Holub visits the areas between the Chobe and Zambezi Rivers (the present-day Caprivi Strip). Rhenish missionary Böhm works among the Topnaar at Walvis Bay and Rooibank (until 1904). Rhenish missionary Schröder works at Warmbad (until 1883 when he is transferred to Komaggas). His successors are Heinrich Pabst (1883-1884), Carl Wandres (1885-1899), W Kronsbein (1899-1900), R Möller (1900-1903), H Nyhoff (1906-1936), A Rethemeyer (1937-1946), F Rust (1946-1947) and W Neumeister (1947-1955). The Dorsland trekkers cross the Kunene River at Swartbooisdrift and move into Angola. In Humpata and Neves, Tom Bechuana and Vita Tom join the Dorsland trekkers.

Dorslandtrekker Monument and Grave at Swartbooisdrift, September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The last elephants are killed in the Etosha Pan by European hunters. It takes 70 years for the elephant population to reach its pre-1880 count again. The Roman Catholic mission station at Omaruru is again abandoned. 04.03. Moses Witbooi declares war against Maharero. Jan Jonker Afrikaner proposes to Riarua that he should kill Maharero in order to establish peace. Riarua declines to do

26.03.

01.04.

15.11.

this and Jan Jonker escapes to Tsebris and later to the Gamsberg ((in the Khoekhoegowab language (Nama/Dama): #Gans(berg), meaning "screening", "closing" or "blocking" mountain). Otjimbingwe is again attacked by Abraham Swartbooi after the ||Khau-|gőan (Swartboois) threatened even Walvis Bay. Cattle owned by European traders such as Johann Wilhelm Redecker and Johann Carl Eduard Hälbich are taken. In pursuance of the Swartboois, the Ovaherero also threaten Walvis Bay. Magistrate Musgrave and most Europeans consequently escape to Cape Town. The Cape authorities decide to send the former Rhenish missionary Carl Hugo Hahn to Hereroland to mediate in the conflict and to relieve the threat to Walvis Bay.

The battle of Osona takes place between Ovaherero and 22./23.11. Nama under Witbooi and Jan Jonker Afrikaner. The Nama are defeated. Witbooi escapes to Gibeon and Jan Jonker to the Gamsberg. King Mweshipandeka sha Shaningika dies. His successor is the twelfth Uukwanyama King Namadi ya Mweihanyeka (18821884).. In Germany the Deutscher Kolonialverein (German Colonial Society) is founded by Fürst Hermann zu Hohenlohe1882 Langenburg. The objective of the society is to promote the ideas of German colonies in order to stimulate patriotism, Pan-Germanism, national unity and to divert attention from German domestic economic and social problems. Axel Eriksson crosses the Kunene River into Angola. February Carl Hugo Hahn arrives in Walvis Bay in order to arrange peace and to end the threat on Walvis Bay. Maharero makes peace with Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth, with missionary Heidmann as mediator. On returning to Rehoboth, Heidmann finds Rhenish missionaries Krönlein 15.02. and Hegner there. Krönlein was tasked by the Rhenish Missionary Society to mediate for peace between the

Ovaherero and the different Nama communities. Hahn mediates a separate peace treaty with Abraham 03.03. Swartbooi and Maharero. The ||Khau-|gőan (Swartboois) move to Franzfontein. Rhenish missionaries Diehl, Krönlein and Eich, together with the Ovaherero, manage to establish peace with most of the Nama groups, negotiating with Jakobus Isaak of Berseba, Manasse !Noreseb of Hoachanas and Hendrik "Kol" 13.06. Windstaan of the Groot Doden. Moses Witbooi and Jan Jonker Afrikaner, both of whom are losing their influence, do not attend the peace negotiations. The question of the southern border of Hereroland is not resolved. The merchant from Bremen, Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz, plans to erect a station on Africa’s south-west coast and asks 16.11. Bismarck for protection. Bismarck replies affirmatively, provided that Lüderitz does not come into conflict with the rights of other parties. Jan Jonker Afrikaner, together with the Groot Doden and End 1882 Abraham Swartbooi, attacks Rehoboth. Swartbooi is wounded in the battle and dies in Bethany.

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British Cape colonists Evenson and Willmer sell their mining rights, which they had obtained in Rooibank from Topnaar Chief Piet Haibib, to German mining entrepreneurs Peter Scheidweiler and Friedrich Albert Hasenclever. 1883 Friedrich Wilhelm Kolbe completes an English-Otjiherero dictionary. Christian Baumann moves to Otjimbingwe. Rhenish missionary Wilhelm Eich joins his older brother Friedrich Eich to become a missionary in Otjosazu (18891891) and Otjozondjupa (1891-1904). After 13 years missionary work the Finnish Missionary Society manages to baptise the first people of the Ondonga area. Maharero decides to establish the southern border of Hereroland himself.He leaves Okahandja, Otjikango and Otjiseva and moves together with Riarua first to Windhoek and Beginning later to Aris. There he is attacked by the Groot Doden. The 1883 Groot Doden are defeated and dispersed (descendants of the remaining members live today in the area of Schlip). Maharero establishes the southern border of Hereroland from Gurumanas to Gobabis and Rietfontein. January The Ovaherero Chief from Omburo near Omaruru Tjaherani exports Dama labourers to the Cape Colony. Heinrich Vogelsang, Lüderitz’s employee, buys Angra Pequeńa and surroundings from Nama Captain Joseph Frederiks II (!Korebeb-||Naixab) (1880-1893) of Bethany. This "sale" is characterised by some fraudulent manoeuvres which exploit the seller’s ignorance (in terms of the English mile versus the German geographical mile). The sale of land treaty includes all mining rights. The "sale" takes place in the Joseph Frederiks House in Bethany. But Captain Sinclair still has mining rights in the same area. Vogelsang had initially not known about the mining rights belonging to the De Pass, Spence and Company but tries to get them. De Pass, Spence and Company challenge Vogelsang and Lüderitz and are granted rights by Frederiks II at Pomona, Hottentot Bay and

01.05.

Sandwich Harbour as well as permission to continue working the guano. Smarting for years under what the De Pass, Spence and Company consider an unfair deal, they do not realise until much later what a wealth of diamonds they had been granted. The Englishman Radford is still the only "white" in Angra Pequeńa (now called Fort Vogelsang) who lives permanently there.

Bethany: Chief Frederik's House: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

12.05. 25.08. 11.10. 28.11.

The German flag is hoisted by Vogelsang at Fort Vogelsang (Angra Pequeńa). A coastal strip from the Oranje River to 26° south latitude is purchased by Vogelsang for Lüderitz’s firm (at a cost of Ł500 plus 60 Wesley-Richard rifles). Lüderitz visits Angra Pequeńa for the first time. Lüderitz reaches Bethany. King Kambonde kaNankwaya from the Ondonga area in Ovamboland dies. His successor is the ninth King Iitana yaNekwiyu (1883-1884). His capital is at Onampundu, near Onayena.

On a Search Trail for new Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: From Narudas via Witkrans, Garies to Sandmund: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Garies Possible Watch Tower over a Waterhole in a Riverbed: In the Background: Garies Hill with numerous Ruins: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Garies Possible Watch Tower over a Waterhole in a Riverbed: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

05.12.

Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Sandmund: In the Background: Narudas Poort: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Pre-colonial Ruins in the Great Karas Mountains: Sandmund: View to the South: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Recently discovered Precolonial Nama Ruins: Top of the Great Karas Mountains: View to the South: Garies Hill: Possible Secret Fortress built by Jakob Marengo: Found: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Precolonial Nama Ruins: Top of the Great Karas Mountains: Garies Hill: View to the

Southeast: To the Narudas Poort: Garies: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Precolonial Nama Ruins: Top of the Great Karas Mountains: Garies Hill: View to the West: With Lord Hill (Schroffenstein: Highest Peak in the Great Karas Mountains) in the Background: Garies: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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Lüderitz - ca 1903
Namibia Scientific Society

The "German Era" commences
Namibia National Archives

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4. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
4.1 INITIAL PERIOD OF GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA (SWA): 1884-1889
The first phase of German colonialism is characterised by a lack of experience and improvisation. The communities of the Fwe, Yeyi, Mayuni, Mbukushu, Totela, Subiya and Kxoé in the present-day Caprivi Strip are part of the Barotse kingdom under King Lewanika. They are Lozi subjects . One of the district chiefs is Simata Mamili ("Mamili" is a title; others are "Siluka" and "Mwanota"). Lewanika creates the districts Mashi (Mayuni)(capital Kaunga) and Sesheke-Mwandi (not to be confused with Sesheke in present-day Zambia). King Namadi ya Mweihanyeka dies. His successor is the thirteenth Uukwanyama King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi (1884-1904). The Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas, |Gâberob #Goraxamab, suppresses a rebellion of Isaak !Noëteb and his followers. The brothers Petersen secure from the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian, more than a quarter of a million acres at Aussenkjer at the Oranje River. The German war ship Nautilus visits (under the command of Captain Richard Aschenborn) Angra Pequeńa in order to evaluate the territory sold to Lüderitz. Aschenborn supports the deal but warns that the South African Government of the Cape Colony could raise claims to land up to the Angolan border in the north. After in-depth discussions with Lüderitz, Aschenborn leaves Angra Pequeńa and sails to Cape Town. From there he

1884

24.01.

26.02.

transmits his (supportive) report to the German Government. Germany promises to protect the territory sold to Lüderitz and thus supports this colonialist venture.

24.04.

Memorial Plaquette for Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz at Shark Island, (Angra Pequeńa, later Lüderitz)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

April

04.06. 14.06. 24.06. 14.07. 25.07.

Lüderitz organises a mining expedition under the leadership of Carl Hoepfner order to investigate the minerals potential in the territory. Participants are the geologists and mining engineers Waldemar Belck, Adolf Schenck, Mertens, Georg Gürich, Prescher and Hermann Spengler. A mining rights treaty is signed with the Baster community of Rehoboth. Hendrik Witbooi, later also called "!Nanseb |Gabemab", moves against the Ovaherero under Maharero who had moved in 1883 to Onguheva, south of Aris. Hendrik Witbooi makes peace with Maharero after an indecisive battle in Onguheva. It is arranged that Windhoek and Gobabis, which have been destroyed, will be rebuilt. Great Britain recognises the German possessions in the territory by way of an official telegram. The Cape Legislative Assembly in Cape Town passes a law incorporating the Walvis Bay Enclave into the South African Cape Colony.

07.08. 08.08. 12.08.

19.08.

01.09.

05.09. 19.09. 22.09.

26.09.

The German flag is officially hoisted at Angra Pequeńa (German battleships "Leipzig" (Captain Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Herbig) and "Elisabeth" (Captain Rudolf Schering)). Walvis Bay is formally transferred to the Cape Colony by Cape Governor Hercules Robinson. The German flag is officially hoisted at the Swakop River mouth (Tsaochaubmund), later also at Sandwich Harbour and Cape Frio (German battleship "Wolf"). A private treaty is agreed between Lüderitz and Piet Haibib of the Topnaar in Scheppmannsdorf. This treaty includes all mining rights. Ludwig Koch becomes Lüderitz’s authorised agent to conclude all treaties. Maharero again moves with his people to Okahandja. Lüderitz sends his brother August and the geologist Carl Hoepfner to Okahandja to negotiate an agreement with Maharero. Due to the efforts of trader Lewis the negotiations are unsuccessful. The coastal zone between the Oranje and Kunene Rivers is declared a "protectorate" of the German Reich. In a proclamation in Otjiherero and German, Maharero declares himself "King of Hereroland". The British Government declares: "Her Majesty’s Government will welcome Germany as a neighbour on those parts which are not within the limit of the Cape Colony, and not actually British possessions." The ninth King Iitana yaNekwiyu from the Ondonga area in Ovamboland dies. He is succeeded by two Ondonga kings: King Kambonde kaMpingana (1884-1909) with the capital Onamayongo (or Okaloko according to other oral evidence)(western Ondonga) and King Nehale (1884-1908) with the capital Onayena in the Oshitambi area (eastern Ondonga). The Finnish Missionary Society supports King Kambonde with weapons and ammunition against King Nehale because King Nehale was perceived to be an "enemy

of the European mission work in Africa". The precise delimitation of Walvis Bay’s borders is initiated under the joint control of the German Consul in Cape Town, Bieber, and the British judge, Shippard. Shippard soon September unilaterally decides to change the border fixing that involves a discrepancy between Rooibank and Rooikop, and to include in the enclave the water-rich Kuiseb delta along with the Ururas locale. After having been appointed Commissioner for West Africa 07.10. Gustav Nachtigal arrives with German battleship Möwe in Angra Pequeńa. A private treaty is concluded between Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth and the geologist Carl Hoepfner. The treaty 11.10. includes all mining rights. The mining rights are not exploited for many years. A mining rights treaty is concluded with the Ovaherero. A protection treaty is agreed between Joseph Frederiks II of Bethany and Gustav Nachtigal, this being the first such treaty 28.10. between Germany and the territory’s indigenous communities. Palgrave returns to the territory to persuade Maharero to accept British protection instead of German protection (his 08.11. fifth official journey to the territory). Vogelsang travels to Okahandja in order to negotiate a protection treaty with Maharero. He is unsuccessful. 23./26.11. An agreement of sale is signed by Lüderitz and Piet Haibib of the Topnaar in Scheppmannsdorf. Chief Tjaherani from Omburo dies. He is succeeded by 24.11. Manasse Tyiseseta (25.11.1884-26.07.1898). Bismarck advises Bieber to establish an eastern boundary at 24° east longitude, which would include more than 50% of December present-day Botswana (east of the towns of Maun and Sekoma). Lüderitz erects trading posts at Angra Pequeńa, Bethany,

18.12. 1884/85

Kubub (near Aus) and Aus. They all make losses. Hanna Kleinschmidt, née Schmelen, dies in Otjimbingwe. The Conference of Berlin ("Congo Conference") confirms Germany’s right to appropriate the territory. Rhenish missionary Carl Gotthilf Büttner discovers the rock paintings at Ameib in the Erongo Mountains (Phillips Cave)(C1 Period: between 4400 and 1200 B.C.).

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British surveyor Phillip Wrey is sent by Shippard to Walvis Bay to unilaterally survey a "revised" border line between Walvis Bay and German South West Africa (Südwestafrika) in its south-eastern sector, which now includes Ururas. The Mbukushu people in the present-day Caprivi Strip become a point of conflict between King Moremi II (18761890) of the Tswana (also Tawana) people in present-day Botswana and King Lewanika of the Lozi. 1885 From the early 1880s the Portuguese attack the Ombandja area in South Angola. They occupy the Onghumbi area with its capital Omutano. In 1885 the two Ombandja kingdoms under the command of the kings Shatona from Omhungu and Haikela from Onaluheke attack the Portuguese garrison Omutano. These attacks are not successful. Axel Eriksson sets out from Omaruru and moves to the Okavango River and beyond to Lake Ngami in present-day Botswana. Beginning Vogelsang receives an offer from Maharero who is now prepared to accept German protection despite Palgrave’s 1885 ongoing efforts to annex the territory for Great Britain. Lüderitz's vessel Tilly sinks off the coast of Angra Pequeńa. Lüderitz is consequently forced to sell his rights to a private 01.02. company, the subsequent Deutsche Kolonialgesell- schaft für Südwest-Afrika (DKGSWA). 03.02. Palgrave is recalled by the Cape authorities. A private treaty is agreed between Jan Jonker Afrikaner of the 21.02. Orlam Afrikaners and Lüderitz. William Worthington Jordan buys 50 000 km2 of land from Ondonga King Kambonde. Jordan calls this area "Republic Upingtonia" and a group of "Dorsland Trekkers" from Angola settles there – in the area of Otavi and Otjiwanda (Oshivambo: Oshaandashongwe; Khoekhoegowab: Kai|aub)(present-day 21.04. Grootfontein) which includes the copper mines at Tsumeb. This deal increases the tensions between the two kings Kambonde and Nehale. Jordan is murdered in 1886 in

30.04.

May

Ondonga and the Republic Upingtonia is dissolved (June 1887). The Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwest-Afrika (DKGSWA) is founded. The establishment of the company is supported by German bankers (Gerson von Bleichröder, Adolph von Hansemann), industrialists (Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck) and politicians (Frankfurt Mayor Johannes von Miquel). The DKGSWA soon buys the possessions of the nearly bankrupt Lüderitz, especially his mining rights. This is in line with Bismarck’s policy that private rather than state capital should be used to develop the colony. The DKGSWA is not successful in its endeavour to exploit mineral deposits until much later, when diamonds are finally discovered. The rights of the DKGSWA are to be maintained by protection treaties. For that purpose Heinrich Ernst Göring is appointed as Commissioner of Germany. Göring concentrates his efforts on Hereroland while the former Rhenish missionary Büttner who is recalled by the German Government to SWA, works in Namaland. The DKGSWA is followed by some English real estate and mining companies which are supported by Cecil Rhodes. Private German capital only begins to flow into the colony after 1900. A total of seven main private real estate and mining companies come into existence: DKGSWA (1885); South West Africa Company (SWAC, 1892); Kharaskhoma-Syndicate (1892); Hanseatische Land-, Minen- und Handelsgesellschaft für SWA (1893); Kaoko Land- und Minengesellschaft (1895); Otavi-Minen und Eisenbahngesellschaft (OMEG, 1900); Gibeon Schürf- und Handelsgesellschaft (1903). Heinrich Ernst Göring is sent to SWA as Commissioner of Germany. The first German Administration is established in Otjimbingwe (the first office is established in the building of the Augustineum), its first officials being Göring, Louis Nels and Hugo von Goldammer.

16.05.

June

19.06.

04.07.

Mid-July

28.07. 02.09. 15.09. 30.09.

A private treaty is concluded between Jan Jonker Afrikaner of the Orlam Afrikaners and Lüderitz regarding the sale of ground around Windhoek. This treaty includes all mining rights. A Swiss botanist finds Windhoek completely deserted. Missionary Büttner tries to conclude a private treaty with the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian, but is however unsuccessful because Christian does not want to lose his good links with the government of the Cape Colony. A private treaty is concluded between Lüderitz and Cornelius Swartbooi, successor to Abraham Swartbooi, regarding the selling of communal ground in parts of the Kaokoveld. This treaty includes all mining rights. A private treaty is concluded between Lüderitz and Jan Uixamab of the Zesfontein Topnaar (!Gomen) regarding the selling of communal ground. Hendrik Witbooi, who vehemently opposes the "selling of ground" to, and the establishment of "protection treaties" with the Germans, moves to Rehoboth. Theodor Leutwein later reports that the majority of "protection treaties" were established under direct German military pressure. A protection treaty is concluded between Jakobus Isaak of Berseba and missionary Büttner. A protection treaty is concluded between Manasse !Noreseb of Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!nâs) and Germany (Carl Gotthilf Büttner). A protection treaty is concluded between Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth and Germany. The British High Commissioner for South Africa declares the territory to 22° south and 20° east as "British Bechuanaland", in contrast to the German claim to have the eastern border of the German colony fixed at 24° east. Hendrik Witbooi is defeated by Maharero in the battle of

17.10.

21.10.

03.11.

05.12.

Osona (Witbooi loses his two sons: Jeremia and Salomo, a third one, Jesaias, is wounded), although both sides were prepared to strengthen the peace agreement of Onguheva. Witbooi moves to Gurumanas. During the same period Moses Witbooi moves to Warmbad to avoid being forced into a "protection treaty" by the Germans (with the involvement of missionary Büttner). A protection treaty is concluded between Maharero of Okahandja and Göring in the presence of Secretary Nels and missionaries Diehl and Büttner. Göring later notes that Diehl and Büttner convince Maharero even though he (Göring) has his doubts that Maharero has the right to sign on behalf of all Hereroland. Maharero does, however, not cede any land to the Germans and never promises to do so. In his eyes the missionaries have compromised seriously themselves as allies of the Germans. Consequently Maharero orders that all the German officials have to leave, and the mission church in Okahandja has to be closed. The missionaries are allowed to stay in Hereroland although the bonds of trust and friendship between Rhenish missionaries and the Ovaherero that have previously existed, are now destroyed. A protection treaty is concluded between Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru and Göring in the presence of missionary Büttner. In spite of this treaty Manasse manages to maintain a polity independent from the Germans and Maharero. This independence is based on sound trade links with the Cape Colony for arms and ammunition as well as a disciplined armed force. In the late 1880s, following the arrival of German colonial forces in central SWA, Manasse Tyiseseta continues to seek political independence. Göring again tries to force Moses Witbooi into a "protection treaty", to no avail. Witbooi Council members who receive the Germans are severely punished by Moses Witbooi after his return to Gibeon. Rhenish missionary Heinrich Friedrich Gottlieb Rust is restricted in his usage of the Gibeon church.

Former Rhenish missionary Carl Gotthilf Büttner demands that Hendrik Witbooi should be "eliminated" as he constitutes a major threat to all German interests in the territory.

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1886

Missionary Christian Baumann moves to Okombahe, where he dies on 14.05.1888. Friedrich Moritz Stapff discovers copper deposits which lead to the development of the Gorob and Hope Mines at the lower course of the Kuiseb River 150 km southeast of Swakopmund. Nekwaya Loide Shikongo is born at Oniipa as daughter of the headman Shikongo sha Nangolo. The Uukwangali Queen Mpandedies in the Kavango. She is succeeded by King Himarua who rules until 1910. Himarua is of Uukwambi descent because he belongs to the family of Nasira, a member of the Uukwangali royal family, who had connections to the Uukwambi royal house through marriage. During the time of his reign King Himarua is one of the main adversaries of German colonial rule in the north of Namibia. Axel Eriksson sets out from Omaruru and moves to Mossamdes (Namibe) in present-day Angola.

Rhenish Missionary Cemetry of Okombahe: Grave of Christian Baumann: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

08.01. 08.02. March

A protection treaty is concluded between Jan Jonker Afrikaner and Germany ( Nels). Missionary Hegner mediates in the fight between Moses Witbooi and missionary Rust. Germany successfully insists on the Kunene border

March

17.04.

June October

30.12.

delimitation. Hendrik Witbooi again attacks Maharero at Okahandja, but is defeated. The Ovaherero follow Hendrik to Hoachanas. A law setting at the legal system for the Protectorate (Schutzgebietsgesetz) "betreffend die Rechtsverhältnisse in den deutschen Schutzgebieten" (Separate Development) is promulgated. The legal system in SWA is henceforth determined by racial differentiation. It creates a "dual" legal system for Germans and indigenes. The German Consul General in Cape Town, Bieber, protests against the unilaterally revised Walvis Bay border as surveyed by Phillip Wrey. Lüderitz drowns together with Wilhelm Joseph Steingröver in the estuary of the Oranje River while exploring it. A treaty is signed between Germany and Portugal regarding the establishment of the Kunene border, i.e. by shifting the northern border from Cape Frio (18° south) to the Kunene River mouth. However, the agreement stipulates that the point where the border leaves the Kunene River is at the "Kunene waterfalls south of Humbe", and a dispute arises over which waterfalls this refers to, with the result that the KuneneOkavango "cut-line border" is established at 17°17'17" south (German position – Kazambue rapids) or 17°23'10" south (Portuguese position – Ruacana waterfalls). The dispute regarding the 11 km strip in question is not resolved until September 1915 when German South West Africa ceases to exist. From the point where the border meets the Okavango River, it follows the course of the river as far as Andara. From there it follows a straight line to the rapids of Katima Mulilo on the Zambezi River. Andara is at this time Thipanana Island, where Mbukushu King Dimbu I (also called Ndara or Libebe)(18501900) lives. Dimbu is the successor of King Diyeve I (before 1850). Diyeve’s predecessors cannot be dated and are in descending order: Queen Rukonga; Mbungu; Mashambo;

Kasimana; Sihurera; Dinyando and Sinyungu. Some border problems arise with the Portuguese who confuse Thipanana Island with Tanhwe Island where Dimbu’s successor, King Diyeve II (as from 1895), lives.

View from the Roman Catholic Mission Station at Andara to Tanhwe Island, Caprivi Region, December 2002
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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1887

24.04. 03.06.

14.09.

Christoph Hälbich from Otjimbingwe brings cattle to Cape Town. Eugen von Brön erects a cannery at Sandwich Harbour. Paul Visser, Moses Witbooi’s rival, gains the support of Nama leaders such as Manasse !Noreseb of Hoachanas, the ||Hawoben leader Karl "Ses" Hendrik, Hendrik Windstaan of the Groot Doden, and possibly also Jan Jonker Afrikaner, to defeat Moses. Moses calls on Hendrik Witbooi for help. Axel Eriksson settles on a cattle farm near Namutoni, where he stays until his death. The nineteenth Ongandjera King Iiyambo yIileka is killed by the later King Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo (1887-1930). Hendrik Witbooi attacks the Ovaherero in Otjimbingwe. Even Göring’s horse is taken, but is later returned. Hendrik Witbooi again attacks Otjimbingwe but has to flee. The Witbooi Nama move in the direction of Tsaobis. Maharero declares to Göring that the mining rights of the DKGSWA are null and void, except for the rights of the trader Robert Lewis to the Ebony and Otavi mines. Germany, however, retains the right to regulate mining in the Ovaherero area (as per the treaty signed in the presence of missionary Diehl). Due to the continued wars initiated by Hendrik Witbooi the Rhenish Missionary Society closes the mission station at Gibeon. Missionary Rust moves to Gochas to the Fransman or !Khara-khoen Nama where he dies on 30.03.1894.

20.10.

Missionary Grave: Heinrich Friedrich

Gottlieb Rust: Auob Valley: Gochas: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Oct./Jan. 1888

Hendrik Witbooi and his ally !Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb) of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas (who became Manasse !Noreseb’s opponent and rival chief), engage Paul Visser in a series of skirmishes but fail to attain victory. Karl "Ses" Hendrik from the ||Hawoben is killed in one of these skirmishes.

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Paul Visser shoots the Witbooi Chief, Moses David Witbooi (together with the Hoofraad member Adam Klaasen), who is succeeded by his son Hendrik Witbooi. Hendrik Witbooi is directly confronted by Visser’s allies, Manasse !Noreseb, Hendrik Windstaan of the Groot Doden, Jan Jonker Afrikaner and sections of the ||Hawoben. Manasse !Noreseb makes peace with the rival chief of the Kai||khaun, !Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb). 1888 22.02.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Graves of Moses David Witbooi and Adam Klaasen
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

25.03.

02.05.

June

The first official mining commission is established by Göring in Otjimbingwe after the first mining ordinance is promulgated. The DKGSWA receives mining rights for almost the entire territory. Göring reports on gold deposit discoveries near Walvis Bay. Later it is found that these deposits gave been fraudulently "salted" (Göring's gold swindle). The first Schutztruppe soldiers arrive in the colony on the British vessel " Venus", under the command of Ulrich von Quitzow. Included in the group are the soldiers Wilhlem Grundmann, Karl Höpfner, M Brehmen and Böhsel, as well as the merchant Arnold Schad. They are stationed at Otjimbingwe. Otjimbingwe is attacked by Hendrik Witbooi (again in July and September 1888). German South West Africa becomes a member of the

01.07.

16.07.

August 04.08. 12.08. 01.10. October

30.10.

Universal Postal Union. The first post office is established in Otjimbingwe, with Hugo von Goldammer its first Postmaster. The first postmark is "Otyimbingue". German postal stamps without any special marks (forerunners) are used. It fells under the Reichspostamt (German Post Office) but the current service fells under the Oberpostdirektion Hamburg. The DKGSWA transports the mail between Otjimbingwe and Walvis Bay, from where it is shipped to Cape Town. This later connection is at first by the sailing ship Louis Alfred which calls every two months. Due to the unrest between the Ovaherero and the Nama, the post office has to shift from Otjimbingwe to Walvis Bay (from November 1888 to 07.07.1889 and again from September 1889 to 13.03.1890). Hendrik Witbooi conducts several campaigns against Manasse !Noreseb from Hoachanas (until April 1889). A Roads Ordinance is issued to protect the grazing along the Northern Bay Road between Otjikango and the Swakop River mouth. Hendrik Witbooi kills Paul Visser, who had killed Hendrik’s father, Moses Witbooi. The sale of farms between "white" farmers and indigenes needs government approval. Witbooi meets Göring at Rehoboth for the first time. Witbooi declines to conclude any protection treaty with the Germans. Göring meets Maharero at Okahandja in the presence of the British trader Robert Lewis. Dissatisfied with the Germans’ inability to protect the Ovaherero against Witbooi, Maharero nullifies the Protection Treaty of 1885 and makes Lewis his official agent. Göring is forced to seek refuge in British Walvis Bay. Responsibility for this debacle rests with the German Government, which seems to believe that the territory can be efficiently administered by three officials and 20 soldiers.

Hendrik Witbooi joins forces with the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian, against sections of the ||Hawoben. Other Namaland chiefs, such as Chief Tseib of the Kharo-!oan in Keetmanshoop, Jakobus Isaak of Berseba (successor of Jakobus Isaak is Diederik Goliath (1894-ca. 1900)) and Joseph Frederiks II of Bethany, November are also involved. The ensuing maze of negotiations, commando mobilisations and threats all focus on the position and overall leadership of Hendrik Witbooi (until April 1889). Rhenish missionary Friedrich Judt reports that Hendrik Witbooi mainly lives in the area of Hoachanas during this time. He manages to unravel the complex knots of Namaland politics during this time, while simultaneously bearing in mind the hostile Ovaherero and the German colonial advances. WL Kingon makes an offer to buy German South West Africa December for two million Mark. Hendrik Witbooi buys weapons from the British trader Robert Duncan in exchange for 4.000 captured head of cattle.

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1889 15.01.

10.03.

13.03. April

24.06.

10.08.

The German administration issues a new mining ordinance which vests all mining rights in the State, and to this day all mining legislation is based on that principle. The member of the German Reichstag, Bamberger, proposes giving up the colony. Hendrik Witbooi erects his headquarters at Hornkranz near the Gamsberg. Rhenish missionaries report that Hornkranz is a well organised settlement with regular church services (under Klein-Hendrik Witbooi). Missionary Brincker asks Bismarck to intervene militarily in the colony, otherwise it will be lost to the British Cape Colony. !Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb) again joins Hendrik Witbooi. Manasse !Noreseb from the Kai||khaun of Hoachanas seeks the protection of the Ovaherero Chief Maharero and settles at Seeis. Bismarck, who has even thought of abandoning the colony, is finally persuaded to provide military backing for the colony, and 21 soldiers under Curt von Francois subsequently arrive in Walvis Bay. One of Von Francois’ first activities is to visit Maharero at Okahandja. Bismarck’s son, Herbert (then Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Berlin), goes to England and tries without success to exchange SWA for the island Heligoland. In a letter to his father he says: "I think the deal would be very advantageous to us, and enormously popular in Germany. Our SWA Company is stagnant, bankrupt and helpless. We are in a mess with the Commissioner (Göring) who has had to flee to the English in Walvis Bay". The battle of Tsaobis is fought between Hendrik Witbooi and Orlam Afrikaners under Jan Jonker Afrikaner. Jan Jonker is killed by his son, Phanuel Afrikaner, because Phanuel opposes peace negotiations with Witbooi. The Orlam Afrikaners’ polity ceases to exist.

18.08.

07.10.

Samuel Maharero writes to Von Francois: "If you did not come with warlike intentions, then I ask you once again to pay heed to what I say, do not needlessly spend your money but rather go home. If you do not want to listen to my words then please declare so openly and tell me directly that you are at war with us." The first military fortress, "Wilhelmsfeste" near Tsaobis, is founded by Von Francois. Maharero objects to the establishment of this colonial fortress in Hereroland. A transport with arms and ammunition organised by the trader Robert Lewis for Maharero is stopped in Tsaobis. In consequence of this Lewis is expelled from the colony. A sale of land treaty is agreed between the KharaskhomaSyndicate and the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-P nun), Wilhelm Christian. This treaty includes all mining rights. With British capital, Theophilus Hahn from the KharaskhomaSyndicate begins some mining activities in the southeast of the territory. An official agreement between the KharaskhomaSyndicate and the German Imperial Government is concluded on 31.10.1892.

10.10.

The Cemetery in Warmbad: With a Grave reflecting the History of the Kharaskhoma Syndicate of the South
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The first record of the discovery of semi-precious stones concerns topaz found at the Kleine Spitzkoppe. Later the beryl

varieties, aquamarine and heliodor, are recovered from the End 1880s Rössing pegmatites and pegmatites in the vicinity of Karibib. Heliodor from the Hoffnungsstrahl pegmatite near Rössing are used in a pendant for Empress Auguste Victoria from Germany. Bright speckled, deep-blue dumortierite is mined on farm Etemba in the Erongo Mountains.

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German "Schutztruppe": around 1890
H Roth

German war grave: Naukluft Campaign: 1894
Namibia National Archives

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4. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
4.2 THE ACTIVE RESISTANCE STRUGGLE BEGINS: 1890-1903
Imperial Germany declares its protectorate a "Crown Colony". Britain, hesitant about plans to link the German colony with the Republic of Transvaal, declares Bechuanaland a protectorate, and the eastern borders are regulated following this fait accompli. The last Orlam Afrikaners are killed off by a malaria epidemic. At the invitation of King Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo, the Rhenish Missionary Society sends out two missionaries, August Wulfhorst and Friedrich Meisenholl, to work in the Ongandjera area in Ovamboland. On their way to Okahao they are stopped by King Negumbo of the Uukwambi area. Thereafter they are invited by King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi to establish mission stations in the Uukwanyama area instead (which they do in 1891). The Schutztruppe force comprises 50 soldiers, who are stationed at Tsaobis, Neu-Heusis and Okahandja.

1890

January

The Ruin of the "Kurt von Francois Fortress" which was established in January 1890 to protect the Road from Otjimbingwe via Tsaobis to the new Capital of German South West Africa (Windhoek) at Heusis (Alt Heusis) in the Khomas Hochland, October 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

14.04. 19.05.

20.05.

29.05.

30.05.

The Augustineum College is moved from Otjimbingwe to Okahandja under the leadership of missionary Viehe. The college has 14 students at this time. A sale of land treaty is agreed between the KharaskhomaSyndicate and Chief Tseib of the Kharo-!oan in Keetmanshoop. This treaty includes all mining rights. Göring writes to Hendrik Witbooi from Okahandja to make peace and to urge him to move from Hornkranz to Gibeon. He further informs Witbooi that the Ovaherero are again under German protection. In his reply Hendrik Witbooi informs Göring that the Witbooi Nama will maintain their independence. Witbooi is the only leader who consistently refuses to sign a protection treaty with the Germans. Hendrik Witbooi writes to Samuel Maharero, stating: "You will eternally regret that you have given your land and your right to rule into the hands of the whites."

25.06.

01.07.

The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station at Ondangwa. The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty is signed by Britain and Germany, whereby Germany accepts the northern high-water line of the Oranje River as the boundary with South Africa. The eastern boundary along 20° east to 22° south, and from there (" Rietfontein corner angle") along 21° east to the Caprivi Strip, is established. For the formation of the Caprivi Strip, and to give Germany access to the Zambezi River, 18° south is accepted as the northern border of British Bechuanaland. The border continuation to the east is the lower course of the Chobe River, and from there along the thalweg (main channel) of the Chobe River into the confluence with the Zambezi River ( quadruple point between present-day Namibia, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The thalweg of the Chobe River, however, is not demarcated due to the river’s undefined swamp-like character. This later leads to several Chobe River island disputes (still not resolved to the present-day). It is soon discovered, however, that an insistence on 18° south, with an agreed strip of 20 English miles (32 km), would mean that, contrary to the treaty, the border with Angola would overlap German and Portuguese territories, and the mission station to be established later at Andara, as well as the residence of King Dimbu I on Thipanana Island in the Okavango River, would fall into British Bechuanaland. The colonial boundary between Angola and German South West Africa was already established in 1886 as a straight line between the Andara rapids in the Okavango River and the Katima rapids in the Zambezi River. The "20-mile rule" from the agreed Angola/German South West Africa border to the south rescues the situation for now, but a new dispute arises (lasting until 1929) regarding the unsurveyed southern border of the Caprivi Strip falling between the Okavango and Chobe Rivers. The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty overlooks the fact that the border between the Katima rapids and the confluence with

25.07. August 21.08.

15.09. 07.10.

18.10.

the Zambezi River along the border with Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) (the thalweg of the Zambezi River) is not established. A diplomatic note of 1910 attempts to rectify the situation but remains unanswered by Great Britain for the next two decades. The Lozi people from Barotseland (present-day Zambia) continue to use some areas in the Caprivi Strip, with some restrictions placed on this usage by the German authorities (as from 1909; " Barotse privileges"). The disputed Walvis Bay border delimitation is reserved for arbitration. A sale of land treaty is agreed between the KharaskhomaSyndicate and the Chief of the Veldschoendragers (||Hawoben), Jan Hendrik. This treaty includes all mining rights. Göring departs, leaving Louis Nels as acting commissioner (until Von Francois takes over in 1891). A protection treaty is agreed between Göring and the Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Wilhelm Christian. A protection treaty is agreed between Göring and the Chief of the Veldschoendragers, Jan Hendrik. Hendrik Witbooi attacks and destroys Otjimbingwe after the Ovaherero, hoping for German protection which was not forthcoming,.try to pursue the Nama. Maharero dies and is buried in Okahandja alongside his father, Tjamuaha. Von Francois uses Windhoek as his headquarters. The "Alte Feste" ("old fortress") is erected (completed in 1892). Von Francois brings 200 Dama and Nama from Tsaobis to help with the construction work on the Fort. He recalls the Dama to be the best workers, and also how their wives laughingly perform miracles with the carrying of the stones for the building. At this time 32 German soldiers, 150 Dama and 50 Nama (Orlam Afrikaner and Kai||khaun) live in Windhoek. There is uncertainty on whether Samuel Maharero will

succeed in usurping the chieftainship. Maharero is a faithful follower of the Rhenish Missionary Society and consequently 28.10. the colonial authorities’ first choice as a candidate in the election of a new chieftain. Samuel’s rival, Nikodemus Kavikunua, is not supported by the Germans. To gain German support Samuel renews the protection treaty. The Board of the Rhenish Missionary society urges the November German Government that it is vitally important to "crush" Hendrik Witbooi as soon as possible.

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1891

June

03.08.

All the Namaland chiefs are firmly lined up behind Hendrik Witbooi because no missionary reports mention any tensions between them. Von Francois becomes Landeshauptmann (administrator) of SWA. His administration is legalised by the law for the protection areas (Schutzgebietsgesetz) dated 17.04.1886. The German authorities bring an end to the Swartbooi and Topnaar raids into Kaokoland. Some Ovahimba and Ovatjimba chiefs start to return from Angola. In Angola the Portuguese again attack the Ombandja area in order to break the continuing resistance of King Luhuna from Onghumbi who is supported by the two Ombandja kingdoms. The Portuguese are defeated in the battle of Ondobeyofenge. One hundred and thirty-nine known "whites" (Germans and Boers) live in SWA. The DKGSWA no longer expects to discover valuable minerals (gold, etc.) and plans for the establishment of a German settler colony. The German shipping line, Woermann Line, establishes a regular shipping service. Ernst Hermann erects an agricultural station at Kubub for sheep and wool production. He leases the Nomtsas valley in the Naukluft Mountains for 20 years from the Bethany chief. The trade with weapons reaches its climax, with the importation of 807 rifles and 66 830 cartridges during the year. Between 1884 and 1893, 2 586 rifles and 1 128 780 cartridges are imported into the territory. From 1891 to 1897 the German Administration tries to restrict the weapons trade. Attorney Köhler becomes the first judge in the colony. Samuel Maharero is recognised by the German authorities as supreme Ovaherero leader. This is not accepted by other Ovaherero leaders, such as Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru, Kandji Tjetjo of Owikokorero and the Ovambanderu leader Kahimemua Nguvauva, as well as Riarua, Maharero’s former advisor. They are all serious contenders to the Ovaherero chieftaincy of Okahandja.

Rhenish missionaries Wulfhorst and Meisenholl meet King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi of the Uukwanyama area. The first 04.09. mission station in the Uukwanyama area, Ondjiva (in presentday Angola), is established. 03.10. Ovambanderu attack Gibeon. The post office is shifted from Otjimbingwe to Windhoek. It is 13.10. re-opened as "Otjimbingue" on 01.07.1895. The first Postal Agency is opened in Windhoek by Secretary of Finance Wilhelm Junker. The date stamp "Otyimbingue" is still used until March 1892 in Windhoek. A regular postal service along the Northern Bay Road from Windhoek to Walvis Bay (by camels which were imported from Teneriffe) is established. Mail delivery takes approximately 12 days. The first postal despatch by a German ship was made on 18.10. 24.04.1891 from Hamburg by the mail steamer "Gertrud Woermann I" of the Woermann Line. The delivery of the mail is made in Walvis Bay to Rhenish missionary Böhm on 22.06.1891, who undertakes to see to the despatch to Otyimbingue. Until November 1893 all mail is transshipped at Walvis Bay. However, from the 30.11.1893 all mail steamers of the Woermann Line are re-routed to Swakopmund where they had previously made trial landings. December The Colonial Administration moves from Otjimbingwe to Windhoek.

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1892

18.02.

25.03.

05.07.

Theodor Leutwein, who arrives in Swakopmund on 01.01.1894, estimates that 15 000 to 20 000 Nama, 3 000 to 4 000 Basters, 70 000 to 80 000 Ovaherero, 90 000 to 100 000 Ovambo and 30 000 to 40 000 Dama and San live in the territory (estimates for the year 1892). The Roman Catholic Church (" Propaganda Fide") separates the area of Cimbebasia into Lower and Upper Cimbebasia. Lower Cimbebasia extends from the Kunene River to 23° south and 22° east. The Dorsland Trekkers under the command of Jan Robberts from Humpata in Angola beat the Swartboois in their mountain hiding place near the Kunene River. Hendrik Witbooi is defeated by the Ovambanderu in the battle of Otjihaenena. The South West African Settlers Company is established, and the first settler land is the Klein Windhoek valley. During June the first settlers arrive: Oberamtmann Albert Nitze, Christia n Nissen-Lass and John Ludwig. The system of small holdings is, however, later abandoned in favour of bigger farms. Ovaherero and Ovambanderu under the leadership of Assa Riarua (son of Maharero’s former advisor Riarua), as well as Nikodemus Kavikunua, Daniel, Barnabas and Justus Kavizeri, attack Hendrik Witbooi’s stronghold Hornkranz but are defeated. On their way back to Windhoek, the unsuspecting Ovaherero are attacked by some German settlers under the command of Ludwig. Two Ovaherero are killed, some are wounded and cattle are driven off. This incident is not followed up by the German authorities, and Samuel Maharero’s faith in the Germans is shaken. Hendrik Witbooi refuses to relinquish his independence when Curt von Francois visits him in Hornkranz to try to persuade him to conclude a protection treaty with the Germans.

Witbooi answers von Francois: "Africa belongs to us! Both through the hue of our skin and in our way of life do 08./09.07. we belong together, and this Africa is in its entirety our own country. The fact that we possess a variety of chieftainships and diverse territories does not imply any secondary division of Africa and does not sever our solidarity ... The emperor of Germany has no business in Africa whatsoever." In order to retain his independence, Hendrik Witbooi turns to the British colonial authorities in the Cape Colony. He reports to them that the Germans are oppressing his people and depriving them of their legitimate possessions. Furthermore they are enforcing August laws alien to the country and its peoples, and preventing free trade. "We knew you - you never came to steal our country. You conducted trade with us - and did not deprive us of our freedom." Witbooi never receives an answer from Cape Town. 01.08. The sale of alcohol to indigenes is restricted. Rhenish missionaries Wulfhorst and Meisenholl 19.08. establish a second mission station in the Uukwanyama area, at Omupanda (in present-day Angola). An attorney from Hamburg, Julius Scharlach, obtains the "Damaraland Concession", thus breaking the monopoly of the DKGSWA. Cecil Rhodes soon dominates the new South West Africa Company (SWAC), which holds the sole right to operate railway lines between Sandwich Harbour and the Kunene River mouth as well as to exploit the copper deposits of the Otavi Mountains. Aug./September Matthew Rogers investigates the mining potential of the Tsumeb Mine. The accompanying German officials Duft and Von Bülow are stopped on order of the brother of the Ovaherero Chief David Kambazembi of the Waterberg while the British may proceed. George Wilson is appointed chairman of the board of the

03.09.

12.09.

November

29.11.

new company. He is, however, replaced by George Cawston, a director of Rhodes’ British South Africa Company by the end of 1892. The firm Wecke & Voigts is established in Okahandja. The military station and port of Swakopmund is founded by Curt von Francois in order to by-pass the Britishcontrolled Walvis Bay. Ships cannot land directly at the beach, but have to ride at anchor about a mile off-shore due to the heavy surf pounding the shallow inshore waters. Passengers, animals and cargo have to be unloaded onto lighters or rafts and brought to shore through the surf with great discomfort and under sometimes hazardous conditions. Eugen von Brön becomes first port captain in Swakopmund, before landing facilities exist. A peace treaty is agreed between Hendrik Witbooi and the Ovaherero, because Witbooi perceives their conflict to be secondary to the threat posed by German colonialism. This peace treaty leads to the employment of increased German troops in the colony. Two mining engineers of the South West Africa Company (SWAC), Rogers and Copeland, describe a meeting with Manasse Tyiseseta from Omaruru: "Manasse and his Raad continually ask if we were involved with the Germans ... and I knew if he got in any way to understand that we were with the Germans, we would go no further. This is our country! We are owners of it. We do not want war. We are for peace. We have been cheated many times before; but now our eyes are opened, and when once you could buy land with a bottle of whisky or a suit of clothes, that time is all gone by."

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of Contents]

1893

12.01.

16.03.

The first nurses, Marianne Böhler and Augustine Domscheidt, arrive from Germany. Meteorologist Karl Dove erects a meteorological station in Windhoek. Samuel Maharero’s struggle for the chieftainship is still not resolved because Ovambanderu leader Nikodemus Kavikunua claims this right. Also, Maharero’s former advisor, Riarua , is hostile to Samuel Maharero. Moremi’s II successor, Tswana King Sekgoma Lethsolathebe (1891- 1906), attacks the Gciriku and Shambyu in the Kavango (Massacre of Lishora). Gciriku King Nyangana is taken prisoner. Lozi King Lewanika protests against these acts of war. The rich copper deposits are discovered in the "Green Hill" in Tsumeb. The Tsumeb deposits contain besides copper, many other minerals such as lead, zinc, tin, silver, cobalt, arsenic, antimony, cadmium, germanium, gallium, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and vanadium. More Schutztruppe reinforcements land on the vessel "Carl Woermann" in Walvis Bay, bringing the number of soldiers to 250. Von Francois attacks Hornkranz, killing 70 women and children, but fails to defeat Hendrik Witbooi and his troops (First Hornkranz battle). Witbooi follows the Germans and drives off most of the German military horses in the vicinity of Windhoek (including the horses of the trader August Schmerenbeck). Contract workers in Otavi protest against harsh working conditions.

12.04.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Remembrance Stone of the Hornkranz Battle in April 1893
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

11.05.

19.05. 20.05. 26.06. 05.07. 10.07.

30.07.

August

Von Francois attacks again Hornkranz, this time together with some Basters from Rehoboth under the leadership of Hans Diergaardt (Second Hornkranz battle). The Germans are again unsuccessful in defeating Witbooi. Other Baster join later Witbooi. The Hanseatische Land-, Minen- und Handelsgesellschaft für SWA is established by Ludwig von Lilienthal. The company is founded in order to exploit the mining rights in the Rehoboth area. The company later changes its name into Hanseatische Minengesellschaft. Hendrik Witbooi attacks the Germans in the skirmish of Naos. Hendrik Witbooi attacks Windhoek. Hornkranz which has been occupied by the Germans since April, is abandoned. Hendrik Witbooi attacks the Germans in the skirmish of Gurumanas. Georg Hartmann reports that Hendrik Witbooi is rightfully defending his independence against the Germans; that he had never harmed any "white" or stolen anything from them and that the Witbooi Nama maintain high discipline at all times. Hendrik Witbooi attacks 17 wagons at Diepdal (transport by Gerd Wiese) and Horibes (transport by August Schmerenbeck) in the Swakop valley, effectively bringing transportation between the coast and Windhoek to a standstill. The DKGSWA sells all rights in the Kaokoveld to L Hirsch and

Company. Various expeditions into the remote Kaokoveld are undertaken by Georg Hartmann as from 1894 (and again in 1900). Hartmann is accompanied by Ludwig von Estorff, Lieutenant Helm and Richard Volkmann. More Schutztruppe reinforcements land at Swakopmund for 20.08. the first time on the vessel "Marie Woermann" (under the command of Captain Joachim von Heydebreck). Von Francois attacks Hornkranz for the third time (Third 24.09. Hornkranz battle). He is again not able to defeat Hendrik Witbooi. October Von Francois occupies the waterholes of Gurumanas and Tsebris in the Baster area. The Kubub agricultural station near Aus is attacked and 06.11. destroyed by Hendrik Witbooi. The manager of the station, Ernst Hermann, moves to his farm Nomtsas. Von Francois attacks Hornkranz for the fourth time (Fourth 07.12. Hornkranz battle). This time the Witbooi Nama suffer a defeat. December The trading company Mertens & Sichel in Walvis Bay establishes a branch in Swakopmund. In Germany pressure builds up to remove Landeshauptmann Curt von Francois because of his apparent inability to deal with Hendrik Witbooi. During 1894 he joins Theodor Leutwein End 1893 during the campaigns in the south. Before he leaves the colony for good in August 1894, he establishes a military station at Warmbad in order to control the Bondelswarts Chief Wilhelm Christian. 12.08.

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1894

01.01.

Approximately 1 200 "whites" live in the country. Four ships call at Swakopmund (1895: five ships). Edmund Troost brings a steam tractor into the territory in order to transport goods through the Namib Desert. The Cape Cross station is established for seal harvesting and guano processing . Regional offices at Windhoek (Gustav Duft) and Keetmanshoop (Golinelli) are established. John Ludwig begins cultivating vegetable gardens and vineyards at Klein Windhoek. The Kharaskhoma-Syndicate is transformed into the South African Territories Company Ltd. The farmer Ferdinand Gessert buys from Chief Paul Frederiks (1893-1906), successor of Joseph Frederiks II of Bethany, the farms Inachab, Sandverhaar, Witputs and Feldschuhhorn. Leutwein arrives in Swakopmund. Theodor Leutwein is nominated as "Kaiserlicher Landeshauptmann" of the colony (By Imperial Order dated 18.04.1898 he becomes "Governor"). After Curt von Francois leaves the territory in August, he also becomes the commander of the Schutztruppe. His task is to ensure "colonialism without bloodshed". The "Leutwein system" (divide and rule, negotiation with chieftains, "patience" and tactical "leniency") is established, but collapses in 1903/04. The Rhenish Mission is an important assistant in the establishment of German colonial rule. Leutwein establishes a decentralised administration and opens three regional offices in Windhoek (Friedrich von Lindequist, also responsible for Otjimbingwe), Otjimbingwe and Keetmanshoop (Gustav Duft and later Golinelli). Leutwein reports that the Ovaherero have an estimated 500 000 cattle. He expresses the hope that once the population pressure becomes acute, the Ovaherero

24.01. February 24.02. 18.03.

19.03.

20.03.

24.03.

April

would be forced to sell their huge herds to the "white" settlers. However, this is for many years not the case and instead of this, for the first time the effects of overgrazing become apparent as the Ovaherero herds are forced into an ever-increasing small area. A skirmish between the Germans and Hendrik Witbooi takes place in the Naukluft Mountains. The Germans under the command of Carl Seiler suffer a defeat. Leutwein meets Samuel Maharero in Okahandja. Leutwein and Von Francois attack the Khauas Nama at Aais (confluence of White Nossob and Black Nossob Rivers) and Naosanabis (present-day Leonardville) on the Nossob River. Further Schutztruppe reinforcements land at Swakopmund on the vessel "Jeanette Woermann". Khauas Nama Chief Andreas Lambert (!Nanib) is executed after a court-martial trial. The reason is that he - like Hendrik Witbooi -refused to sign a protection treaty with the Germans. Eduard Lambert succeeds him. A peace and protection treaty is agreed between Eduard Lambert of the Khauas Nama and Germany. A protection treaty is agreed between Germany and Simon Koper (!Gomxab) of the Fransman or !Kharakhoen Nama at Gochas. Ludwig von Estorff together with Karl Wischkon joins the Schutztruppe. Military stations are established at Gibeon and Hoachanas. Ovaherero Chief David Kambazembi of the Waterberg attempts to reconcile Nikodemus Kavikunua and Chief Riarua with Samuel Maharero. He is not successful. Riarua in alliance with Kandji Tjetjo even raids Samuel’s cattle posts. Consequently Samuel, in fear

19.05.

25.06. 17.07. 27.07. 27.08.

03.09.

15.09.

of the Okahandja Ovaherero, moves to Osona. Nikodemus Kavikunua visits Windhoek to lobby for German support, but without any success, because Leutwein is away in the south and Duft has no authority to negotiate. Leutwein takes Samuel Maharero’s side, stripping Riarua of all authority during negotiations at Okahandja. New Schutztruppe reinforcements together with Von Estorff land at Swakopmund on the vessel "Lulu Bohlen". A protection treaty is agreed between the Vilander Baster and Germany. Leutwein attacks the Witbooi Nama under Hendrik Witbooi in the Naukluft Mountains. The first government school in Windhoek is established, its first teacher being Helene Nitze. Before the Great Resistance War, 1904-1909, the following schools (for "white" children only) are established: Gibeon (1900), Keetmanshoop (1901), Grootfontein (1901), Swakopmund (1901) and Karibib (1903). There are hostels at all places except Swakopmund. Due to the high transport costs there is no compulsory school education. After the Naukluft Battle both armies are exhausted. The Germans suffer many casualties (27% losses). Leutwein notes that strategically little had been won. The Witbooi force is inside the mountain and the Germans are outside when Witbooi offeres a conditional surrender which Leutwein immediately accepts. A protection treaty is signed 13 days later. The Witboois are allowed to possess arms and have a certain degree of autonomy. The treaty is respected for 10 years.

12.11.

26.11.

30.11.

06.12.

22.12.

24.12.

A private treaty is agreed between the DKGSWA and Paul Frederiks of Bethany. Leutwein persuades Samuel Maharero and Zacharias Zeraua of Otjimbingwe to meet Manasse Tyiseseta at Omaruru to seek agreement between the Ovaherero leaders. Leutwein’s demonstration of power leads to the downfall of Manasse’s independent position and to the establishment of a German military garrison in Omaruru. The Dama leader Cornelius ||Goreseb (succeeded by Judas ||Goreseb much later) is installed by Leutwein as the first paramount chief of the Dama (Berg Damara) in Okombahe in order to weaken the Ovaherero position of Manasse of Omaruru. The Ovaherero leader at Okombahe, Daniel Kariko, is deposed from his position as chief. Later differences between Kariko and Manasse Tyiseseta are exploited by Leutwein and lead to the complete downfall of Kariko in 1896. Leutwein concludes a treaty with Samuel Maharero for the establishment of the southern border of Hereroland, which subsequently has serious consequences for the Ovaherero and marks the start of their loss of land and cattle. Samuel Maharero requests Leutwein to shift the southern border. A serious clash of interests between the Ovaherero and Germans is inevitable; it is only a question of time. Samuel Maharero confirms the land rights of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Hereroland. During a visit to the Rhenish missionary station at Keetmanshoop, Hendrik Witbooi expresses the following: "There are understanding men among the Germans, who can make allowances for our character as Namas and treat us accordingly; but there are also

ruthless men who only can give orders, and they frighten me. They will take their revenge on us, and will seduce our women, despising us." A dispute over the southern border in the eastern sector arises between Ovambanderu leaders Kahimemua Nguvauva and Nikodemus Kavikunua and the Germans. Nikodemus still opposes Samuel Maharero, also on the border dispute, because the land question is an extremely sensitive issue for the Ovaherero and Ovambanderu. The fierce and bitter border quarrel brings the dispute between Maharero and Kavikunua to a head. 26.12./15.01.1895

Ox-Wagon Roads Network for 1894
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1895

A protection treaty is signed between Friedrich von Lindequist, as Leutwein’s representative, and the Zesfontein Topnaar in the Kaokoveld. The Rhenish Missionary Society re-establishes a mission station at Gobabis. The Cape Cross Mine railway line is built by the Damaraland Guano Company Ltd. This is the first railway line to be built in the country. The first locomotive, "Prince Edward", is a saddletank locomotive with a 0-4-0 wheel arrangement. Edmund Troost continues to operate the steam tractor (later called "Martin Luther"), which does surprisingly well on hard ground until it blows a tube and is duly abandoned in 1896. King Kambonde kaMpingana (1884-1909) of the Ondonga area sends a message, assisted by Finnish missionary Martti Rautanen, to this effect: "[I] hope to never see the German Governor in [my] life because the Germans are coming to rule." The Herero-Orlams who left the territory in the 1840s return to Warmbad. They get permission from Bondelswarts Chief Wilhelm Christian to settle there. The permission is granted on two conditions, firstly to dig wells to obtain water (they dug the first well at Kalkfontein, later Karasburg) and secondly to deliver transport services to the Bondelswarts and also to the Germans. Later (1908) they move under Chief Elias Tjikuirire (later named: Stephanus; Mbaeva is later named Biwa and Kakahito becomes Apollus) to Vaalgras/ Koichas, north-east of Keetmanshoop. Manasse !Noreseb from the Kai||khaun returns to Hoachanas. In Otjimbingwe forestry is stimulated by the planting of trees. Leutwein leads a "punitive expedition" in alliance with Hendrik Witbooi against the Khauas and Fransman Nama and later the Bondelswarts in the south, which leads to the defeat of all these groups. The expedition against the Khauas Nama was provoked by a German patrol (under the command of Aais station commander, Bohr) which had killed three unarmed Khauas Nama at Aais (13.09.1894).

January

German War Cemetry at Koës: Reflecting the Crushing of various Nama Uprisings during 1895 in the Kalahari Desert
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

10.01. 02.02. 09.04. 16.04.

18.05.

22.05. 30.05.

Von Lindequist negotiates between the Germans and the Ovambanderu headmen Nikodemus Kavikunua, Kahimemua Nguvauva, Kanangati Hoveka, Kayata and Baratyio for a compromise on the border question. Leutwein exhorts Kavikunua and Kahimemua to keep the peace. Further Schutztruppe reinforcements arrive in Swakopmund on the vessel "Jeanette Woermann". Postal Secretary Alfred Sachs becomes the first Postmaster in Windhoek. Leutwein, Samuel Maharero and Riarua meet Kavikunua and Kahimemua at Otjinauanaua. An agreement is reached which eventually leads to the downfall of Nikodemus and Kahimemua. Hendrik Witbooi requests the Rhenish Missionary Society to send a new missionary to Gibeon. Missionary Friedrich Schröder serves the Gibeon congregation from 1896 to 1899. His successor is missionary Otto Simon (1899 to 1902). He is succeeded by missionary Spellmeyer as from 1903. The German penal code becomes law in the colony – for indigenes as well. A post office is opened in Swakopmund.

15.06.

01.07. 01.08. 12.08. 27.08. 01.10. 10.10. 15.10. 12.11.

Leutwein concludes a treaty with Kavikunua which enforces harsh border control between Ovambanderu and German settler areas. Kavikunua seeks a closer relationship with Samuel Maharero, thus breaking with Kahimemua. Nikodemus’ claim to Gobabis is, however, rejected. Instead of this the Germans establish a garrison at Gobabis and a military post at Olifantskloof, ostensibly to control the trade to and from the Bechuanaland Protectorate. New punitive measures are announced for those Ovaherero and Ovambanderu who transgress the southern border between Hereroland and the German settler areas. The postmark "Otyimbingue" becomes "Otjimbingue". A post office is opened in Omaruru. A post office is opened in Okahandja. Leutwein concludes a treaty with Samuel Maharero at Grootfontein for the establishment of the northern border of Hereroland. Boers are increasingly willing to accept German citizenship. A post office is opened at Gibeon. A post office is opened at Cape Cross. .A post office is opened at Keetmanshoop. A post office is opened at Lüderitz. Carl Hugo Hahn dies in Paarl (Cape Colony).

24.11.

Carl Hugo Hahn's Grave at Paarl at the St. Petri Cemetery in the Cape Colony
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Hendrik Witbooi escapes to Rietfontein in British territory because he distrusts the Germans, especially Major Mueller, new Deputy Commander of the German troops. While in South Africa, Witbooi thanks some newspapers for their support during his struggle against German colonialism. End 1895 Ovamboland King Kambonde kaMpingana of the Ondonga reports that a number of Ovaherero have come to see him, complaining that Samuel Maharero had become the servant of Leutwein. In line with this, Rhenish missionaries report that a large number of Ovaherero no longer stay in the mission stations out of fear of new colonial repressions.

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Post Transport with Donkeys
G von Schumann

Kubub Military Station 1896/97
Namibia National Archives

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1896

2 025 "whites" (1 500 of them German) live in SWA (1894: 1 343; 1898: 2 400 and 1900: 3.383). Windhoek has 180 "white" civilian inhabitants and approx. 600 soldiers. The second phase of German colonialism begins. A bi-monthly shipping service by the Woermann Line is established at Swakopmund (as from 1899 a monthly service). Military stations are erected at Husab, Ururas, Grootfontein and Outjo. Ox-wagon roads are upgraded between Groß Barmen and Otjiseva, Okahandja and Otjosazu, and Keetmanshoop and Lüderitz. Karl Dove warns that due to the loss of control and ownership of their traditional land by German settlers, the Ovaherero will have no option but to resist colonial efforts by force and to fight for their survival.

The "Old German Fort" in Grootfontein: Built between 1896 and 1900: Otjozondjupa Region: May 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.01. 20.01. 22.01.

A post office is opened at Warmbad. The first German Evangelical congregation is established in Windhoek (Reverend Heinrich Siebe). The size of the parish grows to 778 members until 1904. Ovaherero and Germans meet in Okahandja to discuss the worsening border issue.

30.01. March to May

April

08.04. 17.04. 01.05.

06.05.

A post office is opened at Uhabis. Ovambanderu and Khauas Nama, led by Eduard Lambert, stage uprisings against German authority. Within a month the uprising indigenes are defeated in the battles of Gobabis (in which Lieutenant Otto Lampe of Gobabis and Eduard Lambert are killed) and Namdas ( Siegfeld). The Germans are supported by Hendrik Witbooi. A confrontation relating to the treatment of Namibian indigenes ensues between Leutwein and Rhenish missionary Viehe. Leutwein expresses that "if a Negro has done wrong, forceful action is of more use than too much mildness." Leutwein issues a proclamation at Kowas where, in agreement with Samuel Maharero, he dismisses Kavikunua and Kahimemua from their positions as chiefs. Riarua and Tjetjo turn their backs on Kavikunua and Kahimemua and support the protection treaty with the Germans. They are supported by Hendrik Witbooi. The Windhoek Post Office becomes the main post office in the colony. The Ovambanderu are defeated in the battle of Otjunda (Sturmfeld). Kahimemua surrenders to the Germans. Kavikunua, however, does not participate in the battles of Gobabis and Otjunda. Kahimemua sends Ovambanderu to Ngamiland (present-day Botswana) under the leadership of his son, Hiatuvao Nguvauva, grandfather of the later Ovambanderu Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II. This is the first wave of Ovaherero to flee to present-day Botswana. Some Ovaherero escape into the Northeast of the territory. They settle in the area of Karakuwisa. There the Ovaherero are involved in violent clashes with local San groups. The Khauas Nama cease to exist as a political entity. All surviving Khauas Nama are taken to Windhoek where they are placed in a concentration camp and are used as forced labour by the German authorities. Karl Dove writes in the Deutsche

Kolonialzeitung: "It is to be hoped that the Imperial Governor will not be prevented by the sentimental humanitarianism of certain quarters from sending all the Khauas falling into his hands to the gallows ... ". Nikodemus Kavikunua and Kahimemua Nguvauva from the Ovambanderu are executed after a court-martial trial in Okahandja. Kanangati Hoveka dies shortly after the executions. His successor is Nikanor Hoveka (born araound 1875).

12.06.

Grave of Nikodemus Kavikunua in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

26.06.

October

Kariko is arrested, found guilty of high treason and sentenced to jail. Due to Manasse Tyieseta’s intervention, his life is spared and he is later banished to Erahui. In 1897 he escapes to Walvis Bay. Further Schutztruppe reinforcements arrive in Swakopmund on the vessel "Adolf Woermann". Among the soldiers is Erich Victor Carl August Franke. Roman Catholic missionary work officially begins in Windhoek with the government appointment of the fathers Bernhard Herrmann and Josef Filliung (arrival at Swakopmund on 08.12.1896). Both are appointed as priests for "white" settlers and soldiers only. The subsequent mission work in the northern part of SWA is controlled by the

15.10. 01.12. 04.12. 14.12.

Congregation of the Oblates of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, and in the southern part by the Congregation of the Oblates of St Francis de Sales. A treaty between the DKGSWA (12.11.1894) and Paul Frederiks of Bethany is confirmed, which declares that the Bethany Nama now recognise the "German mile" as binding. A Customs Proclamation is enacted. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Windhoek. A post office is opened at Rehoboth.

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The railway line from Walvis Bay port to Plum near Rooikop is the second line to be built in the territory. The mules are replaced by the steam locomotive "Hope" (22.08.1899; imported from the UK).

1897

Port Railway Line: Walvis Bay: Second Railway Line in Namibia: 1897
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The colonial authority establishes a new district from the Ugab River to the Kunene River with Outjo as district capital. Von Estorff becomes the first magistrate. First trials with Ostrich breeding are undertaken. The first small wooden jetty is constructed in Lüderitz, and a fresh-water condenser is built as well. 29.03. The German Administration establishes a government monopoly in the trade with arms. A rinderpest epidemic which had already entered the territory by late 1896 reaches Windhoek. The disease wipes out Ovaherero cattle (approx. 50%). Locusts and drought force Ovaherero to sell their land and cattle and work for German farmers. A cultural crisis of pastoralists losing their very foundations ensues. Deprived of their wealth in cattle, weakened by the activities of Samuel Maharero and Theodor Leutwein, and driven ever further into debt, some Ovaherero chiefs attempt to recoup their losses through raiding (especially in the Ovambanderu areas), exporting labour and selling land.

April

Amongst the German settlers, the most important impact of the rinderpest is that they gain access to land which had hitherto been inaccessible. The German punitive measures against those who had are accused of having "revolted" in 1896, together with the rinderpest, deplete the cattle herds along the White Nossob and Seeis rivers to such an extent that large parts of Hereroland are left open and ungrazed. Consequent high prices for beef encourage farmers to go into stock farming. The fortress of Namutoni is built to regulate the "Red Line" (Otjituuo via Namutoni to Okaukuejo) and is established in 1896 to control the rinderpest. This quarantine corridor cannot be efficiently controlled, due to the shortage of experienced manpower..In due course, the disease is reported to be rife along all the trade routes from the north. Already in February the South African authorities request the German scientist Robert Koch and his assistant Paul Kohlstock to provide the recently developed vaccine against the rinderpest. A further consequence of the rinderpest epidemic is the near collapse of freight transport between the coast and the inland. The authorities therefore agree to build a railway line between Swakopmund and Windhoek. With assistance of the colonial director Oswald von Richthofen and the commander of the Military Railway Brigade in Berlin, Nonus von Rössing, the beginning of the construction of the railway project is initiated for the same year. Not only economic but also political arguments initiate the development of railways in SWA. Already in 1896 Leutwein writes to the German Chancellor: "not the unlimited increase of the Schutztruppe but the construction of railway lines" should be used to strengthen the German power base in the colonies. The South African Prime Minister, Cecil Rhodes, is said to have remarked: "In the colonies railways are cheaper than canons and have a greater range". The first stamps with the overprint "Deutsch Südwest-Afrika"

May

are printed on stamps of the German Reich (valid until 31.10.1901). Dr. Kohlstock arrives in SWA. He starts a systematic inoculation programme in Hereroland. However, the method of vaccination is a somewhat uncertain affair. For instance, in June Otjimbingwe, of the 6 178 cattle vaccinated with gall vaccine, 2 731 (43 %) die. Many Ovaherero resist the vaccine campaign. On the farm Etaneno near Omaruru some Ovaherero forcefully resist the inoculation. Erich Victor Carl August Franke reports that the Ovaherero 06.07. leader Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru refuses to get his cattle inoculated. Orlam Afrikaners in the extreme south-east rise up against July/August the German authorities. The Germans are supported by Hendrik Witbooi. The first battle against Orlam Afrikaners ends in defeat for the 05.07. Germans (Lieutenant Waldemar von Bunsen, District Chief of Warmbad and Lieutenant Helm). The reinforced German forces overpower the Orlam Afrikaners under their leader Kividoe in the battle of the 02.08. Gamsib Ravine at the Oranje River. Following the battle, Kividoe and all his officers are executed after being extradited by the British, to whom they had surrendered. The post office at Uhabis is closed, and new post offices are 01.09. opened at Groß Barmen, Seeis and Hohewarte. The first Military Railway Brigade lands at Swakopmund. The brigade consists of the Demarcation Division (under Lieutenant Kecker) and the Construction Division (under 11.09. Second Lieutenant Schultze). The Dama leader Cornelius ||Goreseb protests against the building of this railway line. September Work begins on the state railway line between Swakopmund and Windhoek. 26.09. The first kilometre of state railway line is laid.

20.11.

The first 10 km of state railway line to Nonidas is completed. Topnaars and ||Khau-|gőan (Swartboois), together with some Ovaherero under Chief Kambata, stage uprisings against the Germans in the Franzfontein, Otjitambi, Kamanjab and Grootberg areas. The Germans are supported by Hendrik Witbooi.

Dec./March 1898

The German War Cemetery at Outjo (Kunene Region) remembers also the Uprising of the Topnaars and ||Khau-|goan (Swartboois) against the German Colonial Power in 1897 and 1898, Photo taken in September 2004
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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1898

20.02. March

17.03.

01.04. 10.04. 22.04. May 16.06.

July

Between 1898 and 1902 the Ovaherero register 1 900 rifles. Two diamonds are found near Gibeon and Berseba respectively. The Ovamboland kings of the Uukwanyama, Uukwambi and Ondonga areas conclude a peace treaty among themselves in order to be united against the German and Portuguese expansion efforts. Theodor Rehbock makes proposals for the design and construction of dams and water supply works in the colony: Osis south of Maltahöhe, Hatsamas southeast of Windhoek, Aris south of Windhoek, Avispoort and Pokkiesdraai near Windhoek and the Naute Dam in the Löwen River southwest of Keetmanshoop. A post office is opened at Outjo. A typhus epidemic sweeps through SWA. The Swartboois under David Swartbooi are defeated by Ludwig von Estorff in the battle of Grootberg (Khoekhoegowab: Kai|uis) and surrender to the Germans. The Topnaars escape to Zesfontein without being pursued. David Swartbooi and some followers are imprisoned in Windhoek and Outjo. The state railway line from Swakopmund is opened to the station Jakkalswater. Native reserves, to remain under the ownership of indigenes, are demarcated. Leutwein becomes Imperial Governor of German South West Africa. First properties are surveyed in Outjo. One of the first inhabitants is the trader Tom Lambert. A post office is opened at Rössing. Rhenish missionary Hermann Tönjes works in the Uukwanyama area in Ovamboland. He establishes the third Rhenish mission station in the area, in Namakunde (presentday Angola) (opened in May 1900).

The areas of Rietmond and Kalkfontein become a native reserve for the Witbooi Nama (120 000 ha). Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru dies. He is succeeded by his son, Michael Tyisesta (27.07.1898-04.02.1904)

26.07.

Historical Graves on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Omaruru, Erongo Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.08.

A post office is opened at Gobabis. A post office is opened at the Khan River railway station

10.08.

October

12.10. 15.11.

(renamed in May 1900: Welwitsch)(east of the Khan railway station which is situated in the Khan River). The Germans carry out a punitive expedition against Bondelswarts Chief Wilhelm Christian and Paul Frederiks of the Bethany Orlams because they refuse to accept the registration of rifles. As a result the Germans seize Kabus and Keetmanshoop and a farm near Bethany. The Kharo-!oan of Keetmanshoop are forcefully separated from the Bondelswarts community. The colony’s first newspaper, Windhoeker Anzeiger, is founded by Georg Wasserfall. The newspaper exists until 12.09.1901. New stamps of the German Reich are issued with the corrected overprint "Deutsch- Südwestafrika".

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1899

January

01.01.

27.01. 13.04. 28.04. 01.05. 24.05. 30.05.

The increasing number of traders leads to more friction between traders and Ovaherero and draws attention to the more serious problem of the "land issue", which conflicts with the notion of a "settler colony". Rising debts lead to the "sale" of land, and traders such as Gustav Voigts, Fritz Wecke and Ludwig Conradt are paid in this way. The German Administration imports 20 camels from the Sudan. Eighteen post offices have been established so far. Hubert Janson settles at Franzfontein and establishes the famous palm gardens there. Construction of a telegraphic line between the coast and Windhoek begins (completed July 1901). The first telegraph station is opened on 09.08.1901 in Karibib. Further stations follow in Okahandja on 22.09.1902 and 27.10.1902 in Windhoek. Credit regulations are promulgated by the German Administration. It is established that no person can be sued for any credit. However, the traders force the administration to suspend this regulation (on 22.02.1899). The first sports club, Schützenverein, is established in Keetmanshoop. The first telegraphic link (sea cable) between Germany and the colony is inaugurated. The post office at Khan River is closed. A new post office serving Khan River, at Jakkalswater railway station, is opened. Three hundred and forty-seven new soldiers arrive in the colony. Bethany gets a new church, the stone church, replacing the old mission church of 1859. The old mission church is used as a mission school until 1970 .

31.05. 01.06. 11.06. 21.06.

Riarua (Amadamap) dies. The first Agricultural Show is held in Windhoek.

A post office is opened at Ukamas. A post office is opened at Ramansdrift. Missionaries Diehl and Viehe sharply attack Samuel July Maharero for "selling" the Okakango locale, north of Okahandja, to settle his debts. The Roman Catholic Klein Windhoek mission station is established, its missionary being Father Nachtwey. As 02.07. from 1904 the station grows white and red wine of high quality. Also the famous brandy "Katholischer" is produced here. A post office is opened at Bethany (postmark 15.07. "Bethanien"). The Germans conduct a punitive expedition against the Aug./September Ovambanderu (Kandji Tjetjo and his son Traugott Tjetjo) because they refuse to accept the registration of rifles. The regulation of all mining rights reverts to the German 15.08. Administration. The mules of the Walvis Bay port railway are replaced by 22.08. the locomotive "Hope" which is imported from England. Construction of the first port mole (concrete and stone) in 02.09. Swakopmund commences. The South West Africa Company (SWAC) offers all mining rights for the copper deposits in the Otavi 29.09. Mountains area to a new German company, the later Otavi Minen- und Eisenbahngesellschaft (OMEG). The Roman Catholic missionary Nachtwey establishes October a new mission station at Swakopmund. A post office is opened at Maltahöhe (near Grootfontein (south)). Maltahöhe is established by Bezirksamtmann 01.10. Karl Henning Konrad von Burgsdorff and named after his wife Malta von Burgsdorff.

11.10.

The Rhenish Missionary Society opposes further sales of Ovaherero land. A post office is opened at Grootfontein (north).

17.10.

Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

18.10. 21.10.

November

19.11. 20.11. 21.11. 18.12.

A post office is opened at Otavi. A post office is opened at the Waterberg. A quarrel breaks out between Samuel Maharero and Michael Tyiseseta, son of Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru. Leutwein intervenes and explains that Samuel has no direct authority over Michael’s people. It is now clear that the German authorities only support Samuel against his fellow Ovaherero leaders as long as it suits German interests. Samuel Maharero sells, inter alia, Otjosazu. A post office is opened at Okombahe. Nathanel Christian (|Gariseb Khami !Nansemab) of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun) community is born. Leutwein establishes by Government Proclamation a first self-government for "white" settlers.

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Post Office in the "Schutzgebiet"
G von Schumann

Okahandja Railway Station, 1902
G von Schumann

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1900

16.01. 01.02. 18.02. 01.03.

The state railway from Swakopmund reaches Karibib (the first train reaches Karibib on 01.06., this being the official founding day of the town of Karibib). The military fortress of Okaukuejo is built, and the Namutoni fortress is adapted for military purposes. The first brewery is established in Swakopmund (Jauch ). Facilities are set up for banking and money transfers between Germany and the colony. Port installations in Lüderitz are expanded. The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station at Ontananga. German geologists begin to map the geology of the country. They are the first to describe various occurrences of fossil fuels and bitumen in the Nama Basin which the local inhabitants used for lighting fires. The Hanseatische Land-, Minen- und Handelsgesellschaft für SWA explores the copper mineralisation potential in the Rehoboth area. Copper deposits at Kamtsas, Gelkop, Duruchaus, Swartmodder and Neuras are investigated. Some production later develops at Swartmodder and Neuras. Also some gold is found in Neuras but no gold production is recorded before the outbreak of World War One. An Englishman named Stanley pegs mining claims at Otjosonjati east of Windhoek. The occurrence of oil seeps in rocks of the Nama Group is known to German geologists in the early days of this century. A first well is drilled by Südwest Petroleum Company near Berseba to a depth of 1 000 m, albeit with no success. Kurt Dinter establishes a forestry station at Brakwater near Windhoek. A post office is opened at Kubub. Post offices are opened at Marienthal (Tsaraxa-aibes) and Kuis. A post office is opened at Haris. A post office is opened at Hatzamas.

06.04.

01.07.

21.07.

01.08. 10.09.

October

The "Otavi Minen- und Eisenbahngesellschaft (OMEG)" is founded in Berlin. The major shareholders are the German Disconto-Gesellschaft and the South West Africa Company (SWAC). The development of the rich copper deposits in the Otavi Mountains starts immediately. The prospector is Christopher James. A post office is opened at Hasis. A post office is opened at Karibib. Some members of the "white" community send an address to the colonial authorities in Berlin in connection with a debate in the German Reichstag (Parliament) on the issue of caning as a form of punishment in the German colonies: "From time immemorial our natives have been used to laziness, brutality and stupidity. The dirtier they are the more they feel at ease. Any white men who have lived among natives find it almost impossible to regard them as human beings at all in any European sense. They need centuries of training as human beings; with endless patience, strictness and justice." This address bears vivid witness to the burgeoning racism within the "white" population of the territory. It crushes any efforts to win the confidence of the indigenous peoples and to make way for a peaceful development of the country. The state railway line reaches the station of Okatjimukuju, 209 km from Swakopmund. The Law for the Protection Areas (Schutzgebietsgesetz) from 17.04.1886 is amended. This amended law continues the dual legal system in SWA but does not make provision for the legal status of marriages between "natives" and "non-natives". Erich Victor Carl August Franke visits the Ovamboland Kings Kambonde kaMpingana of the Ondonga area and Ueyulu ya Hedimbi of the Uukwanyama area. Uukwambi King Negumbo refuses to allow Franke to visit his territory and threatens the Germans with war. Franke reports about growing native resistance against the activities of the Finnish missionaries. The Zesfontein Topnaars demand German protection against

hostile invasions from Angola. End 1900 Missionary Viehe predicts that "local politics is heading towards getting all better land into the hands of Whites".

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1901

01.01.

The colony’s imported goods are worth 10 075 494 Mark, and its exported goods are worth 1 241 761 Mark. Finnish missionaries establish a printing press in Oniipa in order to produce religious tracts and gospels in the Oshivambo language (and later a regular church newspaper. The name of the newspaper is Omukwetu. Omukwetu is the second oldest newspaper in Namibia. During the South African colonial era the printing press in Oniipa is destroyed two times by bombs and once by fire.) The Basters of Grootfontein (south) under Baster Chief Class Swart revolt against the Germans. The Basters are defeated by Lieutenant Egmont von Lekow with his ally Hendrik Witbooi. A telephone line is laid along the railway line from Swakopmund to Windhoek. The railway station building in Swakopmund is built. Assa Riarua reports that he is roughly evicted from a bakery in Windhoek. Samuel Maharero states that his life is being threatened by trader Von Michaelis. A total of 127 824 litres of alcohol is sold, of which 5 971 is sold to indigenes. The Gorob and Hope Mines are developed by JL Gathmann and JG Steiger. JJ Cleverly becomes British Resident Magistrate in Walvis Bay (until 1885), followed by Mr Guthrie (until 1901), Charles George (until ca. 1903) and JM Richards (until ca. 1909). The post office and settlement of Hasis is renamed Kubas. Rhenish Missionary Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlieb Viehe, Preses of Hereroland and Leader of the Augustineum dies in Okahandja.

15.01.

Grave of the Rhenish Missionary Friedrich Wilhem Gottlieb Viehe, Preses of Hereroland and Leader of the Augustineum in Okahandja who died on 15.01.1901: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.02.

Mission Inspector Schreiber asks for the establishment of "native reserves" in Hereroland. Leutwein, however, is not in favour of this. Zesfontein (!Nani-|ous) is founded by Victor Franke to protect the north-west of the colony. Franke builds the station building and is the first District Chief until May 1902. His successor is Lieutenant Schultze. The military fort is erected by Karl Schmidt in the years 1904 to1906.

April

The German Fort (built by Karl Schmidt 1904-1906 and rebuilt as Lodge in the 1990s) and the German Cemetery at Zesfontein (Afrikaans: Sesfontein)

Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.05. 05.05.

June

31.07.

17.08.

The port mole in Swakopmund is completed with passengers disembarking and mail being landed. Axel Eriksson dies in Urupupa near Grootfontein. War with Uukwambi King Negumbo seems imminent. Captain Helmuth Gustav Kliefoth has to retreat. For this reason Hartmann of the OMEG later decides to bypass the Uukwambi area in planning a railway line between Otavi and Port Alexander in Angola. Hartmann investigates a line between Otavi, the Ondonga areas of Kings Nehale and Kambonde kaMpingana, the Uukwanyama area of King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi, Humbe, Port Alexander to Mossamedes ( Namibe in present-day Angola). Due to problems in obtaining the necessary concessions from Portugal for such a railway project, increasing "patriotic" pressure to keep the railway line in German SWA, and the need to find the most economic solution, it is decided to build such a railway line (Otavi railway line) from Otavi to the port of Swakopmund (1903) and not any more to Angola. The first census in German SWA reveals that 2 181 "whites", approximately 80 000 Ovaherero (15 000 alone in the northern parts of the Windhoek district) and approximately 20 000 Nama live in the territory (no census is done in Ovamboland). This census is mainly based on missionary estimates and the counts undertaken by the particular district chiefs. Erich Victor Carl August Franke reports that he counts 130 people at Zesfontein (!Nani-|ous). But, it has to be mentioned that the source for this "census" is uncertain and has to be verified by further research. It has also to be stated that absolute evidence of the number of natives, especially in the northern areas, does not exist. The numbers that are accepted will depend on what the various historians wish to prove by them. The post office at Groß Barmen is closed. Ovaherero (Chief Kayata of Otjihaenena) complain about the

19.08.

October 01.10.

03.10.

22.10. 07.12. 09.12. 17.12.

sale of farm land to settlers (settlers Westphal at Okatumba, Stöpke at a farm between Orumbo (Ernst Wossidlo) and Omunjereke (Schmerenbeck) and Held at Otjivero as well as Eilers at Omitara, Friedrich Alexander von Falkenhausen at Okahua and Voigts at Otjituesa), by way of a letter addressed to Theodor Leutwein, with missionary Ferdinand Lang mediating. The letter triggers an investigation into the establishment of "native reserves". Wasserfall establishes the newspaper DeutschSüdwestafrikanische Zeitung in Swakopmund, after he has moved his office from Windhoek to Swakopmund. The first local telephone network is established in Swakopmund. A post office is opened at Kapenoussëu. Wilhelm Christian, Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), dies. He leaves two sons, Jan Abraham Christian (!Nanseb Kaib #Naoxamab) and Johannes Christian (!Nanseb #Khami #Naoxamab (Tôasib)). Abraham Christian becomes the new Bondelswarts Chief. Construction of a railway bridge spanning the Swakop River at Okahandja begins. The state railway line is completed to Okahandja. A heliograph link between Windhoek and Keetmanshoop is officially opened. New stamps for German South West Africa are issued (without the watermark "yacht Hohenzollern").

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1902

31.01.

The colony’s imports are worth 8 567 550 Mark and its exports 2 212 973 Mark. A total of 4 682 white settlers (17% of them soldiers) live in SWA. A heliograph link is established between Karibib and Outjo. A Roman Catholic mission station is established at Aminuis. Swakopmund gets a military hospital, the Prinzessin Rupprecht Heim. The lighthouse at Swakopmund is built. Finnish missionaries build a clinic at Onayena in Ovamboland. The Finnish Missionary Society reopens the mission station at Rehoboth (Okahao/ Ongandjera). The Uukwaluudhi King Shikongo shIipinge dies. He is followed by the ninth King Niilenga yAmukwa (1902-1908). German schools are erected at Keetmanshoop, Grootfontein and Swakopmund. The trader August Geik visits the Caprivi Strip after setting out from Grootfontein. He trades in cattle and crosses the Chobe River with the assistance of Simata Mamili of Linyanti in the Fwe area (New Linyanti – not to be confused with Linyanti near Sangwali, the old capital of the Kololo area). A total of 116 212 litres of alcohol is sold, of which 2 100 litres are sold to indigenes. A "native reserve" (50 000 ha) for the Kai||khaun is created at Hoachanas. Christopher James estimates that the copper ore reserves at Tsumeb to be 300 000 t with 12,6% copper and 25,3% lead. The Damara Copper Syndicate tries to re-open the Matchless Mine. Due to the high transport costs this is again not feasible. Leutwein, still not in a hurry to establish "native reserves" in Hereroland, gives orders to investigate the possibilities for reserves in the Windhoek, Omaruru, Karibib and Gobabis districts. Samuel Maharero experiences increasing resistance to the sale of land in Okahandja. The construction of the state

16.02. 05.03. 14.03. May

07.06.

17.06. 19.06. 01.07. 31.07.

01.08.

railway between Swakopmund and Windhoek is the main reason for this. District Chief of Grootfontein Richard Volkmann declares that "over-hasty planning of native reserves would simply handicap the economic activities of the territory, such as railway construction and mining". The Okapuka locale is sold by Samuel Maharero. Missionary Diehl expresses concern about the future of the Ovaherero congregation of Otjiseva due to the fact that Samuel Maharero has sold this place to traders to pay his debts. The Survey Office reports that 116 roads have been surveyed in the territory, with a total distance of 18 826 km. A commission is appointed by the German Government to investigate the problem of the credit system and how "natives" should settle their debts to traders. The credit regulations outlawing the sale of "tribal" land to curb abuses, lead to the traders using even harsher methods to claim arrears. This increase in trading activity brings more problems for Samuel Maharero. Traders, such as John William Wallace of Okombahe, hold him responsible for the debts of his subjects. The state railway line from Swakopmund reaches Windhoek (382 km; 1 526,19 m above sea level). The ox-wagon is no longer the only means of transport. The first train from Swakopmund reaches Windhoek. The state railway line between Swakopmund and Windhoek is officially inaugurated. District Chief of Okahandja, Zürn, relieves the pressure on Samuel Maharero by declaring that "while Samuel himself still has unpaid debts, he could not accept responsibility for the debts of others". A heliograph link between Windhoek and Outjo via Omaruru and Okowakuatjiwi (later renamed Kalkfeld) is officially

opened. Justus Kavizeri dies. A local telephone network is established in Windhoek. August Gerber visits Ovambo Kings Nehale and Kambonde End 1902 kaMpingana, as well as King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi of the Uukwanyama area and the mission station Ondjiva. 05.09. 22.12.

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The colony has imports worth 8 330 000 Mark and exports worth 3 540 000 Mark. A total area of 36 000 km˛, or 10% of the land earmarked for "white" settlement, has been sold. The colony has six regional offices with 13 district offices. These are: 1. Outjo (Captain Kliefoth) with one district office at Zesfontein (Lieutenant Friedrich von Schönau-Wehr); 2. Omaruru:(Captain Franke) with one district office at Karibib (District Chief Kuhn); 3. Swakopmund (Dr. Fuchs); 4. Windhoek (Windhuk) (Gustav Duft) with two district offices at Okahandja (District Chief Zürn) and Rehoboth (Lieutenant Böttlin); 5. Gibeon (Karl Henning Konrad von Burgsdorff) with one district office at Maltahöhe (Alfred Graf von Kageneck); and 6. Keetmanshoop (Dr. von Eschstruth) with two district offices at Bethany (Georg Wasserfall) and at Warmbad (Acting District Chief Walter Jobst). The two military districts are at Gobabis with Kurt Streitwolf and at Grootfontein with Richard Volkmann. Among the Ovaherero the Rhenish Missionary Society has so far established 15 missionary stations, 32 branch stations, and 48 missionary schools with 1 985 learners and 7 508 parishioners. Among the Nama it has established eight missionary stations, one branch station, and five missionary schools with 472 learners and 5 111 parishioners. Rhenish missionary Christian Spellmeyer becomes mission head at Gibeon (until 1939). At a very early date Spellmeyer supports some autonomy for the mission work among the Witbooi Nama. The spiritual upliftment of the Nama is, however, efficiently boycotted by the racist attitude of most other Rhenish missionaries. The Congregation of the Oblates of St Francis de Sales establishes a mission station at Heirachabis with two fathers, four nuns, 50 "whites" and 200 Nama (130 baptised). The "white" settlers own 40 000 head of cattle and the indigenes own 50 000 head. A total of 799 penalties is passed against indigenes during

1903

1902/03, 473 of which are corporal punishments, the remainder being punishment by imprisonment. A total of 91 892 litres of alcohol is sold, of which 4 400 litres are sold to indigenes. The first government geologist, Friedrich W Voit, takes up his post. 1904 the second geologist, Heinrich Lotz, is appointed. 1906 Lotz is replaced by Paul Range. Georg Hartmann’s geological explorations in the Kaokoveld are continued by J Kuntz and C Krause (1910). Ernst Reuning investigates for the Kaoko Land- und Minengesellschaft the mining potential of parts of the Namib Desert. Ernst Rimann explores for the Hanseatische Land-, Minen- und Handelsgesellschaft für SWA the mineral deposits in the vicinity of Rehoboth and Gobabis. The Gibeon Schürf- und Handelsgesellschaft is founded with German capital and tasked to investigate the known occurrences of "blue ground" or Kimberlite in the Gibeon area. No diamonds are found and in 1910 the company ceases to exist. A German school is opened in Karibib. A total of 34 post offices has thus far been established in the territory. A local telephone network is established in Okahandja. "White" infringers of the law are increasingly favoured by the law courts. The most sensational case is the initial dismissal of a certain Dietrich after the murder of the daughter-in-law of the Otjimbingwe Chief, Zacharias Zeraua. The Ovaherero unleash a storm of protest. The re-trial finds Dietrich guilty and he is sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. Leutwein reports the following mean precipitations for the years 1901-1903: Grootfontein 521 mm, Windhoek 226 mm, Gobabis 339 mm, Gibeon 85 mm, Keetmanshoop 83 mm and Bethany 69 mm. During 1903 a total of 52 boreholes is drilled, with a total depth of 2 600 m and a success rate of 40%. The Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA)

establishes an agreement with the German colonial administration which allows WNLA to recruit Namibian labour for the South African mines. This results in over 1 000 men leaving the territory to work on the Witwatersrand. It is interesting to note that at the same time just as many "black" workers were also being recruited in the South African Cape Colony (Cape-Nguni) to help construct railway lines in Namibia.

Ovaherero Graves on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.01.

16.01.

The "white" population in the territory totals 4 640, including the military (780 men) and government (159 men). Of these, 622 "white" men are married, 42 of them to indigenous women. Of the total "white" population, 973 are Boers. The German authorities officially change the spelling of Windhoek to Windhuk. The 375 m long port mole with a 35 m long cross barrier at the end in Swakopmund is officially opened by Friedrich von Lindequist in the presence of Walvis Bay Magistrate Charles George and Manager of the Damaraland Guano Company Ltd. Carew Elers from Cape Cross, after having overcome tremendous obstacles during construction. The mole is equipped with cranes and a narrow gauge railway line, thus easing the landings of passengers and goods in the

12.02.

March 01.03. 02.03. 16.03. 31.03. 23.04.

12.05.

beginning. However, the strong south-north current of the Atlantic Ocean is not taken into account. The sea dumps tremendous amounts of sand against the southern side of the mole. The sediments spill eventually over the mole. By 1905 the landing of goods is not longer possible and by 1906 the harbour is completely silted up. The loss of the Swakopmund harbour becomes a matter of strategic concern. In order to cater for the increased traffic it becomes a matter of urgency to build another landing facility. The construction of a wooden pier, initially as a temporary matter, starts in November 1904. From April 1902 to date, 28 ships have called at Swakopmund. Kapenoussëu Post Office is renamed Waldau Post Office. Samuel Maharero sells the Otjihavera locale to the firm Wecke & Voigts. Roman Catholic missionaries Ludwig Hubert MariaHermandung, Josef Filliung and Biegner reach the Okavango River at Nkurenkuru. The territory has 199 breeding horses in Nauchas and 160 breeding horses in Areb. A Roman Catholic mission station is established at Epukiro. The South West Africa Company (SWAC) finally transfers all mining rights for the copper deposits in the Otavi Mountains area to the Otavi Minen- und Eisenbahngesellschaft (OMEG). OMEG undertakes to complete the Otavi railway line until 31.12.1906. The costs for the 576 km line are calculated at 14 725 000,00 Mark (25 840 Mark/km). The boundary between SWA and Bechuanaland is surveyed and demarcated. Volkmann undertakes a punitive expedition into the Kavango together with the direct military involvement of the two Roman Catholic missionaries Hermandung and Nachtwey. The village of Uukwangali King Himarua is attacked. From there

June

06.06. 20.08.

the Germans move to Andara where Father Nachtwey agrees with Mbukushu Chief Diyeve to the establishment. In spite of this, the economic value of the Kavango - mostly due to the geographical seclusion of the area - was never deemed high enough to justify high budgetary expenditure and infrastructure by the German administration. Especially the dangerous access road from Grootfontein via Karakuwisa to the area of present-day Rundu was a major obstacle. Traditionally the majority of the Kavango people lived on the Angolan (northern) side of the Okavango River. On the southern side of the river they only cultivated their fields. Just after 1900 the Portuguese authorities started to erect several forts along the Okavango River. As a consequence some 6 000 to 7 000 people left the Angolan side and moved to the German side of the river. The newspaper Nachrichten des Bezirksvereins Windhuk is established. Leutwein writes to the Windhoek Magistrate’s Court to issue the following warning: "Any delay in acting against the traders who [are] guilty of malpractices [will] endanger the lives of whites in Hereroland. Complaints lodged by Hereros against whites [are] to be investigated." The post office at Cape Cross is closed. Ovaherero Chief Kambazembi of the Waterberg dies. His successors are his sons David Kaonjonga Kambazembi, who becomes Chief of the Waterberg, and Salatiel Kambazembi, who becomes Chief of the remaining Kambazembi areas. Paul Rohrbach, who is responsible for "white" settlement in the territory, arrives. He establishes a settlers’ commission. Members are: Gottlieb Redecker, Landrentmeister Wilhelm Junker as well as the farmers Ernst Rusch (Lichtenstein) and Hermann Rust (Ondekaremba). Rohrbach mentions positively the farms Hoffnung, Voigtland, Seeis (Friedrich Thalheim), Omunjereke and Claratal (both belong to August Schmerenbeck) and Haris (Attorney Franz Erdmann).

Termites' Nest near the Cemetry of Ovaherero Chief Kambazembi: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Cemetry of Ovaherero Chief Kambazembi: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

September

Grave of the Ovaherero Chief Kambazembi: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Grave of the Son of Chief Kambazembi, Salatiel: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Possible Precolonial Ovaherero Graves: Southwest of the Kambazembi Cemetery: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.10

The Ovaherero are bewildered by the news that OMEG plans to construct the Otavi railway line. Samuel Maharero refuses to give up any land along the new line. OMEG begins the construction of the Otavi railway line. OMEG engineers buy the farm Usakos from the brothers Jansen to build a railway station and workshop there. Leutwein issues a proclamation (as ordered by the German Reichskanzler dated 23.07.1903) that enacts the long-

03.10. 13.10.

awaited credit regulations. The traders immediately start collecting their outstanding debts – relentlessly and with feverish haste. A post office is opened at Hasuur. A dispute about judicial power and the right to possess weapons arises between the Bondelswart Nama and the Germans. Bondelswarts Chief Jan Abraham Christian and German District Chief Lieutenant Walter Jobst are killed during a violent clash in Warmbad. The Bondelswarts rise up under the leadership of Johannes Christian, who succeeds his elder brother Jan Abraham Christian, and Leutwein later reports that Jobst was mistaken in his judgement to use violence against Jan Abraham Christian. In the ensuing war against the Bondelswarts, the Germans are supported by Hendrik Witbooi. After the death of Jobst, Lieutenant Georg C. Philip von der Bussche-Staddenhausen organises the defence of Warmbad. Leutwein issues a decree, placing a reward of 500 marks for the capture of every Bondelswart involved in the shoot-out, and a reward of 2 000 marks for "whoever brings in the head of the new captain."

25.10.

The Grave of the Bondelswart Chief, Jan Abraham Christian (Tôasib: |Nanseb Kaib #Naoxamab), in Warmbad (Old Location) who fell against the Germans (Walter Jobst) on 25.10.1903 and initiated the GermanNamibian War, 1903-1909

Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Cemetery in Warmbad with many German War Graves of the various Battles and Skirmishes between 1903 and 1905: Walter Jobst' Grave is the big Tomb Stone in the Background (1st Photo)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.11. 06.11. 19.11. 21.11. 04.12.

08.12.

Captain Hans von Koppy and his troops arrive to relieve Warmbad. A post office is opened at Nauchas. A post office is opened at Gochas. Boers living in the colony are given the right to erect their own schools and to teach in the Dutch medium. Von Koppy defeats the Bondelswarts in the battle of Sandfontein, south of Warmbad. Leutwein reports the outbreak of further mutinies in the district of Maltahöhe. The first "native reserve" for the Ovaherero is created at Otjimbingwe. Further reserves are envisaged for Okahandja, Waterberg and Gobabis. Okahandja District Chief Zürn’s undiplomatic negotiation style for the establishment of the envisaged Okahandja reserve border is one of the reasons for the outbreak of the Ovaherero-German War of January 1904. In the delimitation of the Waterberg reserve border, Zürn even forges the signatures of the Ovaherero leaders.

This is another cause for the outbreak of the war. Traders Artz and Von Falkenhausen are found guilty of 09.12. extortion and ill-treating Ovaherero and are fined 50 and 130 Mark respectively. A battle is waged at the south-eastern edge of the Great Karas Mountains in which H Von Burgsdorff and his Witbooi Nama allies defeat the Bondelswarts under the command of Jakob Marengo and Abraham Morris. The latter, who has a Scottish father and a !Gami-#nun mother, becomes 10.12. Marengo's military right hand. Jakob Marengo continues the war in the Great Karas Mountains where, as reported by Leutwein, Marengo exercises an "unusual human war style". Uhabis is also attacked by Bondelswarts Chief Johannes Christian. Middle Leutwein personally intervenes in the Bondelswarts uprising December and travels to Keetmanshoop. Lieutenant Böttlin is defeated by the Bondelswarts in the battle of Hartebeestmund at the Oranje River. Böttlin and some of his men are wounded. They are taken across the river to British territory, to the Roman Catholic mission station at Pella. Leutwein mobilises troop reinforcements from Omaruru in 12.12. order to wage a two-front war against the Bondelswarts – a northern front under the command of Captain Joachim von Heydebreck at Groendorn (also Wasserfall), west of the Great Karas Mountains, and a southern front at the Oranje River under the command of Captain Johannes von Fiedler. These plans do not materialise due to the outbreak of the Great Resistance War of the Ovaherero. Samuel Maharero allegedly takes the decision to fight the Germans. There is evidence that the Ovaherero have no intentions to wage a war against the Germans. The war is rather inflamed by the provocative approach of the German End December settlers and the aggressive attitude of Zürn. However, the Ovaherero are well-armed and an early, good rainy season

favours the struggle against German colonialism. Leutwein estimates that the Ovaherero have between 7 000 and 8 000 armed men (with 2 500 rifles).

Samuel Maharero and Julius Maharero (left), Okahandja, 1895
Namibia National Archives

Remains of the German Fort at Warmbad which has been 1913 restored as the present police station: It served as the headquarters of Lieutenant

Walter Jobst at the time of his death in October 1903, and was blockaded unsuccessfully by Marengo's forces in 1903 and 1904
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Garrison and Doctor's House in Warmbad
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

4. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
4.3 THE RESISTANCE STRUGGLE CULMINATES IN GENOCIDE: 1904-1906
During Leutwein’s term of office six "whites" are murdered by "blacks" with 15 death penalties for the latter, and five "blacks" are murdered by "whites" with prison terms of between three months and five-and-a-half years for the latter. The first petrol-powered trucks make their appearance in the territory. Conrad Rust (Farm Monte Christo) establishes the newspaper Windhuker Nachrichten. The newspaper is the successor of the Nachrichten des Bezirksvereins Windhuk (June 1903). The main post office in Windhoek is completed. Richard Rathke explores the full length of the Caprivi Strip. King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi of the Uukwanyama area dies. His successor is the fourteenth King Nande (1904-1911). In Angola the Portuguese attack further positions of the Angolese people south of the Kunene River. Several battles are fought with warriors from the Ombandja area at Omwandiwoshivandje, Ouhekeweenghenghe, Omakhungu and Evelo la Pembe. During 1904 the Ombandja King Shihetekela Hiudulu enters a coalition with various Ovambo communities (Uukwambi, Ombalantu, Uukwaluudhi and Ongandjera) against the Portuguese. Various battles are fought between the Ombandja-Ovambo coalition and the Portuguese (Onhundayevala (1904), Eloveya la Nanghanga, Omufilu, Omukoyimo, Omufitu uaNdeiteja, Oda yanangeda and Onangovo (1907). After the Portuguese defeat the

1904

Ombandja-Ovambo coalition, King Shihetekela retreats into the Uukwanyama area, to Onangodji near Ombuba yomanyoshe, in order to re-organise his resistance against the Portuguese colonial power. Because his relationship with the Uukwanyama King Ueyulu ya Hedimbi and his successor, King Nande, is not too good, he has to wait until King Mandume ya Ndemufayo assists him to step up Ombandja resistance. The Roman Catholic Church buys the area of Döbra near Windhoek. Rhenish missionary Wilhelm Eich becomes head of the Herero Mission (until 1910 and again between 1919 and 1925). Merchant Richard Rothe of Outjo visits the Caprivi Strip to investigate mining and trading possibilities there. He visits Mamili of the Fwe area at Sangwali and Linyanti (New Linyanti) on the Chobe River. The manganese deposits of Otjosondu are discovered but no manganese production takes place before the outbreak of World War One. There are 54 weather stations in the territory. Samuel Maharero orders all Ovaherero chiefs to take up arms against the Germans. He orders them to "refrain from touching missionaries, English, Basters, Berg-Damaras, Namas and Boers". There are doubts concerning the date of this order. It is possible that Maharero wrote this letter after the outbreak of the war (around 20.01.), after the first shots were fired in Okahandja, where it is not clear at all, who actually fired these first shots (Missionary Diehl reports that only the Germans fired on his house, not the Ovaherero). Samuel Maharero tries to involve the Basters, under Hermanus van Wyk and Hendrik Witbooi, in the struggle. The two letters Samuel sends to Witbooi never reach him, and Van Wyk is not willing to support Samuel. Van Wyk hands over the letters for Witbooi to the Germans. In the second of these letters Samuel writes: "All our obedience and patience with

11.01.

the Germans is of little avail, for each day they shoot someone dead for no reason at all. Hence I appeal to you, my Brother, not to hold aloof from the uprising, but to make your voice heard so that all Africa may take up arms against the Germans. Let us die fighting rather than die as a result of maltreatment, imprisonment or some other form of calamity." These three letters were also written after the outbreak of the war. They can therefore, together with Samuel Maharero's order, not be used as proof of a premeditated insurrection on the part of the Ovaherero. On the other hand, from the very beginning of the German presence in SWA, substantial numbers of Ovaherero are employed by the German army, either as labourers, waggon drivers, herdsmen, batmen or even soldiers. After the outbreak of the war a number of Ovaherero continue to serve in the German forces. Some are even killed on the German side. Gustav Duft tries to negotiate with Samuel Maharero at Okahandja, to no avail because Maharero and Assa Riarua are at Osona. Chief Ouandja agrees to speak to Duft to win time. After the first shots were fired at Okahandja (allegedly by the Germans), the Ovaherero revolt throughout SWA. In the first couple of days 123 Germans are killed (among them 13 active soldiers, seven Boers and five women), goods and cattle are stolen, and infrastructures, buildings and properties are destroyed, mainly between Okahandja and Omaruru. This uprising takes place due to loss of control and ownership of traditional land (German native reserve" policy), usury by traders, increasing debts, cases of rape, the sale of alcohol, the increasing ill-treatment of Ovaherero and threats to Samuel Maharero’s life (by Okahandja District Chief Zürn. Missionary Carl Wandres reports Gustav Duft saying: "If Zürn had not been in Okahandja, then the issue would not have developed in the manner that it did"). Zürn is later threatened with a German court martial because he is held responsible

for the outbreak of the war. A further war cause is the absence of Maharero, Assa Riarua and Leutwein from Okahandja. The many rumours amongst German settlers and soldiers of a possible Ovaherero uprising add to the outbreak of the war, although there are no signs about any envisaged Ovaherero insurrection in early January. On 06.01. Kurt Streitwolf reports on a meeting with Traugott Tjetjo in the Gobabis district. Streitwolf does not believe that war is imminent. At the Waterberg, Sergeant G Rademacher and missionary Wilhelm Eich react to reports by Else Sonnenberg, whose husband, trader Gustav Sonnenberg, has held discussions with Chief David Kambazembi on the growing indebtedness of the Ovaherero. Rademacher and Eich report that war is unlikely, but that Kambazembi is preparing for a visit of Chief Ouandja at Otjikururume. The Gobabis-Dama support the Ovaherero. The Germans are supported by Hendrik Witbooi, but in October 1904 Witbooi is prompted to revolt against German rule by the countless murders and ruthlessness of the Germans, in the light of which – especially after the Waterberg battle in August 1904 – Witbooi’s soldiers realise that the Germans are bent on wiping out all Africans regardless of their tribe or sex. Leutwein later reports that the war came as a complete surprise to all "white" settlers, including the missionaries, due to the admirable discipline of the Ovaherero in keeping their uprising secret. The reinforcement of soldiers from Germany is slow. Ultimately 14 000 German soldiers are involved, 1 500 of whom die. This war effort costs Germany 585 million Mark. The Ovaherero resistance effort is characterised by disorganisation and a lack of co-ordination. The uprising is triggered off at different times: Okahandja: 12.01.; Omaruru: 17.01. and Otjimbingwe: 23.01. New research reveals that the Ovaherero have not anticipated the outbreak of the war, and are quite unprepared for it. Far from seeking their initial overwhelming military advantage, the

Ovaherero later seek to withdraw from central SWA and await the return of cooler minds (Theodor Leutwein) and the beginning of negotiations. Unfortunately, negotiations are not allowed by the Germans. Duft, with German official Maass, tries again to negotiate with the Ovaherero but is warned to remain within the Okahandja fort. Only then does violence erupt.

12.01.

German Soldiers on the Kaiser Wilhelm Mountain: Okahandja: January 1904: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Graves on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Graves on the Cemetery in Gross Barmen: Between 12.01.1904 and March 1904: Otjozondjupa Region: October 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Graves on the Farm Klein Barmen: 12.01.1904: Otjozondjupa Region: Photo taken in October 2004
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German troops under the command of Lieutenants Boysen and Voigts of Windhoek try to rescue Okahandja via the railway line, but are driven back. Boysen and six other 12./13.01. German soldiers are killed. An armoured train under the command of Lieutenant Theodor Kurt Hartwig von Zülow leaves Swakopmund to rescue Okahandja. The train reaches the Waldau railway station on 13.01. The post offices at Waldau and the Waterberg are destroyed. Violence also erupts at Omarasa, north of the Waterberg. The Waterberg military station is conquered by the Ovaherero. All soldiers under the command of Sergeant G Rademacher are killed. Samuel Maharero allows missionary Eich with his small party of German women and children safe passage from Waterberg to Okahandja (date of arrival: 09.04.). Headmen such as Michael Tyiseseta, Ouandja, Assa Riarua and David Kambazembi agree to the safe passage.

The Rebuilt German Police Station which

was destroyed by Ovaherero Resistance Fighters during January 1904: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

14.01.

The German War Cemetery which reflects the Occurrences of the Ovaherero/German Resistance War between January and November 1904: Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Graves picturing the Beginning of the Great Resistance War 1904 during January 1904 at the Waterberg: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German Memorial Plate for the fallen Ovaherero Soldiers at the Waterberg Cemetry: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

15.01.

16.01. 17.01.

Kurt Streitwolf is involved in a battle with Ovaherero at Oparakane. Von Zülow reaches Okahandja with the armoured train following repairs to the partly destroyed railway line between Waldau and Okahandja. Franke, setting out from Gibeon, breaks through to Windhoek after only four-and-a-half days (380 km distance) aiming to relieve Okahandja (27.01.) and Omaruru. Gobabis is besieged. A German company from Outjo is ambushed at Okanjande near present-day Otjiwarongo. The Ovaherero of Omaruru under Chief Michael Tyiseseta start fighting. The German battleship "Habicht" lands at Swakopmund, bringing fresh German troops who proceed into the interior under the command of Second Lieutenant Hans Gygas.

The Ovaherero under the command of Headman Batona are defeated in the battle of Uitkomst near Grootfontein.

18.01.

Grave of a German Soldier on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ovaherero succeed in taking the military station of Otjituuo. The military station of Otavi is relieved by Germans coming from Grootfontein. Von Zülow tries to break through from Okahandja to Windhoek but cannot proceed further than Osona where he is engaged in a skirmish with the Ovaherero. A repair team begins to repair the destroyed state railway line between Waldau and Karibib. With the outbreak of the war all Ovaherero living in Swakopmund, and those prisoners-of- war captured in the first days of the war, are placed on the ship "Eduard Bohlen" which is anchored off the coast of Swakopmund. Not knowing what to do with the prisoners, the authorities decide to offer the male prisoners to the South African mines at the Witwatersrand which gladly accept them as cheap forced labour. Germans under the command of Lieutenant Alfred Maul proceed to Hoffnung, east of Windhoek. Germans under Lieutenant von Niewitecki relieve the military stations of Seeis, Hohewarte and Hatsamas.

19.01.

20.01.

21.01. 22.01.

22.01.

23.01.

27.01.

Franke defeats the Ovaherero in the battle of Teufelsbach north of Windhoek. The Ovaherero of Otjimbingwe under Chief Zacharias Zeraua start fighting. Samuel Maharero tries in vain to draw the Ovambo into the revolt. According to Finnish missionary Albin Savola, an Ovaherero messenger requests King Kambonde kaMpingana to help the Ovaherero against the Germans. But the Finnish missionaries counsel the Ovambo to remain neutral, and in only one instance – King Nehale’s attack on Namutoni – do they side with the Ovaherero. In the Peace of Kalkfontein Leutwein makes peace with the Bondelswarts in order to avoid a war on two fronts. Von Fiedler has to supervise the conditions of the peace accord. Von Heydebreck does the same in the Great Karas Mountains. The Bondelswarts have to hand over all their arms. From the Great Karas Mountains Von Heydebreck moves north in order to join the war against the Ovaherero. On the way back he disarms the Kai||khaun under Manasse !Noreseb from Hoachanas who showed interest in joining the Ovaherero in their resistance war. The German colonial forces establish a strong military station at Hoachanas. After the outbreak of the Nama-German War in October 1904, the Kai||khaun join Hendrik Witbooi. After the defeat, the traditional ethnic structures are disbanded and all communal land confiscated as punishment for the "rebellion". Hoachanas ceases to exist as an important Nama community centre. Five hundred Ovambo under King Nehale of the Ondonga area attack Fort Namutoni. The seven German defenders under the command of Sergeant Großmann flee via Nagusib to Tsumeb during the night. At Nagusib they are rescued by a patrol which was sent by Lieutenant Volkmann from Grootfontein. The Fort Namutoni is destroyed by Nehale's forces.

28.01.

Fort Namutoni in the Etosha Pan: Oshikoto Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Memorial Tablet: Battle of Namutoni in the Etosha Pan: 28.01.1904
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Franke advances in the direction of Otjosazu but a battle ensues at the slopes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Mountain and the Ovaherero are driven out of their mountain stronghold. Franke moves further to Karibib and Omaruru. Omaruru is only relieved after a fierce battle between Franke and the Ovaherero.

04.02.

The "Franke Tower" in Omaruru, remembering the Battle of Omaruru between Germans and Ovaherero, 17.01. - 04.02.1904, Erongo Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

07.02. 09.02.

11.02.

Von Winkler’s section leaves Windhoek for the east, following a southern route via Kaukurus and Gobabis. A German sea battalion under the command of Major Georg von Glasenapp arrives in Swakopmund. Leutwein arrives in Swakopmund from Port Nolloth with the steamer "Ernst Woermann". He comments that "If I were now to go to Okahandja I would allow Samuel to come to me, and you would see, the revolt would be ended". However, he divides the German troops into four sections: a western section under Von Estorff tasked to advance via Omaruru, a main section under Leutwein tasked to attack Samuel Maharero who is probably at Otjosonjati (KönigsAlbertshöhe) in the upper Swakop valley, Major von Glasenapp’s eastern section tasked to attack Tjetjo and Lieutenant Gygas’ section tasked to attack the Otjimbingwe Ovaherero. Seeking to negotiate, Leutwein sends a letter to Samuel Maharero to ascertain his whereabouts. The German

MidFebruary

14.02.

15.02. 16.02. 19.02. 20.02. 23.02. 24.02. 25.02.

Government reprimands Leutwein for this attempt to negotiate. When the letter reaches the Ovaherero they are assembled in the area of Otjosazu, Ongandjira and Otjosonjati. Missionary August Kuhlmann manages to meet Samuel at Otjosonjati where Samuel gives the impression that he would like to end the war. In the east, Von Glasenapp’s section (leaving Windhoek on 17.02.) and Von Fischel’s section (leaving Windhoek on 14.02.) follow a different route to Von Winkler’s section. Von Glasenapp and Von Fischel move from Kapp’s Farm via Okaseva in the direction of Kehoro and later to Kanduwe. Germans under Von Fischel are defeated in the battle of Seeis. Hans Gygas defeats the Otjimbingwe Ovaherero under Zeraua in the battle of Lievenberg. The battle of Groß Barmen is won by the Germans, but areas south-west of Okahandja are only cleared after a further battle at Klein Barmen. Franke leaves Omaruru in the direction of Outjo to attack the Ovaherero. Leutwein warns against a policy of exterminating of the Ovaherero. Von Glasenapp meets Von Winkler at Groß Owikango. The Ovaherero leave Kehoro. Franke defeats the Omaruru Ovaherero in the battle of Otjihinamaparero. Samuel Maharero replies to Leutwein’s letter in great detail (letter from Otjosonjati). From Kuhlmann’s information German headquarters detect Samuel’s whereabouts in the upper Swakop River, west of the Onjati Mountains. About the outbreak of the war Samuel writes the following: "And finally at dawn [11.01.] he [Zürn] added soldiers to the fort [Okahandja] ... and called me, but if I had come they would have shot me. Because I realised this I fled. Then Leutnant

06.03.

11.03.

12.03.

13.03.

16.03.

Zürn sent people of the gun on my path to follow me and shoot me. This incensed me and consequently I killed the whites [Adolf and Henriette Dickmann, née Nierhoff, as well as settler August Kuntze] which had damaged us, because my death was ordered. This I heard from a white man present here named M von Michaelis. This is how the war began. It was initiated by the traders and von Zürn. I indicate how the war started, it is not mine. Question the traders and Leutnant Zürn as to their war, when they have told you then we can talk about it. The present war is that of Zürn [Otjiherero: Nambano ovita ovia Zürn]. Leutwein reports that Samuel is positioned in the line of Otjosazu, Okatumba at the Swakop River and Katjapia (with ą1 000 rifles); that Chief Michael Tyiseseta is moving from the Etjo Mountains in an eastward direction (with ą500 rifles); that the Tjetjo community has retreated from Kehoro at the Black Nossob River in the direction of the Onjati Mountains (with ą1 000 rifles); and that more Ovaherero under the command of Zeraua (with ą1 000 rifles) can be found in the area of Otjimbingwe at the Sney River, and at Lievenberg and Oruware at the Swakop River. Von Glasenapp’s unit marches along the Epukiro omuramba (fossil river) via Kanduwe, and Von Winkler along the Black Nossob River to Onjatu where the Germans pursue the Ovaherero under the command of Tjetjo. The battle of Owikokorero is fought between Von Glasenapp and the Ovaherero under Tjetjo, with heavy losses for the Germans (in total nearly 70%: seven officers are killed, three wounded and 19 soldiers killed, three wounded). Among others, Hugo von Francois and Otto Eggers are killed. In a skirmish at Erindi Okaserandu, the Germans under the command of Lieutenant Leutwein are surprised by Ovaherero. In the German Reichstag (Parliament), August Bebel representing the German Social Democratic Party (SPD)

17.03.

condemns the "suppression war" against the Ovaherero. He further demands the termination of the war and refuses to budget for its continuation. He calls the resistance of the Ovaherero a "justified liberation war". 28./29.03. Zeraua leaves the area of Oruware and moves via Teufelsbach to the east. Zeraua joins the Otjimbingwe and Omaruru Ovaherero at 30.03. Samuel’s station at Ongandjira in the upper Swakop valley. Von Glasenapp’s unit proceeds in the direction of Otjikuoko 01.04. without meeting the Tjetjo community. Tjetjo meets the Germans in a battle at a site between 03.04. Okaharui and Otjikuara, with heavy losses on both sides. The battle of Ongandjira is fought with heavy losses on both sides. The Ovaherero have to give way before a sustained 09.04. German artillery bombardment commences, and they escape in a northerly direction. 09./10.04. Samuel Maharero has to retreat to the waterholes of Okatumba and Oviumbo. The battle of Oviumbo is fought and the Germans are nearly defeated. Leutwein decides to withdraw to Otjosazu and await troop reinforcements from Germany. In Germany he is subsequently heavily criticised for his decision. The overwhelming majority in Germany still do not recognise that 13.04. the Ovaherero nation is fighting for its survival and against colonialism. Von Glasenapp’s unit remains defensive for the time being and is allowed to march to Otjihangwe and later to Otjihaenena (arriving on 24.04.). The main body of Ovaherero start to move north in the direction of the Waterberg. They first move to the vlei (pan) at Engarawau. Here they remain until the Germans approach again. Leutwein urges the German press to stop reporting that after the termination of the war all tribal structures – of the Nama

19.04.

28.04.

April

May

communities too – would be destroyed, the chiefdoms abolished and all communities disarmed. This propaganda creates considerable unrest among all SWA indigenes, and is one of the causes of the Nama resistance war fought from August 1904 onwards. He writes the following: "I do not concur with those fanatics who want to see the Herero destroyed altogether. Apart from the fact that a people of 60 000 or 70 000 is not easy to annihilate, I would consider such a move a grave mistake from an economic point of view. We need the Herero as cattle breeders, though on a small scale, and especially as labourers. It will be quite sufficient if they are politically dead." The battle of Okangundi is fought, ending in defeat for the Ovaherero. A preliminary compensation commission consisting of Attorney Franz Erdmann, Otto Erhard, Moritz Kirsten, Carl Schlettwein and Albert Voigts travels to Berlin in order to obtain compensation for war damages suffered by German farmers. The Reichstag approves firstly (June 1904) 2 million Mark and later another 5 million Mark. A German contractor, Arthur Koppel arrives in Swakopmund to expedite the construction of the Otavi railway line being undertaken by OMEG. The company makes use of contractors (inter alia Batista Oldani who later settles at Warmquelle (originally developed by Carl Schlettwein) near Zesfontein) and labourers either imported from Italy or Ovaherero prisoners-of-war (men, women and children forced labour). Traugott Tjienda, an Ovaherero headman from Tsumeb reports: "I was being made to work on the Otavi line ... We were not paid for our work ... I was a kind of foreman over the labourers. I had 528 people, all Hereros, in my work party. Of these 148 died while working on line. The Herero women were compounded with the men. They were made to do manual labour as well. ... They were compelled to cohabit with soldiers and with railway labourers. The fact that a woman was married was no protection. Young girls were raped and very

30.05.

11.06.

badly used. They were taken out of the compounds into the bush and there assaulted. I don’t think any of them escaped this, except the older ones." The Otavi railway line has a higher structural standard than the state railway line between Swakopmund and Windhoek (15 ‰ against 22 ‰ longitudinal slope; 150 m against 60 m minimum radius; 15 kg/m against 9 kg/m rail mass; 120 PS against 40 PS locomotive power; 90 t against 45 t net mass per train). Leutwein, shortly before the arrival of General Lothar von Trotha, makes one last attempt for a negotiated settlement. He issues the following proclamation, printed in Otjiherero, to the Ovaherero: "You well know that after you have risen against your protector, the German Kaiser, nothing else awaits you but a fight to the death. Until then I cannot stop the war. However, you can stop the war, by coming over to me, handing in your guns and ammunition and receiving your expected punishment. ... ". Subsequently von Trotha turns down Leutwein’s negotiation efforts and henceforth a negotiated peace is out of the question. When Salatiel Kambazembi seeks a negotiated surrender, based on Leutwein’s proclamation of 30.05., Von Trotha notes "That will hardly help him; fought together, caught together, hanged together." General Lothar von Trotha arrives in the territory to take over the military command from Leutwein. Leutwein remains Governor of German South West Africa. Samuel Maharero and his people arrive at Okahitua at the Omatako omuramba. The Witbooi Nama are positioned south of the omuramba, the main German body is north of Owikokorero, and the unit under the command of Von Estorff is at Okamatangara.

Mid-June

German War Graves at the German Waterberg War Cemetery showing the various Battles and Skirmishes between May and July 1904: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Grave of a German Officer on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

July

05.07.

Construction of a telephone line along the OMEG railway line commences from Swakopmund. Samuel Maharero occupies the area of Otjozondjupa and the Hamakari River, while Michael Tyiseseta concentrates his forces at Omuveroume between the Little and Great Waterberg. A post office is re-opened at Owikokorero (it was a military post office as from 13.06. until 04.07. and again from October until end of March 1905). The compensation commission under the chairmanship of

Judge Richter (followed by Paul Rohrbach)(members: trader Otto Nitzsche, Walther Mittelstädt (Elisenheim) and Hermann 14.07. Rust (Ondekaremba)) is officially established. Subsequent differences between Governor von Lindequist and Rohrbach lead to Rohrbach’s departure from the colony in December 1906. The Otavi Mines Company (OMEG) agrees to rapidly construct 04.08. the Otavi railway line to Omaruru. The German troops have the following initial position for the Waterberg battle: Unit Von Estorff near Otjahewita; Unit Beginning Hermann Sigismund von der Heyde at Omutjatjeira; Unit August Mueller at Erindi Ongoahere; Unit Deimling at Okateitei; Unit Von Fiedler at Orupemparora and Unit Volkmann near Otjenga. Hosea Kutako defeats a German patrol under the command of Lieutenant Hans Bodo Freiherr von Bodenhausen in a skirmish waged between the Waterberg and Osondjache. 06.08. Later he is wounded and is held prisoner in Omaruru but manages to escape. After 1907 Kutako is employed as a teacher by the Rhenish Missionary Society but later becomes a worker in the Tsumeb mine. 08.08. A post office is opened at Abbabis. Von Trotha plans the final battle from his headquarters at Ombuatjipiro. He put his plans in his own words: "My initial plan for the operation, which I always adhered to, was to encircle the masses of Herero at Waterberg, and to annihilate these masses with a simultaneous blow, then to establish various stations to hunt down and disarm the splinter groups who escaped, later to lay hands on the captains by putting prize money on their heads and finally to sentence them to 10.08. death". The German troops have the following positions on this day: Unit Von Estorff at Okomiparum; Unit Von der Heyde at a position 15 km north east of Hamakari (Ohamakari); Unit Mueller at Ombuatjipiro; Unit Deimling at Okateitei; Unit Von

11.08.

Fiedler at the Osondjache Mountain and Unit Volkmann near Otjenga. The Waterberg battle begins. The fighting takes place mainly at the areas southeast of the Waterberg (Klein Hamakari and Hamakari (Ohamakari). There are great losses on both sides. The heaviest fighting occurs at the Hamakari waterhole. The main German section under Von Trotha advances from Ombuatjipiro to Hamakari. Berthold von Deimling proceeds from Omuveroume. Von der Heyde attacks from Okakarara, east of Hamakari. At Otjosongombe Von Estorff starts firing on Ovaherero, and defeats them early on 12.08. All other advances planned by the Germans fail on this day. Von Deimling does not succeed in realising Von Trotha’s plan to trap and defeat the Ovaherero. An official report later announces: "The bold enterprise shows up in the most brilliant light the ruthless energy of the German command in pursuing their beaten enemy. No pains, no sacrifices were spared in eliminating the last remnants of enemy resistance. Like a wounded beast the enemy was tracked down from one waterhole to the next, until finally he became a victim of his own environment. The arid Omaheke was to complete what the German army had begun: the extermination of the Herero nation." Major Stuhlmann describes in his diary for this day a scene from the battle of Hamakari where he reflects on the horrors of war and of a wounded Ovaherero child lying next to his cannon: " ... the little worm had flung his arm around the wheel of the cannon, which had possibly destroyed his other family members ... we had been explicitly told beforehand, that this dealt with the extermination of a whole tribe, nothing living was to be spared." Many dead Ovaherero soldiers are buried by the Germans on Hamakari (Ongwero).

German War Graves from the Battle at the Hamakari/Waterberg: August 1904: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Grave of a German Officer on the German Cemetery in Grootfontein, Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

12.08.

13.08.

Von Deimling advances to Hamakari, and this is the last straw for the Ovaherero who start fleeing in a south-easterly direction into the waterless Omaheke. Berthold von Deimling and Karl Ludwig von Mühlenfels set off in hot pursuit of the main group of Ovaherero advancing to Omutjatjewa. A one-day delay gives Samuel Maharero a lead and saves his life because the Germans are unable to catch up. But a tragic scene unfolds: a nation flees without food or

15.08.

16.08.

21.08.

End August

water. The German troops proceed as far as OmbujoWakune. Samuel reaches the waterholes of Erindi-Endeka. Von Estorff and Von der Heyde defeat the Ovaherero in the battle of Omatupa and prevent them from escaping in a northeasterly direction. Von Trotha announces new battle plans to prevent the Ovaherero from re-establishing themselves in the territory. Consequently the Germans try to shut off the Omaheke along a line reaching from Otjimanangombe via Epata, Otjosondu and Osondema to Otjituuo. For physical and strategic reasons the Germans are not able to realise these plans in their entirety. Von Trotha fixes a price of 5 000 Mark on Samuel Maharero’s head. Some Witbooi Nama soldiers escape with their weapons to Gibeon, fearing the same treatment as the Ovaherero from the Germans. This fear influences Hendrik Witbooi to take up arms against German colonialism. The remaining Witbooi Nama soldiers are disarmed and deported to the German colonies Cameroon and Togo where many die. Nama under the leadership of Jakob Marengo fight the Germans in the skirmish of Kouchanas-||Khauxa!nas, in which German Commander Nikolai von Stempel is killed.

30.08.

Grave of the German Unit "Nikolai von Stempel": at Gugunas South (||Khauxa!nas): 30.08.1904: The Skirmish with Jakob

Marengo initiated the Nama War in the South
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Ovaherero assemble at Okahandja North between the Omatako omuramba and the Eiseb omuramba. They flee further via Otjinene, Epata, Osombo-Windimbe (Ozombo ja Windimba) and Erindi-Ombahe, following the course of the Eiseb omuramba. Zacharias Zeraua from Otjimbingwe reports later that the chiefs Samuel Maharero from September Okahandja, Banjo from Otjombonde, David and Salatiel Kambazembi from Waterberg, Ouandja from Otjikururume, Kayata from Otjihaenena, Michael Tyiseseta from Omaruru, Katjahingi and Assa Riarua have assembled at Osombo Onjatu at the Eiseb omuramba. The chiefs Mambo and Tjetjo are also at the Eiseb omuramba, at the water holes Otjinene and Epata. Von Estorff’s forces attack Owinauanaua, dislodging the chiefs Mambo and Tjetjo and forcing them to flee eastwards in the direction of the Bechuanaland Protectorate. Tjetjo dies of thirst at the waterhole Oruaromunjo and Mambo dies of exhaustion while following Tjetjo. The few who survive the thirst arrive later in Bechuanaland. This is the second wave of Ovaherero to flee into present-day Botswana (after the Ovambanderu war of 1896). Some Ovaherero also escape northwards into the Ovamboland. For instance, Daniel Kariko, the former group leader from Okombahe, flees to the Ongandjera King, Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo after first escaping to Walvis Bay. Later he moves to South Africa. During their move to the north, some Ovaherero clash with the San group of the Hai|om under the leadership of the Hai|om Chief Arisib. Some Ovaherero are killed by the Hai|om in the skirmish of Namutoni. Ondonga King Nehale later gives an order to kill Arisib. Other Ovaherero flee into the Kaokoveld, the Kavango (Omuramba rivers south of the Okavango River into the area

02.09.

of the Uukwangali King Himarua as well as the Omuramba Dikundu near Andara) and Angola (Fort Dirico (Gciriku area in the Kavango) and Humpata). Others again move to Shakawe in the northern Bechuanaland and the Caprivi Strip (Kabulabula at the Chobe River). Some Ovaherero manage to slip through the German cordons and head westwards into central SWA, and have to remain living undetected in the more inhospitable areas of the territory (Khomas Hochland and the course of the Kuiseb River).

German War Grave at the Waterberg Cemetery from the Battle at Owinauanaua (Omaheke): September 1904: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Jakob Marengo is involved in two skirmishes with the Germans under the command of Major Julius von Lengerke, 03./04.09. first in Garabis and then in Platbeen. One of the "white" allies of Marengo is George St. Leger Lennox (nickname Scotty Smith). A further encounter between Marengo and the Germans in 21.09. Gais (Geis), north of Kanus, ends with losses for the Germans. Von Estorff requests Von Trotha to start negotiations with the 23.09. Ovaherero, but the request is rejected. 30.09. Von Trotha decides not to pursue the Ovaherero any further.

01.10.

The most important single factor in triggering the uprising of the Nama under the command of Hendrik Witbooi is the threat of the "white" extremists to "make it hot" for the Nama after the crushing of the Ovaherero uprising. The threats range from the disarming of the Nama to the elimination of their group leaders and the dissolution of their tribal system. Von Trotha issues a proclamation threatening the Ovaherero with total extinction: "The Herero are no longer German subjects. They have murdered and plundered. ... Now, out of cowardice, they want to give up the fight. ... The Herero nation must leave the country. If it will not do so I shall compel it by force. Inside German territory every Herero tribesman, armed or unarmed, with or without cattle, will be shot. No women and children will be allowed in the territory: they will be driven back to their people or fired on. These are the last words to the Herero nation from me, the great General of the mighty German Emperor." Von Trotha’s proclamation is in effect the mere legal sanctioning of that which, as the numerous diaries of the German Schutztruppen soldiers show, has already been commonplace since January 1904. Some diary entries may serve as examples: Captain Victor Franke writes at Otjihinamaparero on 27.02.: "A wounded man with a terribly damaged leg is brought in . ... He is questioned and then shot, Von Arnim executes him properly. He is shot from the back without noticing what is happening to the unfortunate man." Lieutenant HFR Knoke writes on 08.07.1904: "Of the five captured Herero four have been hung. The 5th is used for labour purposes"; 09.07.: "Our prisoner has a noose around his neck which is then attached to the saddle of a horse. The particular Witbooi ensures that things do not become too comfortable for him"; 16.08.: "A captured Herero female was, ... , set free. However, the bitterness of the people is great. The female had barely left the encampment when two shots were fired. A sign that this one had also left its life."; 07.10: "As last night we had noticed a number of fires in our vicinity, we

02.10.

looked for tracks this morning, ... We junior officers galloped ahead, our men followed on foot. We took the werft [settlement], shot down part of the inhabitants, the remainder we took along as prisoners". In the diaries of Emil Malzahn, who accompanies Von Trotha on one of his pursuits, it is noted that prisoners taken on 26.09. at the waterhole of Owisombo-Owidimbo, are summarily executed: "Newly caught Herero prisoners-of-war were hung by the neck. Since that day, I would often see Herero swaying from the branch of a tree". Von Trotha’s genocide and chain orders, however, are later mitigated by the German Government. During a field service at Osombo-Windimbe Von Trotha announces that the war against the Ovaherero would be continued without mercy. He claims that " ... Since I neither can nor will come to terms with these people without express orders from His Majesty the Emperor and King, it is essential that all sections of the nation be subjected to rather stern treatment. I have begun to administer such treatment on my own initiative and, barring orders to the contrary, will continue to do so as long I am in command here. My intimate knowledge of so many Central African tribes - Bantu and others - has made it abundantly plain to me that Negroes will yield only to brute force, while negotiations are quite pointless. Before my departure yesterday I ordered the warriors captured recently to be courtmartialled and hanged and all women and children who sought shelter here to be driven back into the sandveld ... ". At dawn the following morning, Ovaherero prisoners-of-war who had been sentenced to death by a field court martial are hung in the presence of about 30 Ovaherero prisoners-of-war, women and children amongst them. After the hanging, Von Trotha’s proclamation is read out to the prisoners in Otjiherero. Hendrik Witbooi rises against the Germans after the Ovaherero’s defeats, apparently influenced by Jakob Marengo’s successful ||Khauxa!nas skirmish. He clearly

understands that "peace will spell death for me and my nation, for I know that there is no place for me in your midst". The !Gami-#nun under Jakob Marengo and Johannes Christian (300-400 armed men), the ||Hawoben under Jan Hendrik (150-200 armed men), the Fransman or !Kharakhoen Nama under Simon Koper (600-700 armed men), the Bethany Nama under Cornelius Frederiks (300-400 armed men) and the Kai||khaun under Manasse !Noreseb from Hoachanas (90-100 armed men) unite behind Hendrik Witbooi in their resistance struggle against the Germans. Only the |Hai-|khauan of Berseba (Christian Goliath), the Herero-Orlams (Kahumba Kakahito or Jan Apollus (chief since 1902)) of Vaalgras/Koichas and the Kharo-!oan of Keetmanshoop (Chief Tseib) do not participate. Leutwein reports later that this was due to the influence of the Rhenish missionaries. The new war in the south is quite different to the war in the north. While the Germans fight against the Ovaherero in relatively few battles and defeat them in the decisive Waterberg battle, the war in the south takes a new turn. The Nama forces try to avoid a decisive battle and involve the Germans instead in an endless guerilla warfare with numerous skirmishes (more than 200).

03.10.

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the many Battles and Skirmishes between 1904 and 1908, between Germans and Nama (mainly Witbooi Nama under

Hendrik Witbooi (until 1905) and Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper (until 1908)): Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the first Skirmishes of the Nama War at Gochas and Schürfpenz: between Germans and Witbooi Nama: October 1904: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

04.10.

05.10. 24.10.

"Bezirksamtmann" Karl Henning Konrad von Burgsdorff is killed by the Witbooi Nama Salomon Saal in Marienthal. Von Trotha gives Leutwein command over the southern front. The post offices at Gochas and Marienthal are destroyed by Hendrik Witbooi. Many male farmers including Boers are killed by the Witbooi units. Among them is the farmer Ernst Hermann from Nomtsas. Hendrik Witbooi is opposed to the killing of females and Boers. The first Boers killed are apparently exterminated by accident. Once the killing starts, there is no turning back and many Boers join the German forces. Jakob Marengo again attacks the Germans (Major Karl Wehle) at Wasserfall. The skirmish ends with losses for the Germans. Bethany Nama attack a German patrol near Bethany.

27.10.

02.11.

04.11. 05.11. 07.11. 11.11.

14.11.

The battle of Kub (Ober-Packriem) is fought between Witbooi Nama and a German unit under Captain von Krüger. The Germans under the command of first lieutenant von Beesten invite a group of Ovaherero to Ombakaha (Omuramba Ganas) allegedly to negotiate but instead, the latter are massacred (most of the 70 Ovaherero who came to surrender). Ovaherero Chiefs Joel Kavizeri from Okahandja and Saul from Otjenga are also killed there. Von Beesten reports: " ... I gave orders to open fire. For a brief period of time the enemy vigorously returned the fire, but then careered down the hillside, pursued by our shells and bullets, to come to a halt at a distance of approximately 300 metres. In the meantime the kapteins and headmen had tried to escape and had all been killed within a radius of 10 to 300 metres ... About 12 noon the remainder of the enemy withdrew. As far as I know, no one escaped unscathed ... There were no casualties on our side." A post office is opened in Usakos. Marengo attacks the German military station at Hasuur. The Germans are forced to flee over the border into British territory. Construction of the wooden jetty in Swakopmund begins (designed to measure 325 m in length and 9 m in width) because the port mole is silting up. The wooden jetty is demolished by the South Africans in 1919. Jakob Marengo is involved in a skirmish with the Germans at Umeis, south of Warmbad. The post office at the Waterberg is reopened. Construction of a new port jetty in Lüderitz commences (80 m long, 5 m wide). Hendrik Witbooi writes to Theodor Leutwein: "As you point out, I have for ten years stood in your law, under your law, and behind your law – and not I alone but all the chiefs of Africa. For this reason I fear God the Father. All the souls which have

14.11.

for the last ten years perished from all the nations of Africa and from among all the chiefs, without guilt or cause, and under treaties of peace, accuse me, I will have to answer a great reckoning to God ... ." The battle of Kub is fought between Hendrik Witbooi and Germans under Von Deimling and Von Krüger. Some local Boer farmers fight on the German side. One is Edward Mostert who later is decorated by the Germans.

22.11.

The German Police Station at Kub at the Upper Fish River near Kalkrand: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Grave of the Kub Battle: 22.11.
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

25.11.

The battle of Alurisfontein, south of Warmbad, is fought between the Germans under Captain von Koppy and Lieutenant Count Alfred Kageneck and Jakob Marengo with Johannes Christian. Lieutenant Louis Klaus Emil von Heydebreck is killed. The battle ends with heavy losses for the Germans.

27./28.11. Warmbad is attacked by Jakob Marengo and Abraham Morris. 28.11. Lidfontein south of Hoachanas is attacked. End Leutwein leaves the colony and returns to Germany. November December The post office at Kuis is relocated to Kub. The battles of Naris and Rietmond are fought between Nama and the Germans under Von Deimling. The Germans try to attack Hendrik Witbooi with three units: the Unit Johann Meister approaches with 223 soldiers via the Auob River from the north; the Unit Ritter attacks with 110 soldiers via Aukam from the west and the Unit Lengerke attacks with 300 soldiers via Koes and Persip from a southwesterly direction. Beginning December

German War Grave of the Naris Battle: 07.12.1904
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

03.12.

07.12.

The new port jetty in Lüderitz is completed. Samuel Maharero arrives with his group at Tsau, approximately 40 km north of Lake Ngami and from there proceed to Makalamabedi at the Botletle River. In 1907 he moves on to the Transvaal in South Africa. In spite of the war between the Germans and the Ovaherero and Nama, the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA) continues its recruitment campaign for the gold mines of the Transvaal. Also Maharero and many of his followers are also recruited.

08.12.

09.12.

Chief Michael Tyiseseta and nine followers escape the Germans and Michael hands himself over to the British authorities in Walvis Bay. He dies 1923 in Krugersdorp in South Africa. His last remains are transferred to Namibia in 2004. Between 800 and 1 000 Ovaherero make their way to Walvis Bay and approximately 1 175 to British Bechuanaland. Some Ovaherero including Haingombe, Wilhelm Katjisume, Thomas Mutate and Martin Kazerewi escape into Angola, where they join Vita Tom. Later the Okahandja Ovaherero prefer the leadership of Salatiel Kambazembi who temporarily also joins Vita. Correspondence between Von Trotha and missionary Kuhlmann contains evidence that the Rhenish Missionary Society supports the German war efforts against the Namibians. The German Emperor instructs Von Trotha (letter by German Chancellor, Bernhard Fürst von Bülow, dated 11.12.) to erect, with the assistance of the missions, concentration camps in which to confine surviving Ovaherero. (The concept of "concentration camps" was borrowed from South Africa , where only a few years ago the British had been responsible for thousand of deaths, using concentration camps in the Boer War, 1899-1902). As such the new German camps were called Konzentrationslager and throughout the colony the scattered Ovaherero were rounded up and sent to these camps. In consequence of the imperial order, Ludwig von Estorff, who is at this stage stationed at Owinauanaua at the Eiseb omuramba, calls upon the Ovaherero to surrender and promises to spare their lives and resettle them in the areas from which they originally come. But Von Trotha reacts to Von Estorff by "You have nothing to promise." One of the leaders who trusts Von Estorff’s promise is Chief Zacharias Zeraua from Otjimbingwe. In breach of von Estorff’s promise, Zeraua is not permitted to return to Otjimbingwe. Instead in captivity

Zeraua is immediately interrogated and charged with instigating the murder of "white" settlers. Later in Court (22.05.1905) Zeraua states under oath: "Before the beginning of the war I did not hold meetings with the captains in Okahandja, therefore I knew nothing of an impending war. I also did not receive a letter from Samuel that he wanted to make war." The battle of Koes is fought between Major von Lengerke and the ||Hawoben under Jan Hendrik.

German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting the many Battles and Skirmishes between Germans and Nama in the Kalahari Desert: Between 1904 and 1912
15.12.
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting the Battle between the German Unit "Lengerke" and the ||Hawoben (Veldschoendragers) under the Command of Chief Jan Hendrik: 15.12.1904

Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The battle of Uibis is fought at the Hutup River between Bethany Nama under Cornelius Frederiks and the Germans under Lieutenant Ritter. 23.12. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Usakos. End Four thousand fresh German troops with 198 commissioned December officers arrive in Swakopmund. 21.12.

Epata in the Omuramba Eiseb where the Tragedy of the fleeing Ovaherero unfolded during the Ovaherero-German War of 1904
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The German War Cemetery at Outjo (Kunene Region) remembers also the

Great Resistance War between Germans and Ovaherero in the Year 1904: The Fighting went on until December 1904 (Skirmish of Gr. Tsaub)
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ox-Wagon Roads Network for 1904 (German War Map)
[Return to Table of Contents]

The "geneticist" Eugen Fischer issues warnings about the "dangers of race-mixing" between German colonists and African women. Such thinking underpins the inhuman treatment of Africans in a foretaste of things to come for Jews, Blacks, Gypsies and other minority groups in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s. Franz Seiner surveys the Caprivi Strip and composes a detailed map of the area. Due to the continued attacks of the Tswana King, Sekgoma Lethsolathebe, the British High Commissioner establishes the southern border of the western Caprivi Strip provisionally 1905 at Mohembo at the Okavango River (where the border still lies to the present day). The attacks of the Tswana against the Mbukushu continue, however, until 1930. The construction of the Khan Copper Mine 60 km east of Swakopmund begins. The mine is opened in 1906. An 11 km long connection railway line is built from the Otavi Railway line to the mine. The geologist Paul Ramdohr estimates the copper deposits at 157 000 tonnes. The Baster Captain Hermanus van Wyk of Rehoboth dies. The position of Baster Captain is abolished by the German authorities and a Basterrat (Council of Basters) is appointed instead. German troops attack a peaceful group of Ovambo workers at Etaneno, south of Outjo. This results in a near complete Beginning cessation of Ovambo worker migration to the south of the January territory. Finnish missionary Martti Rautanen persuades Ovambo King Kambonde kaMpingana of the Ondonga area not to support King Nehale of the Ondonga area, who under Ovaherero influence is ready to rise against the Germans again. The battle of Stamprietfontein is fought between Hendrik 01.01. Witbooi and the Germans under Major Meister. The battle of Groß Nabas is fought between Hendrik Witbooi and the Germans, with heavy losses on both sides (32% on

the German side). Together with the Nama, an Ovaherero unit fights under the command of Frederick Maharero, son of Samuel Maharero.

Memorial for the Gross Nabas Battle between Germans and Witbooi Nama: 02.04.01.1905: Auob Valley: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.-04.01.

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the many Battles and Skirmishes between Germans and Nama (mainly Witbooi Nama under Hendrik Witbooi (until 1905) and Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper (until 1908)): Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Gross Nabas Battle between Germans and Witbooi Nama: 02.-04.01.1905: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The battle of Haruchas is fought at the Auob River between the Nama and the Germans under Lieutenant Ritter.

03.01.

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Haruchas between Germans and Witbooi Nama: 03.01.1905: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The German War Memorial at Haruchas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Haruchas: 03.01.1905
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

05.01. 07.01.

11.01.

16.01. 17.01.

19.01.

A skirmish with losses for the Germans (four dead and 14 wounded) takes place at Gochas. The two German detachments are commanded by Lieutenant Stuhlmann and Lieutenant Graf Stosch. The battle of Swartfontein is fought between Simon Koper and Major von Lengerke. German troops imprison a total of 8 889 Ovaherero men, women and children. The Rhenish Missionary Society imprisons approximately 12 500 more Ovaherero. Including the Ovaherero who escaped to British Bechuanaland, Walvis Bay and other areas, it can be deduced that of the pre-war population of about 80 000 Ovaherero, only about 24 000 survive. Many more are still to die in the concentration camps in the years to come. One concentration camp is situated in Windhoek, just north of the Alte Feste, with thousands of prisoners, where many executions take place (at the location of the present Christuskirche (Christ Church) and the monument "Rider of South West"). The post office at Waldau is re-opened. Heinrich Vedder founds the Rhenish Mission in German South West Africa. The construction of a telegraph line from Windhoek to Keetmanshoop via Rehoboth, Tsumis and Gibeon (492 km) commences under the command of Oskar Hoffmann (completed on 26.05.1906). This system is later expanded by adding a telegraph line to the railway telegraph from Keetmanshoop to Lüderitz with a branch line from Brackwasser to Bethany.

23.01.

24.01.

The Mixed Marriages Act is passed. Germans with "black" spouses lose their citizenship rights. In February 1907 this is also supported by the Roman-Catholic Church: "Marriages between whites and blacks are not blessed by the church". With the exception of Ovamboland, the Caprivi Strip and Rehoboth, all "tribal" land is confiscated. Hendrik Witbooi is wounded in action at Schürfpenz, between Stamprietfontein and Lidfontein. A skirmish between Simon Koper and the Germans takes place at Urikuribis (!Uri!Khorobes) in the Auob Valley, north of Gochas.

28.01.

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Urikuribis: 28.01.1905
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

05.02. 27.02.

March

02.03.

The battle of Nunub is fought between the Nama and the Germans under Captain Morath. A post office is opened at Epukiro. Lieutenant Gräff attacks a strong group of Ovaherero in Kaurama in the Kaukauveld in the Karakuwisa area with losses on both sides. The Ovaherero are forced to give way in the direction of the Gautscha Pan. The Germans wait for reinforcements from Grootfontein but in the mean time the Ovaherero escape in an easterly direction. The Roman-Catholic priest Franz Jäger is killed near Aminuis. The mission station at Epukiro. is destroyed. A skirmish takes place between the Witbooi Nama and a

small German unit at Klein Nabis. All Germans are killed.

04.03.

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Klein Nabis: 04.03.1905
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Captain Georg Kirchner is defeated by Jakob Marengo in the battle of Aob.

The Great Karas Mountains from Aob (Gaitsanes)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

10.03.

German War Memorial: Reflecting the Battle of Aob between Jakob Marengo and Captain Kirchner: 10.03.1905
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Abraham Morris is forced by Captain von Koppy to abandon the Garup waterhole. The battle of Narudas ("Robber Henrick’s Place") is fought against three German sections under Major Altwig Wilhelm Adolf Ernst von Kamptz (together with the commander of the south front, Colonel Berthold von Deimling and Captain Friedrich von Erckert)(coming from the west), Major von Lengerke (sealing off the east), Captain von Koppy (coming from the south). Marengo and Abraham Morris are defeated and escape in the direction of 5 Khauxa!nas. Marengo is wounded during the battle.

Robber Henrick's Place (Narudas) or Klip Fontein south-west of ||Khauxa!nas, possibly Marengo's Camp during February/March 1905
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Narudas Ruins: View to the East: This Part was used by Abraham Morris during the March 1905 Battle of Narudas
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

11.03.

Jakob Marengo, 1906
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The War Cemetery at Narudas: Depicting various Battles and Skirmishes between the Germans and Jakob Marengo during 1905
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Extract of Marengo's Diary - Note the Heading and Date at the Top
After the battle of Narudas a three kilometre column of wagons with captured material heads for Keetmanshoop. In spite of Marengo’s injury, a battle is fought between him and the Germans at Uchanaris, 60 km south east of Keetmanshoop. The Germans suffer more casualties than they had at Narudas. The Nama manage to recover some of their material losses suffered at Narudas. Battles are fought at Heusis in the Khomas Hochland between Germans and Ovaherero under the command of Chief Andreas, and at Aminuis between Germans and Nama

21.03.

25.03.

April

02.04.

07.04.

under Hendrik Witbooi. Peace negotiations between Germans and Marengo (Father Johann Malinowski as mediator) are unsuccessful. The battle of Huams between Cornelius Frederiks and the Germans under Lieutenant von Bülow ends with heavy losses for the Germans. Colonel von Deimling temporarily leaves the colony. Germans under Captain Adolf Manger attack the united Nama forces under Hendrik Witbooi and Simon Koper at Nanibkobis, near the Koaeib River (present-day Olifant’s River). Witbooi Nama Headman Salomon Saal dies of thirst after the battle. Jakob Marengo attacks a German military post under the command of Captain d’Arrest at Narudas. The Germans suffer losses. A Proclamation by von Trotha to the Nama, given at Berseba, with the order to surrender makes no impression on them. The Proclamation reads as follows: "The mighty and powerful German Emperor will grant mercy to the Hottentot people and will spare the lives of those who voluntarily surrender. Only those who at the beginning of the uprising murdered whites or who ordered others to do so will forfeit their lives in accordance with the law. I announce this to you and further say that those few who do not submit will suffer the same fate as the Hereros, who in their blindness believed that they could carry on successful war with the mighty German Emperor and the great German people. I ask you where are all the Hereros to day, where are their chiefs? Samuel Maharero, who once called thousands of head of cattle his own, is now harried like a wild beast and driven over the border into English territory. He has become as poor as the poorest field Herero and possesses nothing. It is the same with the other chiefs, the majority of whom have lost their lives, and the Herero people too have been annihilated - part of them dying of hunger and thirst on the desert, part killed by German soldiers, part murdered by

22.04.

the Owambos. The Hottentots will suffer the same fate if they do not surrender and give up their weapons. You should come with a white piece of cloth on a stick together with your whole village and nothing will happen to you. You will get work and receive food until the war ends at which time the Great German Kaiser will regulate anew the conditions in this territory. He who believes that mercy will not be extended to him should leave the land for as long as he lives on German soil he will be shot - this policy will go on until all such Hottentots have been killed. For the following men, living or dead, I set the following price: Hendrik Witbooi - 5 000 Marks; Stürmann, the "Witbooi prophet" (also called Shepperd Stuurman) - 3 000; Cornelius - 3 000; for the other guilty leaders - 1 000 each". Von Trotha's proclamation has the unintended result that owing to misinterpretation Johannes Christian who had been taken prisoner earlier and who is held captive at Warmbad, is released together with his soldiers and immediately again joins the Nama war.

German Postcard of the Execution of Nama Soldiers at Gibeon, around 1905: Namibian Children and Women acting as Spectators
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

25.04.

The wooden jetty at Swakopmund becomes operational. The jetty is later extended by 50 m and widened from 9 m to 14 m (1907). However, the wooden pillars, which are soon attacked by wood boring mussels (Teredo navalis), require maintenance and replacements on an ongoing basis.

Steamers are soon no longer able to moor at the jetty and have to be unloaded with the help of lighters. United forces under Jakob Marengo and Cornelius Frederiks 26./27.04. attack Germans under Von Kamptz at Ganams, with heavy losses for the Germans. Various battles and skirmishes are fought around ||Khauxa!nas between the Germans and Marengo. May Von Trotha transfers official business to Acting Governor Oskar Hintrager. The Germans still have 14 500 active soldiers. 02.05. The OMEG railway line reaches the Onguati station (177 km). The battle of Ganachab is fought between Cornelius Frederiks 08.05. and the Germans under Von Koppy. Frederiks has to flee in the direction of Berseba. Major von Estorff attacks the united Nama forces under 13.05. Hendrik Witbooi and Simon Koper at Mukorob. The battle of Auob is fought between Von Estorff and the Witbooi and Fransman Nama. A skirmish takes place at Kowes. Lieutenant Häring and seven German soldiers are killed.

17.05.

German War Cemetery at Gochas: Reflecting the Skirmish of Kowes: 17.05.1905
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

19.05.

Jakob Marengo suffers losses in the skirmish of Leukop near the British border against the Germans under the command of Captain Franz Siebert. Some Nama soldiers escape into

23.05. 26.05. 30.05.

British territory, return, however, in the next couple of days. The 14 km Onguati-to-Karibib connecting line to the state railway line is completed. The battle of Gaos is fought at the Nabas River between Cornelius Frederiks and Von Koppy. The King of Italy is the arbitrator in a border dispute between Angola and Northern Rhodesia between the Zambezi and the Kwando (also Mashi) Rivers. The missionary Wilhelm Eich in a report to Heinrich Vedder mentions the death of 59 men, 59 women and 73 children in the Lüderitz (Shark Island) concentration camp. Poised on the vast South Atlantic, the island is barren and wind-swept. Placed on the far, most exposed tip, facing the open ocean, the concentration camp is surrounded by barbed wire and is guarded around the clock by German troops. The Shark Island camp has no buildings, only standard issue military tents and improvised shelters made from blankets and what little building materials is made available to the prisoners. At the same time, the learned and respected Ovaherero teacher, Samuel Kariko, is sent with his family "to do God’s work among the prisoners" on Shark Island. In 1918, after the British had taken over the colony in World War One, Kariko is interviewed for the somewhat controversial "Blue Book" ("South Africa, Union of: Report on the Natives of South-West Africa and their Treatment by Germany: Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty"), giving a chilling description of the Shark Island concentration camp: "I was sent down with others to an island far in the south, at Luderitz. There on that island were thousands of Herero and Hottentot prisoners. We had to live there. Men, women and children were all huddled together. ... . We had no proper clothing, no blankets, and the night air on the sea was bitter cold. The wet sea fog drenched us and made our teeth chatter. The people died there like flies that had been poisoned. The great majority died there. The little children and the old people

died first, and then the women and the weaker men. No day passed without many deaths."

14.06.

Shark Island: Only the Memories of the German Colonial Past are pictured in some Memorial Plaquettes on the Island: There is no Memorial for the more than One Thousand Namibians - Men, Women and Children - who perished at the Hands of the German Authority at the Shark Island Concentration Camp: 1905-1907 (August 2002)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Shark Island: Images of Prisoners and German Soldiers at the Prison Camp: 1905
Copyright of Photos: Namibia National Archives

A battle is fought at Narus at the upper reaches of the Kareb River south of ||Khauxa!nas between the Germans and Jakob Marengo with Jan Hendrik of the ||Hawoben as his ally, with heavy casualties for the Germans. Renewed peace negotiations between the Germans and Jakob Marengo and Cornelius Frederiks in ||Khauxa!nas fail again because the Germans attack the Nama during the armistice. Lieutenant Thilo von Trotha is killed.

"House of Jakob Marengo" at ||Khauxa!nas: Possible Site of the 1905 Peace Negotiations
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Marengo's House: Oral Evidence has it that the Slab to the left was the Table of the 1905 Peace Negotiations
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

15.-17.06.

||Khauxa!nas: Rectangular Building: Marengo's House
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Warmfontein: Grave of the Mother of Johannes Louw, Advisor to Jakob Marengo: Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Warmfontein: Grave of Johannes Louw, Advisor to Jakob Marengo: Interesting is that the Grave has been "vandalised": Karas Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Warmfontein: Next to the Grave of Johannes Louw, Advisor to Jakob Marengo are some unnamed Nama Graves, probably one could belong to Johannes Louw's Nama Wife
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.07. 03.07. 06.07.

August 05.08. 08.08. 24.08. 03.09.

The Commissioner of British Bechuanaland, Hamilton GooldAdams, negotiates with Captain Füsslein to exchange the eastern Caprivi Strip between the Kwando and Zambezi Rivers for a similar piece of land in north-western Ngamiland. Jakob Marengo attacks the Germans at Wasserfall. Construction of a third port jetty (167 m long, 8 m wide) commences in Lüderitz. This construction is necessitated by the increased war efforts of the Nama. The German newspapers Vorwärts and Leipziger Volkszeitung denounce the cruelties of the German troops in the suppression war against the Ovaherero and Nama. They demand the dismissal of Von Trotha. Abraham Morris attacks the Germans at Wortel (Nomaos). A new Mining Ordinance is promulgated. The OMEG railway line from Swakopmund to Omaruru is opened for traffic. Cornelius Frederiks is defeated in the battle of Ai-Ais. Thereafter he moves along the Fish River to the Oranje River and from there into the Great Karas Mountains where he joins Marengo’s forces.

06.09.

13.09.

15.09. 23.09.

28.09.

A telephone line from Windhoek to Gobabis is commissioned. The battle of Nubib in the Zaris Mountains is fought between united Ovaherero and Nama forces under the command of Ovaherero Chief Andreas and the Germans under Major Georg Maercker. A skirmish is fought at Guigatsis between Abraham Morris and the Germans. The battle of Nochas is fought between Jakob Marengo and Johannes Christian and the Germans under Von Erckert. After the battle Marengo and Christian move southwards. On their way to the Oranje River they intercept a German supply convoy at Naruchas, southwest of Kalkfontein-Süd (Karasburg). Jakob Marengo continues his attacks on the Germans at Oas. Jakob Marengo and Johannes Christian attack Heirachabis. The Rhenish missionary Kuhlmann describes a group of 487 Ovaherero imprisoned in the Shark Island concentration camp and notes that they are in a sad state. The South African newspaper, Argus, publishes a series of articles devoted to the atrocities at the hands of the German colonial power in Namibia. It is described how mostly women are used for manual labour on Shark Island. A young transport driver, Percival Griffith, is quoted as following: " ... Most of the prisoners, who compose the working gangs at Angra Pequeńa, are sent up from Swakopmund. There are hundreds of them, mostly women and children, and a few old men. There are many small children among them and not a few babies. Children as young as five years of age are made to work and are ill-treated like their unfortunate elders ... Heavy loads of sand and cement have to be carried by the women and children, who are nothing but skin and bone. Their loads are out of all proportions to their strength. I have often seen women and children dropping down. When they fall, they are sjambokked [whipped] by the soldier in charge of the gang, with his full force, until they get up. Across the face was the favourite place for the sjambokking and I have often seen the

blood flowing down the faces of the women and children and from their bodies, from the cuts of the weapon ... ." Hendrik Witbooi attacks Kirris Ost but has to escape. The post office in Otavi is reopened.

October

War Graves of German Soldiers fallen in the various Battles against Hendrik Witbooi in the Nama-German Resistance War 1904/1905
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Marengo and Christian attack and destroy a small German reconnaissance post at Jerusalem, south of Heirachabis. 06.10. They then move south to the Oranje River where they attack the military border post of Schuitdrift (Naob)(Groendorn)(10.10.). The second port jetty at Lüderitz is completed. Also here slave 13.10. labour from the Shark Island concentration camp is used. The battle of Hartebeestmund near Pelladrift on the Oranje River is fought between Jakob Marengo with Johannes 24./25.10. Christian and the Germans, with heavy losses for the Germans (three officers are killed, three are wounded and 14 soldiers are killed, 35 are wounded). Hendrik Witbooi is killed in action in the battle of Vaalgras

(Koichas). He dies 15 minutes after being shot on horseback. Petrus Jod (born 27.12.1863) is also killed. Hendrik Witbooi is succeeded by his son, Isaak Witbooi, also called !Nanseb #Kharib !Nansemab. Isaak moves to Naosanabis (presentday Leonardville which during the South African era is renamed after the Dutch Reformed Church Minister Edward Leonard).

29.10.

Hendrik Witbooi's last Photography (probably Beginning of 1904: see the German Colours "black-white-red" at his left Arm (retouched ?))
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Remembrance Tomb Stone for Hendrik Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Jakob Marengo (Bondelswarts, Ovaherero and other communities), Cornelius Frederiks (Bethany Nama) and Simon Koper (Fransman Nama) continue fighting. Marengo with Christian operate from the rugged mountain land along the Oranje River for the next few months (November 1905 to early March 1906, attacking German patrols and supply convoys in the area around Warmbad). The battle of Arahoab (present-day Aranos) is fought between Nama and Germans under Captain Konrad von Klitzing. November The post office at Gochas is reopened. A rinderpest epidemic breaks out. A skirmish between Witbooi Nama and the Germans at Kirris Ost ends with losses for the latter.

German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting various Skirmishes around Koës between January and October 1905
02.11.
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

German War Cemetery at Koës: Reflecting

the Skirmish between surviving Witbooi Nama and Germans at Kirris Ost: 02.11.1905
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

19.11. 20.11. 26.11. 28.11.

General von Trotha has to leave for Germany. His successor is Von Deimling who stills stays in Germany (until 1906). Acting commander is Colonel Friedrich Theodor Dame. Witbooi Nama Samuel Isaak surrenders to the Germans at Berseba (Georg Maercker). Other Nama, such as ||Hawoben Chief Jan Hendrik, follow. The German Emperor orders the confiscation without compensation of the properties of SWA indigenes. Friedrich von Lindequist becomes the new Governor of the colony. Okowakuatjiwi (later renamed Kalkfeld) is surveyed. With the mediation of the German missionaries, Von Lindequist calls on the Ovaherero to return in peace and submit to German authority. The Ovaherero should assemble in Otjihaenena (Okatumba)(missionary Diehl) and Omburo (near Omaruru)(missionary Kuhlmann). Further concentration camps [Konzentrationslager] are established in Otjosazu and later Otjosongombe. Nikanor Hoveka becomes a foreman in Otjihaenena and manages to survive. With Heinrich Vedder of the Rhenish Missionary Society in German South West Africa at Swakopmund by his side to translate "sentence for sentence" from German into Otjiherero, Von Lindequist chastises the assembled Ovaherero prisoners-of-war for unjustly causing the war. He announces that they are now living the punishment they deserved: "That your people are now destroyed, that so many have been miserably killed, that some of your chiefs have gone over the border, that you find yourselves imprisoned, that is your own fault. ..." He then remarks that he could not ameliorate their suffering until all Ovaherero had come in from the field. "You have the opportunity to send them the message

to surrender themselves. Fair treatment is guaranteed to them ... but I can say to you that every one who conducts himself well will also be treated well ... ". What Von Lindequist means by "good conduct" is co-operation in a system of forced labour which the Germans establish as the heart of the camp system. Documents describing in detail the location of the Swakopmund concentration camp (or camps) have not yet come to light. Possibly one camp is established initially near the port department on the open beach. Later an additional main camp is established north of the Swakopmund State Railway Station. One eye witness (Hugo Fraser) describes the situation at the beach camp (before Von Trotha arrived): "When I got to Swakopmund I saw very many Herero prisoners of war had been captured in the rebellion which was still going on in the country. There must have been about 600 men, women and children prisoners. They were in an enclosure on the beach, fenced in with barbed wire. The women were made to do hard labour just like the men. The sand is very deep and heavy there. The women had to load and unload carts and trolleys, and also to draw Scotch-cart loads of goods to Nonidas where there was a depot. The women were put in spans of eight to each Scotch-cart and were made to pull like draught animals. Many were halfstarved and weak, and died of sheer exhaustion. Those who did not work well were brutally flogged with sjamboks. I even saw women knocked down with pick handles. The German soldiers did this. I personally saw six women murdered by German soldiers. They were ripped open with bayonets. I saw the bodies. I was there for six months, and the Hereros died daily in large numbers as a result of exhaustion, ill-treatment and exposure." This report is confirmed by Heinrich Vedder of the Rhenish Missionary Society in German South West Africa who wrote to the RMS that the Ovaherero: "were placed behind a double row of barbed wire ... and housed in pathetic structures constructed out of simple sacking and planks, in

such a manner that in one structure 30 - 50 people were forced to stay without distinction to age or sex. From early morning until late at night, on weekends as well as on Sundays and holidays, they had to work under the clubs of raw overseers until they broke down. Added to this food was extremely scarce. Rice without any necessary additions was not enough to support their bodies, already weakened by life in the field [as refugees] and used to the hot sun of the interior, December from the cold and restless exertion of all their powers in the 01.12. prison conditions in Swakopmund. Like cattle hundreds were driven to death and like cattle they were buried. This opinion might seem hard or exaggerated. ... but the chronicle may not withhold such a remorseless rawness, lusty sensuality, brutal overlordship broadly perpetrated here by troops and civilians. A full description is hardly possible." An estimate reveals that in total between 2 250 and 2 750 Ovaherero prisoner-of-war (men, women and children) die in the Swakopmund camps between 1905 and 1908. Virtually nothing is recorded about the disposition of those who died. Most likely they are buried in the old cemetery bordered by the Swakop River to the south and Kramersdorf to the north. Manasse !Noreseb Gamab from Hoachanas (!Hoaxa!nâs), ally of Hendrik Witbooi, is killed in action in the battle of Gubuoms (!Gu-!oms), south-east of Aminuis. According to Kai5 khaun oral evidence the Germans behead Chief Manasse and bring his head to Germany. The Kai||khaun from Hoachanas obtain a new leader only in 1922 (until 1936)(!Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb)).

The Kai5khaun Heroe's Day (05.12.2004):

Death of Chief Manasse !Noreseb Gamab against the Germans on 01.12.1905 at Gubuoms: Guest of Honour: Klaus Dierks (Rigth Photo: Karen Dierks, née von Bremen to the Right): Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Jürgen Leskien

The Kai5khaun Heroe's Day (05.12.2004): Death of Chief Manasse !Noreseb Gamab against the Germans on 01.12.1905 at Gubuoms: Guest of Honour: Klaus Dierks: together with Reverend Markus Kooper
Copyright of Photos: Jürgen Leskien

The Kai5khaun Heroe's Day (05.12.2004): Death of Chief Manasse !Noreseb Gamab against the Germans on 01.12.1905 at Gubuoms: The Unveiling of a Memorial for all the Kai5khaun Chiefs since 1695 at the

Grave of Chief Manasse !Noreseb Gamab
The German Reichstag approves funds to build a new railway line from Lüderitz to the east. The new railway would reduce the transport rates from Lüderitz to Keetmanshoop from 30 Mark per 500 kg to 9 Mark.

Garub Station at the Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line (currently under Re-construction) which was built between December 1905 and November 1906: 30 km west of Aus: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

15.12.

The "Garub Water Railway Line" which provided the Water for the Construction of the Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: with German Writer Jürgen Leskien: August 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The "Garub Water Railway Line": Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

17.12. 26.12.

27.12.

The battle of Toasis, south of Aminuis, is fought between Simon Koper and the Germans under Major von der Heyde. Captain Kliefoth is killed. German Emperor Wilhelm II signs a formal order for the expropriation of tribal lands. Construction of the railway line from Lüderitz to Aus begins. The Deutsche Kolonial Eisenbahn Bau und Betriebs Gesellschaft is responsible for executing this project. The chief engineer is Sönke Nissen. This railway line is built with concentration camp labour from Shark Island, without recourse to proper nutrition and medical facilities. The statistics of the railway project is frightening. According to numbers kept in the records of the German Colonial Administration, a total of 2 014 concentration camp prisoners were used for the railway construction between January 1906 and June 1907. From these prisoners 1 359 died while working on the line: a 67% mortality rate. This means that every hundred metres of the railway line from Lüderitz to Aus account for one dead Namibian Shark Island prisoner. Major von Estorff takes his new command at Warmbad . His main task is to secure the transport link between Lüderitz and Keetmanshoop.

28.12.

[Return to Table

[Return to Table of Contents]

Von Lindequist allows "white" settlers political representation in the Governor’s Council.

Governor Von Lindequist visits Usakos, 1906
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1906

The copper mine at Tsumeb is opened (the company OMEG representing mainly British and German capital: first director is Gustav Gathmann, followed by Gustav Duft). Until 1909 mining is conducted in an open pit. Annual production begins with some 15 000 t of ore and reaches a maximum of 70 000 t before World War One. The construction of the first copper smelter in Tsumeb starts. The smelter is completed in 1907. Operational costs are extremely high because the charcoal for the smelter is imported from Germany. Later, charcoal consumption is reduced by the addition of iron ore from Kalkfeld. Otjiwarongo is founded as a future railway junction (surveyed by Gustav Thomas). A heliograph link is established between Outjo and Okaukuejo. Albert Voigts buys the farm Voigtsgrund (between Mariental and Maltahöhe) and builds there the largest dam in SWA so far. The leader of the Rhenish Missionary Society, Gottlob Haussleiter, expresses during a Colonial Congress at Berlin that the authorities in German SWA should distinguish between guilty and innocent indigenes and should put a stop

to the mass killings of prisoners of war. He further expresses that the mission should show respect for the human value of the defeated peoples, as well as restore in them a faith in their future. He furthermore emphasises the importance of educating "black" people so that they could have a greater share in shaping the future of the territory. This attitude by the Rhenish Missionary Society leads, however, to frequent clashes between the missionaries and "white" farmers who are inclined to regard the Mission’s "useless" instruction as a hindrance to "blacks" executing their daily tasks. The battle of Duurdrift South is fought between Jakob Marengo and the Germans under Captain Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck.

05.01.

German War Cemetry at Koës: One of the many Casualties in the Kalahari Sand Dunes during the German Nama War in the Kalahari from 1904 to 1912: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.02.

A local telephone network is established in Karibib. Witbooi Chief Isaak surrenders to the Germans under Lieutenant Pabst at Nunub. After the Witbooi defeat many Nama are deported by the Germans to the northern part of the Police Zone while surviving Ovaherero are brought to the south to satisfy requirements for farm labour there (against

the conditions of surrender as agreed by the Germans (Von Estorff) in which it is promised that the Witbooi Nama may stay in Gibeon). For the Witbooi Nama, this means 03.02. deportation first to Windhoek, from where many are brought to the concentration camp on Shark Island near Lüderitz. Others are deported to the German colonies Togo and Cameroon, with heavy loss of life. Some Witbooi Nama manage to return to Gibeon in the following years. The bulk, however, including the sons of Hendrik Witbooi, can only return with the change of colonial power following the South African military occupation in 1915. The battle of Namtob is fought by Ovaherero Chief Andreas with Cornelius Frederiks against the Germans under the 11.02. command of Richard Volkmann. Andreas escapes into the Namib Desert where he probably dies of thirst. The battle of Norechab, at the road between Ramansdrift and 14.02. Warmbad, is fought between Johannes Christian and Friedrich von Erckert, with heavy losses for the Germans. Five steam cranes come into operation on the wooden jetty in 15.02. Swakopmund. Christian Goliath of Berseba, an ally of the Germans, tries 17.02. unsuccessfully to persuade Cornelius Frederiks to surrender at Chamasis, west of Berseba. Cornelius Frederiks finally yields to German supremacy (Richard Volkmann) at Heikoms. Frederiks dies on Shark 03.03. Island near Lüderitz in 1907. His decapitated body is used by the German "geneticist" Eugen Fischer to prove his racial theories of the superiority of the German race. The battle of Wasserfall at the Oranje River is fought by 08./09.03. Johannes Christian, Jakob Marengo and Abraham Morris against the Germans under Beyer. 11.03. Marengo is involved in a skirmish at Pelladrift. Jakob Marengo is defeated by the Germans under Friedrich von Erckert and Alexander von Hornhardt in the battle of 12.03.

12.03.

Kumkum. Marengo escapes in the direction of the Great Karas Mountains. Headman Fielding of Cornelius Frederiks’s community is defeated in the Little Karas Mountains but continues to fight.

13./14.03.

War Cemetry at Holoog Station: Railway Line: Grünau-Seeheim
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Marengo and Christian attack the German military post at Jerusalem. After the encounter the two leaders decide to split 21.03. forces. Christian turns westwards, while Marengo moves north. Jakob Marengo attacks a German supply convoy near 26.03. Ukamas. The Roman Catholic Church stands with unquestioned patriotism on the side of the German troop and their conduct 30.03. of war. Father Nachtwey submits the whole mission personnel to the military high command. Marengo is engaged in a skirmish with the Germans 05.04. (Lieutenant von Mielczewski) on the road between Nababis and Ukamas. The battle of Fettkluft is fought by Jakob Marengo and 08./09.04. Abraham Morris with Johannes Christian against the Germans under Heuck, with heavy losses for the Germans. Von Estorff shifts his headquarters to Blydeverwacht, together 10.04. with Lieutenants Erich Friedrich von Schauroth and Von Alten. Jakob Marengo continues his attacks on the Germans at Oas.

14.04. 18.04. 20.04. 26.04. 04.05.

05.05. 19.05. 21.05. 22.05. 23.05.

24.05. 25.05.

A skirmish takes place at Narudas ("Robber Henrick’s Place") between the Germans and Marengo. Before Jakob Marengo, in the face of superior German forces, escapes to the British Cape Colony, he is encountered in a skirmish at Klipdam at the border between SWA and the Cape Colony. The battle of Wittmund is fought between Johannes Christian and the Germans under Heuck. A post office is opened in Otjiwarongo. Marengo surrenders to British Cape Police after being defeated by Captain Richard Bech’s troops in the battle of Van Rooysvley in the Cape Colony, with a loss of 23 of his soldiers. He is transferred by the British to the railhead at Prieska and from there to Cape Town, to the Tokai prison. The battle of Gawachab at the Chamob (Löwen) River is fought between Johannes Christian and the Germans under Cruse. Johannes Christian defeats the Germans in the skirmish of Gais. The German commander Lieutenant Engler is killed. Johannes Christian attacks the Germans at De Villierspütz. The German suffer losses. A post office is opened at Kalkfontein Süd (present-day Karasburg). The battle of Dakaib is fought by Abraham Morris with Johannes Christian against the Germans under Major Erich Rentel. The Germans suffer heavy losses. Johannes Christian attacks the Germans under the command of Lieutenant Karl Fürbringer in Tsamab, southwest of Heirachabis. The skirmish ends with the total loss of the Germans. Morris and Christian are defeated by Rentel in the battle of Nugais at the Ham River. The railway line between Aus and Lüderitz reaches the

Grasplatz station.

30.05.

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: Station Grasplatz: 24 km from Lüderitz: August 2002: From 2003 onwards the Line will be rebuilt
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

New stamps for German South West Africa are issued (now with watermark "yacht Hohenzollern"). They are valid until 1919 (from 1915 onwards in Germany only). They are used throughout SWA with the exception of the Caprivi Strip (as June from 1909). The Caprivi Strip with the station Schuckmannsburg on the Zambezi River remains without any postal installation, so that all mail has to be posted via Sesheke in present-day Zambia and directed via Livingstone and Cape Town. A post office is opened at Okasise. 01.06. The Witbooi Nama Hendrik Samuel Witbooi, grandson of the old Hendrik Witbooi, is born. Major von Freyhold defeats Johannes Christian in the battle of 03./04.06. Sperlingspütz. However, the Germans suffer heavy losses: two officers and eight soldiers are killed and one officer and seven men are wounded. Warmbad is attacked by the Bondelswarts ( !Gami-#nun) under Johannes Christian. One day later Gabis is attacked.

20.06.

The Cemetery in Warmbad: Skirmish on the Road between Warmbad and Kalkfontein Süd: 20.06.1906
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

On June, 21st 1906, Gabis, west of Warmbad, is attacked by !Gami-#nun Leader
Johannes Christian
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.07. 04.07. 16.07. 23.07. August 02.08.

The post office at Hatzamas is closed. The OMEG railway line reaches Otavi. On the final stretch to Tsumeb the line has to cross the Bobos Mountains at a steep gradient. The Roman Catholic mission station in Omaruru is reestablished. Johannes Christian and Abraham Morris attack Uhabis. The OMEG railway line reaches Tsumeb. A Roman Catholic mission station is established at Okombahe.

06.08.

Johannes Christian attacks Alurisfontein. A law is enacted providing for the expropriation of the land and cattle of "dissident tribes" (Ovaherero, Swartbooi, Topnaar, Witbooi Nama, Kai||khaun (Red Nation), Bethany Nama, Fransman Nama, Veldschoendragers and Bondelswarts). This means that south of the Red Line only the Rehoboth Baster and the Berseba (* Hai-* khauan) community keep 08.08. their land, while the Dama - whom the Germans consider as having no land rights - are given some land as a grant, but not as their property. (This ordinance is further enacted on 08.05.1907). However, these ordinances made no provision for the confiscation of Khauas Nama property as prescribed in the Imperial Ordinance of December 1905. Also the peace and protection treaty of March 1894 is still valid. The battle of Noibis at the Naraob Mountains is fought 18.08. between Christian and the Germans under Captain Siebert, with heavy losses for the Germans. The Germans under Captain von Bentivegni defeat the Nama 20.08. at the Uhabis River. Johannes Christian is defeated in the battle of Aos at the 22.08. Back River, but he continues fighting. The Ovaherero prisoner-of-war camps at Otjihaenena (Okatumba) and Omburo are closed. New camps are established at Otjosongombe at the Waterberg (missionary Olpp) and Okomitombe near Gobabis (missionary Diehl). In the camps Ovaherero leaders and men of fighting age, allegedly involved in complicity in the war, are systematically sought out, tried in court martials and executed, usually by hanging. In some cases the missionaries are allowed to minister to some of these unfortunates. Missionary Meier, who was deeply affected by one particular incident in 1905, describes in great length the final days of Zacharias Kukuri, the former Chief of Otjosazu. In the days leading up to his September execution, Kukuri’s arms were bound behind his back, even though he suffered from smallpox. When finally he was lead

09.09.

12.09.

06.10.

to the gallows, the noose was laid around his neck. "And then - never will I forget that moment - the unheard happened, as he fell the noose slipped, and the wretch fell to the ground. ... Soon however two soldiers were there, they lifted him up, and then a little to the side, on orders of the major who led the proceedings, he was shot." The camps are closed in 1908. Henceforth all Ovaherero over the age of seven years are forced to carry metal identification discs around their necks. The Roman Catholic Church begins with vocational training for prisoners-of-war. The first group of 1 700 people of the Veldschoendrager (5 Hawoben), the Witbooi Nama (* Khowesin) and the Bethany Nama (!Aman) arrives on the Shark Island concentration camp, who were earlier ordered by Governor Von Lindequist to be incarcerated there. The Nama, who had initially surrendered to the Germans, in the hope of retaining their dignity and assets, are instead sent to this infamous prison island. The post office at Owikokorero is closed. The Rhenish missionary, Laaf, writes to the Rhenish Missionary Society in Germany the following about the Shark Island prisoners: "A large number of people [Nama] are sick, mostly from scurvy, and every week between 15 and 20 people die. Just as many of the Herero are perishing, so that one can make a weekly estimate of 50 deaths." Little over two months later, Laaf is writing another letter: "The mortality among the Nama is frightening high. There are often days where up to 18 people die. Today the [Witbooi Nama] Samuel Isaak [who had surrendered to the Germans at Berseba in November 1905] told Brother Nyhoff: 'Dat Volk is gedaan' [the community is doomed]. If it continues like this, it will not take long before the entire community is completely killed off." In December alone 263 prisoners die - an average of 8,5 per day, excluding fatalities among the Ovaherero prisoners. Of the 573 Nama survivors, 123 are deemed to be so ill that they

would likely die in the near future. 09./17.10. The first Governor’s Council holds its inaugural meeting. The post office at Kubub is closed, and the opening of a post office at Aus is delayed for a day for the railway line from Aus to Lüderitz to be completed.

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 185: West of Aus: Removal of old German "KruppRails", nearly 100 Years old: View to the West: Direction Garub: Progress to Date: September 2002
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 189 + 400: West of Aus: Old German Steel Bridge: Progress to Date: September 2002
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

12.10.

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 190: West of Aus: The old German Steel Sleepers are stacked: View to the West: Progress to Date: September 2002
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 195: West of Aus: Station Ausweiche, where the steep Ascent to Aus Nek commences: September 2002
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 200: Border between Farming Area west of Aus

and the "Diamond Sperrgebiet": September 2002
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Aus to Lüderitz Railway Line: km 252: End of Contract at Haalenberg": September 2002
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

20.10. 24.10. 01.11.

05.11.

12.11.

Attendance at school is made compulsory (for "whites" only)(amended on 28.10.1911 to include also children which live further than 4 km from the next school). Chief of Staff von Moltke agrees to transfer the state railway line from military to civil command. The railway line from Lüderitz to Aus (140 km long) is officially opened. Bondelswarts Chief Cornelius Stürmann (not to be confused with the Griqua Skippers (Shepperd) Stürmann, the Witbooi "prophet") surrenders to Captain Siebert in Lifdood. This surrender leads to peace negotiations with Colonel von Deimling in Lifdood (21.11.). The OMEG railway line from Swakopmund to Tsumeb is officially opened. With the completion of the Otavi railway line, the telegraph system is extended from Usakos to Tsumeb (with a branch line to Grootfontein, which is opened on 24.12.1908). In the south the telegraph system is expanded from Keetmanshoop to Ramansdrift via Warmbad and Kalkfontein Süd (260 km). Due to the high transport costs the construction costs climb to

16.11. 28.11.

13.12.

23.12.

Mark 1 100/km. This provokes the member of the German Reichstag, Matthias Erzberger, to lively debate. Chief Fielding of the Bethany Nama is defeated at the Nuob River mouth (where it meets the Oranje River), but he escapes. A post office is opened in Tsumeb. In Germany various colonial scandals and the uprisings in SWA create internal reverberations. The Reichstag is dissolved after the Government fails to secure the passage of an additional budget for German South West Africa. The socalled "Hottentot" elections (09.01.1907) usher in a phase of colonial reform, but this is effectively boycotted by the German settlers in SWA. Funding for the southern railway line from Aus to Keetmanshoop (226 km) is approved by the newlyelected Reichstag. The "Christmas Peace" between the Nama (Bondelswarts) under Johannes Christian and the Germans under Von Estorff and Captain Eberhardt von dem Hagen is announced in Ukamas, with Father Johannes Malinowski as mediator. The Bondelswarts are allowed to settle near Warmbad.

[Return to Table of Contents]

Treckkoppje Railway Station, around 1900
G von Schumann

Executed Namibians during the Great Resistance War, 1903-1909
Namibia National Archives

[Return to Table of Contents]

4. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: GERMAN RULE
4.4 GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA CONSOLIDATES: 1907-1914
The "geneticist" Eugen Fischer uses German South West Africa as a field site for the development of later notorious theories on European racial superiority. Fischer studies the bodies of 17 Nama prisoners of war who have perished in a concentration camp on Shark Island near Lüderitz. These Nama fighters, including Nama leader Cornelius Frederiks of Bethany (who dies in the Shark Island concentration camp on 16.02.1907) who had surrendered to the Germans in March 1906, are decapitated. A published photograph of three heads supposedly provides visual evidence to support the "scientific" arguments for German racial superiority over the Africans. For the year 1906 it is reported that altogether 778 post-mortem tests were conducted. Consequently also skulls are collected, which Ovaherero female prisoners-of- war are forced to scrape clean with the aid of glass shards.

Race Anatomical Research at Nama Heads at the Heads of perished Prisoners of War (left) and the Loading and Packing of Skulls of perished Ovaherero by German Soldiers

for German Universities and Museums: Research by Eugen Fischer
Copyright of Photos: Chr. Fetzer: Rassenanatom. Untersuchungen an 17 Hottentottenköpfen: Lichtdruck der Hofkunstanstalt, Stuttgart (left picture): Right photo from a post card from German Southwest Africa: Loading of Herero skulls for German universities

1907

Eugen Fischer
Copyright of Photo: www.chgs.umn.edu/Histories.../backgrounds.htm

The colonial Governor, Von Lindequist, proclaims the Etosha Pan a game reserve. The Deutsche Farm-Gesellschaft AG for Liebig’s Extract of Meat Company Ltd is established in Heusis in the Khomas Hochland.

The Ruin of the Manager's House of the Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Ltd. of 1907 at Heusis (Neu Heusis) in the Khomas Hochland

Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Roman Catholic Hospital in Swakopmund is established. Regular copper exports begin. Wecke und Voigts found the Otjizonjati Minensyndikat. Due to the high transport costs the mine is not very profitable. The Gorob-Syndikat of Berlin begins the detailed exploration, and also development of the Gorob and Hope Mines. Copper, gold and silver are mined. After the death of the seventeenth Uukwambi King Negumbo Iipumbu ya Tshilongo (1907-1932) becomes the new king of the Uukwambi area in Ovamboland . He establishes his capital at Omapona and later again at Onatshiku. Hugo Friedmann buys the farm Ukamas from Carl Wilhelm Walser. The telegraph system reaches a length of 3 616 km (since 1901). 34 postal and telegraphic stations are opened so far. Twelve towns have telephone networks. 01.01. Post offices are opened at Brackwasser and Otjosondu. The wooden jetty in Swakopmund is completed but the whole 08.01. structure has to be strengthened, extended (by 50 m) and widened (by 5 m) during this year. A post office is opened at Okowakuatjiwi (later renamed 23.01. Kalkfeld). A Labour Code is passed to confirm "black" labourers’ dispossession of land and cattle. Workers have to carry 25.01. passes (numbered metal badge and a service book (Dienstbuch) and are resettled in "locations". February Gustav Voigts and Richard Voigts (Krumhuk) import breeding cattle from Germany. The power station of the Damara & Namaqua 02.02. Handelsgesellschaft in Swakopmund is opened. Chief Simon Koper surrenders but later continues the fight

March

31.03.

April

01.04.

05.05. 09.05.

(1908). German statistics show that in the concentration camp on Shark Island near Lüderitz, so far 1 203 Nama prisoners had died, of these 460 were women and 274 were children. In summation six months after the Nama communities of the Veldschoendrager (5 Hawoben), the Witbooi Nama (* Khowesin) and the Bethany Nama (!Aman) were deported to the island, only 450 remained, out of a total of about 2 000 prisoners. The German Government declares that the war is over. The law providing for the expropriation of land and cattle of "dissident tribes" is also made applicable to the Nama. The state railway is transferred to the civil administration. Ernst Weiske becomes the Executive Director of the newlycreated Kaiserliche Eisenbahnverwaltung ( Imperial Railway Administration). The cornerstone of the Christuskirche (Christ Church) in Windhoek is laid (by Reverend Wilhelm Anz). Von Estorff becomes the new Schutztruppe commander. One of his first tasks is to close down the Shark Island concentration camp because conditions in this camp are so bad that he disobeys the orders of his superiors and moves the camp to a healthier setting in the inland (Burenkamp outside Lüderitz and Okawayo, northeast of Karibib). A new post office building is opened in Swakopmund and replaces that of 1895. Chief Fielding surrenders to the Germans. Only Simon Koper, Jakob Marengo and Lambert of Bethany continue the fight. The post office at the Waterberg is closed. Though Ovaherero have been ordered to report and surrender themselves to the missionary collection points and military stations, and though military patrols are regularly sent out to seek fugitive Ovaherero, many Ovaherero continue to live in the field and roam from one area to the other. Consequently the commander of the station Waldau, Bauer, writes to the

12.05.

17.05.

June

08.06. 10.06. 01.07. 09.07. 20.07. 16.08. 18.08. 24.08.

distriktsamt at Okahandja: "As numerous unemployed Herero, men as well as women, have recently been wandering around, in the vicinity of Waldau and along the railway line, who, when hailed, flee into the bush and hide there, I request the "Kaiserliche Distriktsamt" to inform me whether it is permitted to shoot at these ... Herero ... ". Bernhard Dernburg is appointed Colonial State Secretary, and a programme of reform intended to "uplift the natives" is drawn up. Clashes with the "powder and lead" policy of most German settlers occur. Bruno Helmut Erich von Schuckmann becomes the new colonial Governor and succeeds Von Lindequist. The British in the Cape Colony release Jakob Marengo from the Tokai prison in Cape Town. He is instructed to report to the Civil Commissioner at Upington where he is ordered not to cross the border into German South West Africa. In spite of this order Marengo crosses into SWA at Gamsib Ravine (probably during July or August). Construction of a branch line from the main OMEG railway from Otavi to Grootfontein (91 km) commences. This results in the opening of further copper mines at Guchab (later Kombat), Gross Otavi and Asis. A post office is opened at Onguati. A post office is opened at Kanus. A post office is opened at Wilhelmstal. A post office is opened at Kuibis. An instruction is issued by the commander of the German Schutztruppe that his troops are to prevent Marengo from entering SWA. The Germans issue a proclamation to the effect that indigenes may not possess land or cattle. The British Cape Government informs the Germans that Marengo is hiding near the Back River mouth at the border between SWA and the Cape Colony.

25.08.

26.08.

03.09.

20.09.

22.09. 24.09. October 01.10.

Lieutenant von Hanenfeldt who is stationed at the garrison of Ukamas travels to Upington in order to co-ordinate the German and British forces against Marengo. A heliograph link is established between Ukamas and Upington. Captain von dem Hagen co-ordinates the German troops with the British ones in Cape Town. It is decided to mount a common action against Marengo on 01.09. in order to preventJakob Marengo from uniting his forces with those of Simon Koper. The colonial administration issues a proclamation that government farms may not be sold to farmers who live together with "native" women. The unified German-British efforts are eventually successful. Jakob Marengo is killed in action by a South African patrol under the command of Major Elliot in Eenzamheed in the Cape Colony. His son, Samuel Marengo, his nephews, Michael Marengo, Hendrich Marengo and Johannes Marengo and his secretary Saul Damara are killed together with him. Petrus Marengo escapes. An ex-combatant of the battle of Narudas ("Robber Henrick’s Place") in March 1905 pays later tribute to Jakob Marengo: "In those old days, forty years ago, South West was still a wild country. ... Perhaps that is the reason why Jakob Marengo has received no recognition from any one for his outstanding intelligence and bravery, but I am sure that there are many old people still alive who like me would bow their heads in respect at the grave of Jakob Marengo". A post office is opened at Aris. Karakul sheep are introduced in SWA (from Russia). They form the breeding stock on the farm Voigtsgrund (Albert Voigts). Further breeding sheep are imported to the experimental farm Fürstenwalde near Windhoek (1909). The southern railway line reaches Brackwasser. A post office is opened at Groß Witvlei.

07.10.

A post office is opened at Otjosonjati. A post office is opened at Feldschuhhorn (without its own postmark). Cancellations are done in Brackwasser. November Roman Catholic missionaries travel to the Kavango. Mbukushu Chief Diyeve confirms his support for missionary work. 01.11. A post office is opened at Berseba. 25.11. A post office is opened at Otjihavera. 27.11. Post offices are opened at Richthofen and Osona. 30.11. The post office at Groß Barmen is re-opened. End The southern railway line reaches Feldschuhhorn (287 km). November A post office is opened at Neudamm (after the experimental 01.12. farm has been established there). 06.12. Post offices are opened at Aub and Gochaganas.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1908

01.01. 05.01. 11.01.

Late January 13.03.

A total of 9 394 "whites" live in the territory. The Schutztruppe force is reduced to 3 988 men. The lower section of the state railway (Swakopmund to Karibib) is used much less than the more efficient OMEG railway line. It therefore becomes clear that the lower section of the state railway should be abandoned in due course. The Uukwaluudhi King Niilenga yAmukwa dies. He is succeeded by the tenth King Iita ya Nalitoke (1908-1909). The Finnish mission station Elim in the Uukwambi area is reestablished. In Lüderitz a small jetty for passengers is built close to the new port jetty (built in 1905). A rockfill connection dam is built between the town of Lüderitz and Shark Island. First tin discoveries are made in the Omaruru area. The German geologist Hans Cloos is involved in the exploration. The Herero-Orlams settle with German permission at Vaalgras/Koichas. They are led by their Chief Kahumba Kakahito (also called: Jan Apollus). Alador Hrabovsky buys the farm Goanikontes on the Swakop River. A post office is opened at Okaukwejo (present-day Okaukuejo). A post office is opened at Hoachanas. A skirmish takes place between the Fransman or !Kharakhoen Nama under Simon Koper and the Germans at !Nanib at the Auob River. The Bondelswarts continue their resistance against the Germans. Seven Bondelswarts led by Wilhelm Ortmann cross the Oranje River to escape German colonial domination. After approaching the South African Cape authorities the seven Bondelswarts are extradited from the Cape Colony. The branch railway line from Otavi to Grootfontein is opened. A skirmish takes place between the Germans and a Nama unit led by Simon Koper at Kubub, north of Koes.

08.03.

German War Cemetry at Koës: Reflecting the Skirmish of Kubub between Germans and the Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper: 08.03.1908
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

April Simon Koper escapes after the German troops kill most of his followers in British Bechuanaland. German Commander Friedrich von Erckert is killed in the skirmish of Seatsub. One of the sons of Hendrik Witbooi, Klein-Hendrik, participates in the battle but gets away back to SWA. There he is taken prisoner and kept in Grootfontein. On 21.06.1910 he is deported with some surviving Nama to the German colony of Cameroon (Dschang). Most of the Nama die there or are executed. On 08.03.1913 the German Parliament (Reichstag) intervenes. The last surviving Nama, together with KleinHendrik Witbooi, return to SWA. Klein-Hendrik disappears in the area of Otjiwarongo. 16.03.

German War Cemetry at Gochas: Reflecting

the Battle of Seatsub in British Bechuanaland between Germans and the Fransman Nama (!Khara-khoen) under Simon Koper: 16.03.1908
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

State Secretary Dernburg announces self-government ("whites" only) for SWA.

17.03.

German State Secretary Dernburg visits Omaruru, 1908
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

April

After the death of King Nehale Ondonga in Ovamboland once again becomes once again a unified whole. Railway worker Zacharias Lewala finds the first diamond near Lüderitz and hands it over to his superior, August Stauch. Two months later, after Paul Range, the government geologist, confirms the stones to be diamonds, the rush begins and in a short space of time practically the whole coastal strip of southern Namibia is pegged. Many diamond companies mushroom including the Koloniale Bergbaugesellschaft, the Vereinigte Diamanten Minen AG (vorm. Weffl de Meillon & Co.), the Pomona Diamantengesellschaft, the BahnfelderAbbaugesellschaft mbH Lüderitzbucht, the Lüderitzbuchter Bergbaugesellschaft mbH, the Kolmanskop Diamond Mines Ltd and the Diamantengesellschaft Grillental mbH. Smaller diamond companies are the following: Anichab,

Viktoria, Germania, Nautilus, Phönix, Kubub, Elisabethbucht, Swakopmund, Meteor, Harmonia, Karlsthal, Angras Juntas, Keetmanshoop, Südwest, Südstern and QuitzowDiamantengesellschaft and the Namaqua-Schürfgesellschaft etc. The diamond activities are regulated by the Mining Ordinance dated 08.08.1905.

14.04.

The Diamond Ghost Town of Kolmanskop east of Lüderitz: 1971: Karas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Image from the deserted Town of Kolmanskop
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Kolmanskop: August 2002: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

21.04.

24.04. 25.04.

The British High Commissioner in South Africa, Lord Selborne, observes that "white" hunters "cannot well be refused ..., because of the absence of any authority in the Caprivi Strip, to enter this territory". He establishes a border post between the Caprivi Strip and Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) at Sesheke-Mwandi, and another between the Caprivi Strip and British Bechuanaland at Kazungula. Von Schuckmann declares the Caprivi Strip a restricted area. The Elisabeth Haus maternity hospital in Windhoek is opened. A post office is opened at Seeheim. Brackwasser’s postmark is however used until 31.05.1908. The post office at Feldschuhhorn is closed. The southern railway line is opened to traffic bound for Seeheim. At Seeheim a small railway workshop is erected.

26.04.

Fish River Railway Bridge at Seeheim: Seeheim-Aus Railway Line: 2002
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Erich Victor Carl August Franke visits again the Ovamboland Kings Kambonde kaMpingana of the Ondonga area and Ueyulu ya Hedimbi of the Uukwanyama area. He also visits the Uukwambi, Uukwalhuudi and Ongandjera areas. Franke May/June concludes protection treaties with all the kings of these areas, with assistance of the missionaries Martti Rautanen and August Wulfhorst. These treaties bring Ovamboland formally under German protection, but in practice the kingdoms still continue to function as independent units. The first of three Dampfwagen (steam-driven rail cars) are put June into operation on the OMEG railway line. 01.06. A post office is opened at Guchab. Construction of the railway line from Seeheim to Kalkfontein Süd (present-day Karasburg) commences, undertaken by the 02.06. company Deutsche Kolonial Eisenbahn Bau und Betriebs Gesellschaft. The British High Commissioner informs the Governor of German South West Africa that "it is urgently necessary that 19.06. some serious effort should be made to bring ... criminals [in the Caprivi Strip] to justice". The railway line from Lüderitz to Keetmanshoop (365 km) via Seeheim is officially opened by State Secretary Dernburg. The 21.06. line is constructed to meet the broader "Cape gauge" standard (1 067 mm wide).

17.07. 21.07.

22.07. 12.08. 08.09.

22.09.

The post office at Otjosondu is closed. Finance and accounting administrative functions are transferred to German South West Africa. In a diplomatic note Great Britain proposes a new eastern border along 21° east from the "Rietfontein corner angle" to the Molopo River in the south for the Caprivi Strip. This note provokes the Germans to show some interest in the Caprivi Strip. The post office at the Waterberg is re-opened. The Roman Catholic mission station at Grootfontein is established. Diamond areas are declared prohibited zones after the German government declares the area as sperrgebiet (restricted area) and prospecting rights are granted solely to the Deutsche Diamanten Gesellschaft (director: Heinrich Lotz). Lotz appoints Werner Beetz and Ernst Reuning. The sperrgebiet comprises an area between the Oranje River and 26o South (north of Lüderitz) and 100 km inland (Diamond Area No. 1). A diamond mine near Lüderitz is opened followed later by mines in Idatal and Scheibetal. After many areas are closed to prospecting, the search for diamonds turns northwards and soon new discoveries are made. The first diamond claims are pegged in the Meob Bay and Conception Bay area (Diamond Area No. 2, between 26o South and the areas north of Conception Bay (Lange Wand)). The first diamond is found on the Orloff claims and the Diamantenfelder Verwertungsgesellschaft is founded. The initial primitive processing of diamonds is soon replaced by mechanised methods. The Frankfurter Metallgesellschaft AG develops an efficient device with the Schiechel-Separator to separate diamonds from the sediments. J Böhm discovers a fossile fauna in the Sperrgebiet. Lüderitz begins to flourish due to the diamond rush. In the same year a dam constructed from rockfill is built between the

town and Shark Island which replaces the wooden bridge from the year 1905. Furthermore a passenger jetty is built 50 m north of the 1905 port jetty. Lüderitz is, after Windhoek (1904) and Swakopmund (1907), the third town in SWA which gets an official post office building. From 1908 to 1913 4,7 million carat diamonds worth 150 million Mark are mined (ą 66% of GDP). Kurt Streitwolf is sent to the Caprivi Strip as a symbolic 26.09. indication of the German presence there and to incorporate the area formally into the Protectorate. 20.10. A post office is opened at Khan. November The railway line from Seeheim to Kalkfontein Süd reaches the Holoog station (67 km). Streitwolf leaves for the Caprivi Strip. He travels from Gobabis 22.11. via British Bechuanaland (Rietfontein and Lake Ngami) to the Chobe River (also called Linyanti River). 12.12. A post office is opened at Arahoab (present-day Aranos). A Bondelswart unit is established under the command of Abraham Rolf, one of Jakob Marengo’s lieutenants. He December resumes the struggle against German colonialism and undertakes several successful raids against German farms in Namaland. The Germans under the command of Major Baerecke try to pursue the Bondelswarts. Klinghardt discovers new diamond fields near Bogenfels. End December Stauch and Scheibe find the rich diamond deposits of the Pomona area.

Streitwolf-Expedition crosses the Linyanti River on 25 January 1909
Namibia State Archives

[Return to Table of Contents]

Spanish King Alfons XIII becomes the arbitrator in the Walvis Bay border dispute. In Ovamboland King Iita ya Nalitoke of the Uukwaluudhi area dies. His successor is the eleventh King Mwaala gwa Nashilongo who governs until 1959. He plays a major role in contributing to peace, stability and the restoration of human rights in the Uukwaluudhi area. During this year 180 ships call at Swakopmund. The copper mine at Tsumeb obtains its first underground mining shaft (depth: 220 m). Further tin discoveries are made in Ameib in the Karibib area. The Koloniale Bergbaugesellschaft builds a 30 km long railway line from Lüderitz to the south in order to transport ore by mules. The Goerke House is built in Lüderitz and named after its first owner, Hans Goerke.

The 1909 built "Goerke House" at Lüderitz
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

A number of companies are also engaged in the exploration of marble. In Hamburg the Afrika-MarmorKolonialgesellschaft is founded, followed by the Koloniale Marmorsyndikat. Hans-Heinrich von Wolf builds the Duwisib Castle, south west of Maltahöhe.

1909

Duwisib Castle: built by Hans-Heinrich von Wolf 1909: south-west of Maltahöhe: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The surveyor lieutenant Hugo Jochmann discovers rock paintings in the Tsisab gorge in the Brandberg (called the Jochmann cave)(C1 and C2 periods: 4400 - 100 B.C.).

Graffiti by the German Surveyor, Lieutenant Jochmann: from the Year 1909 in

Jochmann's Shelter: Erongo Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Lion), March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): Jochmann's Shelter (Snake and Giraffe), March 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Faced with overwhelming German superiority (under the command of Major Baerecke), the Bondelswart unit under the command of Abraham Rolf crosses the Oranje River and Beginning withdraws to British-ruled territory. On crossing the border of January they tell a British police officer that "they would surrender to the Cape Government if they are given assurances that they would not be extradited. Otherwise they would fight to the last".

15.01. 17.01. 19.01.

22.01.

27.01.

28.01.

The post office Johann-Albrechtshöhe is opened. A post office is opened at Koes. The German Realschule (present-day Deutsche Höhere Privatschule (DHPS)) is opened. Kurt Streitwolf reaches the easternmost part of the colony – Ngoma on the Chobe River. It is presumably Leutwein who names this area the "Caprivi Strip" (which was formerly known as "German Barotseland" or "German Zambeziland"), in honour of German Chancellor Georg Leo von Caprivi de Caprera de Montecuccoli. Streitwolf proposes that the Caprivi Strip is quite valuable and should only be exchanged for something really valuable, for instance, Walvis Bay. The major problem is the long supply line to the Caprivi Strip because there is no direct connection to German South West Africa and all goods have to be transported via Walvis Bay, Cape Town, Livingstone and Sesheke-Mwandi in present-day Zambia (until the 1940s). The Caprivi Strip is officially incorporated into German South West Africa. The German Chancellor establishes a Territorial Council (Landesrat)( with advisory functions only) in the colony, as well as regional councils (Bezirksverbände: 4 to 6 elected members, mostly farmers: restricted powers: roads and water supply installations and similar powers: each regional office sends one member into the Landesrat) and local councils (4 to 8 councillors in Windhuk, Klein-Windhuk, Swakopmund, Lüderitzbucht, Keetmanshoop, Karibib, Okahandja, Omaruru, Tsumeb, Usakos, Aus and Warmbad)(all councils for "whites" only). The Bezirksbeiräte of 1899 are abolished. The Colonial Government announces that all traffic on the lower section of the state railway will be discontinued. Simultaneously government envisages buying the OMEG railway line.

Simon Koper agrees never to enter SWA again. The guerrilla war comes to an end but Koper supporters continue fighting the Germans (commander: Lieutenant Heinrich Georg Kirchheim) until September 1912 (or August 1913).

February

German War Cemetry at Gochas: The War between Germany and the Nama continued until 1912/13 (Mostly with the surviving Followers of Simon Koper and Jakob Marengo)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

07.02. 13.02. 21.02. 15.02. 06.03.

Schuckmannsburg is founded by Streitwolf as the administrative capital of the Caprivi Strip. It lies at the Zambezi River, opposite Sesheke-Mwandi. Streitwolf becomes first District Governor of the Caprivi Strip. The first newspaper in Lüderitz, Lüderitzbuchter Zeitung, is launched. A post office is opened at Kolmannskuppe (present-day Kolmanskop). The export of Angora goats is prohibited. The cornerstone for the "Turnhalle" building in Windhoek (completed in 1913) is laid. The Finnish Missionary Society establishes a mission station in the Uukwaluudhi area. The Roman Catholic Church establishes a mission station at Andara in the Kavango.

April/May

Roman Catholic Mission Church at Andara, Caprivi Region, December 2002
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.05.

04.05.

21.05.

After two years crossing southern Africa by a motor car, Paul Graetz arrives in Swakopmund (Start of the arduous journey in Dar-Es-Salaam in August 1997). The Subiya in the Caprivi Strip elect Chikamatondo as their chief, supported by Streitwolf. The Subiya have a well established chief’s structure with the title Liswani in use for more than 200 years. During Streitwolf’s time the Subiya area is thinly populated because many Subiya have left their area out of fear for the Germans. The German extermination policy against the Ovaherero is well known in the region. Streitwolf visits Fwe Headman Simata Mamili in Linyanti (New Linyanti) on the Chobe River. Simata has been in control of the entire Caprivi Strip including the Subya area since the Lozi official left the area some 10 years ago. He is confirmed as Chief of the Fwe community. Other Fwe communities under Chiefs Siluka and Sikosi, as well as the ethnic communities of the Yeyi, Mayuni and Totela, acknowledge the chieftainship of Simata. Up to the present the successors of Simata Mamili rule over all ethnic communities in the Caprivi Strip except for the Subiya community. Streitwolf’s dispensation works very well until the 1980s. Every community is represented in the Khuta, the administrative and juristic community centre. The office of the Ngambela is normally occupied by a non-Fwe.

29.05.

Middle 1909

June

01.06.

22.06.

The Windhoek Agricultural Show opens. Roman Catholic missionaries (together with Father Joseph Gotthardt, later Bishop of Windhoek) visit Gciriku Chief Nyangana in the Kavango. After German-British negotiations, the Bondelswart unit under the command of Abraham Rolf who had surrendered to the British authorities in South Africa at the beginning of the year is turned over to the Germans. Of the ten Nama, six are sentenced to death (they are publicly executed in Keetmanshoop) while four are condemned to life imprisonment and ordered to be kept in chains. In addition each of the condemned is given 100 lashes with the whip. However, the four Nama who had been given life sentences manage to escape from jail in Karibib in December 1909. A Portuguese military expedition under the leadership of Joao de Almeida moves from Angola against the Kavango. This expedition is accompanied by Vita Tom. Some Ovaherero fugitives from Bechuanaland join Vita. The German administration issues a mining ordinance which establishes the Diamanten-Regie-Gesellschaft to prevent overproduction and price crashes. All diamonds have to be sold through this organisation. Since then the diamond trade is completely monopolised by the State. King Kambonde of the Ondonga area in Ovamboland dies. His successor is the eleventh King Kambonde kaNgula (1909-1912). The railway line from Seeheim to Kalkfontein Süd (presentday Karasburg) is opened.

06.07.

Railway Bridge over Holoog River: Railway Line: Grünau-Seeheim
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

06.08. 04.10. 01.12.

The post office at Gochaganas is closed. A post office is opened at Prinzenbucht. A post office is opened at Brakwater (Windhoek). The Governor of German South West Africa, Von Schuckmann, states that it would be against German interests to accept the British solution for the south-western border of the Caprivi Strip. This would mean the loss of a long section of the Chobe River and the Mahango Drift (named after Headman Mahango) where the Mahango omuramba joins the Okavango River. This drift is the only drift in the colony that connects German South West Africa with the Caprivi Strip and Ngamiland in present-day Botswana with southern Angola. The Tawana people of Ngamiland in Bechuanaland continue to regard the area to 18° south as their territory. Streitwolf estimates that 5 000 Subiya people, 2 500 Fwe, 1 500 Yeyi and 300 Kxoé live in the Caprivi Strip. The missionaries from Andara estimate that 3 000 Mbukushu live under the control of Chief Diyeve.

22.12.

End 1909

Ox-Wagon Road Network: German South West Africa: 1909
Source: De Kock, GL, Stellenbosch, 1973

[Return to Table of Contents]

Germany sends a diplomatic note to Great Britain stating that Germany "presume[s] that the Government of Great Britain will agree to the eastern boundary of the German Territory being formed by a line ... following the thalweg of the Zambezi". This note also links the south-western Caprivi Strip border between the Okavango River south of Andara and the Chobe River (the Germans insist on a border which is parallel to the latitude while the British insist on a border which runs parallel to the northern border with Angola and which is 20 English miles wide) with the Oranje River border, which they want to follow the thalweg of the river and not, as agreed in 1890, the northern highwater line of the Oranje River. Great Britain feels it is in a strong position concerning the Caprivi Strip border, but in the case of the Oranje River border it feels its position is doubtful. Thus Great Britain ignores the note and the situation regarding the Zambezi border is only rectified in 1933, while the position regarding the southern border of the western Caprivi Strip is not resolved, and the border not demarcated, until 1965. The dispute around the southwestern Caprivi Strip border, were the British border position to be followed, would result in a loss to the German colony of 7 km at the Okavango River and 48 km at the Chobe River. The Topnaar Nama (#Aonin) Chief, Piet ||Haibeb, dies (perhaps in 1909). Successor is Tuob Jonas |Khaoreb (until 1914). The Ovambo workforce has increased to 6 000 (from 1 700 in 1907). "Black" South African workers employ strike actions, public meetings and other forms of protest to combat injustice and maltreatment. Some 1 400 "whites" (1 200 Germans) live in Lüderitz, while the Swakopmund population comprises some 1 500 "whites", and several thousand "blacks" and "coloureds". The latter do not live in separate " locations" but are

1910

scattered around the town. Near Cape Cross a single diamond is discovered. Around this year salt production on a small scale commences in the Panther Beacon Pan, nine kilometres north of Swakopmund. The Central Mining and Investment Corporation commissions the Kohero Tin Mine. The lighthouse tower at Swakopmund is extended by a further 10 m to 21 m. A new navigational light tower is erected at Diaz Point in Lüderitz. First radioactive materials are discovered near Rössing. The Colonial Railway Draft Bill of 1910 makes provision for the reconstruction of the Windhoek-Karibib state railway line to the broader "Cape gauge" standard, and for the construction of a new north-south Cape-gauge line from Keetmanshoop to Windhoek. Construction of the northsouth Windhoek-Keetmanshoop line begins from both ends. The Rehoboth station is planned at 98 km, i.e. 11 km from the town of Rehoboth, at the request of the Basterrat (Council of Basters). Construction is undertaken by the Deutsche Kolonial Eisenbahn Bau und Betriebs Gesellschaft. During the main phase of "white" settlement the Colonial Government begins with the establishment of "native reserves" and game parks. The later South African " homeland policy" is merely a continuation of the German colonial policies in the territory. Of the total area of German South West Africa, 13% is now farm land in "white" hands. In Swakopmund Rudolf Kindt establishes the newspaper Südwest - Unabhängige Zeitung für die Interessen des gesamten Schutzgebietes. In the Kavango the Uukwangali King Himarua dies. His successor is the Hompa Kandjimi Hawanga who rules until 1924. He has family connections to the Uukwambi

24.01.

07.02. 20.02. 27.02. 05.03. 12.03.

royal house in Ovamboland. It is during his reign that the missionaries and the colonial administrations start to make a significant impact on the Kwangali area. The Uukwangali kingdom straddles the border between Angola and Namibia. This means that when Hawanga and his people are threatened by the Portuguese authorities, he moves south and when menaced by the German/South African administrations he goes north. Shortly before the death of Hompa Himarua, the Germans establish a police station at Nkurenkuru. Hompa Kandjimi and his two brothers, Sirongo and Siteketa, are fighting against the neighbouring Kavango kingdom of Mbunza. After some disputes between the two brothers, Siteketa flees to the Hompa Nyangana of Gciriku. In spite of this Siteketa is killed by Kandjimi. A fresh attempt to open the "treasure house" of the Kaokoveld is made by the 1910-1912 expedition of J. Kuntz, a geologist. For the first time he reaches the main village Ombepera (west of Otjiyandjasemo) of Ovatjimba Chief Kasupi from the east. Hans Richard Kaufmann becomes the new Caprivi Strip District Governor. Kaufmann proposes shifting the Caprivi Strip capital from Schuckmannsburg to Sambala at the Kwando River ( Mashi River), due to the unfavourable conditions resulting from regular flooding of the Zambezi River and a malaria epidemic. This proposal is rejected by the Windhoek Administration. The post office at Richthofen is closed. Bruno Helmut Erich von Schuckmann takes leave and is dismissed. The post office at Abbabis is closed. The Bondelswarts Chief Johannes Christian dies in South Africa. Hatzamas Post Office is re-opened and is now called Hatsamas Post Office.

OMEG sells the Otavi railway lines from Swakopmund to Tsumeb, Otavi to Grootfontein and Onguati to Karibib, as well as the water supply system in Usakos, to the German 30.03. Administration. All other private railway lines are also taken over by the state, but are still leased to private companies. On 01.04. the OMEG railway is leased back to OMEG. Joachim von Heydebreck succeeds Ludwig von Estorff as 31.03. Schutztruppe Commander. The Windhoek-Karibib railway broadening project is in full April swing. 16.04./03.05. The Territorial Council (Landesrat) convenes for the first time. All ground works of the Windhoek-Karibib railway 30.04. broadening project are completed. Father Joseph Gotthardt establishes a Roman Catholic 21.05. mission station at Nyangana. Walvis Bay becomes part of the Cape Colony within the 31.05. Union of South Africa. The last train travels on the lower section of the state railway line. The Jakkalswater and Khan stations are 02.06. closed. Some trains still travel at irregular intervals in the years to come (until 1914). 01.07. The post office at Haris is closed. A post office is opened at Conception Bay 10.07. (Empfängnisbucht). Governor von Schuckmann leaves the colony. His successor is Theodor Seitz.

30.08.

Arrival of the new Governor, Theodor Seitz, in Swakopmund, 1910
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Cape workers ("Cape Nguni") employed in Wilhelmstal on Sept./October the Karibib-Windhoek railway broadening project attempt to contact railway officials and are attacked by soldiers. At least 14 die. Von Lindequist announces that the railways will now be 22.09. named the Deutsch-Südwestafrikanische Eisenbahn (DSWAE). 01.10. A post office is opened at Fahlgras (Windhoek).

[Return to Table of Contents]

1911

The 1911 census reveals that of the original Ovaherero population of 80 000, about 15 130 are still alive, and of the original Nama population of 20 000, about 9 781 are still alive (the census also establishes 18 613 Dama and 4 858 San; no census is done in Ovamboland). An estimate for 1912 reveals that 19 721 Ovaherero are again living in the colony. But, it has to be mentioned that the source for this "census" is uncertain and has to be verified by further research. It has also to be stated that absolute evidence of the number of perished Ovaherero and Nama does not exist, the numbers that are accepted will depend on what the various historians wish to prove by them. The Afrika-Marmor-Kolonialgesellschaft commence marble production in Karibib. The first tungsten ore from the Natas mine is described by prospector Hansen of the DKGSWA. The Natas Mine has previously been operated by Jonker Afrikaner for copper. No tungsten production occurs before the outbreak of World War One. The colony’s first English-language newspaper, The Windhoek Advertiser, is launched. In Keetmanshoop the newspaper Keetmanshooper Nachrichten (until March 1912) is established. The first farm telephone line from Okahandja to Ombirisu is opened. The Windhoek- Karibib state railway broadening project is completed ("Cape gauge" standard (1 067 mm)). The Keetmanshoop-Windhoek-Karibib railway line is substantially complete (until March 1912: 697 km) to meet the "Cape gauge" standard. King Nande from the Uukwanyama dies. He is followed by the fifteenth King Mandume ya Ndemufayo (1911-1917). King Mandume is not a direct descendant of the Uukwanyama kings. Maudslay Baynes explores the so far unmapped and vague lower course of the Kunene River. The Baynes Mountains,

situated west of the Epupa Falls, are later named after him.

View from our Camp Site at the Epupa Falls on a Hilltop with the Baynes Mountains in the Background, September 2004
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The government undertakes first studies to build dams in the territory. In the Fish River basin four dam sites are identified: Kooates (near Hardap) north of Mariental, Kokerboomnaute south of Gibeon, Hons south of Seeheim and in the Heinarichab River (Hei!arixab River) east of Berseba. The main post office in Windhoek is extended and gets additional telegraphic and telephone services. It is in use until 1953. For the first time, post office boxes are used. Victor Gunter Egbert von Frankenberg and Proschlitz becomes the new Caprivi Strip District Governor. The Caprivi Strip comes under civilian rule (i.e. control is transferred from the Schutztruppe to the Police of German South West Africa). Frankenberg proposes moving the Caprivi Strip capital from Schuckmannsburg to Katima Mulilo because the latter is located outside the flood zone of the Zambezi River and is thus a much healthier location. This proposal is rejected by the Windhoek Administration. Johann Wilhelm Redecker dies in Otjimbingwe. The post office at Gochaganas is reopened. Spanish Professor Joaquin Fernandez Prida announces his

16.01.

27.01. 10.03.

May 16.06.

July

August

judgement in the Walvis Bay border dispute and accepts the British version (Wrey’s surveyed line). The north-south railway line is completed up to the Gibeon station, which lies on the southern section coming from Keetmanshoop. There are still numerous Ovaherero who subsequent to the Ovaherero-German War of 1904 to 1906 exist in hiding in many inaccessible areas of the territory. One example can serve for many others: At the outbreak of the war, two Ovaherero men from Grootfontein, Kandiapu and Kanjemi, after having escaped the military actions of the Germans, establish a resistance group of approximately 200 people at the Omatako omuramba in the Otjituuo region. From their bases they raid the settler farmers in the area. In due course Kanjemi becomes known as "Captain of the Sandveld". After many attempts the Germans Kanjemi, Kandiapu and some of his followers are taken prisoner. Kanjemi is sentenced to death by hanging. Kandiapu after having been sentenced to five years imprisonment with hard labour dies in the Swakopmund prison on 13.11.1911. Von Frankenberg crosses the western Caprivi Strip, which Seiner calls the "Hukweveld", for the first time. He reaches Andara where he finds Tswana people oppressing the Mbukushu and Gciriku communities. Mbukushu Chief Diyeve asks for better German protection. Arno Hupel erects his station near Diyeve’s place on the Tanhwe Island in the Okavango River near Andara. Hupel also urges the German Government to persuade the Portuguese Government to move Fort Mucusso, which was illegally erected on German territory, into Angola. The north-south railway line from Windhoek to Keetmanshoop is completed up to the Rehoboth station on the northern section coming from Windhoek. The southern section is opened up to Mariental.

December

Railway Bridge: Asab River: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.12. 14.12.

The newspaper Swakopmunder Zeitung is launched. One year later it merges with the Deutsch-Südwest-Afrikanische Zeitung. For radio services to Europe, an 85 m high radio tower is officially opened in Swakopmund.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1912

German State Secretary Wilhelm H Solf states that most "whites" in German South West Africa, especially the farmers, regard the "natives" as "animals" and hold them in contempt, while the "natives", in turn, hate the "whites". Other relations are seemingly non-existent. Under the leadership of their evangelists and in line with the teachings of Lutheran Christianity, the Ovaherero begin to reestablish themselves as a nation. There is, however, a difference: The converted Ovaherero prior to 1903 had accepted the moral missionary concept of the Rhenish Missionary Society. The Ovaherero converts of the period 1904 to 1914 maintain their paradigm of kinship structures existing prior to the war. There are 1 250 farms spanning a total area of 110 931 km˛ out of the territory’s total area of 823 168 km˛. Disputes between inhabitants of the Caprivi Stripcommence on some islands in the Chobe River. The disputed islands are the Mabele Island (allocated to present-day Botswana), Kabula Island (also Kavura Island), Salumbo Island (also Lumbo Island) (the latter two islands were allocated to the Caprivi Strip) and Muntungobuswa Island, situated south-west of Lake Lyambezi. The Otjimboyo Tin Mine starts production and is at this time the most mechanised operation of its kind. On the diamond fields in the south-west of the territory, a mechanised plant is commissioned and the Koloniale Bergbaugesellschaft extends the diamond railway line by a further 40 km to the south. Locomotives are introduced and replace the formerly used mules. In the southern part of the sperrgebiet at Elizabeth Bay, ore is mined and transported for treatment to a plant at Kolmannskuppe. The Vereinigte Diamanten-Minen AG operates 18 000 ha between Elisabeth Bay and Pomona. Water is originally supplied by vats but later by a pipeline built by the Koloniale Bergbaugesellschaft. The Pomona Diamantengesellschaft starts operation in the same year. Its lease area includes the Idatal. The Kolmanskop

January 15.01.

Diamond Mines Ltd operates the deposits around Kolmannskuppe where the first diamonds were found. The Bahnfelder-Abbaugesellschaft mbH Lüderitzbucht, the Lüderitzbuchter Bergbaugesellschaft mbH and the Diamantengesellschaft Grillental mbH are all small companies with minor productions. The Diamantenfelder Verwertungsgesellschaft builds together with the Koloniale Bergbaugesellschaft some store buildings at the landing site at the Conception Bay. The Favorit Field is also developed in the area. All these stations are connected by a 23 km long railway line and a telephone line. The Afrika-Marmor-Kolonialgesellschaft takes over the Koloniale Marmorsyndikat. Vanadium ore is recognised at the OMEG copper mine at Tsumeb-West. Fort Mucusso is moved by the Portuguese authorities from the Mbukushu area into Angola. A post office is opened at Olukonda in Ovamboland. The monument "Rider of South West" is unveiled, to coincide with the birthday of the German Emperor Wilhelm II. The statue depicts a German soldier of the time and is made in honour of those Germans who fell in the Great Resistance War (1 628 soldiers, four women, one child). Indeed the Windhoek we have today in terms of representation, more than ten years after independence, is still the Windhoek of the "Rider of South West." To the present-day, no monument depicts the ten thousands of Namibians who fell in the struggle against German colonialism.

27.01.

The colonial Monument "Reiterdenkmal" in Windhoek despicts not only the German Era of Namibia's History but glorifies also the "German Victims" of the Resistance Wars of the Indigenes with the resulting Genocid to some Namibian Communities like Ovaherero and Nama: with Katrin Dierks-Lecomte and Annette Dierks, 1981
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

"Mastering Colonial History the Namibian Way": Contemporay Wall Painting showing the "Reiterdenkmal" twelve Years after the Namibian Independence on 21.03.1990
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

04.02.

A radio station is established in Swakopmund. The north-south railway line from Windhoek to Keetmanshoop 31.03. is opened. The newspaper Keetmanshooper Nachrichten is followed by March the Keetmanshooper Zeitung (1912-1914). 13.04. The post office at Jakkalswater is closed. 02.06. A post office is opened at Neu-Heusis. 03.06. A radio station is established in Lüderitz. The Südwestafrikanische Bodenkreditgesellschaft is founded 15.06. in Berlin. State Secretary Solf visits the colony and expresses the June/July opinion that everything has to be done by Germany to incorporate Walvis Bay into the territory. 05.07 A post office is opened at Ekuja. 01.08. A post office is opened at Chairos. In Lüderitz the German Evangelical-Lutheran "Rocky Church" is consecrated by Reverend Alexander Metzner. The church windows are presented by the German Emperor, Wilhelm II and his wife, Emperess Auguste Viktoria. The corner stone was laid by Albert Bause on 19.11.1911.

The "Felsenkirche" (Rock Church) at Lüderitz with a View to the North (built 1912)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

04.08.

View from the "Felsenkirche" to the North (with Goerke House at the Forefront)
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Stained-Glass Windows in the "Felsenkirche" at Lüderitz
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

08.08. 26.08. 03.12.

The Ondonga King Kambonde kaNgula dies. He is followed by the twelfth King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa (1912-1942). There is a relaxation of the ban on "native" cattle ownership. The Agricultural Credit Bank for German South West Africa (Bodenkreditbank für Deutsch-Südwestafrika) is established.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1913

A total of 14 830 "whites" live in the territory, 87% of whom are Germans, 11% Boers, 1% British and 1% other nationalities. Between January 1 , 1913 and March 31, 1914 there are 49 506 floggings of Namibian "blacks" administered as the simplest and least expensive form of punishment. Of the 205 643 cattle in the territory, Europeans own 89%, Nama and Ovaherero 2,5% and Basters 5,3%. A total of 1 331 farms comprising a total of 13 393 606 ha are in "white" hands, and 914 of these farms are occupied by Germans. Construction of the steel jetty in Swakopmund begins. This is the town’s third port structure. It is not completed before the outbreak of World War I (of the planned length of 640 m, 262 m are complete). Twenty one per cent of the world’s output of diamonds (of high quality and low production costs) comes from the sperrgebiet. Ostrich breeding begins on the farms Okaturua and Okosombuka. Construction of the main administrative building in Windhoek, the "Tintenpalast", commences. Gottlieb Redecker is the architect. A radio tower (height 120 m) is built for the newly-established Windhoek radio station. SWA is now directly connected via Kamina (Togo) to Nauen in Germany. The regular service, however, commences only on 04.08.1914 and announces the outbreak of World War One. After the destruction of the Kamina relay radio station on 26.08.1914 it is rarely possible to get a direct connection with Nauen, even after a temporary relay station is built at Usakos. After the destruction of the Lüderitz radio station on 14.09.1914, the station is shifted to Aus. The Aus radio station operates under the command of postal inspector Ventzke until its destruction on 27.03.1915. A radio station is erected at Tsumeb on 24.11.1914 and replaces the Windhoek radio station after its destruction end of April, 1915. The unharmed Tsumeb station is handed over to the South African forces on 06.07.1915. The tin deposits at Uis are investigated by De Beers

01.01. 01.03.

Consolidated Mines. Further tin deposits are mined in many parts of central-western Namibia such as Plöger’s Schürffelder, Neineis, Aubinhonis, Nobgams, Humdigams, Tsomtsaub, Meridas, Paukwab, Thelma Mine, Crystal Tin Mine, Okandjou, Davib and Irles Feld. Production before World War One amounts to some 200 t of concentrate grading 70% tin. The first teacher training school is established by the Finnish Missionary Society in Oniipa in the Ondonga area. The Colonial Railway Building and Operations Act of 1912 comes into effect. A post office is opened at Klein Nauas. The Roman Catholic mission station at Andara is finally fully established. The ill-treatment of Namibian indigenes continues. Many settlers arrogate to themselves the right to manhandle their African labourers what they euphemistically call "paternal chastisement". The case of the farmer Ludwig Cramer (farm Otjisororindi at the Black Nossob) is a particularly sad example. The Rhenish missionary Johann Jakob Irle reports Cramer’s maltreating of his labourers to the police. The police investigation reveals that Cramer had whipped two pregnant African women on two successive days with such brutality that they miscarried. Two more women even died as a result of the beatings. Cramer is charged with assault and battery in eight cases (seven of his victims being female) and sentenced to one year and nine months in prison. A court of appeal commutes the sentence to four months in jail plus a fine of 2 700 Marks. This judgment is virulently attacked by Cramer’s wife, Ada Cramer, who, the court records show, had assisted her husband in his excesses. She later publishes a book where she plays down and justifies the crimes committed by her husband.

March/April

Recently discovered Photo Images in the German Records (Namibia State Archives): Taken by the Rhenish Missionary Johann Jakob Irle: Namibian whipped by the German Farmer Ludwig Cramer, 1912/13
Photos: Namibia State Archive Government takes control of the entire German South West African railway system, including the reconstructed line from Windhoek to Karibib and the new north-south line from Windhoek to Keetmanshoop. The post office at Gochaganas is finally closed. The Landbank for German South West Africa (Landbank für Deutsch-Südwestafrika) is set up in Berlin to provide credit for land purchases and improvements (first director is Dr. Fresenius who travels to SWA at the end of the year). The German Chancellor gives the Territorial Council extended 01.04. 13.05. 09.06.

legislative and executive powers in matters relating to "native" employment, the combatting of epidemics, highway and water rights, hunting rights, agriculture and forestry, and cattle breeding. 19.08. A post office is opened at Barby. 22.08. A hospital is opened in Keetmanshoop. 01.10. A post office is opened at Otjundaura. November The "Tintenpalast" is completed. December The Roman Catholic church in Tsumeb is consecrated. 09.12. A post office is opened at Okatjomboa. 16.06.

Turnhalle Building, 1913
Photo: Namibia State Archive

[Return to Table of Contents]

1914

There are five motor cars in the colony. Windhoek has altogether approximately 1 500 inhabitants. The OMEG develops into one of the most successful ventures in Namibian history. Between 1907 and 1914, a net profit of 26,6 million Mark is made and 6 million Mark are paid in dividends. Just before the outbreak of the First World War, development in a number of marble quarries around Karibib continues. The Dernburg, Karibib and Etusis marble quarries have reached the stage of larger-scale production. They are all linked to the railway line at Karibib. Marble from these quarries is transported to Germany. The first important gem tourmaline deposit is found in the mountains 3 km east of Usakos where the DKGSWA mines tin. A druse is struck as tin operations are about to cease. The German geologist Hans Schneiderhöhn investigates the copper deposits in the Otavi Mountains. In the year 1914 there are the following schools in the colony (for "white" children only, founding dates in brackets): Gibeon (1900), Keetmanshoop, Grootfontein and Swakopmund (1901), Karibib (1903), Kub (1907), Klein-Windhoek, Lüderitzbucht and Warmbad (1908), Omaruru (1909), Klippdamm and Maltahöhe (1910), Aus (1911) and Usakos (1912). In addition there are the high schools at Windhoek and Swakopmund and a private Roman-Catholic school for girls in Windhoek. In southern Angola Ombandja King Shihetekela is reorganising his resistance against the Portuguese troops. This time he is successful and is able to hand over a large consignment of conquered Portuguese weaponry to his ally, the Uukwanyama King Mandume ya Ndemufayo. However, during World War I the Portuguese troops force King Shihetekela to retreat from

March 07.03. 10.03.

19.03.

29.03. April 01.04. 12.04. May 11.05.

Ombandja into the Uukwanyama area. The post office at Hasuur is closed. Post offices are opened at Pomonahügel and Bogenfels. The post office at Prinzenbucht is closed. The Ovaherero living in SWA have reached a stage of stability and self-awareness in which they can begin to search for their missing links in the chain of social relations. These are mainly to be found within the community of exiled Ovaherero in Bechuanaland. On the other hand German settler farmers are interested in obtaining additional labour forces. Consequently the farmer Wilhelm Eichhoff, farm Okamatangara, writes to Bezirksamtmann H Görgens in Omaruru, that for the past six months he has maintained an Ovaherero family from the Lake Ngami area and that he requests that all police patrols be stopped, so that further Ovaherero families could be induced to cross over from Bechuanaland. The Territorial Council (Landesrat) calls for a change in legislation to allow Ovaherero their own cattle again and to be granted access to land. This is, however, turned down by Governor Theodor Seitz. A post office is opened at Bergland to replace the Aub post office (closed 29.03.). The post office at Groß Barmen is closed. Post offices are opened at Aroab and Otjosazu. A post office is opened at Gründorn. The first two aeroplanes arrive in the territory: the Otto Doppeldecker ( double-wing) and the Aviatik Doppeldecker. Bruno Büchner, Willi Trück and Alexander von Scheele are the first pilots. The Territorial Council promulgates its first piece of legislation: the Water Bill.

18.05. 25.05. 29.05.

Inland airmail services commence. The post office at Ramansdrift is closed. The Windhoek Agricultural Show is held. A third aeroplane, a Roland-Taube steel double-decker, June arrives in the colony. Its Austrian pilot is Paul Fiedler (arrives 18.05). 20.06. A post office is opened at Omitara. Chief Simata Kabende Mamili (1863-1914) dies in the Caprivi Strip. He is followed by six chiefs of the Fwe community (Lifasi Simata (1914-1931)(from Makalani), Simata Lifasi (1931-1944)(from Makalani), Simasiku Mid-1914 Simata (1944-1971)(from Chinchimane), Richard Muhinda (1971-1987)(from Chinchimane), Boniface Bebi (1987-1999)(from Linyanti). The last is George Simasiku (from 1999 onwards), great great grandson of Chief Simata. Heinrich Vedder and Bernhard Trey from the Rhenish Missionary Society undertake, shortly before the outbreak of World War I, an expedition into the Kaokoveld, in order to establish mission stations. Kaoko Otavi is identified as an appropriate location. Trey tries to convince Chief Kasupi from the Otjiyandjasemo area to support them, but Kasupi refuses to see him. When Trey links up with Vedder again he relates a most peculiar rumour which July/September he has heard from Ovaherero in Angola, and which baffles the missionaries for months. He heard that the British had invaded the Portuguese territory and that the exiled Ovaherero Chief Samuel Maharero had invaded SWA and captured several German ships at Swakopmund. Later they learned the truth that World War I had opened. The "bush telegraph" of the Kaokoveld had misled the missionaries - but there had been a grain of truth in the rumours. World War I commences and the Colonial Ministry in 02.08. Berlin sends a telegram stating: "Colonies out of danger

03.08. 04.08. 06.08.

07.08.

08.08.

23.08.

25.08. End August

of war. Calm down farmers." A railway line connecting the state line and OMEG line at Rössing is completed. The Swakopmund and Lüderitz radio stations are demolished by the Colonial Administrationas a result of the outbreak of the war between Germany and England. Windhoek’s radio station announces: "War with England, France and Russia!" The last steamers (Arnold Amsinck and Eturia) land at Swakopmund, take some mail and steam towards South America. The Bezirksamtmann of Rehoboth, Hiller von Gärtringen, calls a meeting of the Basterrat (Council of Basters). Consequently Governor Seitz approves the establishment of the Baster Corps, under the condition that Baster are not forced to fight against "whites". The Baster soldiers are issued with German uniforms and weapons and are put under the command of a German officer. Governor Seitz orders the mobilisation of the Schutztruppe (1 870 men and 3 000 reservists). On the South African side 60 000 soldiers are mobilised. The South African Army was far better equipped than the German Schutztruppe. The first skirmish between German and South African patrols occurs at Kummernais. Another skirmish takes place near the police station of Nakop (beginning September). Work begins on demolishing the state railway line between Swakopmund and Nonidas. This marks the beginning of the end of the lower section of the state line, nearly 17 years after its construction commenced. The post office at Barby is closed (until 25.09.). The post office at Khan is closed.

September 02.09. 10.09. 12.09. 13.09. 14.09.

15.09.

18.09.

The post office at Warmbad is closed. The skirmish of Beenbreck occurs. The post offices at Pomonahügel and Bogenfels are closed. Troops of the Union of South Africa invade SWA after South Africa’s Parliament decides as such (Declaration of War of 09.09.). Ramansdrift station is occupied by South Africans. South Africa sends its first battleships to SWA. Battleship "Armadale Castle" shells the exposed town of Swakopmund (23.09., 24.09. and 30.09.). The Boer rebellion breaks out. Boer General de la Rey loses his life and Reverend Christiaan de Wet is later jailed. Commander Andries de Wet informs a gathering at Lichtenburg in Transvaal that the South African military intervention in SWA should be resisted. This leads to open rebellion by some South African troops under the command of General SG Maritz. Construction of the railway line from Otjiwarongo to Outjo begins, with the objective of extending it to Ovamboland ("Ambo" railway project). An embankment of 46 km is completed in February 1915 and the first 26 km come into operation. The project is stopped in February 1915 due to the war situation. Existing permanent stock from the OMEG railway is used, as well as dismantled material from the now broken-up Swakopmund-inland state line. The railway line is surveyed by Hans Drinkuth. The post office at Kolmannskuppe is closed. South African troops land in Lüderitz. The post office in Lüderitz is closed. The civilian German population is deported to South Africa. A protest note by Governor Seitz remains unanswered. Retreating German forces under the command of

19.09.

Lieutenant Münstermann blow up small sections of the railway line from Lüderitz to the interior. Dismantled material is brought inland to the Tschaukaib station. The South Africans re-install the Lüderitz power station which was demolished by the Germans. Unknowingly they also supply power to the Germans who still occupy Kolmannskuppe in the east. Schuckmannsburg and the Caprivi Strip are occupied by 21.09. British South African Police. The Caprivi Strip is administered by the Northern 23.09. Rhodesia Police. The South African war vessel Armadale Castle shells the open town of Swakopmund. The shelling is continued on 24.09. 30.09. by the South African war vessel Kinfauns Castle. The Germans attack Walvis Bay under the command of Oskar Scultetus. Joachim von Heydebreck (units Franke, Bauszus, Ritter and Von Rappard) defeats South African troops in the battle of Sandfontein. The South Africans suffer heavy losses. This is the only battle during World War One 26.09. where the South African Defence Force suffers a resounding defeat at the hands of the much smaller German troops. The post office at Aroab is closed. The South Africans reach Grasplatz railway station, 20 29.09. km east of Lüderitz. The last state railway train leaves Swakopmund before 30.09. the town is completely evacuated. The British construct a new railway line from Prieska to Sept./November Upington. The remaining 172 miles (277 km) to Kalkfontein Süd (present-day Karasburg) are completed in July 1915. The Bezirksamtmann (District Commissioner) of Outjo, Schultze-Jena, searches for some food supplies which

October

02.10. 07.10.

09.10.

20.10.

26.10. 30.10.

31.10.

went missing in Angola. He crosses the Angolan border illegally and is requested by the Portuguese officer Alferes Sereno to accompany him to Naulila. There is an exchange of fire with Portuguese troops, although not at war with Germany, which kill most of the Germans. The Commissioner for Ngamiland in British Bechuanaland who has been stationed in Kazungula, Captain HV Eason, becomes the new Administrator in the Caprivi Strip. He moves his seat from Kazungula to Kasane. The Boer General SG Maritz leaves Upington with his troops. Maritz joins the Germans at Ukamas. Some South African Boers fight alongside the Germans. The skirmish of Rooisvley under the command of Commander Andries de Wet ensues (Another battle takes place at Keimoes on 22.10.). The last battle of the Boer Free Corps is fought in Upington (24.01.1915). The Boers surrender on 31.01.1915. The first 32 km of the OMEG railway line from Swakopmund are dismantled and the material is brought inland. The material is used for the construction of the new Ambo railway line from Otjiwarongo via Outjo and Okaukuejo into Ovamboland. Pilot Paul Fiedler undertakes reconnaissance flights as far as Steinkopf in South Africa. Germans enter South Africa and destroy the railway line from Steinkopf to Port Nolloth. In reaction to the Naulila incident, the Germans under the command of Oswald Ostermann from the police post Nkurenkuru at the Okavango River, raid the Portuguese fort Cuangar. The fort is destroyed and most of the Portuguese and Angolan inhabitants are killed. Later the Portuguese call this encounter the "Cuangar Massacre".

November 09.11. 10.11.

12.11.

16.11. 24.11.

South African troops repair the isolated and destroyed sections of the railway line from Lüderitz to Aus. The South Africans reach Tschaukaib station, 70 km east of Lüderitz. The Germans begin with preparations to defend Aus under the command of Major Hans Bauszus. The post office at Empfängnisbucht is closed. Von Heydebreck dies after being wounded by accident with a rifle grenade (on 09.11.) at Kalkfontein Süd. His successor is Erich Victor Carl August Franke. The Germans under the command of Oswald Ostermann conquer the Portuguese fort Dirico after the destruction the Portuguese forts Bunya and Shambyu at the Okavango River. Fort Mucusso in Angola is conquered by the Germans. The Caprivi Strip is administered by the Bechuanaland Protectorate (until 31.12.1919). German troops under Major Franke attack Naulila and defeat the Portuguese troops. Franke is wounded and Georg Trainer takes over command. After the battle some Portuguese prisoners of war are executed. Vita Tom also takes part on the Portuguese side. He is able to escape.

18.12.

The German War Cemetery at Outjo (Kunene Region) remembers the Skirmish of Naulila in Angola during World War One, October and December 1914 and various Skirmishes and Battles during the Uprisings of Namibians against the German Colonial Power between 1897 and 1904, Photos taken in September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Germans beat the South Africans at Nous, south of Stolzenfels. 24.12. The post office in Swakopmund is closed. South African troops (approx. 1 000 men) land at Walvis Bay. 25.12. Major Ritter gives order to Major Wehle not to defend Swakopmund but to delay any South African advance to the east. South African troops under the auspices of South African Railways and Harbours commence the construction of a 27.12. new railway line between Walvis Bay and Swakopmund. The line follows the foreshore, a few metres above the high-water level. End December The post office in Rössing is closed. Soldiers of the Baster Corps are relocated to Nauchas, southwest of Rehoboth. The Baster protest, because it was agreed that Baster soldiers should only be used within the Baster territory and not outside. The Germans ignore the protest. Further protests are caused by the dissatisfaction that the "Baster Corps" is used to guard SA prisoners of war at Uitdraai. This is regarded as a 22.12.

"breach of contract" that the Corps is not to be used against "whites".

End 1914

World War One 1914/15: Defence Tower erected by German Settlers against feared Uprisings by Namibian Indigenes (Rehoboth Baster): Klein Nauas: between Dordabis and Uhlenhorst: Khomas Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Germans blast the Railway Line between Lüderitz and Aus
Namibia State Archive

South African Prisoners of War in Windhoek (Background: "Tintenpalast"): 1914/15
H Roth

SA Anti-Aircraft Gun against German Planes
Namibia State Archive

[Return to Table of Contents]

5. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: SOUTH AFRICAN RULE RULE
5.1 SOUTH WEST AFRICA UNDER MILITARY RULE: 1915-1918
Captain W Surmon succeeds Captain HV Eason as Administrator in the Caprivi Strip (until 1916). Ovaherero soldiers under the command of South African army officers and dispatched by their leader Samuel Maharero, assist in the invasion of German SWA. As the South African forces move on deeper into SWA, Ovaherero at all levels of society desert their German employers and return to their former areas of living, seek freedom in the bushes, or find employment with the advancing South African forces.Mbukushu King Diyeve II dies. Successor is Disho I (until 1929). South African troops occupy Swakopmund. The Germans attack Kakamas in South Africa.

1915

15.01.

Beginning February

The Cemetery in Warmbad: Graves of German and South African Soldiers who fell during World War One
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

02.02. 07.02. 11.02. 15.02. 20.02. 23.02.

South African (SA) Prime Minister Louis Botha arrives in Swakopmund and takes over command of SA’s 43 000 soldiers (on 11.02.). The Pomona-Bogenfels railway line in the diamond area is destroyed by SA. The railway line between Walvis Bay and Swakopmund is substantially completed. SA troops from Lüderitz reach Garub station at the LüderitzAus railway line. SA troops commence the reconstruction of the Otavi railway line from Swakopmund in the broader "Cape gauge" standard. Goanikontes on the Swakop River is conquered. The battle of Pforte-Jakkalswater-Riet east of Swakopmund is fought with heavy German casualties. The Germans retreat to Kubas.

View to the South into the Khan River Valley at the Station Stingbank in the Namib Desert near Ebony: 30 km west of !Usakos: 04.09.2004 at Sunset: The Night is approaching from the East
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

20.03.

View to the South into the Khan River Valley at the Station Stingbank in the Namib Desert near Ebony: 30 km west of !Usakos: 04.09.2004 at Sunset: German Fortifications from World War One near PforteJakkalswater-Riet against the from Swakopmund invading South African Troups in March 1915
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Warmbad is evacuated. 24.03. The post office at Kubas is closed. Aus is evacuated under the command of Major Bauszus. The first 42 km of the Otavi railway line are reconstructed – up to Rössing station. Fiedler undertakes his last reconnaissance flight from Schakalskuppe station to the west along the SeeheimLüderitz railway line. The post offices at Gochas, Arahoab (present-day Aranos) and Bergland are closed.

29.03.

31.03.

Warmfontein: Grave of a German Soldier who was killed during World War One in 1915 in Vellicke
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

01.04. 03.04. 06.04.

15.04.

Middle to end April 17.04.

The post offices at Aus, Bethany and Seeheim are closed. Franke places all railways in the colony under military command. Reconstruction of the state railway line commences from the Rössing station in the direction of Karibib. The post office at Koes is closed. The post office at Brackwasser is closed. The Basters rise against the Germans as a result of a secret meeting between Botha and Baster Captain Cornelius van Wyk on 01.04. The Basters are specifically dissatisfied that the "Baster Corps" is used to guard SA prisoners of war in Otjiwarongo. In Schlip, Pieter Mouton collects all available able-bodied Basters to proceed to Sam-Khubis. On the way they kill inter alia the German policemen Rudolf Rogge and Richard Ewald Ernst Putzier on Büllspoort. The Germans, on their way to Sam-Khubis, attack the Basters at Heuras, Uitdraai and Kabirab. Among the Basters fighting the Germans are Samuel and Johannes Beukes. The post offices at Ukamas, Kalkfontein Süd, Kanus, Kuibis, Berseba, Gibeon, Nauchas and Hoachanas are all closed due to the war. Seeheim is evacuated.

19.04.

20.04.

The post office at Keetmanshoop is closed. The Germans under the command of Captain von Kleist retreat from Keetmanshoop to the north. Some troops return via Maltahöhe into the Baster area, others via Stampriet and Uhlenhorst to Dordabis and Gobabis (officers: Hans von Gossler, Siegfried von Schack and Carl Jaspersen). An engagement takes place at Kabus, north of Keetmanshoop. The post office at Gründorn is closed. The South Africans occupy Berseba. Numerous German farmers escape under the protection of Hans Merensky to the north.

21.04.

The Cemetry at Berseba: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The battle of Gibeon ends with heavy losses for the Germans. Gibeon is evacuated on 25.04. The remaining escaping Germans reach Mariental on 27.04, Kalkrand on 29.04.,

Tsumis on 30.04. and Rehoboth on 02.05. The situation for the Germans is worsened by the death of the only captain of the general staff in the Schutztruppe, Rüdiger Weck. He is succeeded by Captain Georg Trainer.

23.04.

War Graves of German and South African Soldiers fallen in World War I in the Battles around Gibeon: April 1915: Gibeon Station Cemetry: Hardap Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

27.04. 29.04.

30.04.

The battle of Konub near Rehoboth is fought. The post offices at Mariental and Kub are closed. The post office at Maltahöhe is closed. The farm Kaltenhausen, south-west of Otjimbingwe, is reached by the South African troops (6 000 men). From there they attack Otjimbingwe which is conquered on 30.04. The post offices at Klein Nauas, Otjimbingue (Otjimbingwe), Usakos and Onguati are closed. SA General Jan Christian Smuts and SA Railways General

Manager WW Hoy arrive at Walvis Bay. The schools close in Windhoek. Governor Seitz shifts the capital of German South West Africa 01.05. to Grootfontein. The post offices at Rehoboth, Hohewarte, Seeis, Hatsamas, Aris, Neudamm, Fahlgras (Windhoek), Groß Witvlei, Beginning Brakwater (Windhoek), Okatjomboa, Otjosazu, Omitara and to middle Epukiro are all closed due to the war. May Rudolf Kindt escapes to the north and establishes the last newspaper of German South West Africa in Tsumeb, the Kriegsnachrichten. The post offices at Okahandja, Karibib, Waldau and Johann03.05. Albrechtshöhe are closed. A skirmish occurs between Germans and Basters at Garies. The post office at Okasise is closed. 04.05. The supreme command of the Schutztruppe is evacuated to the north. 06.05. The post office at Osona is closed. The South Africans occupy Okahandja. The last German troops under the command of Lieutenant Georg Fritz 07.05. Ferdinand von Hepke and Ernst Weiske leave Windhoek and retreat in the direction of Seeis. The battle of Sam-Khubis is fought between the Germans and Basters. The Baster community still commemorates the battle every year. The battle of Sam-Khubis is fought between the Germans and Basters. The Baster community still 08.05. commemorates the battle every year. The German troops travel by railway to Bergland station (12.05.). On 13.05. they move from Hohewarte to the Waterberg. The post office at Otjosonjati is closed. 10.05. The post offices at Otjihavera and Ekuja are closed. 11.05. The Windhoek Post Office closes. SA troops reach Windhoek. Windhoek Mayor Peter Müller End April

hands over the city to the South Africans. Windhoek has approx. 3 000 "white" and 10 000 "black and coloured" inhabitants. Okombahe is reached the same day. The post office at Wilhelmstal is closed. 13.05. The post office at Neu-Heusis is closed. 15.05. The post office at Otjundaura is closed. 18.05. The post office at Gobabis is closed. Negotiations for an armistice between Botha and Governor 20./22.05. Seitz take place at the farm Giftkuppe near Omaruru. The negotiations fail. The remaining German troops assemble between Kalkfeld 21.05. and the Waterberg. The railway line from Lüderitz to Seeheim is repaired by South 29.05. Africans. From here they proceed to Keetmanshoop and Windhoek to repair the railway line. 31.05. The post office at Barby is closed. The post offices at Chairos, Otjiwarongo, Kalkfeld and Okaukwejo are closed due to the war. June The Germans, under the command of Captain von Losnitzer, repeatedly blast sections of the railway line between Okahandja and Karibib. Of the approximately 69 000 SA troops in the territory (whose material resources are vastly superior to those of the German 19.06. troops), 35 000 (under the command of Louis Botha and the generals Brits and Myburgh) advance to the north and reach Omaruru. 20.06. The post offices at Omaruru and Okombahe are closed. 22.06. The post office at the Waterberg is closed. 23.06. The post office at Outjo is closed. 29.06. The post office at Guchab is closed. 30.06. The post office at Otavi is closed. The battle at Otavifontein is fought between 800 Germans and 01.07. 12.05.

01.07. 04.07. 06.07.

8 000 South Africans. The last skirmish during World War One is fought at Ghaub (||Gaub). The post office at Grootfontein is closed. Namutoni and Tsumeb are reached by the South Africans. The German Schutztruppe (3 497 men, of whom 1 331 have been killed) surrender to SA troops near Khorab (situated 500 km from Swakopmund at the Swakopmund-Tsumeb railway line). Governor Seitz is allowed to stay at Grootfontein and moves later, until the end of World War One, to a farm in the Khomashochland. The Schutztruppe commander, Erich Victor Carl August Franke, is interned on Okawayo, northeast of Karibib. The reservists of the Schutztruppe are allowed to go home. The active troops as well as the police are interned at Aus (1 552 soldiers and policemen who are guarded by approximately 600 South Africans). Here in a virtual no mans land east of Aus and north of the railway line to Seeheim, the prisoners-of-war construct a model camp, utilising their meagre resources. They are kept imprisoned until April 1919. When the Great Flu epidemic struck in October and November 1918 the average number of prisoners is 1 438 and the guards around 600. A total of sixty guards and sixtyfive prisoners die during the epidemic. SA imposes martial law (until 01.01.1921). SA declares the Rehoboth Gebied (District) to be the legitimate "homeland" of the Basters. The Basters claim that Botha had promised them their complete independence during his meeting with Van Wyk on 01.04. Van Wyk dies in Rehoboth on 25.04.1924. Successor is Albert Mouton (until the South African crushing of the Baster Uprising, 1925). The post office in Tsumeb is closed.

09.07.

The British Prisoner of War Camp (19151919) at Aus
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Cemetry at Aus: Karas Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Grave of a German Soldier on the "German Cemetery" in Grootfontein: Otjozondjupa Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

11.07.

19.07.

August

02.08. 13.08. 16.08.

General Beves becomes military governor. The post office at Olukonda is closed, this being the last post office of German South West Africa. From now on SWA's postal history is determined by South Africa (until 1990). The South Africans immediately introduce South African postal stamps which are used without any special marks (forerunners) because most of the German stamps were destroyed by the German authorities in Grootfontein and smaller amounts at other places. South African transitional or adapted former German cancellation marks are used. Some names are changed from the German spelling into the Dutch/English ones (Windhuk again becomes Windhoek; Kolmannskuppe becomes Kolmanskop). Major SM Pritchard informs Ovamboland chiefs that SWA is now under SA rule. Pritchard is accompanied by Carl Hugo Linsingen (Cocky) Hahn (grandson of missionary Carl Hugo Hahn), who becomes the Resident Commissioner in the north in 1921 (until 1946). He is also called "Shongola" (Oshivambo: the whip). The first Resident Commissioner in the north is Major Charles Manning (until 1921). The Ovahimba Chief Muhona Katiti returns from Angola in the Kaokoveld and settles at the Omuhonga River. The SA Railways Administration takes over control of the railways in SWA. The Official Gazette of South-West-Africa is established. The whole of German South West Africa is occupied by SA troops. The "Cape gauge" railway line from Ebony reaches Karibib,

17.08.

02.09.

05.09.

11.09.

thus completing the broad-gauge line from SA to Walvis Bay. From this day until 1960 the remaining narrow-gauge line is in place from Usakos north to Tsumeb and Grootfontein, and from 1921 a line to Outjo is constructed . The new diversion between Kranzberg station and Usakos shortens the distance of the line by 17,3 km. Pritchard agrees to protect King Mandume ya Ndemufayo of the Uukwanyama area against further Portuguese advances from Angola, after Mandume and his fighters fail, despite a three-day battle against Portuguese General Pereira de Eça at Omongwa (16.08.-19.08.), to halt the Portuguese invasion into that part of his kingdom. Consequently Mandume moves his capital from Ondjiva in Angola to Oihole in the south, 6 km north of Odibo in present-day Angola. The Ombandja King Shihetekela supports Mandume. He settles at Etomba. The headman Ndjukuma Shilengifa moves from Oihole to the Omedi area. He later supports the South African forces. Vita Tom, however, fights on the Portuguese side. SA officials initially favour Mandume, whom they perceive as a strong leader who efficiently controls his subjects. The Administration in northern SWA after the SA takeover from Germany is very small in scale. Aside from the military expedition of 1917 aimed at removing Mandume, the colonial presence is weak for the first 15 years, and is only consolidated after the serious drought, famine and depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s. Mandume’s capital Ondjiva is taken by the Portuguese. An agreement that resolves the Kunene border "waterfall dispute" is reached between SA and Portugal. The disputed 11 km strip (neutral zone) will be jointly administered by the two powers. The 17°23'10" south position is the provisional "cut-line border". Namakunde becomes the place of residence of a South African and a Portuguese representative. This partitioning of the Uukwanyama area brings Mandume into an impossible situation, where he is forced to defy both the SA and Portuguese authorities.

September The newspaper Lüderitzbuchter Zeitung is the first German paper to be published under South African rule. Edmund Howard Lacam Gorges becomes the first 30.10. Administrator of the newly-proclaimed (28.10.) "Protectorate". After the change of colonial power the Witbooi Nama, together with Hendrik Witbooi’s sons Jesaias and Isaak Witbooi, return to Gibeon. Isaak is installed by the SA authorities as End 1915 "location foreman". Protest by the "white" farmers leads to the resettlement of the Witbooi Nama at Rietmond and from 1919 at Witbooisvlei. Most of the deported Germans are allowed to return to SWA.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1916

29.04. 18.06. 22.07.

To secure control over Ovamboland, and especially over King Mandume ya Ndemufayo of the Uukwanyama area, SA appoints "Cocky" Hahn as Intelligence Officer to gather information on Mandume. Kaokoland Chief Vita Tom ("Chief Oorlog") moves through the Ombuku and Omuhonga Rivers to Okonguati and Otjiyandjasemo in the Kaokoveld where he meets Ovatjimba Chief Kasupi at Ombepera. He returns the same year to Angola. The "old state railway" from Swakopmund to Karibib is demolished. The 200 m wooden port jetty at Walvis Bay is extended, two new jetties are built there and new cranage is obtained. Eduard Frederiks (#Khaxab) becomes captain of the Bethany Nama (until 1922). The High Commissioner of South Africa, Lord Sydney Charles Buxton, renews the rights of the Lozi people in present-day Zambia to use land in the Caprivi Strip. The area demarcated is 40 km long and 8 km wide, located between Katima Mulilo and the Machili River. Louis Botha confirms that the Basters should be placed in the same constitutional position as they had enjoyed under German rule. Erich von Bremen publishes a German newspaper, Der Blitz. In Windhoek the newspaper Der Weltkrieg is established (Herrmann Rubien, Arthur Mylo). Der Weltkrieg later becomes Landeszeitung für Südwestafrika. For the last time stamps of German SWA are used (Swakopmund). The Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper is founded in Windhoek under the name of Der Kriegsbote (name changed on 01.08.1919)(Hans Berthold). The Administrator’s Office (Administrator: EHL Gorges)

August

informs that: "Under the German Law no native was allowed to possess any riding animals or large stock. Contrary to the provisions of this law the acquisition of Livestock is now sanctioned as it will tend to make the Native more contented and law abiding". In consequence of this policy leaders such as Traugott Maharero are officially recognised as Ovaherero chiefs. King Mandume ya Ndemufayo (1911-1917) of the Uukwanyama area refuses to accept the boundary between Angola and SWA. Captain F Garbett becomes Surmon’s successor in the Caprivi Strip. Kaokoland Chief Vita Tom ("Chief Oorlog") returns, after a short visit in 1916, finally from Angola. He is accompanied by Edward Tjipepa (his brother), Martin Tjiheura, Moses Ndjai, Paul Zakekua, Wilhelm Tjireye, Ngairo Muhenye Gabriel Cabrito, Joel Kapi, Vetamuna Tjambiru, George Hartley and Adrian Karipose. He settles permanently at Otjiyandjasemo, south-west of presentday Okonguati. He is supported by Ovatjimba Chief Kasupi from Ombepera. Tensions build up, however, with the Ovahimba Chief Muhona Katiti. The South African authorities (SA Police at Cauas Okawa) try to mediate between Vita and Muhona.

1917

Images of the Otjiyandjasemo Hot Springs west of Okonguati, September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Gold deposits at Ondundu northwest of Omaruru in the Otjohorongo area are discovered. The "city" railway in Windhoek is demolished. Reinhardt Maack and Alfred Hoffmann discover the rock painting known as "The White Lady" in the Brandberg (C1 and C2 periods: 4400 - 100 B.C.). Maack and his party also climb the highest peak in Namibia, Königsstein in the Brandberg (2 646 m) for the first time. In 1921 He makes known his discovery of the petroglyphs and rock paintings on the sandstone slabs of the Etjo Formation at Twyfelfontein (C1 to E periods: 4400 B.C. - 1200 A.D.).

04.01.

Rockpaintings in the Tsisab Gorge in the Brandberg (ca. 4400 - 100 B.C.): The

famous "White Lady" Rockpainting in Maack's Shelter: April 1971
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Rock Paintings in Maack's Shelter with "White Lady", March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

03.02.

SA Colonel de Jager starts moving his forces against Kwanyama King Mandume’s capital, Oihole (former capital Ondjiva in Angola). Mandume’s royal residence, although deserted, is destroyed by South Africans. According to Uukwanyama oral "evidence", Mandume commits suicide. The South Africans claim that he was killed by Maxim machine-gun fire, and apparently they (Lieutenant Thomas Edward Moroney) later decapitated him. The Finnish Missionary Society voices no protests. On the same day Theophilus Hingashikuka Hamutumbangela is born at Onghala in the Uukwanyama area. He later becomes an Anglican priest and supporter of the Namibian fight for liberation and independence and against colonial injustice.

06.02.

Decapitated Body of King Nandume ya Ndemufayo
Namibia Scientific Society 18.02. SA Lieutenant Carl "Cocky" Hahn witnesses the traditional burial of King Mandume ya Ndemufayo. The Uukwanyama kingdom is left without an heir to the throne following Mandume’s death. The result of these events is that the South Africans continue the German practice of controlling indigenous groups through their own tribal leaders, and consequently two administrative systems operate in Ovamboland. In the areas where there are no tribal chiefs, such as the areas of Uukwanyama, Uukwambi, Ombalantu, Uukolonkadhi and Eunda, senior headmen as well as various sub-headmen are gradually socialised to follow the advice of, and governmental procedures recommended by, the SA authorities. In those areas ruled by tribal chiefs, such as the areas of Ondonga, Ongandjera and Uukwaluudhi, the chiefs constitute the tribal government. The former Ombandja King Shihetekela is considered by the South African authorities in Ondangwa and by the Ondonga King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa King

26.02.

Mandume’s "right hand". Therefore he is regarded as a danger for Ovamboland. He is imprisoned by the South African military administration and banned to the Kavango area, to Nkurenkuru (1918). He manages later to return secretly to the Uukwanyama area. He is, however, detected and expelled from the Uukwanyama area by the Native Resident Commissioner Charles N Manning. He then settles temporarily in the bushveld ("no man’s land") between the Uukwanyama and Uukwambi areas, at Oshikwiyu (until 1928). A serious drought followed by famine in Ovamboland forces many Ovambo to flee to the south and look for employment there. February/March Floods of the Swakop River result in frequent traffic interruptions between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay. After his return from exile in South Africa, the former Okombahe leader Daniel Kariko applies for an Ovaherero reserve at Otjohorongo which is granted by the magistrate for Omaruru, Major Thomas Leslie O’Reilly. Kariko returns together with the surviving Ovaherero chiefs from Omaruru, Moses Mbandjo, Christof Katjimune (who is the appointed leader of the reserve in 1918) and Gerhard Zeraua. Mr Dixon becomes Superintendent of 18.04. the reserve in 1918. O’Reilly is appointed by the Military Government to compile the Blue Book of 1918 ("South Africa, Union of: Report on the Natives of South-West Africa and their Treatment by Germany: Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty") which investigates the German human rights violations during the resistance wars against the colonial administration. Germans found the Farmwirtschaftliche Vereinigung 28.04. (Commercial Farmers Association) in Windhoek. Tom Vita is called to Windhoek and meets SA Colonel MJ de Jager. This leads to an expedition to investigate the 06.06.

06.06. 30.06.

affairs in the Kaokoveld under the command of the Native Resident Commissioner Charles N Manning. The narrow-gauge railway lines are placed directly under Windhoek management. Charles Manning mediates between Vita Tom and Ovahimba Chief Muhona Katiti in Otazuma in the vicinity of Otjivero in the Kaokoveld. Consequently Muhona moves his residence to Epembe at the Ondoto River.

24.08.

Ondoto River near Epembe east of Okonguati: Kaokoveld, September 2004
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Omuhimba at Epembe, September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Imperial "Blue Book" depicting the atrocities committed under German rule is published. The bulk of the evidence contained in the book is little more than literal translations of German texts in the German official files and sworn descriptions of Namibian eye-witnesses. Two statements will be used as examples:

"I was in Omaruru in 1904. I was commandeered by the Germans to act as a guide for them to the Waterberg district, as I knew the country well. I was with the 4th Field Company under Hauptmann Richardt. The commander of the troops was General von Trotha. I was present at Hamakari, near Waterberg when the Hereros were defeated in a battle. After the battle, all men, women, and children, wounded and unwounded, who fell into the hands of the Germans were killed without mercy. The Germans then pursued the others, and all stragglers on the roadside and in the veld were shot down and bayoneted. The great majority of the Herero men were unarmed and could make no fight. They were merely trying to get away with their cattle. Some distance beyond Hamakari we camped at a water hole. While there, a German soldier found a little Herero baby boy about nine months old lying in the bush. The child was crying. He brought it into the camp where I was. The soldiers formed a ring and started throwing the child to one another and catching it as if it were a ball. The child was terrified and hurt and was crying very much. After a time they got tired of this and one of the soldiers fixed his bayonet on his rifle and said he would catch the baby. The child was tossed into the air towards him and as it fell he caught it and transfixed the body with the bayonet." "In 1906 the Germans took me a prisoner after we had made peace, and sent me with about a thousand other Hottentots to Aus, thence to Lüderitzbucht, and finally to Shark Island. We were placed on the island, men, women, and children. We were beaten daily by the Germans, who used sjamboks. They were most cruel to us. We lived in tents on the island; food, blankets, and lashes were given to us in plenty, and the young girls were violated at night by the guards. Six months later we went by boat to Swakopmund and thence by train to Karibib. Lots of my people died on Shark Island. I put in a

1918

list of those who died." [A note indicates that the list contained the names of 168 men - including the Nama leader Cornelius Frederiks of Bethany who had surrendered honourably to the Germans in March 1906 97 women, 66 children and 18 San, who were listed separately] ... but [Frederiks continued] it is not complete. I gave up compiling it, as I was afraid we were all going to die." The first extract is from a statement by Jan Cloete of Omaruru and the second is made by Eduard Frederiks (#Khaxab)(son of old Joseph Frederiks II of Bethany). Ironically it is the very dependence that the Blue Book places on the oral testimony of survivors of the war that provides the primary basis for past and contemporary German attacks on its claims. In 1919, the year after the publication of the Blue Book, the German Colonial Office publishes an official response and criticises the dependence placed by the compilers of the Blue Book "for the greater part" on "the sworn testimony of the natives themselves, poor, primitive creatures who have no conception of the nature of an oath." The Blue Book's function is to justify British and South African takeovers, but it forces the new colonial power to engage in some kind of reform. The "Masters and Servants" laws (1916/1920)(Proclamation No. 2 of 1916) outlaw the infamous right of "paternal chastisement", i.e. individual floggings by farmers. Proclamations No. 3 and 5 of 1917 regulate the labour conditions in SWA. Polities are allowed to regain some of their rights (e.g. stock ownership) and social coherence. The age limit for compulsory labour of "blacks" is raised from age seven to fourteen. But, among the Germans and the German missionaries there is growing opposition to this South African liberal "native" policy. One reason for this is that it grows increasingly difficult to recruit indigenous labour. The Rhenish Missionary Olpp states, for instance, that

08.08. 09.11.

"British propaganda on the subject of liberating nations ... immediately awakened in many of [the Africans] a veritable intoxication with freedom." The indigenous peoples’ hopes for real change in their favour are soon frustrated. The land which was confiscated by the Germans and made available for "white" settlement as a result of the 1903 - 1909 wars is not returned by the South African administration. New colonial agendas emerge and the establishment of a network of fragmented and widely dispersed "Native Reserves" during the 1920s provides inadequate compensation for the earlier land loss. There are still 17 schools for German-speaking children in the territory. James La Guma who later (1920) becomes involved in the Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU) in Cape Town organises a diamond mines' strike in Lüderitz. Captain H Neale becomes Garbett’s successor in the Caprivi Strip. Eliazer Tuhadeleni, also called Kaxumba kaNdola, is born at Omatangela in northern Namibia. He later becomes an active SWAPO member, actively involved in struggles on land issues, restriction of grazing areas, salt collection and against the contract labour system. Tuhadeleni gives shelter to SWAPO combatants returning from Egypt and Tanzania in 1965/1966. He is the first SWAPO soldier to be trained inside Namibia. The Ovaherero Chief Traugott Maharero is physically assaulted by South African soldiers (Labuschagne and Hendrik Jacobus Uys Janse van Rensburg) in Okahandja. World War I ends.

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5. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: SOUTH AFRICAN RULE RULE
5.2 SOUTH WEST AFRICA BECOMES A LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATE: 1919-1945
Between 1919 and 1948 the "German-SA Union cleavage" influences the party-political "whites-only" landscape in the territory. Throughout the 1920s there exists a chronic labour shortage in SWA. Since the early 1920s there is also an increasing pressure on land resources and a decline of food production in Ovamboland. In the years to come the SA authorities create eight "native reserves" for the fragmented landless and cattleless Ovaherero: Aminuis, Epukiro, Waterberg East, Otjituuo, Otjohorongo, Ovitoto, Fürstenwalde, Otjimbingwe (together with the Dama) and Tses (together with the Dama and Nama). The overcrowded native reserves at Otjihaenena (Okatumba) and Omburo established during the German period (1905), are later to be closed. The first step in creating these reserves is to appoint spokesmen for the Ovaherero, such as Hosea Kutako. Similarly, "native reserves" are created for the fragmented Nama. The Germans allow only the Berseba Orlam (|Hai|khauan) and the Bondelswarts to live in reserves under their respective chiefs (including the Rehoboth Gebiet). Subsequently the rights of the Nama in Soromas, Franzfontein and Zesfontein are recognised, while other Nama are accommodated in the Neuhof, Tses, Gibeon (Kranzplatz, Rietmond and Witbooisvlei) and Warmbad reserves. In all these reserves, headmen (elected by their

1919

people) are appointed and "Reserve Boards" are instituted. The Berseba Orlam strongly oppose the "native reserves" policy. SA consequently deposes later (1938) their local headman and appoints two new headmen who are supportive of SA’s interests.Between 1921 and 1923 the |Hai-|khauan Chief of Berseba, Christian Goliath, is forced to sell roughly one third of the |Hai-|khauan territory to the east of the railway line between Mariental and Keetmanshoop to get rid of burdening debt. The Dama community retains its reserve in Okombahe under a local headman. Further Dama reserves are established at Neuhof, Tses, Franzfontein, Gibeon (Kranzplatz), in a portion of Otjimbingwe and at Augeigas west of Windhoek. Johannes Christian’s son, Jakobus Christian ((Taoseb #Naoxamab), now Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), who had sought refuge across the Oranje River in British territory after 1906, returns to his community without the permission of the SA authorities. He is additionally in possession of firearms. Jakobus Christian is convicted but given a suspended sentence. He is allowed to stay in his community but SA does not recognise him as chief (before Jakobus’ return Wilhelm Christian Jnr. (|Gariseb Khami !Nansemab), brother of Johannes, was for a short while Chief of the Bondelswarts, probably during 1918/19). The South Africans install Hendrik Sneeuwe as new Bondelswart Chief. This treatment, compounded by the levying of a dog tax (Proclamation No. 16 of 1921) and a fee for cattle-branding irons (Proclamation No. 36 of 1921), leads to the so-called "Bondelswarts Affair of 1922". There are, however, indications towards the end of 1916 that the Bondelswarts are planning a rebellion (the local leader Adam Pienaar and the exiled Jakobus Christian are involved). The existence of a large landless population, however, poses problems of control for the SA Administration. The

30.01.

05.02.

08.06.

28.06.

new land policy is therefore an attempt to steer a course between the two apparently contradictory demands of establishing reserves (in order to facilitate control, reverse "black" urbanisation and standardise administrative procedures) and ensuring an adequate supply of "black" labour. After the mandate system is adopted, the Allied Powers establish mandatory powers over the territory. The Basters of Rehoboth request the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa to place them under direct British protection, like Basutoland. This request is not granted. Samuel Beukes is the first indigene to petition the League of Nations for independence for the Rehoboth Basters. The South Africans nickname Beukes "Koos Petisie". When the United Nations replace the League of Nations in 1945, Beukes continues his petitions. He sets a precedent for the later petitions of Hosea Kutako. New disputes between Vita Tom and Ovahimba Chief Muhona Katiti result in Charles Manning’s new visit to the Kaokoveld. At this time Vita lives no longer in Otjiyandjasemo but in Ongongo at the Hoarusib River. Weimar Germany is forced by the Treaty of Versailles to renounce all its rights over its former colonies in favour of the Allied Powers (Article 119). SA is assigned mandatory power over SWA as a Class C Mandate (Articles 2 and 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations). Jan Christian Smuts later claims that the "C Mandate pertaining to South West Africa is ... annexation in all but name". In contrast to this US President Thomas Woodrow Wilson states (17.05.): "The whole theory of mandates is not the theory of permanent subordination. It is the theory of development, of putting upon the mandatory the duty of assisting in the development of the country under mandate, in order that it may be brought to a capacity for self-government ...". After Manning had also visited Muhona and the Ovatjimba

leader Kasupi, he meets Vita at Kaoko Otavi. Manning accepts that among the Kaokoland communities Vita is the strongest leader. The German-built station building at Keetmanshoop is 14.09. destroyed by fire, but is rebuilt in 1927/28. The South African Senator Theo L Schreiner states before the South African Senate in Cape Town that, merely because Germany had defeated the Ovaherero and taken their land, this did not mean that the South Africans need to do the same: "... therefore do not let us think that because the German nation destroyed 70 000 of these Hereros, that 17.09. it is right that we should take the land which was really theirs and give it out in farms to white people". On the 25.11. Schreiner receives a reply from Administrator Gorges: "Seeing that the whole Hereroland was confiscated by the Germans and cut up into farms and is now settled by Europeans it would be an impossible project ... to place them back on their tribal lands." Sept./October The Germans voice their grievances when the GovernorGeneral of the Union of South Africa visits the territory. Of the total German population in the territory, 6 374 (3 718 officials and members of the military and police, 1 223 01.10. "undesirables" and 1 433 who have requested repatriation) are deported back to Germany and approximately 6 700 are allowed to stay. A public meeting is held in Windhoek under the auspices of Boer and German community leaders (H de Jager, Andries de Wet (ex- Burenfreikorps), Gustav Eugen Ludwig von Kühne and Rolf Hartig) with the objective of strengthening 13.10. ties between the "white" groups in the territory. The result is the formation of the Zuid West Vereniging on a non-political basis. A bilingual newspaper (German and Dutch), Die Voortrekker, is launched. Ernest Oppenheimer acquires the remaining diamond 05.07.

31.10.

21.11.

mines in the vicinity of Lüderitz for the Anglo-American Company and amalgamates them as Consolidated Diamond Mines (CDM). The rights to the sperrgebiet (restricted territory) are acquired as well. Only the Kolmanskop Diamond Mines Ltd. remains independent. Further in the north, the diamond fields at Meob and Conception Bay are revived when in 1920 F Knacke founds the Great Namaqua Diamonds (Pty) Ltd., which takes over the rights of the old Diamantenfelder Verwertungsgesellschaft. Ferdinand Stich re-launches the Swakopmunder Zeitung.

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1920

10.01.

Vita Tom decides to return from Ongongo at the Hoarusib River and to settle permanently at Otjiyandjasemo. The German company Afrika-Marmor-Kolonialgesellschaft (Africa Marble Colonial Company) loses its mining rights in Karibib, which are transferred into South African hands. The salt production in the Panther Beacon Pan and other pans along the Atlantic coast is continued. In the next decades (until around 1950) production rises continuously but practically all the salt is consumed locally, mainly as cattle feed. Some fluorspar is produced at Okorusu north of Otjiwarongo. KR Thomas becomes Magistrate and Chairman of the Village Management Board in Walvis Bay (until 16.03.1931). The League of Nations transfers the C-Mandate (C-Mandate means that the Territory is to be administered under the laws of the mandatory power) for SWA to the Union of South Africa (Act 49 of 1919) and gives SA the right to govern the territory through a Governor-General (as from 01.01.1921). In terms of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, the "wellbeing and development" of the indigenous people forms a " sacred trust of civilisation". It soon becomes apparent, however, that the interests of the local "white" minority and those of South Africa determine policy in Namibia. This is the root of all conflicts for the next seventy years.The Public Service of South West Africa is integrated with that of South Africa. The Union Land Settlement Act of 1912 is made applicable to SWA. Roman-Dutch Law is introduced. Normal civil and criminal courts are built up, consisting of magistrates courts with inferior jurisdiction and a High Court with unlimited jurisdiction. Proclamation No. 25 of 1920 regulates vagrancy in SWA. The Eastern Caprivi Strip is administered from Kasane while the western part is administered by the Magistrate in Maun, both in the Bechuanaland protectorate (until 31.08.1929).

March

01.04.

May

30.06.

20.07.

The South Africans ask for the resignation of Hendrik Sneeuwe as Bondelswart Chief, due to some corruption practices. Timotheus Beukes is appointed in his place. This is not accepted by the Bondelswarts. They still want Jakobus Christian as their leader. The SWA Administration’s Advisory Council calls for administrative control over German private schools. This leads to a protest by the Landesverband der deutschen Schulvereine (established on 14.01.1920), which is strongly supported by the Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper in Windhoek. The German section of the Zuid-West Vereniging opposes the pro-Union sections and the incorporation of SWA into the Union of South Africa, and opts for own SWA politics and German as a language medium in schools. The German members begin to dissociate themselves from the Vereniging. A meeting of a South Africa- Portugal border commission is held in Ruacana with a view to reaching agreement on the Kunene border, but no agreement is reached until 1934. Frederick Maharero, oldest son of Samuel Maharero, is allowed to visit SWA. Missionaries report that Maharero is collecting money from his father’s followers, so that a farm can be bought for Samuel Maharero. During the trip he appoints, on behalf of his father, Hosea Kutako as acting paramount chief of the Ovaherero. During this time the Truppenspieler organisation green flag of the Ovambanderu is created. SA Prime Minister Jan Christian Smuts visits SWA. Smuts rejects German demands (Robert Otto Karl Theodor Matthiesen) for cultural and political autonomy. The German community responds that they are prepared to become SA citizens provided that they are guaranteed relative political autonomy under the sovereignty of the League of Nations. The issue of incorporation into SA remains a major line of

cleavage in white politics. The Ovaherero submit a petition to Smuts and demand that the German missionaries be removed because they have betrayed the Ovaherero nation from the Ovaherero-German War of 1904 to 1906 onwards. Due to their hostile attitudes towards the new administration, 01.09. four German missionaries are ordered to leave the territory, among them Heinrich Vedder, Johannes Olpp, Mr. Hasenkamp and Hermann Gehlmann. The latter is, however, allowed to stay but is prohibited from continuing his work as missionary in Ovamboland, thus ending the work of the Rhenish Mission in this part of the country. The Finnish mission obtains the permission to continue the work of the Rhenish Missionary Society in the Uukwanyama area. The Finnish missionaries choose Engela as their headquarters in this area. Rhenish missionary Wilhelm Eich, head of the Herero Mission, later asks SA Prime Minister Jan Christian Smuts to allow the return of the three missionaries. This request is granted in February 1921. October Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr is appointed as the first Administrator for SWA. The Industrial and Commercial Workers Union (ICU) is based in urban centres such as Lüderitz, Keetmanshoop and Late1920 possibly also Windhoek and Walvis Bay, but fails to exert much influence since contract labourers are not involved. The roots of the ICU are in Cape Town (President: Clements Kadalie). The ICU (SWA branches) dissolves in 1923.

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1921

01.01.

The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)and the African Communities League (ACL) are founded by West Africans and West Indians respectively in Lüderitz (Fritz Herbert Headly and John de Clue). (The Jamaican Marcus Garvey had created the so-called "Garveyite movement" with its base in the USA.) These movements soon spread to Windhoek. The millenarian ideas contained in Garveyism attract Ovaherero especially, but other indigenous groups as well. Expectations of a new uprising are raised. Carl "Cocky" Hahn becomes Resident Commissioner in the north. Essential elements of the German land policy are perpetuated in terms of Proclamation No. 14 of 1920. The confiscated tribal lands from the German era become "Crown Lands of South West Africa", and 8 000 square miles of this land are allocated to "white" farmers. The first farms under the new scheme are granted to settlers in the Keetmanshoop and Warmbad districts. An unavoidable clash of interests between "Whites" and "Blacks" is one of the more important causes which leads to the "Bondelswarts Affair of 1922". Of the 19 432 "whites" living in the territory, 7 855 are German and 10 673 British subjects. A direct railway service is introduced between Windhoek and Cape Town, the journey taking 93 hours. The copper mine at Tsumeb resumes full production. The company OMEG retains the mining rights in the area. E Adler takes over the management of the Great Namaqua Diamonds (Pty) Ltd. The bilingual newspaper (German and Dutch), Die Voortrekker, becomes firstly a pure Afrikaans newspaper Die Suidwest and later the Suidwes Nuusblad. A civilian colonial administration, the Advisory Council, replaces the military administration which has ruled according to martial law. The council mainly represents settler interests. This state of affairs lasts until 1925, when a limited form of self-government is granted to all British subjects in SWA while

01.01.

07.02.

April

May

24.08. 20.12.

the Namibian "blacks" in the Police Zone (the area south of Ovamboland, the Kaokoveld and Kavango) are under the direct administration of the Administrator for SWA, the communities outside the Police Zone are controlled by Carl "Cocky" Hahn, the Resident Commissioner in the north. Construction of the remaining section of the OtjiwarongoOutjo railway line starts. The inspector of the Rhenish Missionary Society, Eduard Kriele, observes the phenomenon of a growing "infatuation with freedom coupled with a spririt of unrepentance" in Namibian "blacks" which manifests itself through an unwillingness to work. From the end of the First World War a group of "Coloureds" from the South African Cape Colony settles in Windhoek. It petitions the SWA Administration for land to build a "coloured" township. This is granted by the South African Department of Native Affairs. The "Coloureds" are allowed to construct a settlement north of the native location (Old Location). South African officials and "white" settlers refer to three distinct groups: "Baster", "Cape Coloureds" and "Namibian Coloureds". "Coloureds" and "Natives" share generally the same discriminatory experiences. Construction of the Windhoek- Gammams railway line to Gobabis starts. The railway line from Otjiwarongo to Outjo is completed and officially opened by Administrator Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr.

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1922

Walvis Bay is transferred to the SWA Administration. The Walvis Bay port is extended with the construction of a second wooden port jetty. In terms of Act No. 20 of 1922 the management and operation of railways and harbours in the territory are placed under the control of SA Railways, to be managed as part of its system. This act is changed in 1930 in order to include a clause that Act shall be held ... "subject to the Mandate". In terms of Proclamation No. 12 of 1922 the Caprivi Strip is administered by the British High Commissioner of South Africa as part of the Bechuanaland Protectorate (until 1929 and subject to the Mandate). The findings of the Native Reserves Commission, 1922, lay the basis for the South African land policy: the country should be more clearly segregated into "black" and "white" settlement areas; squatting on "white" farms should be prevented and there should be more efficient control of the native reserves. The SA Native Land Act No. 27 of 1913, however, is only made applicable in SWA in 1928 but the principles of strict territorial segregation are applied de facto from now on. The Native Administration Proclamation No. 11 of 1922 controls the movements and squatting of "blacks" in SWA. Proclamation No. 33 of 1922 regulates the curfew for "blacks" in urban areas. Joseph Frederiks III (|Ai-ob#Hobexamab) becomes captain of the Bethany Nama (until 1938). Proclamation No. 34 of 1922 makes even clearer the prohibition of "Non-Whites" in "white" areas and forbids all Africans to be on the streets between the hours of 21h00 and 04h00 without a special pass. !Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb) becomes the new Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas (until 1936). The UNIA petitions the League of Nation to turn the former German colonies over to "black" leadership. The League is

January

15.03.

16.04.

28.04.

May

also urged to appoint a "black" representative to the Permanent Mandates Commission. The complex ores at the copper mine at Tsumeb are discovered to contain minerals of the rare metal germanium and production starts (28 t in 1922). Exploitation begins at the Gold deposits at Ondundu (until 1927, then again in 1934. Mining ceases in 1945). The UNIA opens a branch office in Windhoek. Ovaherero leaders such as Hosea Kutako, Aron (John) Mungunda (brother of Kutako who had fought during World War One on the British side against the Germans in Tanganyika), Traugott Maharero (Chief of the Okahandja-Ovaherero) and Nikanor Hoveka, later appointed by the South Africans as chief of the Epukiro Reserve, are the dominating figures of UNIA in Windhoek. Similarly the Dama leaders Alpheus Harasemab and Franz Hoisemab play an important role. Farmer Carl Schlettwein reports that "Herero people from all over the country are preparing an armed uprising to seize hold of their rightful territory which England had promised them". Schlettwein promises to mobilise 100 to 120 farmers in the Outjo area in order to assist Administrator Hofmeyr. Abraham Morris, Jakob Marengo’s co-commander who had fled the territory (c. 1906) during the Great Resistance War of 1903-1909, returns home from SA. He crosses the Oranje River at Haibmund. At Hakkiesdoorn he tries to mobilise some Bondelswarts to rise against SA, but the manager of a citrus farm at Goodhouse informs the police at Ramansdrift about this. Morris and his party reach Guruchas (|Guruxas) near |Haib, where he is greeted by Jakobus Christian. The arrival of Morris is reported to the SA authorities in Warmbad and Windhoek. The SWA Administrator issues a warrant for his arrest. Karasburg is plagued by thousands of springbok sweeping through the small town.

05.05.

25.05. 26.05.

29.05.

30.05.

An attempt is made to bring Morris to Warmbad but the Bondelswarts refuse to allow this. Sergeant van Niekerk of the SA Police issues an ultimatum to the Bondelswarts to arrest Morris at Guruchas if he is not brought to him within three hours. Further negotiations between the South Africans (Noothout, Superintendent of the Dreihoek reserve and Roman Catholic Father Stanislaus Krolikowski from Guruchas) and the Bondelswarts are stalled. Noothout’s house at Dreihoek is raided by Bondelswarts. The SWA Administrator Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr leads the South African armed forces against the Bondelswarts consisting of 22officers, 348 soldiers, two war planes, two mountain guns and four heavy machine guns. The Bondelswarts are attacked by SA soldiers using planes, bombs and submachine guns, and there are 100 casualties including women and children. The battle takes place at the Guruchas gorge. Some 1 260 Bondelswarts participate in the uprising, in which Abraham Morris who fought on the British side against the Germans during World War One killed at Bergkamer in the |Haib River gorge near the Oranje River. The last Bondelswarts under the command of Jakobus Christian surrender to Lieutenant Prinsloo at Guruchas. The "Bondelswarts Affair of 1922" must be viewed against the background of inadequate communication and bad administration. The main motives on the Bondelswart side are the steady encroachment of "white" settlers on Bondelswart territory, the heavy-handed intervention of the local police and the introduction of an absurdly high dog tax (Proclamation No. 16 of 1921), which places severe economic pressure on the Bondelswarts and forces them to work for "white" farmers. In political terms the uprising can be interpreted as an act of defiance with nationalistic undertones. The uprising renderes the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations more critical of SA’s administration of the territory. Subsequently South Africa

appoints a Commission of Inquiry into the Bondelswarts Affair under the chairmanship of AW Roberts. The majority of members is strongly critical of the SWA Administration and the accepted practice of compulsory labour by "white" settlers. Jakobus Christian is sentenced to five years imprisonment with hard labour in Keetmanshoop. He is, however, released in 1924 and becomes again the Chief of the Bondelswarts (until his death in 1943). The release is realised by judgement of the Appellate 04.06. Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa in 1924. This judgement, however, is never brought to the attention of the Permanent Mandates Commission. This is used by those who promote SWA’s incorporation into SA. The Supreme Court judgement is the first authoritative decision by a court of law on the status of South Africa in relation to SWA. A San group under the leadership of the group leader Zameko fights the police near Gobabis (farm Alexeck of Mrs Bullik). The Gobabis magistrate, Frederick Jacobus Kriel van Ryneveld, is killed in the skirmish. Following this there are 26.07. persistent reports linking a general rising to the eastern frontier and including the San among the rebels. Even the exiled Ovaherero leader, Samuel Maharero, is reportedly involved. The South West African National Congress (SWANC) is founded to counteract the strong West African and South African influences in the UNIA and ICU movements. A major catalyst for the establishment of the SWANC is SM Bennett September Ncwana. Ncwana reports that the major grievances of Namibian "blacks" are the "unsympathic administration, no outlet for discussing native grievances, unreasonable taxation considering the absence of profitable work, and the absence of native educational facilities". Two other movements are the African Peoples Organisation and the African National Bond. They are founded by "Cape Coloureds" and sympathise with the two South African "white" political parties (South African Party (SAP) and National Party

04.09.

30.09.

(NP)). Government clerk F Mindner establishes that the German colonial authorities made no provision for the confiscation of Khauas Nama property as was prescribed in the Imperial Ordinance of December 1905. Although this oversight was well known by the German colonial administration in 1913/14 the legal mistake was never rectified. Also the South Africans keep silence about the matter because they want more land for the resettlement of "poor whites". The Witbooi Nama Jesaias Witbooi dies. UNIA chairman Aron Mungunda with the Dama Theodor Hanbanue visits Karibib, Usakos and Okahandja. In Okahandja Eduard Maharero, brother of Traugott, becomes local chairman of the UNIA. The leader of the ||Hawoben, !Kharab !Hao-khomab (or Jan Hendrik or Bob), who has earlier organised a meeting at Keetmanshoop to support the Bondelswarts in their uprising and resisted police arrest in July is sentenced to six years imprisonment in the Windhoek prison. Pending rebellions in different parts of Namibia due to the millenarian ideas contained in Garveyism disturb the "white" settler community. The South African Native Commissioner CN Manning is, however, doubtful that a general rising would occur. King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo of the Uukwambi area arms his people and orders them to guard the Onolongo and Ondangwa routes into his territory in order to prevent "whites" from entering his country.

October

Abraham Morris and his poorly-armed !Gami-#nun are defeated by the South Africans with their War Planes in the Battle of Guruchas (in the Hills in the Background). Morris fights his last Battle at Bergkamer near Uhabis where he is killed
End 1922
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The 83 years old Anna Veldskoen, Grandchild of Abraham Morris, living near Gabis in the Bondelswart Area
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Timotheus Morris (born on 06.05.1952), Grandchild of Abraham Morris
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[ Return to Table of Contents ]

1923

January 14.03. 16.03.

02.04.

13.04.

23.08.

Germans in the territory are granted the same rights (thus have the same duties) as South Africans. The Roman-Catholic mission prefect Joseph Gotthardt analyses the black freedom movement under the slogan "Africa to the Africans". South African stamps (with the portrait of the British King George V) with overprint: South West Africa/Zuid West Afrika are introduced. Samuel Maharero dies in exile in Serowe in Bechuanaland. Clemence Kapuuo is born in Teufelsbach, near Okahandja. New disputes between Vita Tom and Ovahimba Chief Muhona Katiti occur. Carl (Cocky) Hahn, Resident Commissioner of Ovamboland, proposes a third visit by Charles Manning to the Kaokoveld, meanwhile Magistrate of Rehoboth. As result of the visit Manning recommends dividing the northern Kaokoveld into three tribal areas: Muhona Katiti receives Ondoto, Epembe, Ovikange and Ehomba and Vita the areas west of Epembe with Otjitanga, Hamalemba, Omangete, Ombakaha and Otjiyandjasemo. The Ovatjimba Chief Kasupi who has died in the mean time, is succeeded by KahewaNawa, who is given the areas around Ombepera. Hahn meets Vita for the first time. Hahn writes about this meeting "He is a fine looking old native with excellent manners and personality." Samuel Maharero’s body, who had died earlier in British Bechuanaland, is brought to Okahandja. A uniformed Ovaherero honour guard which is led by Hosea Kutako, Samuel’s sons Traugott and Frederick as well as Mr Warner, the magistrate of Okahandja, meet Maharero’s coffin as his train steams into Okahandja station. For three days Samuel’s remains are placed in state in the house of Traugott Maharero. Samuel Maharero’s burial in Okahandja – alongside his forefathers – is a gesture of defiance and a symbol of

regained pride. The leader of the funeral services is Hosea Kutako. Courtney-Clarke, Secretary for SWA, Mr Cope, Native Affairs officer and Mr Warner from Okahandja represent the SWA Administration. Following a church service, led by Rhenish Missionary Heinrich Vedder, the funeral is held out in the church yard, in accordance with Ovaherero tradition. In consequence these events lead to a crisis with the Rhenish Mission which still maintains its view of "Christian Western civilisation" and a pietistic interpretation of Christianity. Maharero's burial has been commemorated each year since then.

Herero Day (Red Flag Day) in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: With Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) in the first Row (left): Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Mahaerero: 26.08.1923: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Mahaerero: 26.08.1923: First Row in the Middle: Katuutire Nathaniel Kaura: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Mahaerero: 26.08.1923: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: The Guard of Honour approaches the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

26.08.

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: The Guard of Honour prays

at the Grave of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Omuherero from Botswana: With Extermination Order of Lothar von Trotha: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Katuutire Nathaniel Kaura at the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: At the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photos Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chiefs honour the late Chiefs at the Grave on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Soon the "Otjiserandu" (Red Band Organisation or Truppenspieler) is formed. This group allows Ovaherero to express "nationalist" aspirations in a covert fashion. Predecessors of the "Otjiserandu" are already created as early as 1916 in Okahandja (Otjiherero: Otruppe)(The Ovaherero society is highly militarised from the 1860s onwards. Ovaherero men are organised into European-style, highly armed, uniformed and mounted units. These military units are usually only mobilised in times of trouble. The only exception is the small standing army of Manasse Tyiseseta of Omaruru). Eduard Maharero from Okahandja who later plays a role in the UNIA, takes on the rank of "Kaiser" of the Truppenspieler. Further Truppenspieler-regiments exist in 1917 at the Waterberg, Omaruru, Outjo, Swakopmund, Windhoek, Lüderitz, Keetmanshoop and Okahandja. "Otjiserandu" and Ovaherero leaders such as Hosea Kutako play a significant role in keeping the resistance struggle against the South African colonial administration alive between 1923 and 1958. They transform the Ovaherero from a fragmented and defeated nation into a major political force in

Namibia. Following the funeral of his father, Frederick Maharero, the oldest son of Samuel Maharero, appeals to the SWA Administration to be permitted to stay in the territory. His appeal is backed by Hosea Kutako, Traugott Maharero, Alfred Maharero, Salatiel Kambazembi (who returned to SWA around 1920), Joel Kasetura, Asser Kamusuvise, Silphanus Mungunda and Wilfried Kazondonga. Frederick is not to remain permanently in SWA and in December 1924 he is expelled. An agreement is reached between the SWA Administrator and a section of the Baster community to develop a new constitution. This leads to Proclamation No. 28 of 1923, which provides for a form of limited self-government for the Basters. In turn this leads to a conflict between the two Baster factions, the "Raad" and the "Nuwe Raad". An invitation from Administrator Gysbert Reitz Hofmeyr is met with contempt by the Nuwe Raad. The Nuwe Raad sends a petition to the SA Prime Minister demanding complete independence, but to no avail. The London Treaty ("De Haas-Smuts Agreement") recommends that Germans should obtain SA citizenship ( Zuidwest-Afrika Naturalisatie van Vreemdelingen Wet), and 3 228 Germans become naturalised citizens in terms of this law. The Germans are regarded as an integral part of the territory. The SWA Administration will treat with "utmost sympathy" the usage of the German language. German immigration into the territory is promoted.

28.09.

23.10.

San People at Namutoni, 1923
Namibia State Archive

[Return to Table of Contents]

1924

The last leader of the ||Hawoben from ||Khauxa!nas, !Kharab !Hao-khomab (or Jan Hendrik or Bob), who was involved in the "Bondelswarts Affair of 1922", dies in the Windhoek prison. General Hertzog is confronted with a petition from chiefs such as Hosea Kutako, reflecting some immediate interests of the Africans. Baster demands are answered by Proclamation No. 31 of 1924 which transfers all powers of the Baster Kaptein, Raad and Judiciary to the Rehoboth Magistrate. Whilst the SWA Administration approves the requests of the "Coloured" group for an own settlement in 1921, it also deals a significant blow to the status of the community by promulgating Proclamation No. 34 of 1924 (Native Urban Areas Proclamation) stating that "a coloured person who lives in the native location shall be regarded as native". Furthermore the proclamation provides for the establishment of boards of headmen in the native reserves and advisory boards for the "black" townships in urban areas. The OMEG opens a ferrovanadium smelter at Tsumeb. In consequence of this development a mine is opened in Abenab (!Apa!ab). The CDM erects a new diamond recovery plant at Elizabeth Bay. The Great Namaqua Diamonds (Pty) Ltd. is amalgamated with the Kolmanskop Diamonds Ltd. and is henceforth known as Namaqua Diamonds Ltd. New diamond fields are opened at Charlottenfelder, Holsatia and Fischersbrunn. When water becomes scarce in the northern part of the area, the water pipeline is extended all the way to Fischersbrunn south of Meob Bay, complemented by a telephone line. The Landeszeitung für Südwestafrika amalgamates with the Allgemeine Zeitung. The Uukwangali King Kandjimi Hawanga dies at Grootfontein. It is only after his death that Christian missionaries are able to expand in Kavango and start

January 08.05.

13.05.

17.05.

25.07.

26.07.

22.08.

building new mission stations. Kandjimi is followed by Hompa Mbuna (until 1926). Also in the Kavango Gciriku King Nyangana dies. His successor is King Shampapi (1924-1944). Work commences on the Walvis Bay Rooibank Water Scheme, which includes a 32 km railway line. The Roman Catholic Church establishes a teachers’ training college in Döbra. The Roman Catholic Church receives permission from King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo of the Uukwambi area to establish a mission station at Oshikuku (with permission of the SWA Administration for the Uukwambi and Ombalantu areas). In the same year the Anglican Church starts mission work in Ovamboland (Odibo), after SA had given it permission in 1923 to work in SWA, in places previously in the Rhenish Mission’s care. The Windhoek-Gobabis railway line is completed to Kapp’s Farm station. Inhabitants of the Vaalgras section of the Tses reserve under the leadership of the Omuherero Gideon Matundu offer concerted resistance to the branding regulations. A number of leaders of the Vaalgras community are arrested and convicted, but before they can be jailed, they are "forcibly rescued from the police by a large mob of natives". The National Party of SWA (NPSWA) is formed by Afrikaners (FJ Jooste) in Mariental. The party advocates SWA’s incorporation into SA. For the first time the "whites" are divided on political grounds. The party is initially restricted to the southern farming sector, with branches in Mariental, Gibeon, Kub, Stamprietfontein, Gobabis, Hoachanas and Gochas. Herman Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo is born at Omangundu, near Ondangwa. Later he attends the Onayena primary school. Between 1939 and 1942 Andimba visits the Ongwediva training college. In the years 1943 until 1945 he fights on side of the British in World War II. In 1950 he obtains a teaching

diploma at St. Mary's school at Odibo. September F van der Heever, AP Olivier and Andries de Wet found the Union Party (Unie Party) in Windhoek. The Deutscher Bund in Südwestafrika (DB)(German League) 03.09. is founded, with an anti-Union policy. The Naturalisation Act, which accords with the London Treaty 12.09. of 1923, is promulgated. In consequence of this Act, internal restricted autonomy is granted by the SA government. The railway section from Kapp’s Farm to Ondekaremba 19.09. station is opened. Frederick Maharero, oldest son of Samuel Maharero, visits December SWA. He is, however, expelled by the SWA Administration, because the Ovaherero adopt a "defiant attitude" after Maharero's arrival in the territory.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1925

05.04.

01.06.

The population in the Rehoboth Gebied numbers 3 500 Basters, 2 500 "blacks" and 30 "whites". The Rehoboth Gebied allows squatting and is a sanctuary to "black" stock owners. This combination together with the independence dreams of the Basters causes the "Rehoboth Rebellion of 1925". The Rehoboth Basters resist attempts to do away with their rights to autonomy in terms of Proclamation No.31 of 1924. The Native Labour Proclamation, No. 6 of 1925, provides for specific powers for the SWA Administrator regarding "black" labour. The mining prospector H Heiberg of the OMEG studies the copper deposits of the Gorob and the Hope Mine. No further developments take place. Vanadium ore is mined at the Berg Aukas Mine. Mineral exports represent 80% and agricultural exports represent 15% of the total exports. The first creamery in SWA is established at Omaruru. Planes threaten to attack Rehoboth. There is no bloodshed and a complete surrender follows. Martial law is declared, and 632 people including Basters (289), Ovaherero (218), Nama (75) and Dama (50) are detained. Johannes and Samuel Beukes land up with 42 other Basters before a South African firing squad but are saved when the League of Nations intervenes literally at the last minute. After the suppression of the rebellion, the SWA Administration begins to move the Ovaherero out of the Gebied. The Ovaherero leader, Festus Kandjou, later complains that "they have been forced to leave their cattle behind". The influence of Garveyism is rapidly fading. Hosea Kutako is elected the senior leader of all Ovaherero and Chief of the Council of Headmen. He retains this position until his death in 1970. The territory obtains a Constitution with restricted autonomy. The South West Africa Constitution Act, No. 42 of 1925, gives

legislative powers of legislation to an "all-white" Assembly. The Administrator, who is represented on the Executive Committee and the Advisory Council, wields much power in the interests of Pretoria. The Omaruru Political Society (later the Economic Party) is 27.08. formed by S Proctor. Further interest groups are formed in Otjiwarongo, Karibib and Okahandja. The Finnish mission ordains the first seven "black" pastors in 27.09. Ovamboland. Before 1925 Namibia had not a single "black" pastor. Vita Tom receives the visit of Deneys Reitz in Otjiyandjasemo. There is some political stirring in the Kaokoveld because some Ovaherero move from Outjo northwards. The headmen of this group are Langman Tjihahura, Jonas Tjivikwa, Hiaukambe Turitijo and Johannes Muzuma. The group settles September at Okawao, Otjohaka, Omawatinda, Onaiso, Otjikuvare and Otjomumborombonga. The fluid situation is furthermore intensified by an internal power struggle between Ovatjimba Chief Kahewa-Nawa and his nephew Weripaka. This results in Kahewa-Nawa’s followers seeking support from Chief Tom Vita. The Finnish mission ordains the first seven "black" pastors in 27.09. Ovamboland. Before 1925 Namibia does not have a single "black" pastor. 09.12. The Administrator for SWA, Hofmeyr, visits the Kaokoveld. In order to address the chronic shortage of labour in SWA, the Conference of Windhoek creates two recruiting organisations: the Southern Labour Organisation (SLO) for migrant labourers from the Ovamboland for the diamond mines and the Northern Labour Organisation (NLO) for December migrant labourers from the Kavango for the northern mines and for "white" farms. The Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA) negotiates with the NLO which sometimes has more recruits than are needed on the Namibian mines. However, such attempts are contested by 05.08.

the local farming community in Namibia which also seeks workers from what is seen as a pool of "surplus labour".

[Return to Table of Contents]

1926

The Permanent Mandates Commission protests whenever South Africa makes more of its restrictive laws, including racial legislation such as the Colour Bar Law of 1926, applicable in South West Africa. A total of 3 400 "whites" live in Windhoek. All children ("white, black or brown") born on or after 01.07.1926 are automatically British South African citizens. A formal Boundary and Water Commission is formed by South Africa and Portugal to finalise the Kunene border issue. Jacobus Kasparus Botha whose family have lived in Windhoek since 1891, sets to work with three hundred convicts from the Windhoek prison to lay out the gardens and parks round the Tintenpalast. The Walvis Bay port is further extended by the construction of a new concrete wharf (457 m) and additional traffic-handling facilities. In the Kavango the Uukwangali Hompa Mbuna dies. His successor is Queen Kanuni (until 1941 and then again as from 1958 until 1971). The Roman Catholic Church establishes new mission stations in Tondoro in the Kwangali area of the Kavango, in Mariabronn near Grootfontein and in Walvis Bay. In the same year the Finnish mission spreads its field of activities into the Kavango. All Lutheran German parishes are united under the Deutsche Evangelische Lutherische Synode and are led by a Landesprobst. Pastors for the German-speaking parishes are recruited from Germany. This is only feasible for larger parishes such as Windhoek, Keetmanshoop, Swakopmund, Omaruru or Otjiwarongo. Smaller parishes are ministered to by missionaries of the Rhenish Missionary Society well into the 1960s. The CDM diamond deposit at Elizabeth Bay is mined until the great depression in 1931. Until this time some 1,25 million carats of diamonds are recovered. New South African stamps with South African pictorials with

overprints in blue: South West Africa/Suid Wes Afrika are issued. Administrator Hofmeyr issues regulations relating to the 17.01. recruitment and contracting of "black" migrant labourers. The Union Party is renamed the South West Party (Suidwes 28.01. Party). The South West Party and the National Party of SWA enter into 01.02. an election pact, mainly to oppose the Deutsche Bund in Südwestafrika. In consequence of the Administrator’s visit to the Kaokoveld during December 1925, the SA policemen HEF Hillebrand February and Fred Cogill build a police station at Swartbooisdrift at the Kunene River. They build a rough road from here to Ruacana. The last SA policeman stationed at Swartbooisdrift is Petrus Johannes van Eck. He dies here at 01. April 1939. March AJ Werth succeeds Hofmeyr as Administrator for SWA. The first election is held for members of the "all-white" Legislative Assembly in terms of the South West Africa Constitution Act, No. 42 of 1925, with seven seats won by the Deutsche Bund in Südwestafrika, three seats by the National Party of SWA and two seats by independent candidates. 25.05. Administrator Werth’s reaction is that "no party will be allowed to dominate". He subsequently appoints four South African and two German members to the Assembly. Political dissent develops along language lines when Peter Müller of the Deutsche Bund proposes that German should be recognised as one of SWA’s official languages. 01.06. The Boundary and Water Commission begins its work. The first Legislative Assembly opens in Windhoek. The South African Prime Minister General Hertzog sends a telegram which stresses the importance of a "spirit of co-operation" and "national unity" among the "white" members of the Assembly. In the spirit of this "national reconciliation" and in order to integrate the German-speaking "white" population of SWA into

18.06.

22.06.

31.07.

a new South Africa-sponsored colonial dispensation, Assembly member August Stauch proposes a resolution regarding the "destruction of the Blue Book of 1918". The leader of the South West Party in the Assembly, Diederick William Ballot, supports this resolution (the resolution is passed unanimously by all 18 members of the Assembly on 29.07 1926). The Rhenish Missionary Society supports this decision. The dead of the German Namibian War 1903-1908 and the Ovaherero and Nama genocide and other atrocities are dismissed and forgotten in the interest of "white" settler reconciliation. With the disappearance of the Blue Book the calamitous events of the Great Resistance War fall into oblivion among the "white" faction of SWA. Still (nearly 14 years after the independence of the Republic of Namibia in 1990) no national monuments recall the names of any of the Ovaherero or Nama people who were the main victims of the war or mark the sites of prison camps where thousands died. In contrast the name of every German fatality from the war is listed on large plaques that line the wall of the Christuskirche (Christ Church) in the centre of Windhoek (unveiled in the church by Reverend Heyse on 02.09.1923). In Cape Town the "Agreement in Relation to the Boundary between the Mandated Territory of South West Africa and Angola" is adopted. It is established that the Ruacana waterfalls mark the correct position for the "cut-line border" between Angola and SWA. The "neutral zone" of 1915 will remain in force until the agreed border is demarcated. This demarcation is to be done by a SWA-Angola Boundary Delimitation Commission. A newspaper for employees in SWA is established in Windhoek (printed until 30.10.1926): Volksblatt: Mitteilungen der Arbeitnehmer-Verbände Süd-West-Afrika: "Der Arbeitnehmer". A commission of inquiry under Jacob de Villiers tables its report on the events in Rehoboth of April 1925 . The result is

20.09.

19.10. 28.10.

the establishment of an Advisory Council of six members to assist the local magistrate. The Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations informs the SWA Administration that the Basters have no case in terms of their claim for independence. Finnish missionary Martti Rautanen dies in Olukonda in the Ondonga area. The first merchant vessel docks alongside the new Walvis Bay port wharf.

The Grave of the Finnish Missionary Rautanen (Nakambale) at Olukonda
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

South African Air Force bomber planes launch a bomb throwing demonstration in order to warn Tsumeb mine workers to remain "peaceful". 1927 The diamond rich marine deposits of Alexander Bay, south of the Oranje River, are discovered by Hans Merensky. Hans Merensky opens a copper mine at Klein Aub. The United National South West Party (UNSWP)(Verenigde Nasionale Suidwes Party) is formed as a merger of the National Party of SWA and the South West Party to oppose the domination of the Deutscher Bund in the Legislative Assembly. The UNSWP remains the ruling party until 1950. 31.01. A complaint from the Subiya people in the Caprivi Strip leads to the arrangement that the rights of the Lozi people in present-day Zambia to use land in the Caprivi Strip are restricted to the inhabitants of Sesheke in Zambia, with some exemptions in special cases. January Dredging commences in the approach channel and berthing basin at Walvis Bay port. The UNSWP holds its first party congress in Windhoek. The 01./02.04. decision is taken to establish a new newspaper, Die Suidwes Afrikaner. German members walk out of the Legislative Assembly in 26.04. protest ("German-SA Union cleavage"). This aggravates the inter-ethnic relations of "whites" in the territory. Jacques Pierre Niehaus of the UNSWP reiterates his party’s 13.06. policy of incorporation into the Union of South Africa. The Roman Catholic Church establishes a mission station in 05.07. Anamulenge/Ombalantu in the Uukwaluudhi area in Ovamboland. The South African Governor-General Cambridge Alexander August Augustus, Earl of Athlone visits SWA. 03.08. The new Walvis Bay port wharf is officially opened. 20.08. A German Consulate opens in Windhoek. 10.10. Immanuel Gottlieb "Maxuilili" Nathaniel is born in Tsumeb.

November A new slipway and ship repair facilities at Walvis Bay port are completed. Further laws are introduced which curtail "black" Namibian’s rights to self-determination. According to Act No. 38 of 1928, the SWA Administrator is made the "Paramount Chief of the Natives". He is thereby given the right to appoint and revoke chieftains as well as to bring about the forced removal of a group or part of it to another part of the country. The growing number of urban "blacks" are forced to reside in "locations" on the outskirts of towns. These locations are owned and controlled by the various local authorities in terms of Proclamation No. 15 of 1928. The proclamation furthermore regulates native reserves. A Native Affairs official, MJ Olivier, who is later to become the Commissioner-General of SWA, maintains in 1961 that "there is no doubt that the reserves are located in such a way as to serve the labour needs of each district". The Native Reserve Commission, 1928 recommends the introduction of grazing fees in all native reserves. The major aim of this tax is to devise measures to ensure a steady flow 1928 of "black" labour from the reserves. Dama establish the Progressive Association, which aims to attain greater freedom with respect to racial legislation and to keep clear of all "whites", including the missionaries. The former Ombandja King Shihetekela moves from Oshikwiyu to Onambome village in Okalongo in the Uukwanyama area. Diamonds are also discovered by a geologist of the CDM, Werner Beetz, north of the Oranje River. This discovery leads in 1936 to the founding of the mining town of Oranjemund. From 1935, mining is carried out largely in the southernmost part of upper and lower marine terraces in the so-called Mining Area No. 1. Large-scale mining of diamonds between 1926 and 1931 produce 1,25 millions carats before the operation closes down as a result of the depression in the 1930s.

March

23.03.

"Taffie" Louw discovers radioactive mineralisation in the Territory (the subsequent Rössing Mine). Two members of the Dorslandtrekkers in Angola, Andries Alberts and Michiel van der Merwe, sons of the men who, in 1880, had gone ahead to Angola in order to seek refuge at Humpata, are sent to South Africa in order to negotiate with General Hertzog the return of the trekkers to SWA. Hans Bruno Karl Hirsekorn, German-speaking member of the Legislative Assembly, gives a crucial speech in Lüderitz on the mandate system in SWA, in which he expresses support for the system and takes a strong anti-Union stand ("GermanSA Union cleavage"). A total of 1 842 Afrikaner farmers from Angola (Dorslandtrekkers) are settled in SWA ("Angola Trek"). This contributes further to the deterioration of "white" inter-ethnic relations. Among those who move via Swartbooisdrift into SWA is William James Bushnell Chapman, a son of the explorer of the 19th century, James Chapman.

August

Dorslandtrekker Monument and Grave at Swartbooisdrift, September 2004
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

05.10.

Ferdinand Stich establishes the newspaper Walvis Bay Messenger. Daniel Holtzhausen, Director of Works in Windhoek, purchases a Cadillac La Salle vehicle for his official duties. He obtains the registration number "W-1" (now: N 1 W). In

12.10.

March 1939 this prestigious registration number becomes the property of Terence (Terry) Ryan (until approximately 1989). Then the number is obtained by Billy de Lange. The next owner is Llewellyn Anthony. In 2001 the number plate passes to David Imbili, the son-in-law of the present President Sam Nujoma. Isaak (Izak) Witbooi dies. His successor as headman of the Witbooi Nama is David Witbooi.

28.10.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for Isaak (Izak) Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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1929

During the famine of 1929-1931 in eastern Ovamboland (which continues till 1933 in the west) known as "ondjala yomatale" ("famine of the dams"), the SWA Administration intervenes on a large scale by organising people to dig dams in exchange for food relief. This involves the mass entry of women and children into the public domain in Ovamboland. Most "able-bodied" men are encouraged to work on public projects in the south of the territory. The food-for-work programme moves the existing gender labour division onto a new plane. The Ovamboland Affairs Proclamation, No. 27 of 1929, is passed. This law provides, inter alia, for the setting aside of Ovamboland as a "native reserve for the sole use and occupation of the Ovambo, for the creation of trust funds for each of the tribes in Ovamboland, for the payment of levies by members of the various tribal groupings to those funds, and for the moneys in the funds to be expended by the Administrator". The first automatic telephone service is inaugurated in Windhoek by Administrator Werth. The first call is made to Mayor John Meinert. The Windhoek-Gobabis railway line is substantially completed. A new telephone line is extended from Ondekaremba to Gobabis. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Bunya in the Mbunza area of the Kavango. Mbukushu King Disho I dies. Successor is Dimbu II (until 1939). Dimbu’s heir, Disho II, is exiled to Botswana by the South Africnas in 1947, returns, however, to Namibia in 1969.

The Mbukushu King (1939-1947) Disho II who was sent into Exile by the South Africans in 1947 at Mukwe, June 1975
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

From 1947 to 1969 the Mbukushu area is ruled by King Max Makushe. After 1969 the Mbukushu kingdom is represented by Fumu Alfons Majavero und Fumu Frans Dimbare. The first oil well is drilled near Berseba. There is a gas blow out during the drilling but no oil is discovered. 25.02. A deputation of the Deutsche Bund in Südwestafrika takes up the issue of the German language and German voting rights with SA Prime Minister JBM Hertzog. The unsuccessful Deutsche Bund deputation states that the "blacks" have a "very low standard of civilisation", and self-rule could only be exercised on an equal basis by "white" British and German subjects. The so-called "Angola Trek" ends in Outjo. Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma is born in Okahao (Ovamboland). The UNSWP wins a two-thirds majority in the general "allwhite" elections for the Legislative Assembly. SWA Administrator AJ Werth neutralises this result by appointing more Germans to the Assembly. German members continue to campaign for German language rights and against automatic naturalisation.

March 03.03. 12.05.

03.07.

01.09.

The administration of the Caprivi Strip reverts to the SWA Administration (until 1939). Negotiations begin for the finalisation of the south-western Caprivi Strip border between the Okavango and Chobe Rivers. The border is fixed "from a point twenty miles south of the point where the line from Andara (Thipanana Island) intersects the Chobe River, thence along a line running parallel with and twenty miles south of the northern boundary". A government delegation from Windhoek tries to cross the western Caprivi Strip from Andara. The delegation is not able to traverse the Kwando River and is forced to return. These transport-related problems are the reason that the administration of the Caprivi Strip reverts back to Pretoria in 1939.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1930

05.05.

The world depression makes itself felt in SWA. One measure taken to fight unemployment is the building of the Avis Dam east of Windhoek. The League of Nations resolves that SA has no sovereignty rights in the territory. The Legislative Assembly proposes the adoption of SA’s Immorality Act of 1927. Proclamation No. 27 of 1930 containing provisions similar to those of the Ovamboland Affairs Proclamation, No. 27 of 1929, is promulgated for the tribal groupings in the Caprivi Strip. An artificial island for the amassing of guano is erected north of Walvis Bay. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Shambyu in the Kavango. The Anglo-Caprivi Boundary Commission is established to determine the northern border of the Caprivi Strip. SA and Portugal (Angola ) are members. King Tshaanika Tsha Natshilongo from the Ongandjera dies. His successor is King Sheya shaAmukwa (1930-1936). A first shop is opened at Kamanjab (Kaokoveld). Peter Hilinganye Mweshihange is born. The Anglo-Caprivi Boundary Commission establishes the end border beacon at the Katima rapids (17°28'29,29" south, 24°17'50,04" east) on the Zambezi River.

26.05.

Border Beacon at the Katima Rapids near the present-day Namibia/Zambia Border (17°28'29,29" south, 24°17'50,04" east) with

"S.W.A." (South West Africa) on West Side and "N.A." (Northern Rhodesia) on East Side
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

27.06.

The Anglo-Caprivi Boundary Commission establishes a border beacon at the Okavango River near the former residence of Chief Ndara on Thipanana Island (also called Dikuyu Island). The triune point between SWA, Angola and Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) near the Kwando River could not be established, however, due to a dispute between the latter two countries regarding the border along the Kwando River. The Windhoek- Gobabis railway line is opened by Administrator Werth. Britain decides not to use a gold standard any longer. This is one more reason for the decline of the diamond industry. Mining comes to a standstill and is revitalised only because of growing demands during World War II. Similar to the "Otjiserandu" (Red Band Organisation or Truppenspieler) of the Ovaherero the "Green Band Organisation" is formed by the Dama. First secretary is Frederik !Gaeb. The ores of the copper mine at Tsumeb also contain cadmium and production starts during 1931. OMEG opens the Baltika Mine for the production of vanadium. Mineral exports represent 40% (1925: 80%) and agricultural exports represent 48% (1925: 15%) of the total exports. This change in exports also represents a shift from migrant labour for mines to migrant labour for "white" farms. Floods destroy the railway bridge between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay. SWA gets her own definitive stamp issue with pictorials of the territory as motives (with water mark). Walvis Bay gets municipal status. The first Mayor is S Blyth.

06.11.

1931

15.01. 05.03.

16.03. 12.07. August 17.09. 25.11.

1931-33

His successors are until 1977 WG Neate, JC Harris, MC Botma and A Prinsloo. The cornerstone of the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Windhoek is laid. Airmail services are introduced on several routes. The Ovahimba Chief Muhona Katiti dies at Epembe. His successor is not his son Muhonisa, but his brother Karuvapa. The South West African Labour and Farmers’ Party is founded – an expression of a more radical stance caused by the world depression. A severe drought occurs. In the south 70-80% of livestock are lost. This intensifies the effect of the depression, with mass unemployment and poverty the result. Relief work begins to combat some of these effects. BH Moin manages to reach the Eastern Caprivi Strip by car for the first time. Only in the 1940s, with the advent of four by four propelled vehicles and with the construction of an emergency bridge over the Kwando River at Kongola it becomes possible to reach the Eastern Caprivi Strip from Windhoek.

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1932

26.01. 16.06.

The Ovaherero experience forms of religious millenarian revival in the 1930s. With the exception of some government schools for "Coloureds", no provision is made for the establishment of government schools for "blacks" until 1935 when pressure from the Permanent Mandates Commission and from some Ovaherero leaders prompts the SWA Administration to establish schools in the reserves. The only exclusion is a school for Ovaherero up to Standard VI in Windhoek which is founded during 1932. Administrator Werth takes up the matter of Baster autonomy with the two Baster factions. South West African Airways Ltd. stops the inland airmail service due to lack of support. David Gideon Conradie becomes the new SWA Administrator. In terms of the "Cape Town Agreement" the SA Government is requested to introduce German as a third official language (after Afrikaans and English). Furthermore, the SA Government is requested to enable the SWA Legislative Assembly to exercise powers on matters such as the police force, civil aviation, primary and secondary education, posts and telegraphs and the founding of SWA’s own land bank. The National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (NSDAP)(Nazi Party) is formed in Windhoek, with branches throughout the territory. She establishes a newspaper, Die Sonnenwende. The Rhenish Missionary Society soon comes into close contact with the new party, especially through their dual position as missionaries and pastors of the German parishes. Landesprobst Andreas Wackwitz who is the leader of the German Lutheran parishes from 1933, is a member of the Nazi Party. The lead deposits are discovered at the Namib Lead Mine. Jariretundu Kozonguizi is born in Windhoek. Father Helferich establishes a Roman Catholic mission station in Okatana in the Ondonga area.

King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo (1907-1932) of the Uukwambi area has resisted both the Finnish mission and SWA Administration since 1922. From this time onwards the records of the mission and the administration are full of complaints about him. Complaints are lodged about his intransigence, especially regarding migrant labour that is not as forthcoming from Uukwambi as required by the colonial administration. But it also emerges from archival records and oral history that King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo is a tyrant whose autocratic and often arbitrary rule made many of his subjects flee the Uukwambi area for neighbouring districts. His alleged and real sexual misdemeanours make him unpopular. He even wants to marry one of his social or even biological daughters, Neekulu ya Shivute. Neekulu flees to the Finnish missionary at Elim. Iipumbu sends some of his soldiers to fetch her forcefully and even threatens the missionary station at Elim (Neekulu finally finds refuge with missionary Emil Liljeblad at Oshigambo in the Ondonga area). All these events lead to his disposal. July/August The Resident Commissioner in the north, "Cocky" Hahn, is pivotal in deposing Iipumbu. He uses military aircraft and machine guns to demoralise the Uukwambi forces at Ombwelafuma. In the mean time Iipumbu tries to obtain support from the Portuguese colonial authority at Ombandja in Angola. This support is however not forthcoming. The Portuguese inform the South Africans of Iipumbu’s activities. During Iipumbu’s absence from the Uukwambi area, Hahn uses the opportunity to attack the Uukwambi with the assistance with some Uukwanyama and Ondonga warriors under the command of Nehemia Shoovaleka. He is finally arrested at Onemedhiya and forced into exile in the Kavango after SA war planes bomb his residence. Iipumbu stays a couple of years in the Kavango and returns home to Amupolo falling sick. The Ovambo call King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo "Ndilimani", meaning "dynamite" in the Oshivambo language. The Ovambo are placed under pressure to surrender their

01.08.

arms. This drive continues for more than a year. The SWA Administration exploits the famine of 1929-1933 in Ovamboland and exchanges arms against food. The copper mine at Tsumeb closes down.

Uukwambi King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo, 1932
Namibia Scientific Society

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1933

31.03.

The Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations objects to SA’s suggestion that SWA should become a fifth province of SA. Hitler’s electoral victory in Germany has strong repercussions in the German community. Various organisations sympathetic to fascism spring to life. Clashes between Nazi and anti-Nazi forces ensue and aggravate the inter-ethnic cleavages. The German Nazi Broadcasting Station Radio Zeesen targets sympathetic Nazi elements in Namibia. This station is one of the first external broadcasting services to use the Afrikaans language, and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) broadcasts in this language in 1937 in order to counter this propaganda threat from the Nazis. After the death of the |Hai-|khauan Chief of Berseba, the rather weak and sickly Andries Goliath, successor of the patriarchal and powerful Christian Goliath, the SA administration favours the candidacy of Diederik Ruben Goliath, who is considered as an energetic and modern-minded leader. Goliath succeeds against opposition from the Isaak group which puts up a rival candidate, Edward Isaak. The moment Goliath opposes the South African reserves policy, he is deposed as chief of Berseba (1938). Tin is produced in a new plant at Uis (until 1990). Further tin mines exist at Neineis (until 1986), Kohero, Sandamap, Thelma Mine, Otjimboyo and Paukwab. Tungsten mining takes place at the Kranzberg Mine (until 1956) and Natas Mine. The two mines are owned by O Ortner and Johann Schurz respectively. Gold exploration in the Rehoboth area is revived when the South West Gold Exploration Syndicate Ltd. is founded. The Nazi flag is hoisted on the Tintenpalast (administrative building) in Windhoek and the SA flag is lowered by the Nazis. There is an exchange of notes between the Governments of South Africa and Northern Rhodesia regarding the boundary line between SWA and Northern Rhodesia along the thalweg of the Zambezi River which is now finally established. The

basis of this agreement is an accurate list of 33 islands in the Zambezi River, based only on the thalweg and not on any traditional rights. Impalira Island (also called Impalila Island), located at the confluence of the Zambezi and Chobe Rivers (quadruple point between present-day Namibia, Botswana, July Zambia and Zimbabwe), as well as Kakumba Island, are incorporated into the Caprivi Strip. Some islands near Sesheke (Kasuntula–later eroded and no longer existing–and Nantungu Islands) also revert to SWA. A "technical agreement" on the islands is reached on 08.08.1931 at Katima Mulilo. South West African Airways Ltd. uses a Junkers F13 aeroplane for a scheduled passenger and airmail service between Windhoek and Kimberley in SA. The Legislative Assembly bans Nazi organisations such as 03.08. the NSDAP in the territory. This ban becomes law on 21.02.1934, and the NSDAP leader, Weigel, is expelled. The German members of the Legislative Assembly resign in 28.08. protest to the ban. In the Kaokoveld serious strife develops between Chief December Thomas Mutate from Kaoko Otavi and the SA authorities. This leads to a further weakening of the authority of the Kaokoland chiefs.

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Heavy rainfall leads to floods all over SWA. The SWA-Angola Boundary Commission completes its work. The "cut-line border" between SWA and Angola is demarcated and the "neutral zone" ceases to exist. The greater part of the former "neutral zone" falls in Angola. The League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission accepts the southern border of the Caprivi Strip between the 1934 Okavango and Chobe Rivers as final, but rejects the British demand to incorporate the Caprivi Strip into the Bechuanaland protectorate. Gold production starts in the Rehoboth area when additional gold mining companies such as the Rehoboth Consolidated Goldfields Ltd. and the Rehoboth Central Gold Areas Ltd. are founded. The Swartmodder Mine is by far the largest gold-mining operation in those days. Smaller gold mines can be found in the area at Neuras, Kumab, Auchas and Weener. Hendrik Witbooi, great grandson of Hendrik Witbooi who was 07.01. killed by the Germans on 29.10.1905 and son of Reverend Markus Witbooi, is born at Gibeon. The pro-Union section in the Legislative Assembly, the UNSWP, 22.05. passes a resolution for the incorporation of the territory into the Union of South Africa. Following three public demonstrations of the banned NSDAP in 11.07. Windhoek, the offices of the party and the "Hitlerjugend" are raided by pro-Union supporters. 13.09. The former Ombandja King Shihetekela dies at Onambome village in Okalongo in the Uukwanyama area. 31.10. Elections for the Legislative Assembly reveal a shift towards the UNSWP away from the Deutsche Bund. The Legislative Assembly resolves that the territory should be administered as a fifth province of the Union of South Africa. SA 29.11. consequently appoints the Van Zyl Commission to explore this matter. While the SA National Party under Daniël François Malan supports this move, the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations objects.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1935

The diamond industry is revived. The production is restricted to the southern sector of the sperrgebiet (Diamond Area No. 1 to 26o South)(Diamond Area No. 2 is situated between 26o South and the areas north of Conception Bay (Lange Wand)). A small plant is established at Bogenfels between Lüderitz and the Oranje River mouth. Influenced by the research of the German geologist, Hans Cloos, two young German geologists immigrate to Namibia, Henno Martin and Hermann Korn. Initially they commence their work with the geological survey of the Naukluft Mountains and the Messum-Crater. After the outbreak of Word War Two the two hide themselves in the central Namib Desert. After the war Martin is appointed into the SWA Administration. Later he becomes professor in Cape Town and Göttingen (Germany). The first "black" government school (for Ovaherero) is created at Rietquelle (Aminuis). Further schools follow in 1940 at the Waterberg and in 1944 at Epukiro. No state schools are built in the north between 1920 and 1960. Mission school education is, generally, rudimentary. The highest standard that a young person can expect to achieve is Standard three, denoting about five years of basic schooling. Not until 1948 does the first "black" Namibian achieve matriculation. South Africa’s philosophy is given statutory form in the Bantu Education Act of 1953. Then Minister of Native Affairs, Henry Frensch Verwoerd, explains that "There is no place for ... [the African] in the European community above the level of certain forms of labour ... Education [will be up to] Standard two, including reading, writing and arithmetic through mothertongue instruction, as well as the knowledge of English and Afrikaans, and the cardinal principles of the Christian religion." The first road bridge is built over the Otjiwarongo River on the Otjiwarongo-Otavi trunk road. Katima Mulilo becomes the new capital of the Caprivi Strip. Internal problems in the Deutsche Bund lead to the resignation of its leader, Wilhelm Schwietering. The six members of the Baster Advisory Council are elected.

01.04.

25.04. 03.07.

October

02.12.

Proclamation No. 29 of 1935 controls the mobility and employment of migrant labour in the territory. The Ovatjimba Chief Kahewa-Nawa dies. A suitable successor cannot be found (Kahewa-Nawa’s brother Karuho and Weripaka are not very popular amongst their followers). This leads to a further weakening of the system of chiefs in the Kaokoveld. The marketing of livestock in general and beef in particular has to be controlled by the Meat Board which is established during this year in order to promote the interests of the SWA meat industry. The former leader of the Deutscher Bund, A Voigts, is reelected, but conflict develops between him and the more radical and militant NSDAP. The latter party leaves the Deutscher Bund in order to establish the Deutsche Front under M Neuendorf. The new railway bridge over the Swakop River, five km inland, at Swakopmund is opened for traffic. Urieta Gertse, née Kazahendike dies at the age of 99 in Otjimbingwe. The Rhenish Missionary Conference openly supports the banned NSDAP (Landesprobst Wackwitz is the main speaker. In 1939 he is urged by the SA authorities to leave the territory. This is regretted by Heinrich Vedder because he has after all "carried out so much work for the Third Reich"). But not all the Rhenish missionaries support the Nazi cause. Missionaries Heinrich Rust, Friedrich Pönninghaus and others distance themselves from Nazism. SA publishes a draft concerning the fifth-province status of SWA. Conflicts arise between the "Otjiserandu" and the Advisory Board of the "black" township in Windhoek. Hosea Kutako is asked by the SWA Administration to intervene, but has no success. The 1936 census reveals that of the total population of 30 000

1936

10.02.

March

09.07.

"whites", 3 300 Germans are not yet naturalised citizens. Commercial exploitation of salt deposits near Swakopmund begins. The SWAC takes over the Berg Aukas Mine. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Otjiwarongo. Harold Eedes, native commissioner in the Kavango since 1932 (until 1946), moves the Kavango capital from Nkurenkuru to Rundu (called Runtu until the late 1940s). Ongandjera King Sheya shaAmukwa dies. His successor is the 22nd Ongandjera King Tshaanika shIipinge (1936-1948). The first telephone link between SWA and SA is opened. The Van Zyl Commission publishes a report advising SA to administer SWA as a fifth province of the Union of South Africa, provided it is done subject to the "Mandate Agreement". In the report it is further stated that " ... It is true that the Natives were in general backward and unable to take any important part in the administration, but what could one expect if, as was the case in the 1933/34 budget, out of a total ordinary expenditure of Ł 613 000, only Ł 14 000 or 2,25 %, was spent on Native affairs and out of Ł 105 000 spent on education, only Ł 11 000, 9,5%, was spent on native education, when the native population was 10 times as large as the Whites. ... " The Administrator for SWA, David Gideon Conradie, visits the Kaokoveld. The Chief of the Kai||khaun from Hoachanas, !Hoëb ||Oasmab (also named Fritz Lazarus ||Oaseb) dies. His successor is Noach Tsai-Tsaib.

The Grave of Chief !Hoëb 5Oasmab (alias Fritz Lazarus 5Oaseb) of Hoachanas: Old Cemetry: Hardap Region: April 2003
18.07.
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Genealogy of the Kai5khaun (Red Nation) Chiefs of Hoachanas: Since Chief !Hoëb 5Oasmab: Old Cemetry: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

July

Following the visit of Administrator Conradie to the Kaokoveld and also the weakening health of Kaokoland Chief Vita Tom ("Chief Oorlog"), a Tribal Council (Ombongarero yomuhoko) is created at Okorosave in the Kaokoveld. Before this the Kaokoveld resorted under the Native Commissioner of Ovamboland. The Council recognises the two main chiefs, Vita and Karuvapa. The Ovaherero are represented by Moses Ndjai, Wilhelm Tjireye, Edward Tjipepa, George Hartley, Martin Tjiheura, Langman Tjihahura, Ludwig Tjitambo, Palminus M’gandje and Johannes Muzuma. The delegates for the Ovahimba and Ovatjimba are the chiefs Tjiparapara, Muzire, Marukwavi, Katje, Youruruka Tjirambo, Mumbombaro Kurama, Kwenda Kutanga, Kazungama Witahura Yapapu Ohupa, Kaimuvaza Mbunguho and Twazapu Musaso. In Ohopoho (later Opuwo) an office is created for the Council. The name "Ohopoho" (Otjiherero: It is enough) was coined by Carl (Cocky) Hahn, Native Commissioner in Ovamboland. The

locals called the place Otjihinamaparero, also Otjitoporwa (Otjiherero: The first borehole in the area). The SA Government does not reject the findings of the report, December but expresses its intention to neither incorporate the territory nor to hand it over to any other power.

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1937

19.03. 22.06.

24.06.

27.06. 01.07.

October

According to this year’s census, the territory’s population comprises 330 000 "blacks", 18 128 Afrikaners, 9 632 Germans and 2 395 British subjects. The SA "native reserves" policy is extended to the "Okavango Native Territory" by Proclamation No. 32 of 1937, with all financial provisions as applied in the case of Ovamboland – "in the interest and calculated to promote the welfare of the tribes and as directed by the Administrator". The Ovambo leader in Lüderitz, Thomas Ndili, petitions against the Proclamation No. 29 of 1935. He is deported as "agitator" to Ovamboland by the SWA Administration. The UNSWP organises a special congress in Windhoek where members express their disappointment regarding the SA Government’s reaction to the Van Zyl Commission’s report. The Kaokoland Chief Vita Tom dies near Okahao (Ongandjera area). His successor is Moses Ndjai from Okorosave. The Deutscher Südwest Bund (DSWB) is founded to fill the vacuum left in the wake of the Deutscher Bund’s collapse, and that of other German organisations. The DSWB leaders are John Meinert, Wilhelm Buthut, E Sander and Hans Hirsekorn. There are several reshuffles and demotions of the section’s leaders, so that between 1934 and 1938 there are no fewer than five leaders: Albert Voigts, Wilhelm Schwietering, M Neuendorf, Hans Hirsekorn and Ernst Dressel. The Deutsche Front is disbanded. The South African Proclamation No. 51 of 1937 comes into force inter alia prohibiting aliens in SWA from becoming members of political parties. The UNSWP, the Deutscher Bund and the Economic Party are declared to be recognised political parties in accordance with this proclamation. The SA National Party’s Transvaal Congress passes a motion that the SA Government cannot administer SWA without German consent.

1938

06.02.

07.04.

08.08.

04.11.

Simon Boois (a.k.a. Simon Frederiks or !Hanamub #Naoxamab) becomes Headman of the Bethany Nama (until 1977). The copper mine at Tsumeb re-opens, but will be closed one year later due to the outbreak of World War Two. Some copper production is also initiated at the Sinclair Mine. Similar to the "Otjiserandu" (Red Band Organisation or Truppenspieler) of the Ovaherero and the "Green Band Organisation" of the Dama, the Ovambo also have a Truppenspieler-Organisation. From 1938 they hold annual memorial services on the anniversaries of King Mandume ya Ndemufayo at the colonial "Mandume Campaign Memorial" at the Windhoek railway station. German members of the Legislative Assembly demand an amended naturalisation law, as well as German as an official language. After the SWA Administration conduct three investigations against Diederik Ruben Goliath, the colonial authorities organise a tribal meeting at Berseba that finally leads to his disposal. This is due to his opposition to the South African native reserve policy. The conflict is increased by the tensions between the Goliath and Isaak clans and the opposition of the Isaak candidate, Edward Isaak. Diederik Ruben Goliath is ordered out of the Berseba reserve and sent into exile at Hoachanas. In his place, two headmen, as representatives of the two opposing clans, are appointed. Thus the superiority of the colonial administration is now well established, also in Berseba. Edward Isaak, however, refuses to serve as one of the two headmen. His same-named son (Edward Isaak Jr.) is nominated instead. The Goliath family is represented by David Vries. The pro-Union section in the UNSWP forms the South West Africa League, which nominates Colonel Hamman, L Taljaard and John Dermot Lardner-Burke to represent the League at a conference in Bulawayo, where it is decided to oppose all

German colonial claims and to keep SWA permanently in the British Empire.

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1939

14.01. 23.01.

The SWA Administration passes the Natives Trust Fund Proclamation, No. 23 of 1939, which establishes the Herero Tribal Trust Fund as well as Nama and Dama Native Tribal Trust Funds. A Native Affairs Officer is appointed for the Kaokoveld. So far 17 "native reserves" spanning 23 000 square miles in total have been created. These reserves are beset with similar basic problems as were the reserves created under the German colonial authorities: they are small and widely scattered patches of land, with limited economic and political viability. Thus the official ideology is one of political separatism and economic exploitation of "black" labour, rather than being one of territorial development. Only with the economic growth after the Second World War does the demand for contract labour increases. The urbanisation of the "black" population also increases. The Ondonga King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa rebels against the SWA Administration. Three war planes intimidate King Martin to end the rebellion. Ovambo contract labourers strike at two Namibian mines. Three German newspapers (including the Allgemeine Zeitung and Swakopmunder Zeitung) merge to become one daily newspaper, Deutscher Beobachter which is fully controlled by the NSDAP. All Crown Lands of SWA have been allocated to "white" farmers. AM Barnard is the first officer in the tribal office at Ohopoho in the Kaokoveld. The DSWB holds a meeting in Windhoek to protest against SWA’s incorporation into the Union of South Africa and automatic naturalisation. Theo-Ben Gurirab is born in Usakos. Internal dissension in the ranks of the German community is accentuated by the split in the DSWB and the formation of the Deutsche Afrikanische Partei (leader: Martin Maier). Only

08.02.

10.03.

28.03. 17.04.

01.06.

July

naturalised Germans can become members of the latter. Another anti-Nazi group is the Volksdeutsche Gruppe, which comes into existence soon after the Deutsche Afrikanische Partei was founded. Opposition against the Nazis also appears in the form of anonymous letters called Freiheitsbriefe, in which the evil machinations of the Nazi Regime and private lives of leading Nazis in SWA are exposed. As these letters are secret and apparently libellous, the SWA Administration intervene against the circulation. The anti-Nazi activities are a mere drop in the ocean - given the estimated of more than 80% support which Adolf Hitler enjoys among the Germans in SWA. Administrator Conradie is again confronted with the matter of Baster autonomy. General Hertzog appoints a two-man commission (Geard and Allen) to consider "whether the Basters are capable of governing themselves". The commission reports in the negative and the SA Prime Minister accepts this conclusion. The Basters remain dissatisfied with this decision up to the present day. "White" women are allowed to vote. Three hundred additional policemen are sent to SWA with machine guns and tanks to control German anti-Union activities. Until now the South West African Police have operated as a separate force, its financial costs borne by the SWA Administration. On this day the force is incorporated into the SA Police in terms of Act 19 of 1939. A delegation of the SWA League holds discussions with both the National and United Parties of SA. Prime Minister Malan refuses to meet the delegates. Paul Sauer of the National Party informs them that his party favours incorporation but would not go to war over it. The National Party of SWA is reconstituted after a split in the UNSWP. The NPSWA adopts a policy of non-participation in the emerging World War II which is supported by most of the

August

26.08.

Germans in SWA. Administration of the Eastern Caprivi Strip is taken over by the SA Department of Native Affairs in Pretoria due to transportrelated reasons. The western part of the Caprivi Strip together with the Mbukushu area is administered by the Commissioner of the Kavango. New Conflicts arise between the "Otjiserandu" and Ovaherero leaders such as Hosea Kutako. Kutako requests the SWA Administration to order "Otjiserandu" members in Aminuis to leave the reserve. When they refuse to comply, police evict them by force. "Otjiserandu" are even seen displaying the German Nazi flag. This leads to the banning of the wearing of uniforms and marching at the Okahandja ceremony. World War II begins. Whereas Hertzog advocates a neutral stance for South Africa, Jan Christian Smuts, who becomes SA head of state, supports Britain’s war efforts. In contrast to World War One SWA does not play a direct role during World War Two. In the period 1940 to 1945 there are few political and economic developments in the territory. Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua, who later becomes a stalwart of the South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO), leaves the territory to serve in Egypt during World War II.

September

Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua: One of the first SWAPO Stalwarts: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The first Germans are detained in a camp in Windhoek which

they name Klein Danzig (in the buildings of the old German radio station, west of present-day Pionierspark). Following 18./19.09. this, many Germans end up in internment camps or are placed under house or farm arrest. All German organisations are dissolved (with some non-political exceptions such as the Deutsche Wohlfahrtsgesellschaft (German Charitable Association)). The South African Defence Act, No. 13 of 1912, is now made 09.10. applicable to SWA. th December The Permanent Mandates Commission holds its 37 and last session, and the League of Nations ceases to function.

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1940 21.02.

28.04.

26.06.

26.07.

1940s

The OMEG-Tsumeb mine is closed due to the war. The main issue of contention regarding elections for the Legislative Assembly is the incorporation of SWA into the Union of South Africa. The UNSWP contests in 12 constituencies. The National Party of SWA contests in eight constituencies and wins only two seats. Mishake Muyongo is born in Linyanti as a member of the Fwe Royal House. The arrested Germans are brought from the Klein Danzig internment camp in Windhoek to Andalusia camp in South Africa. At the end of 1940 1 220 Germans are interned there. Further internment camps are established in Baviaanspoort and Koffiefontein in South Africa. Most of the interned Germans are only released in 1946. The eastern Caprivi Strip becomes a "native reserve" administered by the SA Government (until 21.06.1978). The dispute on Kasikili Island (called Sedudu Island by present-day Botswana) between SWA and Bechuanaland arises. Some "black" people, especially from Ovamboland, and retrenched mining workers from the closed OMEG-Tsumeb mine are recruited for the British side in the Second World War (Native Military Corps (NMC)). One is Solomon Mifima who later (1957) is one of the founding members of the Ovamboland People's Congress (OPC). The experiences gained by these people have obvious implications for later forms of labour migration and the development of nationalism in Namibia. The existence of a "brotherhood", the informal network of communication and solidarity between Namibian contract labourers must be seen as a product of their disadvantaged position, their inferior status, their isolation in the workers’ compounds and the rigid and ruthless administrative contract system that finally leads to the creation of the OPC in 1957. There are strikes of Ovambo contract labourers at several

1941

03.02. 11.03. 08.03. 1942 20.03. 25.03. 01.07. August 16.12.

1942/43

Namibian mines and at the railways. In the Kavango the Uukwangali Queen Kanuni is forced by the native commissioner in the Kavango, Eedes, into exile in Angola. She is succeeded by King Sivute (until 1958 when Kanuni returns and governs until 1971). Salatiel Kambazembi dies. His successor is Josephat Kambazembi. The export of mining products such as iron ore from the territory is prohibited by SA. Katuutire Nathaniel Kaura is born at Ombujondjupa (Okakarara). A new sea-water condenser is commissioned for Lüderitz. Hage Gottfried Geingob is born on a farm near Grootfontein. The Baltika Mine ceases production of vanadium while the Abenab Mine stays productive (until 1948). The "London Treaty" is repealed by SA, and German citizens lose their SA citizenship. The Legislative Assembly passes a resolution in support of SA’s participation in World War II. Personal income tax is introduced. The Ondonga King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa dies. His successor is the 13th King of the Ondonga area, Kambonde kaNamene (1942-1960). His royal court is at Okaloko. The powerful Ondonga "Queen mother", Mutaleni kaMpingana, plays an important role in the succession. Justus ||Garoëb is born in Omaruru. The passenger vessel "Dunedin Star" runs aground at Cape Frio on the Skeleton Coast, for reasons never clearly established (29.11.), probably after striking a shoal. Those who remain on board are soon rescued by ships; but sixtythree people who had reached the beach in a lifeboat present a serious problem. Their position is so remote that weeks pass before the castaways are rescued. The difficult rescue mission is undertaken by air from Windhoek and Cape Town,

by ship from Walvis Bay (The tug from Walvis Bay "Sir Charles Elliot" runs aground at Rocky Point) and by car from Omaruru. Part of the rescue team have to be rescued themselves, and two people die (Angus Campbell Macintyre and Mathias Khoraseb from the tug Sir Charles Elliot).

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Eliazer Tuhadeleni is arrested for instigating the mineworkers to strike against discrimination at the Kranzberg Mine near Omaruru. Jakobus Christian ((Taoseb #Naoxamab), Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), dies. His successor is Nathanel Christian (|Gariseb Khami !Nansemab)(until his death in 1953). Nathanel was succeeded by two candidates for the !Gami-P nun chieftaincy: Wilhelm Christian (Gôa-khoeb * Garisemab) and Jakobus Christian (!Hao-5 ęib Taosemab).

1943

The Cemetery in Warmbad: With the Grave of the Bondelswart Chief of Jakobus Christian of Warmbad
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Waldfrieden near Omaruru. CDM headquarters move from Lüderitz to Oranjemund. The Kaokoveld Exploration Company starts systematic prospecting for diamonds between the mouths of the Kuiseb and Kunene Rivers. The Southern Labour Organisation (SLO) and the Northern Labour Organisation (NLO) are amalgamated into the South West Africa Native Labour Association (SWANLA). This organisation continues to hire and regulate migratory contract labourers. The Legislative Assembly unanimously demands SWA’s

May

14.05.

14.05. 10.06.

1944

January

28.03.

13.09.

incorporation into SA as a fifth province. The newspaper Deutscher Beobachter again becomes the Allgemeine Zeitung. The National Party of SWA establishes a newspaper, Die Suidwester. In the Kavango Gciriku King Shampapi dies. His successor is King Shashipapo in Nyangana (until 1985). His successor is Hompa Sebastian Kamwanga (from 15.03.185 until 1999). On 14.05.1999 Kassian Shiyambi becomes the new Gciriku King in Ndiyona. The control over the Augustineum shifts from the Rhenish Missionary Society to the SWA Administration. The new SWA Administrator Petrus Imker Hoogenhout (since 1943) announces to the Legislative Assembly that the SA Prime Minister has informed him that the issue of incorporation cannot be decided because "the mandate is an international issue". The Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA) concludes an agreement with SWANLA to recruit Namibian workers for South African mines. The contract labourers are recruited in several recruitment centres such as Ondangwa, Namutoni, Rundu, Mohembo and Shakawe (in present-day Botswana). The Ovambo contract labourers travel on their own from Ovamboland to Rundu and then via Mohembo and Shakawe to South Africa or with WNLA-organised transport via Grootfontein, Mohembo to Francistown in Botswana and from there by train to Transvaal. Hosea Kutako forms the Herero Chiefs’ Council, with the cooperation of Chief Frederick Maharero in exile in Botswana. Kutako is regarded as the "father of modern Namibian nationalism". Traugott Maharero dies. He is succeeded by Eduard Maharero. Subsequently he moves from Okahandja to Okonja near Otjinene.

1945

Grave of Ovaherero Chief Traugott Maharero on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Windhoek has approximately 10 000 inhabitants. The incorporation issue is still the main issue of contention in elections for the Legislative Assembly. The National Party of SWA tries to find support among the members of the 19.05. Deutsche Afrikanische Partei. The National Party loses all its seats, but the SWA Administrator appoints two of this party’s members to the Assembly. The UNSWP wins 16 seats. World War II ends. A war-related prohibition on civil aviation in the territory is May/August lifted. Investments in the territory grow, marking the start of an increase in industrial output. In the Caprivi Strip Chief Chikamatondo, who has ruled over 18.07. the Subiya community since 1909, dies. A modern dairy capable of processing all kinds of dairy August products, including cheese and butter, is opened in Otjiwarongo. 24.10. The organisation of the United Nations is created. The South African newspaper Die Burger reports that the Rhenish Missionary Society plans to transfer all their assets

31.10.

and activities to the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Sendingskerk (NGS). This transfer is strongly supported by the leader of the Rhenish Church since 1937, Heinrich Vedder.

Augustineum Class, Okahandja, 1941
Namibia State Archive

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5. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: SOUTH AFRICAN RULE RULE
5.3 SOUTH WEST AFRICA BECOMES A UNITED NATIONS TRUSTEESHIP AREA: 1946-1956
Concrete steps are taken by the South African Government to incorporate South West Africa into the Union of South Africa. After 1945 the major lines of cleavage in "white" politics relate more to ideology than anything else, and language is no longer a major issue of contention. This year’s census finds a combined total of 269 569 "blacks" and "coloureds" living in SWA, and 38 020 "whites". SA tables a report to the UN regarding the administration of the territory. Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua joins the South West Africa Railway Police. Andrew Kloppers moves from the South African Cape to Namibia. He has already in the Cape been involved in the Kleurling Ouer-Onderwyser Vereniging (KOOV) in "Coloured" politics. He works together with EL Cloete and Mr Olivier from the Baster community. There are strikes of Ovambo contract labourers at diamond mines at Lüderitz and Bogenfels. Some Witbooi Nama members of the Rhenish Mission Society, inter alia Petrus Jod (born around 1900) who has been missionary Spellmeyer’s understudy since 1905, and Rev. Markus Witbooi, father of Hendrik Witbooi, gather at Keetmanshoop to adopt a paper summing up a number of serious grievances against the Rhenish mission. This is the starting point for a development that results in the establishment of the first church in Namibia led by indigenes.

1946

12.01.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for Markus Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

17.01. March

British delegation leader at the UN, Bevin, declares that Great Britain is placing her mandates under UN trusteeship. War-related petrol rationing and mail censoring is lifted. South Africa conducts a referendum in SWA. Namibians are tricked by asking them whether they would like to join the Chinese, the Russians or the British. Many indigenes clearly do not understand the political implications of the referendum, which results in a majority in favour of incorporation, especially in Ovamboland and the Kavango. The vote result is 208 850 in favour of incorporation and 33 520 against, while 56 700 people are not consulted. The groups voting against are the Nama, Dama and Ovaherero, i.e. the groups that suffered by far the most under German colonial rule. The UN General Assembly does not allow itself to be fooled by this "referendum". Opposition to incorporation comes from various quarters. Hosea Kutako (together with Nikanor Hoveka) of SWA is the first to petition the United Nations. Kutako favours being placed under British trusteeship. He is, however, refused a passport by the SA authorities. He contacts Frederick Maharero in Bechuanaland to assist him in sending the petition. Maharero again contacts Thekedi Khama of Bechuanaland to help the Namibians in their plight. It is through Khama that the Anglican priest Michael Scott

April

18.04. 23.10.

becomes involved as petitioner to the UN to oppose incorporation. Rev. Scott is later blacklisted by the South Africans and criticised by the Anglican Church and other ecclesiastical circles. Kutako’s petition is signed by Festus Kandjou. It is remarkable that this petition is sent on the fateful date of 26.08.1946 (for the Ovaherero: 26.08.1923)(20 years later, on 26.08.1966, SWAPO begins the armed struggle against SA). Another petitioner is David Witbooi and later, after his death in 1955, Hendrik Samuel Witbooi from the Witbooi Nama. Nama members (33%) of the Rhenish Mission leave this church because of the apartheid attitudes of German missionaries. They join the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC), a black church from the USA linked with Ethiopianised Christianity in southern Africa. Wide-ranging political demands for the spiritual and physical upliftment of Namibian indigenes are made, especially by Petrus Jod. The successor to Rhenish missionary Spellmeyer at Gibeon, Fritz Mayer, calls AMEC "communist propaganda". Rhenish missionary Theo Sundermeier later analyses how the Rhenish Mission Board in Germany yields to fresh thoughts and theories on missionary theology which originate from the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) and the World Council of Churches (WCC). In the light of these new developments, the mission is required to establish independent, indigenous churches. Liberation movements are to be seen within the "black" Christian’s own cultural context, namely as an attempt to attain freedom from the twofold menace of South African Apartheid and missionary paternalism. The OMEG-Tsumeb mine is put up for sale by the Custodian of Enemy Property. The League of Nations voluntarily dissolves. The South African Communist Party (SACP) urges full participation by "blacks" in the politics of SWA and requests that the territory be placed under UN trusteeship on the road to

independence. The African Improvement Society (AIS) is founded as a kind of secretariat for the Herero Chiefs’ Council by students and teachers such as Clemence Kapuuo. Its functions are mainly cultural and educational. It soon begins to compete in importance with the semi-official Bantu Welfare Club (founded at the beginning of the 1930s; "black" committee members 1937: AE Mogale, AS Mungunda, AS Shipena) operating in the "Old Location" in Windhoek. Prominent members are Bartholomeus Gerhardt Karuaera (President), Berthold November Himumuine (Secretary), Clemence Kapuuo and David Meroro. Himumuine is the first Namibian "black" to obtain "matric". The AIS runs a small café in the Windhoek "Old Location" as a meeting point. The first administrator is Ananius Munoko, followed by David Meroro. Tendencies within the Ovaherero parishes of the Rhenish Missionary Society begin to liberate these congregations from the mission. This leads eventually to the formation of the Oruuano Church in the 1950s. The Spitzkoppe Mountain is climbed for the first time by Hans Wongtschowski and Jan de Villiers Graaff. SA’s petition to incorporate the territory as an integral part of that country (07.05.) is rejected by the UN General Assembly (proposed by the Indian delegate Sir Maharaj Singh). This 14.12. formal request by SA is taken by some international lawyers to imply that the UN, as far as the mandates are concerned, is the lawful successor of the League of Nations.

Hosea Kutako
Namibia State Archive

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1947

SA informs the UN that it will continue to administer SWA as a mandate and not as a trusteeship area. The South West African Coloured Teachers’ Association (SWACTA) is formed by Andrew Kloppers. Another "coloured" organisation is the South West Africa Coloured Peoples’ Bond (SWACPB). The two organisations campaign later for the creation of a "coloured" township in Windhoek. Johannes Hans Gerard Adolf Diergaardt becomes a member of the Rehoboth Burgervereniging (Rehoboth Civic Organisation). A consortium of US, British and SA firms (Newmont Mining, American Metal Company, Selection Trust, British South Africa Company, Union Corporation, SWAC and O’okiep Copper Company) buys the former OMEG-Tsumeb mine. The Tsumeb Corporation (TCL) is formed. An agreement is also made with the SWAC to form the Tsumeb Exploration Company for prospecting in the Otavi Mountains. The exclusive mining rights for vanadium remain with SWAC. Five months after the opening of the Tsumeb mine, Ovambo contract labourers go on strike. The recruitment statistics for contract labourers for the period 1947 to 1953 reveal that 29.143 men were recruited to work in Namibian mines and a total of 12 688 were recruited in the same years to work in South African mines. Sam Nujoma starts working in Walvis Bay (in a shop owned by Hugo Ludwig). Arthur Mylo from the Allgemeine Zeitung is replaced by E Müller. Carl (Cocky) Hahn, Resident Commissioner in Ovamboland, is succeeded by Harold Eedes. In the Kavango the King of the Shambyu area, Mbambangandu II becomes blind. Successor is Queen Maria Mwengere (1947-1987). JH Oberholzer discovers the Petrified Forest in the southern Kaokoveld, west of Khorixas. Heinrich Vedder retires as head of the Rhenish Missionary

03.07.

22.08. October 25.10.

Society. He is followed by Hans Karl Diehl. He begins investigating the training of "black" clergymen and how to keep the Rhenish mission together before the mission’s work once again runs the risk of breaking down "as happened in Namaland". The SA Governor-General G. Brand van Zyl visits SWA. Two hundred and thirty-four Germans are on the point of being deported from SWA. Malan proposes that SWA should get certain legislative and administrative rights in the South African parliament. The |Hai-|khauan Chief Diederik Ruben Goliath of Berseba dies in Hoachanas, after having spent roughly nine years in exile there. He has been banished there by the South African colonial administration after being deposed as Chief of Berseba at the behest of the colonial power but also at the height of internal strife within the Berseba community (power struggle between the Goliath and Isaak clans). (His corpse will be brought back to Berseba after the Independence of the Republic of Namibia on 02.06.1995).

12.11.

The Grave of |Hai-|khauan Chief Diederik Ruben Goliath of Berseba in Hoachanas: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The National Party is victorious in SA’s "whites-only" elections. The threat of German deportations is removed. "White" settlement in SWA is encouraged.

1948

SA Prime Minister DF Malan announces that his country will not continue to apply to the UN for SWA’s incorporation into SA. The African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) calls for wide-ranging political change, especially the abolition of all kinds of racial discrimination. In Diamond Mining Area No. 1 near Oranjemund, the first of 18 screening plants is commissioned. The first copper ore concentrates are produced at Tsumeb and exported via Walvis Bay. The production of vanadium ceases at the Abenab Mine while new deposits are mined at the Abenab West Mine (until 1958). The Ongandjera King Tshaanika shIipinge dies. The Kai5 khaun leader from Hoachanas, Noach Tsai-Tsaib, dies. He is succeeded by Matheus Kooper (until 1986).

The Grave of Noach Tsaib Tsaib, Success or of Chief !Hoëb 5Oasmab (alias Fritz Lazarus 5Oaseb) of Hoachanas: Old Cemetry: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

19.01.

The magistrate for the Eastern Caprivi Strip, L Trollope, and the District Commissioner for Kasane in British Bechuanaland, Redman, produce a sketch of the Kasikili Island in the Chobe Rover and come to the conclusion that Kasikili Island has been cultivated since 1907 by the Subya community in the Eastern Caprivi Strip.

21.01.22.01.

07.06. 26.09. 18.10. 25.10.

1949

Under the leadership of Preses Diehl a Missionary Conference takes place in Windhoek. For the first time some "black" evangelists criticise the Rhenish Mission: "The crisis in the Nama congregations had been caused by the lack of friendly relations between the missionaries and the black congregations". The "all-white" Legislative Assembly again requests incorporation of SWA into the Union of South Africa. Carl Hugo Linsingen (Cocky) Hahn dies at Kranzfontein, near Grootfontein. DF Malan visits SWA. Malan proposes that SWA be given certain legislative and administrative powers in the SA Parliament. The National Party amends the SWA Constitution by deleting references to the mandate (South West Africa Affairs Amendment Act, No. 23 of 1949). This means a de facto incorporation because the "whites" of SWA are granted representation in the SA Parliament. In response the UN General Assembly asks the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to decide on the sovereignty of SWA (Advisory Opinion)(UNGA Resolution 338 (IV)). Michael Scott is the first to petition the ICJ on SWA’s behalf.The SWA Agricultural Union (SWAAU) appoints a representative of agricultural interests to the South West Africa Native Labour Association (SWANLA) council. German immigration to SWA is encouraged. The dewatering of the TCL mine at Tsumeb is completed and underground mining once again becomes operational. The manganese deposits of Otjosondu are investigated by J Paulsen. Paulsen sells his claims to SA Minerals Corporation Ltd. and open pit mining starts in October 1950. The mine closes in 1961 due to a decline in the world market prices for manganese. The mine is again productive between 1965 and 1968 and 1980 to 1981. ISCOR takes over the rights in the Okorusu fluorspar deposits. Mining takes place between 1950 and 1955.

Sam Nujoma moves to Windhoek to join his uncle Hiskia Kondombolo. With the assistance of Aaron Hamutenya, father of Hidipo Hamutenya, he learns English at the St. Barnabas Night School. The school's director is Berthold Himumuine, the real force behind Hosea Kutako. Nujoma becomes aware of the United Nations through Hosea Kutako. He meets Hosea with help of Gabriel Mbuende, father of Kaire Mbuende and Clemence Kapuuo. The SWA Monuments Council declares four sites as national monuments: the grave of Jonker Afrikaner in Okahandja, Fort April Namutoni, the Petrified Forest in the southern Kaokoveld and the Hoba meteorite. The dispute around Kasikili Island in the Chobe River and the Trollope-Redman agreement of 1948 results in a South African legal opinion that traditional rights of Caprivi inhabitants are not legally binding in relation to the 12.06 international border between SWA and Bechuanaland (called Botswana as from 1966). It is recognised, however, that the status-quo (cultivation by communities from the Eastern Caprivi Strip) on the island should be followed. SA informs the UN that it will stop reporting to the UN on the July administration of SWA. December Windhoek’s automatic telephone exchange is extended to 2 000 lines.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1950s

1950

May June

11.07.

SWA’s unique salt-gravel roads along the Atlantic coast are developed. From the 1950s until the present day conflicts around land issues and the borders between the Fwe and the Subya areas arise. The AIS intends to establish a newspaper Ondjerera (Light)(Desiderius Kukuri). German becomes again medium of education at various schools. E Müller from the Allgemeine Zeitung is replaced by Karl Friedrich Lempp. SWA has 62 telephone exchanges with a total of 1 033 private and 2 467 business lines. Furthermore there are countrywide 134 public telephone boots and 451 farm lines. Ovambo contract labourers go on strike at Lüderitz and Walvis Bay. The triune point between SWA, Angola and Northern Rhodesia (present-day Zambia) near the Kwando River is agreed to between Portugal (Angola) and SA. The ICJ states in an Advisory Opinion that SA has no obligation to conclude a trusteeship agreement with the UN because the mandate is still in force. SA’s right to alter the status of SWA is denied. SA, however, does not recognise this opinion. The UN General Assembly establishes under UNGA Resolution 449 A (V) an Ad Hoc Committee for South West Africa to negotiate with SA on the status of SWA. The Assembly reiterates its request that SWA should be placed under UN trusteeship. The Advisory Opinion makes the indigenous African leadership in SWA more articulately opposed to the policy of ethnic fragmentation. Elections for the Legislative Assembly in terms of the South West Africa Affairs Amendment Act, No. 23 of 1949, result in an overwhelming victory for the National Party. The NPSWA’s election victory leads to a remoulding of the existing system of segregation and the introduction of Apartheid. The blurring of

30.08.

23.09.01.10.

25.11.

ethnic identities amongst "Coloureds" and poor "Whites" is a major motivation behind the introduction of the Group Areas Act, 1950, in which occupancy and ownership of land is prescribed on racial grounds. Six members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to the SA Parliament. The reputation of the Rhenish Missionary Society sinks to a new low when the Rhenish ex-preses Heinrich Vedder accepts the position of senator in the SA Senate, in charge of "Native Affairs" in SWA. In his maiden speech he commends the South African apartheid policy: "Our Government in South West Africa has been the depositary of a fine heritage. From the very beginning the German Government carried out that which has unfortunately not yet been attained in South Africa namely, apartheid". The question of apartheid is the main topic of the Rhenish Missionary Conference in Windhoek. Missionary Otto Milk states that apartheid promotes "the native’s separate development in accordance with their distinctive character". Apartheid is also supported by the Finnish Mission: "we must ... view apartheid in a true sense of the term being a positive force". A meeting between the Rhenish Missionary Society (Preses Diehl) and the Ovaherero parishes (Hosea Kutako) takes place in Windhoek. The Ovaherero have high expectations of the outcome of this meeting, hoping it might change the future for their community and in fact for all Namibians. The slogan of the meeting is Ehi Retu (Our Country). Kutako declares that according to Ovaherero’s conception, the church, as national church, could not exist outside the rights of the people. The Rhenish Mission, however, maintains that a confusion of worldly affairs and spiritual matters would mean the end of missionary work. The UN Ad Hoc Committee on SWA holds several sessions with SA in an attempt to settle the legal dispute over SWA. SA, however, rejects the legitimacy of UN authority in this regard,

1951

04.08.

17.11.

24.12.

and instead proposes negotiating on SWA’s status with the USA, England and France, and no longer the UN. Although the Ad Hoc Committee is reconstituted in 1952 and 1953, no accord is reached with SA. A breakthrough is achieved when the UN invite Namibian leaders to state their case before the UN General Assembly held that year in Paris. SA authorities again refuse to issue passports to Namibian leaders, inter alia Hosea Kutako. The Namibia case is again presented by Rev. Michael Scott. Albertus Johannes Roux van Rhyn suceeds Petrus Imker Hoogenhout as new Administrator for SWA. There are 15 miles (25 km) paved streets in Windhoek (built since 1916). From 1951 the demand for salt exports grows, mainly for coarse salt from the Panther Beacon Pan and some more pans between Swakopmund and the Ugab River mouth. Lithium and cesium mining takes place in the Rubikon Mine south of Karibib. The Ovambanderu Chief, Nikanor Hoveka, dies. His successor is Stephanus Hoveka. The Trollope-Dickinson Agreement between Trollope and the District Commissioner of Kasane, VE Dickingson, on the Kasikili Island in the Chobe River leads to the conclusion that the island should be cultivated by the Subya community in the Eastern Caprivi Strip. In Omaruru the corner stone for the German Church of the Cross is laid. Augus Gariseb, a headman of the Dama, states in a protest note to the Trusteeship Committee of the UN that the "Damaras are opposed to the representations made by the Hereros at the United Nations, as they (the Dama) had prior claim to the territory and that the Hereros had invaded the country and enslaved them until they were liberated by the Europeans".

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1952

March 22.06.

The SWA Student Body (SWASB) is formed by "black" SWA students studying at SA universities. It continues the work of the African Improvement Society (AIS). It seeks to prepare the ground for a broad nationalist movement. Mburumba Kerina (alias Eric Getzen) leaves for the USA to take up a scholarship at Lincoln University. The UN General Assembly demands, for the seventh time, the Union of South Africa’s trusteeship administration of SWA. This is rejected by SA. Lobster workers in Lüderitz strike for higher wages. It is here that the South African trade union opens a branch of the Food and Canning Workers’ Union (FCWU). Ovambo contract labourers also go on strike Walvis Bay during this year and in 1953. The strikes are ruthlessly crushed by the SWA Administration. In 1953 several workers are shot dead. The African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) obtains a foothold in the Ovambanderu congregations under their chief Stephanus Hoveka. The Rhenish Missionary Society tries to stop this development, but without success. Ben Ulenga is born in Ontanga in the Uukwambi area. At the time of Frederick Maharero’s death(11.09.1952)(he is only permitted shortly before his death to return to his motherland), the Okahandja Municipality demands from Hosea Kutako that he signs an undertaking that henceforth any other descendants of Maharero will be buried at other places than the historical grave side alongside Frederick’s forefathers. Thus Hosea Kutako and Clemence Kapuuo are later buried next to Jonker Afrikaner's grave.

20.09.

Grave of Frederick (Friedrich) Maharero in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

30.09.04.10.

The Rhenish Missionary Society holds a Missionary Conference at Swakopmund. There it is agreed that the mission should draft a transitional constitution to establish a united church under the continued guidance of the missionaries. The Ovambanderu (Mbanderu Council) of Epukiro and Aminuis appoints Ombara Onene JovaMbanderu (traditional title) Munjuku Nguvauva II as Ovambanderu Chief.

The Leader of the Ovambanderu Community: Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II (right, Prof. Mburumba Kerina left)at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The Leader of the Ovambanderu Community: Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

15.12.

One of the Councillors of the Ovambanderu Community: Peter Nguvauva at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Councillors of the Ovambanderu Community at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: 28.07.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1953

The UN General Assembly resolves to supervise the mandate of SWA even without SA co-operation by way of the Ad Hoc Committee on SWA, without any concrete results. The UN then establishes a UN Permanent Committee on South West Africa in terms of UNGA Resolution 749 A which functions until 1961. Among its seven members are Norway, Syria, Thailand, Uruguay and the USA. A Kaokoveld Trust Fund is created on the recommendation of the tribal council of the Kaokoveld. SWA has 3 008 km of trunk roads, 7 312 km of main roads, 14 336 km of district roads and 24 432 km of farm roads. The Wage and Industrial Conciliation Ordinance provides for the creation of a Wage Board without "blacks". David ||Goreseb is elected Chief of the Dama in Okombahe. This causes serious rivalry between urban and rural Dama.

Josephat Gawanab negotiates for peace between the factions. The Chief of the Bondelswarts (!Gami-#nun), Nathanel Christian (|Gariseb #Khami !Nansemab), dies. Due to the Apartheid policy of the SWA Administration no further Bondelswart chiefs are sworn in. The next two in line, Wilhelm Christian (Gôa-khoeb |Garisemab) and Jakobus Christian (!Hao-||ęib Taosemab), are only councillors. Nathanel Christian’s daughter, Anna Katrina Christian (!Garisema !Nanse Gôa-Khoes), becomes the Bondelswarts Chief on 20.05.1977. 03.03.

The Cemetery in Warmbad: Grave of the Bondelswart Chief Nathanel Christian of Warmbad
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

April May August 12.08.

Elections for the Legislative Assembly take place, with another victory for the National Party of SWA. The South African Governor General Ernest George Jansen visits SWA. SWA Administrator Albertus Johannes Roux van Rhyn is replaced by Daniel Thomas Viljoen. Jacques Pierre Niehaus of the UNSWP pleads for "greater autonomy for South West Africa" and a "review of existing economic relations between the Territory and the Union of South Africa". Nekwaya Loide Shikongo, mother of the present-day ELCIN

23.12.

1954

January

April

21.05.

bishop Nangolo Leonard Auala, performs an epic poem (oshiweto) on the deposed Uukwambi King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo. The Uniao das Populacoes de Angola is founded to launch a guerrilla war against Portuguese colonialism in Angola. Sister Helin of the Finnish Missionary Society establishes a missionary station at Mpungu in the Kavango for the San community of the Uukwangali area. A municipal bus service is introduced in Windhoek. Grievances of contract labourers against the illegal confiscation of goods at a road block at Namutoni are focussed on by an early spokesperson for contract labourers and later SWAPO leader, Eliazer Tuhadeleni. He is supported by an Anglican priest Theophilus Hamutumbangela. After there is no reaction by the SWA Administration, Hamutumbangela directs a petition to the UN. He continues his political work with leaders such as Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma (until his deportation from his parish Onekuaja in Ovamboland to Windhoek, 1957. Sam Nujoma and Jariretundu Kozonguizi influence the "Anglican Bishop of Damaraland", Vincent, to convince the South Africans to allow Hamutumbangela to return home (beginning 1958). Nujoma and Kozonguizi are successful in order to organise Hamutumbangela's return. Hamutumbangela actively supports the liberation struggle of the Namibian people in the North for many years until his death on 28.11.1990). Nujoma contacts the Herero Chiefs’ Council under Hosea Kutako. He also makes the contract labourers in Windhoek politically conscious and organises them into a significant political force. New mining legislation is promulgated in the SWA Legislative Assembly. The power to grant rights to the "black" population, held by the various SWA Administrators since 1928, is transferred to

the SA Government as proposed by the SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, H Verwoerd. This is also 08.06. valid for the functions of the Ovamboland Affairs Proclamation, No. 27 of 1929, which are transferred to the SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development in terms of Act 56 of 1954. SA Prime Minister DF Malan declares that the "mandate over 24.08. South West Africa has lapsed" and that "the territory and South Africa are united as one political entity". The Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo-Kavango Church 31.08.(ELOK)(from the ex- Finnish Mission) is founded during a 03.09. Missionary Conference at Engela in the Uukwanyama area in Ovamboland. The first ordinary synod of ELOK takes place in Ovamboland. November Missionary Birger Eriksson becomes leader of the new church with Leonard Auala as his closest co-worker. SWA obtains a new definitive stamp issue with animal and 15.11. native pictorials of the territory as motives (with multiple springbok head water mark).

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1955

March

18.04.

The UN General Assembly approaches the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for an opinion on whether or not a two-thirds majority is required for decisions of the Assembly relating to the examination of reports on the administration of SWA compiled by the UN Permanent Committee on SWA. The Court rules in favour of the two-third majority rule. The South West Africa Progressive Association (SWAPA) is formed in Windhoek, its members being teachers, clerks and "intellectuals", whose purpose is to lobby for better "black" education (in 1958, 127 823 SA Pounds were allocated by the SWA Administration for 9 969 "black" school children in schools within the "Police Zone" and 36 117 SA Pounds for 18 350 children outside the "Police Zone" (mainly Ovamboland)). It encompasses both the political and economic advancement of "blacks". Uatja Kaukuetu is chairman. Tunguru Huaraka is Secretary-General. Tsumeb mine workers go on strike. Leonard Auala and Jason Amakutuwe from ELOK are invited to commence theology studies in Finland. The SA authorities refuse to issue passports to them. The functions of the "Okavango Native Territory" revert, by Proclamation No. 32 of 1937, to the SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development. Karl Friedrich Lempp from the Allgemeine Zeitung is replaced by Werner Bertelsmann. In response to Malan’s statement that the mandate over SWA had lapsed, a group of local Afrikaners and Germans form the Mandate Party to campaign for the maintenance of the territory’s mandatory status. SWACTA and SWACPB direct a petition to the SWA Administration and the South African Department of Native Affairs for the creation of a new "coloured" township in Windhoek. SWACTA also requests the establishment of a Council for Coloured Affairs. The "coloured" population in Windhoek is represented by a "coloured" member on the Native Advisory Board of the Old Location.

David Witbooi, chief of the Witbooi Nama since 1928, dies. His successor is Hendrik Samuel Witbooi.

09.07.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Tomb Stone for David Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ovaherero leave the Rhenish Mission to join the "Oruuano Movement" (Oruuano means in Otjiherero: Communion), which demands the reallocation of land. The leader of the "Anti-Apartheid church" is one of the first Ovaherero to have been ordained by the Rhenish Mission in 1949, Reinhard Ruzo. Hosea Kutako plays an important role in the formation 25.08. of the "Oruuano Church". However, the Rhenish Mission regards the Oruuano Church as a "new heathen sect" which is developed as a consequence of nationalist "confusion and false doctrine". In contrast to this attitude, missionary Werner Wienecke declares that "White missionaries that we are, we share the blame of our white brothers and sisters, who call themselves Christians". Preses Diehl leads a Rhenish delegation at the first All-Africa Lutheran Conference in Marangu, Tanzania, organised by the Lutheran World Federation (LWF). Diehl reports that there is "an awakening nationalism especially among the Herero, November [which had] brought a certain revival of the old ancestor worshipping". From the Evangelical Lutheran OvamboKavango Church (ELOK)(founded 1954 from the ex-Finnish Mission) Leonard Auala, Jason Amakutuwe and Efraim Angula participate.

The National Party of SWA is again victorious in elections for the Legislative Assembly. The Independent Economic Party (former Mandate Party) is unsuccessful. A Missionary Conference under the leadership of preses Diehl takes place in Okahandja to discuss the relationship between the Mission and the German Evangelical Lutheran Church (DELK) in SWA. It becomes clear that there are December conflicting loyalties between German and "black" parishes. The German synod in SWA should get greater independence and thus better prospects for recruiting pastors in Germany. Despite the more "liberal" views of some of the younger missionaries, many of the Rhenish missionaries still share the apartheid ideology of the NP of SWA. The ICJ continues to deal with the SWA problem in an advisory capacity. It confirms the UN General Assembly’s right to adopt resolutions on SWA, and to grant oral hearings to petitioners (Michael Scott, Mburumba Kerina (Getzen), Jariretundu Kozonguizi, Hans Beukes, Markus Kooper, Sam Nujoma, Ismael Fortune, Jacob Kuhangua and Hosea Kutako). This gives new impetus to the political socialisation and consciousness of "black" leaders in the territory. A new round of negotiations commences in New York between the UN and SA on the SWA issue. The UN Permanent Committee on SWA continues its work, but its efforts end in failure. From various petitions submitted to the Permanent Committee, it can be concluded that SA’s policies on SWA violate the provisions of the original "Mandate Agreement". The Uniao das Populacoes de Angola joins the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Angola. The Herero Chiefs’ Council sends Mburumba Kerina as petitioner to the UN. 16.11.

1956

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Mburumba Kerina: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Leonard Auala, Jason Amakutuwe and Efraim Angula from ELOK are allowed to study theology in South Africa (Oskarsberg), but only for one year. The SWA Railway Administration asks the SA Parliament to authorise the " dieselisation" of the whole SWA railway system and simultaneously to allow the broadening of the northern narrow-gauge line between Usakos and Tsumeb/ Grootfontein/ Outjo. 401 Dama from Augeigas (present-day Daan Viljoen game reserve) are resettled against their will in Otjohorongo. The question of the |Hai-|khauan captaincy in Berseba continues as an important, though dormant issue. It comes to a head when the Goliath headman David Vries dies. Only the headman Edward Isaak Jr. remains as the leader of the Berseba community. Intensive exploration activities lead to the discovery of substantial bodies of copper- lead ore in the Asis mining area. As a consequence, the modern Kombat mine comes into operation in 1962. The Gorob and Hope Mines are started by the Mineral Trading Company of South West Africa but closed again one year later. Prospecting for radioactive minerals takes place near Rössing.

February Construction of the new salt-gravel road from Swakopmund to Walvis Bay, the "Jan Loopuyt coastal road", commences. Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma marries Kovambo Theopoldine 06.05. Katjimune. SA Prime Minister JG Strijdom confirms his country’s right to 21.05. incorporate SWA into the Union of South Africa.

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5. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: SOUTH AFRICAN RULE RULE
5.4 THE STRUGGLE AGAINST SOUTH AFRICA BEGINS: 1957-1974
Construction of the first paved road begins – between Windhoek and Brakwater. During the session of the SA Parliament, authority is obtained for the "dieselisation" of the SWA railway system and the broadening of lines to the "Cape gauge" standard (1 067 mm). Of the total 2 354 km of railway line in SWA, 1 786 km are of the broad Cape gauge type and the remaining 568 km are of the 600 mm narrow-gauge type. The latter consists of the Usakos- Tsumeb (404 km), OtaviGrootfontein (92 km) and the Otjiwarongo-Outjo (72 km) lines. Bishop Joseph Gotthardt ordains Rudolf Koppmann of Otjiwarongo as a Roman Catholic Werner Bertelsmann from the Allgemeine Zeitung is again replaced by Karl Friedrich Lempp. The copper mines of Otjosonjati and Onganja in the Okahandja district start production. Further vanadium, lead and zinc deposits are found at the Berg Aukas Mine. Underground production starts that same year. Ovambanderu Chief Stephanus Hoveka dies. His successor is Gerson Hoveka. The Ovamboland People’s Congress (OPC) is launched by Herman Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo in Cape Town (in formal terms the OPC was never constituted). Before this launch Andimba belongs to the African Nation Congress (ANC). Among the founding members are Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua,

1957

02.08.

October

04.10.

Eliazer Tuhadeleni (Kaxumba kaNdola), Peter Hilinganye Mweshihange, Solomon Mifima, Maxton Joseph Mutongulume, Jariretundu Kozonguizi, Emil Appolus, Andreas Shipanga, Ottilič Schimming and Kenneth Abrahams. Toivo meets during this time Cape Town based South African socialists and liberals such as Brian Bunting, Sam Khan, Fred Carneson, Solly Sachs, Jack Simons, Patrick Duncan and Randolph Vigne. He establishes also close contacts with the two South African parties the Congress of Democrats (COD) and the Liberal Party. The UN establishes a Good Offices Committee to negotiate with SA "a basis for an agreement which would continue to accord to the Territory of South West Africa an international status". The Good Offices Committee consists of Brazil, Great Britain and the USA. The Soviet bloc opposes the creation of the committee on the grounds that the Western powers want to remove the SWA issue from the UN agenda. The AfroAsian bloc is not satisfied either. Bishop.Rhenish "black" pastors are opposed to the idea of a federal Church (as decided during the Missionary Conference in Okahandja, December 1955) and demand one single, entirely united Church, with no division into different population groups; and it should be called the Evangelical Lutheran Church of SWA (ELC). ELC is constituted at a synod held in Okahandja. The church is led by Preses Hans Karl Diehl and Günther Reeh (Windhoek), Hendrik Isaak (Maltahöhe), Andreas Kukuri (who dies on 29.12.1966) and Otto Milk (Okahandja), Daniel Strydom (Rehoboth) and Herrmann Tötemeyer (Keetmanshoop). Immediately this becomes a problem with the Baster parishes in Rehoboth since the Baster do not wish to align themselves with "black" people. Furthermore, it is also pointed out in Rehoboth that the German DELK does not form part of the ELC.

Grave of the Rhenish Missionary Andreas Kukuri on the Rhenish Missionary Cemetery in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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The OPC is renamed the Ovamboland People’s Organisation (OPO), as allegedly suggested by Mburumba Kerina. Ben Amathila becomes a member of the OPO.

The Leader of the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) at Epukiro Pos 3: Ben Amathila: 8.07.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1958

The Damara Tribal Executive Committee (DTEC) is founded under Dama Chief David ||Goreseb in Franzfontein. Some members found a little later the Damara Executive Committee (DEC) as a political party. The DTEC continues to operate. JGH van der Wath becomes the new leader of the National Party of SWA. In recognition of the potential for diamonds in the marine environment, the first off-shore concession is granted over a five kilometre wide area along the coast between the Oranje River and Lüderitz. The mining of diamonds from barges begins in 1961. Various off-shore mining technologies are subsequently tested and today Namibia is the only country in the world where marine deposits are mined to a water depth of 200 m. Mining from the sea is carried out in the Chameis Bay from 1962 to 1969, in Bakers Bay in 1971 and in Hottentots Bay north of Lüderitz in 1969 and 1970. With the salt industry as the main economic activity in the Swakopmund area during the 1950s, over-production and

price wars ensue. To prevent economic collapse, ten of the twelve main salt producers reach an agreement to establish the Swakopmund Salt (Pty) Ltd. The Goreangab Dam near Windhoek is built. The trunk road from Otavi to Tsumeb is paved. In the Kavango the Uukwangali King Sivute dies. He is followed by Queen Kanuni who returns from exile (until 1971). Her successors are the kings Mbandu (until 1977) and Daniel Sitendu Mpasi (from 12.04.1977 until present). Construction of the broad "Cape gauge" railway line begins at Kranzberg between Usakos and Karibib. The First Conference of Independent African States issues 15./22.04. the "Accra Declaration", concerning the future of dependent territories in Africa. The Good Offices Committee, under the chairmanship of Charles Arden-Clarke, holds a meeting with the SA Government, without any progress made. The committee May decides that the supervisory authority of the UN must be clearly acknowledged as a minimum condition for any rapprochement with the SA Government. Leader from ELOK becomes Missionary Alppo Hukka with 25.06. Leonard Auala as his closest co-worker. September The Independent South West Party is established in Walvis Bay for a short period. Hosea Kutako and the leader of the Witbooi Nama, Hendrik Samuel Witbooi and his nephew (son of Markus Witbooi) Hendrik Witbooi again petition the United Nations. Consequently the Trusteeship Committee of the UN rejects a plan by the UN Good Offices Committee to divide SWA and to 25.09. incorporate the southern portion of the territory into SA. Eric Louw, the representative of South Africa objects and in the course of his objection attacks the credentials of the petitioners and claims that they are unreliable witnesses. The UN General Assembly extends the mandate of the United 02.01.

Nations Permanent Committee on SWA for a further year. Herman Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo succeeds in sending a petition to the United Nations, with the assistance of Mburumba Kerina and Michael Scott. Consequently he is deported from Cape Town, first to Keetmanshoop and Windhoek and later to Ovamboland, where he is placed under house arrest in his home village Oniipa. On the way from Cape Town to Keetmanshoop, Toivo is accompanied by Jariretundu Kozonguizi. In Keetmanshoop they enter into discussions with a newly formed organisation, the Society for the Advancement of the African People in South West Africa December (SAAPSWA). They try to persuade the SAAPSWA leader Philip Musirika to launch a new party , the Namaland People’s Congress, but nothing comes of it. Toivo, although a member of the Anglican Church, stays in constant, close contact with Leonard Auala from ELOK. Because of OPO’s (later SWAPO’s) deep roots in the Ovambo people, ELOK subsequently gives its support to this national liberation movement. Members and supporters of SWAPO are also members of the congregation. The people, church and national liberation movement coincide. The new broad-gauge railway line reaches Omaruru. The newspaper Namib Times is established by Paul Vincent. 05.12. The newspaper is first published in Swakopmund (until 15.09.1961) and later in Walvis Bay.

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Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma joins the OPO after entering active politics as a leading member of the Mandume Movement (around 1954) and after regular contacts with Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, although he only meets Toivo much later (1984). He establishes support for OPO in centres such as Walvis Bay and Otjiwarongo. With Jacob Kuhangua he leads the first Windhoek branch of OPO in the "Old Location" and becomes OPO President later this year. The OPO Vice-President is Louis Nelengani and Jacob Kuhangua Secretary-General of the Party. Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua becomes OPO organiser in Ohalushu. Later he becomes one of the first SWA petitioners to the UN. The petitions, translated into English by Theophilus Hamutumbangela, are sent to the UN via Michael Scott or Toivo Ya Toivo. The Herero Chiefs’ Council sends Hans Beukes and Jariretundu Kozonguizi to the UN as representatives of a future independent Namibia. Immanuel Gottlieb Nathaniel "Maxuilili" joins the OPO. Gertrud "Rikumbi" Rikumbirua Kandanga joins the OPO and becomes Women’s League Secretary of the OPO Walvis Bay branch. John Ya Otto enters the political arena on being asked by Sam Nujoma to act as an interpreter for meetings with Baster leaders in Rehoboth. The SWA Coloured Organisation (SWACO) is formed in Windhoek, and takes a pro-SA stance. Another "coloured" organisation is established in the form of the Volksorganisasie van Suidwes-Afrika (People’s Organisation of Southwest-Africa), which is anti-SA, but soon becomes defunct. A third "coloured" (or Baster) organisation, the Burgerorganisasie van Rehoboth, is founded during the ‘60s in Rehoboth, but it plays a limited role in national politics. By now, it has been established that a new "coloured" township will be built west of the town centre of Windhoek (Khomasdal), although opposed by SWACTA and SWACPB.

1959

Members of SWAPA (and other political organisations) create The South West News, a newspaper in English, Afrikaans, Otjiherero and Oshivambo (one article even appears in German) which promotes "black" nationalism in Namibia (first edition appears on 05.03.1960). The publisher is the "black" African Publishing Company. The first editors are Emil Appolus and Zedekia Ngavirue who later plays a prominent role in the South West African National Union (SWANU). The paper is supported by liberal "whites" like Karl Friedrich Lempp from the Allgemeine Zeitung (AZ), Daan Minnaar from the The Windhoek Advertiser and Dan Tregoning from Otjiwarongo. Only nine editions (last edition: 03.09.1960) are printed. The only "black" publishing house in Namibia, the African Publishing Company (founded on 28.10.1959) has to be closed in 1961 because it cannot be sustained financially and most of its editors are in the mean time in exile. King Iipumbu ya Tshilongo dies at Oshikuku hospital in Ovamboland. The |Hai-|khauan headman Edward Isaak Jr. dies at Berseba. He is succeeded by Diederik Isaak. Subsequently, the rift between the Goliath and Isaak again clans breaks up into the open. This leads to the additional appointment of David Christian Goliath as second headman. Now the whole issue becomes intertwined both with the struggles around the implementation of the Odendaal Plan and, with emerging party politics between the pro-South African Bantustan development and pro-independence forces. The Isaak clan supports the South African Namaland dispensation with the later (1977) Democratic Turnhallen Alliance (DTA) while the Goliath clan joins the South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO) in the 1970s. Reverend Markus Kooper rejects South African plans to evict the Kai5 khaun (also called Red Nation) from Hoachanas and to resettle them at Aminuis and Tses. This forces him to move to Itsawisis in the Tses Reserve. The private airline, Suidwes Lugdiens, undertakes its first

March

April

May

August 20.08.

23.08.

charter flight between southern Angola and Windhoek. SA Railways buys 115 General Electric Class 32-000 diesel locomotives from the USA (at a cost of Ł9 million) for the SWA system. Steam traction is systematically phased out in SWA. An intensive exploration programme at Klein Aub Mine delineates new copper ore deposits. The Rehoboth Taxpayer’s Association is formed by Hans Diergaardt. Mr Olivier plays a leading role in the association. Kurt Dahlmann, later editor of the Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper in Windhoek, suggests a loose federation of SA and SWA. The OPO campaigns against the contract labour system. The organisation suggests that the territory be placed under UN trusteeship. The formation of the South West African National Union (SWANU) is envisaged: Herero Chiefs’ Council, SWAPA and the SWASB, as well as Sam Nujoma and Jacob Kuhangua, are instrumental in its formation. Clemence Kapuuo proposes the name "SWANU". Chiefs such as Hosea Kutako later do not succeed in gaining control of this mass-based organisation. The emergence of the OPO and SWANU introduces an element of rivalry which later results in a clash between Kerina and Kozonguizi. Their personal rivalry is further aggravated by the illusion of imminent independence for SWA under the auspices of the UN. Kerina later joins the South West Africa People’s Organisation (SWAPO). Sam Nujoma opens an OPO Branch Office at Tsumeb. SWANU is unofficially founded. The first elections for the executive office of the party lead to a power struggle for positions. Clemence Kapuuo and Levy Nganjone represent the "traditionalist" wing. Katuutire Kaura joins SWANU. In Windhoek and in presence of Sam Nujoma the Ondonga Chief Johannes Kambonde tries to persuade Ovambo contract labourers to leave OPO. He is, however, not

successful. The new salt gravel road from Swakopmund to Walvis Bay, 28.08. the "Jan Loopuyt coastal road", is opened for traffic. The OPO joins SWANU (but continues to operate as an independent party). An alliance of the OPO, SWANU and the traditional headmen and chieftains of the Ovaherero, Nama and Dama organise a mass campaign against a re settlement programme that envisages destroying the "Old Location" (30 000 inhabitants) west of Windhoek’s town centre, and building the townships of Katutura (Otjiherero: "the place where people do not live") and Khomasdal. Protest September models are the "Defiance Campaign" of the African National Congress (ANC) in SA, and Ghandi’s non-violent "satyagraha". Some external leaders such as Kozonguizi and Kerina write letters to local political leaders such as Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, Sam Nujoma, John Muundjua, Barney Mbuha and Clemence Kapuuo, in which they provide political advice and express hope for self-determination under the auspices of the UN. The new broad- gauge railway line reaches Otjiwarongo. During a meeting convened by the Advisory Board and attended by the Superintendent of the "Old Location", Nel de 13.09. Wet, the residents reject their removal to Katutura. Another meeting dated 29.10. has the same result. SWANU is officially launched at a public meeting in Windhoek with the backing of the Herero Chiefs’ Council under Hosea Kutako. The Council and Sam Nujoma support Jariretundu Kozonguizi as president of SWANU (Kozonguizi remains president until 1966). Vice President is Uatja Kaukuetu. Further members of the executive office are: Sam Nujoma, 27.09. Louis Nelengani and Emil Appolus (OPO), Uaseta Mbuha and John Muundjua (SWAPA), Isascar Kambatuku and Aaron Kapere (Herero Chiefs’ Council) and Augus Gariseb (Dama representative). Considerable confusion surrounds the relationships between different political organisations and

especially between "traditionalist" and "intellectual" forces. November The US Ambassador in South Africa, K Crowe, meets Hosea Kutako in Windhoek. 200 "black" women demonstrate in front of the SWA 03.12. Administrator’s residence. OPO President Sam Nujoma and SWANU Vice President 08.12. Uatja Kaukuetu are pivotal in the organisation of the boycotts. Eleven people die when police move into the "Old Location" in Windhoek in order to break up a crowd of demonstrating people. Amongst the dead is the "coloured" leader, Willem Cloete, representative on the Native Advisory Board. The only woman killed is Anna Mungunda. Some of the wounded are brought into the "Non-White" Hospital in Windhoek. However, the South African Administrator, DT Viljoen, allegedly orders, according to various sources, that those Africans who were injured during the uprising should not be given medical assistance. Consequently, Ruth Kiwi, President of South West African Red Cross, refuses to allow blood donations to the wounded residents of the "Old Location". Sister Meekulu Putuse Appolus assists the wounded. The Rhenish Missionary Society (Preses Diehl) keeps silent, although "black" pastors demand a formal protest against the authorities’ decision to kill some of the demonstrators. Prominent community leaders such as Sam Nujoma, Moses Makue ||Garoëb, Uatja Kaukuetu, Nathan Mbaeva, Clemence 10.12. Kapuuo, David Meroro, John Ya Otto and Emil Appolus witness the events. Nujoma is imprisoned and later forced into exile. Nathan Mbaeva is deported to Epukiro and goes later into exile. Uatja Kaukuetu and Charles Kauraise flee to Sweden. Tunguru Huaraka escapes to Ghana. Vita Kaukuetu flees to East Africa and Ambrose Kandjii to North Africa. Other SWANU members who are forced into exile are: Zedekia Ngavirue, Daniel Munamava, Moses Katjiuongua and Clement Veii. Others are sent by Hosea Kutako to Botswana, this being organised jointly by SWANU and the Herero Chiefs’

Council. Kutako sends them to be trained as freedom fighters. Reportedly SWAPO later blocks any assistance from the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) for these people. Some exiles end up receiving training in the Ethiopian Army during the rule of Emperor Haile Selasse. This period sees the third wave of Ovaherero fleeing to present-day Botswana (the first and second waves having fled after the Ovambanderu War of 1896 and the Ovaherero-German War of 1904/06).

Old Location Windhoek, 1950s
Namibia State Archive

Windhoek: Hochland Park: Old Location: Cemetery: March 2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

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1960

Namibia has 11 163 telephone lines (3 500 lines ten years ago) including 2 413 farm line connections. During the year 17 325 067 telephone calls are counted. King Omukwaniilwa Mwaala gwa Nashilongo dies. His successor is the 12th Uukwaluudhi King Hosea Shikongo Taapopi Shitaatala (since 20.09.1960). He resides at Tsandi. Josephat Kambazembi dies. He has no direct successor. The Hall Commission of Inquiry, which commences on 11.01. and which includes the Judge President, is appointed to investigate the unrest. Sam Nujoma, Uatja Kaukuetu and Zedekia Ngavirue represent the Old Location community. OPO hires the law company Tambo and Mandela from Johannesburg. On the request of the Chief Native Commissioner Bruwer Blignaut, Tambo is deported back to South Africa. Consequently OPO is defended by Advocate van Niekerk. However, the deeds of the SA Police are completely exonerated. Inspired by the 1959 Windhoek uprising, student unrest erupts at the Augustineum Teachers’ Training College at Okahandja. Hidipo Hamutenya takes part. Having to flee the country, he goes to Dar-Es-Salaam. The Augustineum is later moved to Windhoek. The African Improvement Society (AIS) dissolves. The Ovambanderu (Mbanderu Council) of Epukiro and Aminuis manage to obtain SA’s recognition of their leader, Munjuku Nguvauva II, in the place of Stephanus Hoveka and later Gerson Hoveka whose forefather, Nikanor Hoveka, was appointed by the German authorities as Chief of the Epukiro Reserve (this position is later confirmed by SA). This is the cause of a long dispute over the Ovambanderu chieftaincy. Supporters of Hosea Kutako accuse SWANU of trying to fragment the Ovaherero. Due to Kutako’s age it is decided that he should be assisted by a deputy chief, and Clemence Kapuuo is elected despite strong opposition from SWANU and the Ovambanderu (Mbanderu Council). The Mbanderu Council later supports SWAPO but only formally aligns itself

January

with SWAPO in 1988 during a Consultative Conference in Kabwe, Zambia, attended by SWAPO leaders and "progressive Namibians" invited by SWAPO. The South West Africa United National Independence Organisation (SWAUNIO) is formed by David Gertze to oppose SA’s "homeland policy". Reverend Markus Kooper from Hoachanas represents SWAUNIO as a petitioner at the UN (again in 1965 and 1967). Immanuel Gottlieb Nathaniel "Maxuilili" becomes SWAPO’s Acting President inside SWA. Aaron Mushimba joins SWAPO in the early 1960s, and later becomes the party’s National Organiser.

Reverend Markus Kooper of Hoachanas: Petitioner at the United Nations for Namibia: 1960s: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

David Hoveka Meroro joins SWANU. Josephat Gawanab revives the Damara Executive Committee (DEC) after a period of dormancy. The City of Windhoek is divided into different wards. The salt-gravel road along the Atlantic coast reaches Cape Cross. The extension of the Walvis Bay port quays and the construction of a new oil tanker berth reach completion during the fiscal year 1959/60 (ending 31.03.1960). South Africa makes a concerted effort to encourage petroleum exploration in the territory. This is administered by the South

West Africa Corporation (SWACOR), the predecessor of the National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia (NAMCOR), a subsidiary of the Southern African Oil Exploration Corporation (SOEKOR). As a result, exploration begins off-shore and by the 1970s the whole off-shore is covered by oil exploration licenses. US oil companies (e.g. Artwell Exploration) are beginning to prospect for oil in the territory. The ore body of the Oamites Mine south of Windhoek is discovered. The lead deposits at the Namib Lead Mine are further delineated. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Okahandja. The All-African People’s Conference in Tunis condemns SA’s apartheid policy in SWA. It calls for the immediate realisation 25./30.01. of the "Mandate Agreement" and for boycotts of all goods produced in the Union of South Africa if that country does not comply. At the request of the Herero Chiefs’ Council and OPO, it is decided that Sam Nujoma should join Jariretundu Kozonguizi, Mburumba Kerina and Michael Scott in their petitioning at the UN. Nujoma meets Hosea Kutako for the last time. Kutako 26.02. gives Nujoma his blessing and tells him that he must be prepared to stay away for a long time and if necessary not to return until SWA has won genuine freedom and independence. Sam Nujoma goes into exile to Ghana via Botswana and Tanzania, with the assistance of Hosea Kutako, Clemence Kapuuo, Johannes Karuaihe and Elifas Tjingaete. He is supported by Ovambanderu Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II on his way to Botswana. He travels via Maun and Francistown to Bulawayo together with Daniel Munamava, who assists Nujoma to buy a plane ticket to fly to Mbeya in Tanzania via Salisbury (Harare) and Ndola. From Ndola he crosses with the assistance of a member of the Northern Rhodesian

United National Independence Party (UNIP), Fines Bulawayo, into the Katanga Province of Belgian Congo. There Nujoma meets Moice Tshombe from the Conakat Party. Crossing back over the border to Ndola he boards a flight to Mbeya. In Mbeya he is treated for malaria and escapes from the hospital after being threatened with arrest by the British authorities. From Mbeya, Nujoma travels with the assistance of officials of the Tanganyikan African National Union (TANU) via Njombe, Iringa and Dodoma to Dar-Es-Salaam. With the assistance of Julius Nyerere (then President of TANU and a member of the Legislative Council of Tanganyika) he receives a passport. The first sites are available for "coloured" residents in Khomasdal. It is not clear whether the name "Khomasdal" is March chosen by the Municipality of Windhoek or one of the many "coloured" organisations. End March Seventy-six General Electric Class 32-000 diesel locomotives are in service. Sam Nujoma travels from Tanganyika to Khartoum in Sudan and from there to Accra in Ghana, where he meets Jariretundu Kozonguizi and Michael Scott. In Accra he also meets African leaders such as Kwame Nkruhma, Patrice Lumumba, Josef Kasavubu and Frantz Fanon, representing the Algerian April National Liberation Front (FNL). From there Nujoma travels to Liberia, which is presenting the SWA case to the ICJ. With Kwame Nkruhma’s assistance he travels with Kozonguizi via Ghana to the USA. Karl Friedrich Lempp from the Allgemeine Zeitung is replaced by S Thale. After breaking away from SWANU, the OPO reconstitutes itself as the South West Africa People’s Organisation ( SWAPO) in New York, with Nujoma as President. SWAPO becomes a national liberation movement. Hosea Kutako and the Herero Chiefs’ Council welcome this development (The link between SWAPO and the Chiefs’ Council remains until 1963. The break between the two organisations can be related to 29.02.

SWAPO’s discovery of far more powerful allies abroad). The major difference between SWAPO and SWANU is that SWAPO relies chiefly on petitioning the UN, while SWANU argues that the people of the territory should organise themselves to realise their socio-political aspirations (with support of the People's Republic of China). The difference between SWAPO 19.04. and SWANU is related more to political style than to policy. The OPO’s reconstitution as SWAPO is triggered by national leaders such as Sam Nujoma, Mburumba Kerina, Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, Jacob Kuhangua, Solomon Mifima, Paul Helmuth, Andreas Shipanga, Erasmus Erastus Mbumba, Emil Appolus, Maxton Joseph Mutongulume and Carlos Hamatui. SA immediately labels SWAPO a "communist" organisation, but in terms of its policy objectives and conduct, SWAPO can in truth only be labelled a "nationalist movement". Kozonguizi secures SWANU’s membership of the South African United Front (SAUF), the All-African People’s Conference and the Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization (AAPSO). 26.04. The new High Court building in Windhoek is opened. Nujoma petitions before the Sub Committee of the Fourth June Committee of the General Assembly of the UN for the first time. The Second Conference of Independent African States in Addis Ababa concludes that the ICJ should adjudicate in 15./24.06. determining the international obligations of SA concerning SWA, and that the Governments of Ethiopia and Liberia should institute such proceedings. Nujoma appears before the UN Permanent Committee on 05.07. SWA in New York, where he also meets Kerina. The new broad- gauge railway line reaches Tsumeb. All railway station buildings constructed during the German 14.07. colonial era, except for the Usakos and Kalkfeld stations, are demolished.

Jacob Kuhangua, who was deported to the north after the Windhoek Uprising, goes into exile via Angola, Zambia, August Tanzania and Ethiopia. He reaches New York and joins Nujoma, Kozonguizi, Kerina and Scott. The UN Permanent Committee on SWA drafts a resolution for 12.08. the General Assembly which expresses "deep regret at the action taken by the police and soldiers" in SWA. S Thale from the Allgemeine Zeitung is replaced by Kurt 01.09. Dahlmann (until 1978). The second All-Africa Lutheran Conference takes place in Antsirabe, Madagascar. Leonard Auala from ELOK 08./18.09. participates in the conference. In view of the occurrences in Sharpeville, South Africa, in March 1960, the conference takes a strong standpoint against racialism and South African apartheid as an un-Christian practice. The Ondonga King Kambonde kaNamene dies. His 23.09. successor is the 14th Ondonga King, Martin (Nambala) Ashikoto (1960-1967). Under the leadership of Preses Diehl, a Missionary 02./08.10. Conference takes place in Swakopmund. During this conference it is inter alia discussed whether "black" pastors should be allowed to eat in "white" missionary houses. Nujoma returns to Dar-Es-Salaam, where he sets up SWAPO’s provisional headquarters. There he meets Meekulu November Putuse Appolus, wife of Emil Appolus (since 1952). She later plays a great role in SWAPO and leads the SWAPO Women’s Council (SWC) which she establishes in 1969. Liberia and Ethiopia, former members of the League of Nations, demand a binding ICJ judgement against SA for 04.11. violating mandate regulations. Nangolo Leonard Auala becomes the first moderator of the Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo-Kavango Church (ELOK). The broad-gauge railway line from Kranzberg to 28.11. Tsumeb/Grootfontein/Outjo is completed.

14.12.

The General Assembly of the UN adopts UNGA Resolution 1514 (XV) which declares the Independence of Colonial Countries and Peoples. This declaration boosts SWAPO's morale. It forges ahead with the struggle for SWA’s liberation by initiating tactics other than merely petitioning the United Nations.

Sam Nujoma (right) with Bishop Colin Winter and Shapua Kaukungua, 1960s
Namibia State Archive

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1961

The process of decolonisation is set into motion in the territory’s immediate vicinity, and uprisings occur in Angola against Portuguese colonial rule. The UN General Assembly labels the situation in SWA a potential threat to international peace and requests the United Nations Permanent Committee on SWA to visit the territory with or without permission from South Africa. It inter alia takes note, with grave concern, of reports of the terrorisation of and armed action against, the indigenous inhabitants, and calls upon the Government of the Union of South Africa, to desist from such acts. However, South Africa refuses the Committee entry into SWA and the Committee is compelled to confine itself to visit various African countries, where it takes evidence from petitioners. SWAPO and SWANU submit special information on the territory to the UN and appeal for immediate intervention from the United Nations to remove the South African Government from SWA without awaiting the outcome of the case pending before the ICJ. Consequently a UN Special Committee for South West Africa is established (UNGA Resolution 1702 (XVI)), consisting of Brazil, Mexico, Norway, the Philippines, Somalia and Togo, to prepare the territory for independence. Independence now becomes the goal in lieu of a trusteeship agreement. The name "Namibia" is reportedly coined by Mburumba Kerina in New York. (See Note to the Reader after Preface.) Lucas Hifikepunye Pohamba of SWAPO is forced into exile. John Ya Otto becomes SWAPO Acting Secretary-General inside the territory. From 1961 to 1966, as SWAPO’s Chief Organiser, he travels around the territory with other SWAPO leaders in "SWAPO’s car", a battered Ford named "Bluebird". After SWANU’s bloodletting during 1960, when most of its executive members went into exile, John Muundjua becomes Acting Deputy President, Gerson Veii Assistant Secretary, Eb Kazapua replaces Louis Nelengani and all members of the Herero Chiefs’ Council leave SWANU. The break between the Chiefs’ Council and SWANU not only represents the

14.02.

28.02.

beginning of the decline of SWANU, but, in the final analysis, also leads to the political isolation of the greater part of the Ovaherero from the mainstream of nationalistic politics. Eventually the greater part of the Ovaherero group is led into the development of the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference in 1975, and in 1977 into the Democratic Turnhallen Alliance (DTA). The Hardap Dam near Mariental is built. The South West African Democratic Union (SWADU) is founded as a Dama-orientated organisation. SWADU together with the DTEC displays anti- Ovaherero sentiments. The Matchless Mine is re-evaluated and consequently copper production starts in 1970. Oshakati, near to the Roman Catholic missionary station Okatana, is officially founded. Otto Milk becomes the new leader of the ELC "black" theological seminar "Paulinum" in Karibib, after the retirement of Friedrich Pönninghaus. The SWA Administration forces the relocation of the Paulinum from the "white" Karibib to the Bantustan reserve at Otjimbingwe in 1962. The Finnish Missionary Society sends two Finish missionaries, Rauha Voipio and Seppo Löity, to Otjimbingwe. Theo Sundermeier becomes Milk’s successor in 1964. The Paulinum publishes two church magazines, ||Gâu-sari-aob (location visitor in the #Nu-Khoegowab language) and Omahungi ("News" in Otjiherero). At the beginning of 1962 the two newspapers melt together into a new magazine, Immanuel, with Afrikaans as third language. SWA obtains a new definitive stamp issue (first decimal definitive issue) with animals, plants, buildings, engineering infrastructure, monuments and mineral pictorials of the territory as motifs (with water mark). The new broad- gauge railway system north of Kranzberg is officially opened by the SA Minister of Transport, Ben Schoeman.

The All-People’s Conference in Cairo condemns SA’s 23./31.03. apartheid policy in SWA and demands that SA relinquish the territory forthwith, calling on African states to apply sanctions against SA. The Union of South Africa becomes the Republic of South 31.05. Africa (RSA). The RSA’s currency becomes metric. The remodelled rail yard and diesel locomotive repair June workshop in Windhoek are completed. July Foot and mouth disease breaks out in the territory. The SWA Executive Committee resolves to construct the rest 14.09. camp Halali in the Etosha Pan. The UN Special Committee for SWA publishes a report in 27.10. which the independence of SWA and the disarmament of all "whites" in SWA are demanded.

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1962

10.05.

The Uniao das Populacoes de Angola joins the Angolan National Liberation Front (FNLA). In a remarkable policy shift, SWAPO decides that political and military liberation actions are not conflicting, but rather, complementary. David Hoveka Meroro joins SWAPO. The Coloured Council, which is created on the foundations of the Native Advisory Board and the Coloured Advisory Council of the Old Location, is established. Andrew Kloppers serves as its chairman for twelve years. The Namib research station at Gobabeb is built. A new smelter complex becomes operational at the TCL mine at Tsumeb. Until its closure in 1998, the TCL produces 27 million t of ore and 5 million t of metal comprising 1,9 million t of copper, 3 million t of lead and 1 million t of zinc. The Kombat mines goes into production. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of SWA (ELC) holds its second synod at Khoichas near Mariental. Some new church leaders are elected: Hans Karl Diehl remains the church leader, Hendrik Isaak (Maltahöhe) is replaced by Salomon Boois from Gibeon, Eljakim Hoebeb is substituted by Paulus Gowaseb from Okahandja and Jakobus Beukes replaces Daniel Strydom from Rehoboth. In agreement with UNGA Resolution 1702 (XVI), the Chairman of the UN Special Committee for SWA, Victorio Carpio of the Philippines, visits the territory together with UN diplomat Salvador Martinez de Alva of Mexico. In a controversial communique they find no evidence of genocide or militarisation in the territory, and that SA’s administration of the territory presents no threat to international peace and security. SWAPO and SWANU delegates attend the "Freedom Fighters Conference" at Winneba/Ghana which aims "to unify all proliberation forces" in Namibia. Consequently Sam Nujoma decides to mobilise military resistance against South Africa. He sends Lucas Hifikepunye

May/June Pohamba and Eliader Muatale to SWA in order to prepare for this task. After many difficulties they reach Windhoek where they are received by Aaron Hamutenya. Later (1964) Pohamba and Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua mobilise the masses in the north. In consequence Kaukungua has to go into exile, Pohamba returns to Lusaka in September 1964 while Muatale returns to Dar-Es-Salaam in 1963. Victorio Carpio and lvador Martinez de Alva report to the Special Committee, without mentioning the controversial communique, that the administration of the territory is strongly influenced by SA’s apartheid policy and that it is the overwhelming desire of the "black" population that the UN should take over the administration of the territory. The socalled "Carpio Affair" discredits and embarrasses not only the Special Committee, but also the petitioners on SWA and the July UN as a political organisation. Hage Geingob insists on seeing Carpio in Tsumeb and is thereafter harassed by the SA security police. Kozonguizi and Kerina meet in New York. They discuss preliminarily the formation of a new party to unify SWAPO and SWANU. The proposed name of the party is National Independence People’s Party (NIPP). Kerina publishes these plans without consultation. Kozonguizi denies any agreements. SWAPO reacts with anger and expels Kerina. SA Prime Minister H Verwoerd appoints the Odendaal Commission of Inquiry "to investigate social, economic, and 11.09. political conditions in South West Africa". The Chairman of the Commission is Frans Hendrik Odendaal, Administrator of the Transvaal The Odendaal Commission begins its works on "SWA 17.09. affairs". The UN dissolves its Special Committee for SWA and transfers the "SWA affair" to the more militant "UN Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to

Colonial Countries and Peoples", established in terms of UNGA Resolution 1805. The latter Special Committee bans December all sales of arms and petroleum products to SA. The National Union of SWA Workers (NU of SWAW) is established by Paul Helmuth at Dar-Es-Salaam in Tanzania, following a decision taken by SWAPO to train trade unionists for a future labour movement in Namibia. The NU of SWAW is re-named into the National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW) during the Tanga Congress of December 1969. The case brought by Liberia and Ethiopia to the ICJ is lost by 21.12. SA in the first instance because SA doubts the standing of the ICJ. The ICJ decides that it has jurisdiction in the matter. Hage Geingob flees the territory and joins Maxton Joseph 24.12. Mutongulume and Peter Nanyemba in Francistown in Botswana.

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1963

The Organisation for African Unity (OAU) is formed. SWAPO and SWANU join the OAU and become members of the Pan African Freedom Movement for East, Central and Southern Africa (PAFMECSA). Sam Nujoma’s position as President of SWAPO is ratified in Dar-Es-Salaam. The SWA Liberation Army (SWALA) is created outside the territory after SWAPO has opened an office in Algiers with Solomon Mifima as representative and after Sam Nujoma has urged Algeria’s President, Ahmed Ben Bella, to deliver the first arms to SWAPO. These weapons are later transported by Nujoma and Mifima via Cairo and Dar-Es-Salaam to Lusaka where they are transported further into the Caprivi Strip. Agostinho Neto becomes MPLA President in Angola. The Caprivi African National Union (CANU) is formed by Brendan Kongongolo Simbwaye and Mishake Muyongo as a revolutionary movement to promote independence for SWA. Some Ovaherero spokesmen in contact with Kerina and Beukes discuss the formation of a new political party. Kenneth G Abrahams of Rehoboth also participates in these discussions. Abrahams is 1973 arrested by the SA Police. He manages to flee to Botswana together with Shipanga. There they are kidnapped by SA agents, but later, due to international pressure, they are released and return to Botswana. Shipanga becomes SWAPO’s representative in the Congo, in Ghana and finally in Egypt. Abrahams goes to Sweden to take up further studies. He returns 1978 to Namibia. Ernest Ngarikutuke Tjiriange becomes SWAPO’s Secretary in the organisation’s Windhoek branch. Mosé Penaani Tjitendero is expelled from the Augustineum College after attending a political rally. South Africa declares a territorial sea of six nautical miles from the shore and a fishing zone of 12 nautical miles, under Act No. 87 of 1963. All parts of the territory receive extraordinarily good rainfall. Nangolo Leonard Auala becomes the first bishop of the

Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo-Kavango Church (ELOK). Hardap Dam is completed, this being the largest dam built in 16.03. the territory so far (252 million m3) July Further Walvis Bay port extensions are completed. The South West African Liberation Front (SWANLIF) is constituted, and is eventually renamed the South West Africa National United Front (SWANUF). SWANLIF is the first October organised attempt to unify different national movements in the territory. It is formed following the declaration of the OAU’s Liberation Committee that it would only support one unified political movement in SWA. Clarence B Randall, economic advisor to US President John F November Kennedy, visits SWA. He proposes giving SA a second chance to prove its commitment to good governance of the mandated territory. SWAPO and SWANU meet in Dar-Es-Salaam to draft a December constitution for SWANLIF. SWANLIF exists only within SWA but fails to become a reality externally. The party represents the last attempt to co-ordinate the efforts of SWAPO and SWANU.

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1964

The United Namib Independence Party is founded by the Herero Chiefs’ Council after it withdraws its support of SWANU. Sam Nujoma achieves a major success when he manages to gain recognition as a receiver of OAU aid. This is said to be the result of his friendship with Tanzanian Foreign Minister and Chairman of the OAU Liberation Committee, Oscar Kambona. The SWA Liberation Army (SWALA) has soldiers in training in Egypt (since 1962: seven soldiers: Tobias Hainjeko (first commander of SWALA), John Otto Nankudhu, Vilho Haitembu, Titus Muailepeni Shitilifa, Patrick Israel Iyambo (Lungada), Petrus Hambija and Lazarus Zachariah (Shakala)),in Algeria (the group trained in Algeria is led by Dimo Hamaambo), in Tanzania (on 27.05.1963 a military camp is opened at Kongwa in Tanzania for those soldiers who have been trained abroad) and the People’s Republic of China (some soldiers receive training at the Nanking Military Academy in China). Eino Kamati Ekandjo is in the first group to be sent to Ghana for military training. Hage Gottfried Geingob becomes one of SWAPO’s petitioners at the UN (until 1971, and together with Veine Mbaeva and others). Mosé Penaani Tjitendero goes into exile via Aminuis to Francistown in Botswana. Jesaya Nyamu from Oshigambo goes into exile to Tanganyika and later to the USA. Katuutire Kaura goes into exile to Tanganyika and later to the USA. David Hoveka Meroro becomes SWAPO’s National Chairman. The Bondelswarts Council is formed in Warmbad to protest against the forced resettlement of the Bondelswarts community. Its founding members are Anna Veldskoen, grand daughter of Abraham Morris, Eduard Jossop and Abraham Labalot. Kuaima Riruako goes into exile to Botswana with 154 others. A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Dornfeld

January

27.01.

near Gobabis. The zinc and lead ore bodies of Rosh Pinah (Hebrew, meaning: corner stone) are discovered (MD McMillan, ME Kahan). Blue sodalite is quarried at a site near Swartbooisdrift in the Kaokoveld. Under the leadership of Simbwaye, CANU begins its struggle for the independence of Namibia and the liberation of the Caprivi Strip under the protection of the United Nations. The report of the Odendaal Commission ("Report of the Commission of Inquiry into South West Africa Affairs, 19621963") is released. This report recommends the formation of 10 "homelands" for SWA’s "black" population, i.e. they should live apart from the "coloureds" as well as the "whites", in accordance with SA’s revised apartheid policy. Thus the Commission advises integrating SWA much more closely into the political and economic system of SA. Additionally, SA should continue to administer the territory in the spirit of the original "Mandate Agreement" (Article 2), meaning that SA will maintain full legislative and executive power in the territory and will rule it as an "integral part of South Africa". The "homelands" fall under the jurisdiction of the SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development. According to the "Odendaal Plan", as it be comes known, 526 000 people live in the territory. The "black" reserves, which cover 26% of the total land area of SWA, are to be expanded to cover nearly 40% of the total land area. The Odendaal report also makes specific recommendations for many infrastructural developments in the territory, to be realised by way of three five-year plans. The UN Special Committee of the Twenty-Four sharply rejects the Odendaal Plan. Clemence Kapuuo, advisor to the Ovaherero Chief Hosea Kutako, rejects the plan too. The plan is also rejected by the leaders of the two Lutheran churches: Leonard Auala from the ELOK and Vice Preses Paulus Gowaseb and Secretary-

20.02. 29.04. 14.05.

June

18.06. 24.07.

August

General Günther Reeh from the ELC. Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua goes into exile. He becomes the first SWAPO Political Commissar of the SWA Liberation Army (SWALA) and trains soldiers in Tanzania until 1970. The Odendaal Plan is accepted by the SA Government. Its actual implementation, however, does not begin before 1968 because a verdict from the ICJ is still pending The new building for the "all-white" Legislative Assembly is opened in Windhoek by SA President CR Swart. Mburumba Kerina announces the formation of the Independence and National Convention Party. Simbwaye and two other functionaries of CANU are arrested by the South African Police. CANU headquarters at Katima Mulilo are attacked by the South Africans. Subsequently most of the CANU leaders including Mishake Muyongo, Crispin Mulonda and Siseho Simasiku escape to Zambia which stands on the threshold of independence. After the disappearance of Simbwaye Muyongo becomes President and Simasiku Vice President of CANU. Timothy Hadino Hishongwa flees SWA and joins Maxton Joseph Mutongulume at SWAPO’s office in Francistown, Botswana. Simbwaye is tried at Katima Mulilo. He is later relocated at Opuwo in the Kaokoveld. He subsequently disappears. It is never established when and where he dies. Kerina's Independence and National Convention Party is reconstituted as the United Nama Independence People’s Party (UNIPP), but UNIPP is opposed by SWANU, SWAPO and the Damara Tribal Executive Committee (DTEC). It disappears in early 1965. Hifikepunye Pohamba opens a SWAPO office in Lusaka, Zambia, where he meets Mishake Muyongo of CANU, with whom he discusses a proposed merger of SWAPO and CANU.

25.09.

Mburumba Kerina, Hosea Kutako and Clemence Kapuuo establish the moderate and traditionalist National Unity Democratic Organisation (NUDO). Kapuuo from the NUDO and Fritz Gariseb from the DEC oppose the South African apartheid policy but advocate a federal type of government based on the old tribal regions. SWAPO (Nujoma) and SWANU (Kozonguizi) favour a non-racial democracy based on universal franchise and on the ideology of Pan-Africanism. Both parties decline to join NUDO and join SWANLIF instead. SWANLIF, however, fails after 1964 because the party is not able to link SWAPO and SWANU. CANU merges with SWAPO to wage the armed struggle and the organisation is banned. There are uprisings against Portuguese colonialism in Mozambique. After an interruption of five years, the Windhoek Agricultural Show is held again. The construction programme for the "black" Windhoek suburb of Katutura is completed. Of the 3 116 "matchbox" houses built, 1 221 are still unoccupied at this time.

October

83 Years old Anna Veldskoen, Grand Daughter of Abraham Morris, living in Gabis, west of Warmbad
Klaus Dierks

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1965

15.01. March

The UN General Assembly rejects the Odendaal Plan in UNGA Resolution 2074 (XX). Helmut Kangulohi Angula works with John Ya Otto on SWAPO’s first publication, Unity Wings. The JG Strijdom Airport east of Windhoek is officially opened. To date 126 high-level road bridges have been built. The famous (and dangerous) Van Zyl's Pass between Otjitanda and the Marienfluss via Otjihende in the Kaokoveld is built. The pass is named after Ben van Zyl, Bantu Commissioner for Kaokoveld between 1949 and 1981. The south-western border of the Caprivi Strip between the Okavango and Chobe Rivers is finally demarcated under surveyor KJ Lester. The westernmost beacon is fixed at 21° east and 18°18'57" south, marking the north-west corner of Ngamiland in Botswana. Disputes arise between inhabitants of Botswana and the Caprivi Strip around fishing rights at Lake Lyambezi, which only holds water when the Bukalo Channel between the Zambezi and Chobe Rivers overflows. The problem is resolved by the firm stance of the SA Police. The dispute around the Kasikili Island in the Chobe River continues. No traditional rights of any inhabitants of British Bechuanaland are known so far. The Namib Lead Mine goes into production. The Rio Tinto South Africa Company, a parent company of Rio Tinto Zinc, commences an intensive programme of pilot-plant test work to exploit the Rössing uranium deposits (until 1973). The All-Africa Lutheran Conference takes place in Addis Ababa. The Namibian delegation consists of the members of ELOC (previous Finnish Missionary Society), Arvo Eirola and Leonard Auala, as well as the member of the ELC (previous Rhenish Missionary Society), Albert Mouton, Paulus Gowaseb, Joshua Hoebeb and Günther Reeh. South African Airways introduces daily flights between Windhoek and Johannesburg. Sam Nujoma together with Jacob Kuhangua and Emil Appolus attend as observers at the ICJ.

14.03.

05.10. 20.10. 29.11.

The first group of the SWA Liberation Army (SWALA) under the command of Peter Nanyemba, Tobias Hainjeko and John Otto Nankudhu leave the Kongwa military training camp in Tanzania and move to Nakonde in Zambia. From there they move via Lusaka to Sesheke at the border to the Caprivi Strip. From Katima Mulilo they move into Namibia and split up into several sub-groups. The sub-group headed by Patrick Iyambo (Lungada) moves to the homestead of Eliazer Tuhadeleni (Kaxumba kaNdola) at Endola in the Uukwanyama area where it later meets the second sub-group. Tuhadeleni briefs SWAPO’s leaders including Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, Joseph Matheus, Ben Amathila, Erastus Mbumba, Lot Homateni, Lamek Iithete and others. After their consultations with the SWAPO leadership, the group splits up again for political mobilisation. Emil Appolus hands a petition to the UN General Assembly to discontinue SA’s presence in the territory. SWAPO calls on the OAU in Accra, Ghana, to undertake actions against SA, Portugal and Rhodesia. The ICJ rejects an invitation from SA to visit the territory of SWA.

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1966

January

SWALA is renamed the Namibian People’s Liberation Army (NAPLA). The Uniao das Populacoes de Angola joins the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in Angola. The South West Africa National United Front (SWANUF) is formed by Mburumba Kerina and Veine Mbaeva as an attempted merger of NUDO and SWANU. By the late 1970s SWANUF is defunct. Of more than 60 000 km of proclaimed roads (trunk, main, district and farm roads) 960 km are bituminised. The Klein Aub Copper Maatskapy brings the Klein Aub Mine into production. The mine operates until 1987 when low copper prices force closure. Falconbridge Exploration (Pty) Ltd. buys the Oamites Mine. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of SWA (ELC) is not allowed to establish a "black" secondary school in the "white" town of Karibib. The South African Government gives permission instead to build such a school in the Damara Bantustan near the "white" farm Okombahe. The condition for the establishment of such a school is that the school has to be built in the "black" Okombahe reserve and the "white" ELC teachers have to live over the border fence on the farm Okombahe. The Martin Luther Highschool Okombahe is completed in 1968. The first director is Gottfried Tötemeyer. One of his teachers is Joshua Hoebeb who later plays a great role in the independence struggle of Namibia. During the Afro-Asian-Latin American People’s Solidarity Conference in Havana, the SWANU president, Kozonguizi, raises the issues of aid from external sources, the need for ideological purity and the need for independence from "imperialist" influences. Such criticism leads ultimately to the OAU’s decision to withdraw its recognition of SWANU in 1968. It also plays a role in the later decision of the United Nations General Assembly to recognise "SWAPO as the sole authentic voice of the Namibian people". John Otto Nankudhu, commander of the Namibian People’s

March

20.03.

June

Liberation Army (NAPLA), establishes in co-operation with other leaders such as Simeon Shihungileni, Victory Namuandi, Patrick Iyambo, Nelson Kavela and James Hamukuaja, a reconnaissance camp at Ontamanzi in the Ongandjera area. In Ontamanzi the first military training centre named "Ondaadhi (reconnaissance)" is established. The first trainees are: Eliazer Tuhadeleni (Kaxumba kaNdola), Immanuel Shifidi, Festus Heita, Johannes Musheko, Paulus Shikolalje, Simeon Namunganga Hamulemo, Henok Jacob (Malila), Festus Nanjolo, Kornelius Shelungu, Thomas Haimbodi, Isak Shoome and Festus Muaala. In order to escape discovery by the South Africans, NAPLA shifts its training camp from Ondaadhi to Uuvudhija in the border area between the Uukwambi and the Ongandjera areas. The camp is named "Oondjokwe". Returning to SWA for the first time since going into exile, Sam Nujoma and Hifikepunye Pohamba fly into Windhoek to test the legalities of the ICJ ruling regarding the status of the UN mandate. The SA Police return them at gunpoint to the airport and then on to Zambia. The NAPLA group from Oondjokwe moves under the command of John Otto Nankudhu to Omugulu-gOmbashe (Otjiherero: Leg of a giraffe) northwest of Tsandi in the western parts of Ovamboland and starts to build structures and trenches for defensive purposes. From OmugulugOmbashe, Shikalepo Iileka makes contact with resistance groups in the Kaokoveld. A further NAPLA group under the command of Kalep Tjipahura leaves Tanzania. Rudolf Kadhikwa is Deputy commander. Other NAPLA soldiers are S Kakwambi, J Haiduua, Betuel Nunjango, Thomas Haimbodi, Abel Haluteni, P Hamalua Ndadi, Simeon Ipinge Iputa and Eliader Muatale. Muatale is later killed by combined SA and Portuguese forces. Ndadi is killed during the crossing of the Kwando River. Ipinge Iputa has to return to Zambia due to exhaustion. With many

July

18.07.

13.08.

difficulties they manage to cross the Okavango River between Shakawe and Maun in Botswana. Finally they reach their destination in Ovamboland. The Administrator for SWA, Wentzel Christoffel du Plessis, opens the new "non-white" hospital in Oshakati. The case brought by Liberia and Ethiopia to the ICJ (the case having been revised in 1965 to deal with the Odendaal report and new statements concerning human rights violations in SWA) is rejected by the ICJ on the grounds that the applicant countries have no standing in this matter, and that the UN is the competent legal body to bring the application. That there have been human rights violations in SWA is acknowledged. The SA Government presents this ICJ "judgement" as a major legal and political victory over the two applicants, Ethiopia and Liberia. The court ruling in favour of South Africa, with the casting vote of the Australian President of the ICJ, Percy Spender, dashes the hopes and expectations of the Namibian people for a peaceful deliverance from SA occupation.This judgement marks the turning point in the strategy of those who continue the struggle for an independent Namibia. The new blacktop road from Windhoek to the coast is completed to a point near Rössing and joins the salt gravel road to Swakopmund. SWAPO proclaims the armed struggle for the liberation of SWA after the first SWAPO soldiers complete their training. The first military clashes between NAPLA and SA troops occur near the northern border with Angola (Omugulu-gOmbashe). In the mean time a further unarmed group under the command of Leonard Phillemon Shuuya (Castro) runs into a South African ambush in the Kavango. Only Julius Israel Shilongo (Kashuku) escapes and reports the incidents. Shilongo hides in the house of Erastus Mbumba. Phillemon, however, is converted by the South Africans and participates in the battle of Omugulu-gOmbashe on the South African side. After the Commander John Otto Nankudhu realises that he

cannot withstand the superior South African fire power, he orders the NAPLA unit to retreat. Many NAPLA soldiers die, are wounded or are taken prisoner by the South Africans. Eliazer Tuhadeleni (Kaxumba kaNdola) escape and is not arrested until March 1967 when he is captured at Okaloko near Ondangwa. 26.08.

The Omugulu-gOmbashe Monument remembers the Beginning of the armed Struggle against the South African Colonial Authority on August 26, 1966 (northwest of Tsandi in the Omusati Region)
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, SWAPO’s secretary at Ondangwa, and 44 other prominent SWAPO members are detained and later tried and imprisoned on Robben Island ("Terrorism Trial": The State vs Tuhadeleni and Others).

07.09.

Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo: SWAPO Leader: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Some of those arrested are detained without trial for over a year, or until the passing of the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967, which is made retroactive to 27.06.1962. Among the arrested SWAPO members are Immanuel Gottlieb Nathaniel "Maxuilili" (restricted to house arrest until 1985), Eliazer Tuhadeleni, Axel Johannes and John Ya Otto (some are arrested in December). Even Sam Nujoma’s father, who is already over 70 years old, Daniel Utoni Nujoma, and whose sole "crime" is being his father, is arrested at the Okahao Hospital and sent to Pretoria prison. There he develops tuberculosis from which he later dies. After Verwoerd’s assassination in the SA Parliament (06.09.), Balthasar John Vorster, a man with a pro-fascist past (linked to the "Ossewabrandwag") becomes his successor. Vorster puts his weight behind the establishment of an apartheid system in SWA, but at the same time propagates some kind of détente with African countries that have already gained their independence. NAPLA carries out a fierce attack on Oshikango at the border with Angola, destroying the South African police station and administrative buildings. After the attack the NAPLA group returns to a base at Iiti jee Holo and later moves to Okalonga ka Nepaya, south of Ongwediva. The UN General Assembly declares that SA’s rule by mandate has been terminated. SWA is seen as the direct responsibility of the UN, and its right to nationhood and independence is confirmed in UNGA Resolution 2145. This Resolution leads to the appointment of a new UN Ad Hoc Committee for South West Africa which later results in the creation of the UN

13.09.

27.09.

27.10.

Council for SWA (May 1967). Five different NAPLA groups are inside Namibia and are November deployed in Eastern Caprivi, in the Kavango and in Ovamboland. The NAPLA commander John Otto Nankudhu is captured by the South Africans at Ohakueenjanga. The commander 16.11. Patrick Iyambo (Lungada), however, continues the fight against the South Africans until 1974, when he returns into exile via Angola to Zambia. John Ya Otto, Nathaniel Maxuilili, Jason Daniel Mutumbulwa, Eliazer Tuhadeleni and 32 others are arrested by SA. Ya Otto December is detained in Pretoria where he is tortured and held in solitary confinement (in a cell previously occupied by Walter Sisulu and Govan Mbeki, father of Thabo Mbeki, of the ANC). Gerson Veii, Vice President of SWANLIF, is arrested following his address of a public meeting held in "Freedom Square" in the Old Location in Windhoek to protest about the arrests of SWAPO leaders that had taken place after the attack on Omugulu-gOmbashe. Consequently Veii is the first Namibian to be prosecuted under the Sabotage Act, No. 76 of 1962, as amended by Act No. 62 of 1966. He spends one year in solitary confinement in Pretoria and five years on Robben Island. He is released from Robben Island in 1972. Veii is defended by Bryan O’Linn who subsequently defends many Namibians like John Pandeni, John Ya Otto, Johannes 04.12. Nangutuuala, Victor Nkandi and Axel Johannes.

Gerson Veii: SWANU Leader: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

The NAPLA commander Tobias Hainjeko is killed in action near Katima Mulilo. The coal-fired power station, Van Eck, is built in Windhoek. The black top road between Usakos and Swakopmund is completed. Ondonga King, Martin (Nambala) Ashikoto is sent into exile to Namaland by the SWA Administration because he oversteps his legal powers. His successor is the 15th Ondonga King 1967 Pau (Paulus) Elifas (1967-1970). The first Roman Catholic missionary who joins the common ecumenical action against the systematic mistreatment and torture of Namibians in Ovamboland, is Franz Seiler from the missionary station Okatana who together with Bishop Auala from ELOK and an Anglican representative from Odibo directs a strong protest to the SA authorities in Ondangwa. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of SWA (ELC) holds its third synod at Otjimbingwe. January Construction of the road bridge over the Swakop River between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay commences. During the Conference of Nicosia SWANU is expelled from February AAPSO. This leads consequently to the loss of OAU recognition. SWAPO is admitted to AAPSO. The UN General Assembly discusses practical steps for the 21.04.handing over of power to the people of SWA, which should 13.06. become an independent state in June 1968. The UN Council for SWA is created by the General Assembly in terms of UNGA Resolution 2248 (S-V) to strive for independence and administer the territory until that time. (The 19.05. council is renamed the UN Council for Namibia a year later). SA rejects the body. It is also suggested that representatives from SWA should be appointed to the UN Economic Commission for Africa. May SA Prime Minister Vorster visits the territory. Some war-related incidents in SWA lead to specific legislation for cases of "terrorism" that demand the death penalty. The

27.06.

31.10. 16.12.

Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967 is enacted by the South Africans and is made retroactive to 27.06.1962. It enables the South African courts to sentence SWAPO soldiers and civilian leaders to the supreme penalty for actions committed many years before its enactment. SA discusses plans for Ovamboland autonomy with seven tribal chiefs. In UNGA Resolution 2324 (XXII) the UN General Assembly condemns the illegal arrest, deportation and trial in Pretoria of SWA citizens (the "Terrorism Trial").

[Return to Table of Contents]

1968

From this year the policies of ethnic fragmentation are implemented by the SA Government on an accelerated scale, by means of various enactments designed to give institutional support to the recommendations of the Odendaal Plan. The Development of Self-Government for Native Nations in South West Africa Act, No. 54 of 1968, is passed in the SA Parliament. The Rehoboth Taxpayer’s Association becomes the Rehoboth Volksparty (People’s Party) under the leadership of Hans Diergaardt. Diergaardt feels there is a need to unite all SWA citizens and launches a nationwide appeal that is also addressed to SWAPO Chairman David Hoveka Meroro. Dimo Hamaambo of SWAPO becomes Field Commander of NAPLA. Josephat Gawanab becomes President of the DEC. The Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche in Südwestafrika (United Evangelical Lutheran Church in South West Africa)(VELKSWA) is established as a united church of all "black" Lutheran churches in Namibia. The German Evangelical Lutheran Church (DELK) stigmatises the new church. Windhoek has 67 000 inhabitants, 36 000 of whom are "white", 26 000 "black" and 4 600 "coloured". The first "engineered, high-standard and all-weather" gravel roads between Omaruru and Wilhelmstal, and Kamanjab and Franzfontein ( Gröss Omaruru), are completed (designed and built by Klaus Dierks). A Roman Catholic mission station is established in Rundu in the Kavango. In Diamond Mining Area No. 1 near Oranjemund the first of four conglomerate crushing plants is commissioned, followed by a large bucket wheel excavator to facilitate overburden stripping in 1975. Nord Mining and Exploration begins an exploration programme for tungsten at the Kranzberg Mine. The Fwe community protests against the moving of the Subya

25.01

group centre which is situated in the floodplain of the Zambezi River to Bukalo which is situated in the Fwe area. The Fwe repeatedly demand a delimitation of the border between the two areas. The Augustineum is shifted from Okahandja to Windhoek. This day sees the first UN Security Council intervention in SWA affairs, in the form of a condemnation of SA for instituting court cases against SWA citizens based on SA’s new antiterrorism laws (UN SC Resolution 245). Herman Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo is sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment by the Pretoria Supreme Court and is incarcerated on Robben Island near Cape Town. The speech he makes on behalf of his group after his conviction gains renown for its pronouncements denying SA the right to try SWA citizens or to rule their country (10.02.).

Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo: SWAPO Leader: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ephraim Kamati Andjengo Kapolo dies during the trial in Pretoria. The trialists are inter alia: Eliazer Tuhadeleni, John Otto Nankudhu (sentenced to life imprisonment), Simeon Shihungileni, Julius Israel Shilongo (Kashuku), Lazarus Zachariah (Shakala)(arrested on 16.04.1966 at Nkurenkuru and sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment), David Hamunime (Kengoya), Joseph Shimuefeleni, Helao Shityuwete (arrested on 26.03.1966 and sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment), Eino Kamati Ekandjo, Festus Nehale, Nghidipo Jesaja

26.01.

Haufiku (Kambwa), Immanuel Augustus Shifidi, Kaleb Hanganee Tjipahura, Rudolf Kadhikwa, Abel Shuudeni Haluteni, Betuel Nunjango, Michael Ifingilwa Moses, Matias Elia Nashidengo (Kanyeule), Malakia Shivute Ushona, Johannes Samuel Shiponeni, Petrus Kamati, Immanuel Gottlieb "Maxuilili" Nathaniel, John Ya Otto, Jason Daniel Mutumbulwa, Joseph Matheus, Jonas Nashivela, Nathanael Lot Homateni, Phillemon Kakwalindishi Shitilifa, Simeon Namunganga Hamulemo, Shinima Niilenge (Harakatyi), Petrus Sinima Niilenge, Ndjaula Tshaningua (Manghono), Sakeus Phillipus Iitika (Oshivela), Simeon Ipinge Iputa, Naftalie Amungulu (Kombadjele), and Rehabeam Olavi Nambinga. Joseph Shimuefeleni and Festus Nehale die later of negligence and mistreatment on Robben Island. Over the next years altogether 62 Namibian prisoners spend many years of hardship on Robben Island.

John Otto Nandhudu: PLAN Commander: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Helao Shityuwete (Kandindima): PLAN Commander: August 2003

Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

March April 20.04.

12.06.

02.10.

17.10.

In UN SC Resolution 246, the UN Security Council demands the release of all Namibian political prisoners. SA refuses to grant the UN Council for SWA entry into the territory. A disaster occurs at Windhoek’s JG Strijdom Airport when the South African Airways Boeing 707 "Pretoria" plunges to the ground. All passengers (123 passengers) and crew members die, save five. The UN officially adopts the name "Namibia" in place of "South West Africa". The fight against the territory’s illegal occupation is viewed as a legitimate action. In UNGA Resolution 2372 (XXII) the UN General Assembly condemns SA’s refusal to allow the UN Council for SWA to enter the territory. SA begins to establish various "homelands" and their respective administrative bodies. There are major resettlement actions in implementing essential parts of the Odendaal Plan. The South West Africa Municipal Staff Association (SWAMSA) is established. The SA President grants recognition to the seven tribal authorities in Ovamboland. A Legislative Council is instituted, consisting of seven members for each of the seven Ovamboland tribal authorities. An Ovamboland Executive Council, consisting of seven members, is elected from the Legislative Council. The Ovambo Legislative Council sits for the first time, in Oshakati. Its Chairman is Oshona Shiimi of the Ongandjera tribal unit. Parties such as SWAPO, SWANU and NUDO sharply condemn such SA apartheid policies. Leonard Auala from ELOK declines a SA offer to accept a high position in the Ovamboland Executive Council.

[Return to Table of Contents]

The powers of the exclusive "white" political sub-system, the Legislative Assembly of SWA, are reduced when the South West Africa Constitution Act, No. 42 of 1925, is replaced by a new consolidating South West Africa Constitution Act, No. 39 of 1968. This development is followed by the South West Africa Affairs Act, No. 25 of 1969. In addition to those administrative departments administered by SA since 1920, SA now assumes responsibility for the following departments: labour, "black" education, interior affairs, prisons, commerce, industries, justice, "coloured" affairs, agriculture, mines, cultural affairs, public works, posts and telegraphs, transport, social welfare and pensions, and water affairs. The continuous urbanised "Bantustanisation" can be shown by the example Rundu in the Kavango. From this year onwards the urban part of Tutungeni is classified as "white" and is called by the locals "Blanke Dorp". The "black" population is forcefully evicted and is resettled in a new township, Nkarapamwe. The resettlement programme is completed in 1975. The Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP), which constitutes the reactionary wing in "white" politics, opens its first branch in the territory with Sarel Becker as its Regional Secretary. The Voice of the People Party is founded by Jeremiah Jagger in Katutura, Windhoek. Jagger is later succeeded by Kephes Conradie. The party is the successor to the SWADU led by Conradie and Johannes Skrywer. The copper and zinc ore bodies of Rosh Pinah are mined by the South African company ISCOR. Offshore diamond mining is carried out in Chameis Bay from 1962 to 1969, in Bakers Bay in 1971 and in Hottentots Bay north of Lüderitz in 1969 and 1970. Eduard Maharero dies. He is succeeded by Alfons Maharero in Okonja near Otjinene.

Okonja (near Otjinene): Ovambanderu Community of the Maharero Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): 28.07.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1969

Chief Alfons Maharero of the Ovambanderu Community of the Maharero Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): Okonja: 28.07.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day (Red Flag Day) in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: With Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) in the first Row (left): Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) at the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

20.03.

The UN Security Council ratifies UNGA Resolution 2145 by SC Resolution 264 and requests SA to leave the territory before October 1969. It requests the ICJ to rule on the legal consequences of SA’s continued presence in the territory. SA rejects UNGA Resolution 2145 because in SA’s opinion the UN Council for Namibia has no legal standing. The political and legal integration of the territory into the Republic of South Africa increases, with many administrative

sub-sections becoming the direct responsibility of the SA Government. The territory becomes a de facto fifth province of 01.04. SA. During the period 1960-1969 the territory’s gross domestic product increases by 153%. The Augustineum is taken over by the Department of Bantu Administration and Development. SA Prime Minister Vorster states that in accordance with the 27.05. Odendaal Plan, the SA Government has thus far purchased 401 "white" farms to be incorporated into the "homelands". The UN Security Council passes UN SC Resolution 269 condemning SA’s continued presence in the territory, which 12.08. constitutes "an aggressive encroachment on the authority of the United Nations", and it requests SA to leave before 04.10.1969. The Department of Water Affairs investigates the feasibility of a hydro power station at the Popa Falls in the Okavango River December near Divundu, the Divundu Hydro Project, later the Popa Falls Hydro Project (2002). The plan suggests to build a substantial catchment dam for a 20 MW hydro power station. Agha Abdul Hamid, UN Assistant Secretary-General, is appointed Acting Commissioner for Namibia in place of UN Legal Counsel CA Stavropoulos. The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) establishes Radio Ovambo, Radio Herero and Radio Nama/Dama in Windhoek (only Radio Owambo has a backup station in Oshakati) on FM transmitters as well as on shortwave. Only Radio Ovambo broadcasts for four hours in the morning and five in the afternoons. Radio Herero and Radio Nama/Dama have to share transmitters every day. It is only in 1975 that Radio Nama/Dama goes fully fledged on its own channel. All three stations are established as an extension of the SABC: Radio Bantu. The philosophy behind Radio Bantu is not so much to provide information or education to "blacks", but rather to control and pacify them. As 01.12.

01.12.

reflected in a SABC Report, the purpose to introduce Radio Bantu is "to counteract the warped and dangerous political, social and economic doctrines being propagated among Natives ... ". The establishment of the three "black" radio stations is introduced at a time when external broadcasts by Radio SWAPO is increasing (Since the 1960s SWAPO transmits from Ghana, Egypt, Algeria and later Angola). In 1974 the SABC starts Lozi radio services from Johannesburg (the Lozi services are shifted to Windhoek in 1986). In 1975 the SABC launches a fourth radio station in Namibia, the Kavango Services. For the Namibian "whites" South West Africa news are bilingual broadcasts in English and Afrikaans and transmitted on short wave frequencies. These news bulletins are meant for the "white" communities, particularly the farmers. SWAPO’s Consultative Congress in Tanga/Tanzania creates new structures for the liberation movement. Sam Nujoma is confirmed as SWAPO President. Brendan Simbwaye becomes Vice-President, with Mishake Muyongo acting for this unaccounted-for prisoner of the South Africans. Louis Nelengani, former Vice-President, is expelled from SWAPO (because he had a fight with the former Administrative Secretary Jacob Kuhangua in Dar-Es-Salaam 1968 which left Kuhangua paralysed). Libertine Amathila, who left the territory in 1962, becomes Deputy Secretary of Health and Welfare; 26.12.02.01.1970 Ben Amathila, who left in 1966, becomes Deputy Secretary of Education and Culture; Moses Makue ||Garoëb replaces Kuhangua as SWAPO Administrative Secretary; Phillip Iyambo Indongo becomes Secretary for Health and Welfare; Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua becomes Secretary of the SWAPO Elder’s Council; Peter Mweshihange becomes Acting Secretary for Foreign Affairs; Hifikepunye Pohamba becomes Deputy Administrative Secretary; and Ernest Ngarikutuke Tjiriange becomes Secretary for Legal Affairs. NAPLA becomes the People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN).

[Return to Table of Contents]

1970

SA Prime Minister Vorster announces that according to the Odendaal Plan, 426 "white" farms and 72 plots in towns and villages have been bought at a total cost of R 26 374 785. Some 184 farms are still being leased to "white" tenants, while the remainder are allocated to people from Rehoboth and Namaland. Three new districts are created: Hereroland East, Hereroland West and Bushmanland. The Association for the Preservation of the TjamuahaMaharero Royal House is formed by Jephta Maharero to dispute the legitimacy of Hosea Kutako’s successor, Clemence Kapuuo. The Association later joins the National Convention (NC), then SWANUF, and much later the Namibia National Convention (NNC). The Namibia African People’s Democratic Organisation (NAPDO) is formed among the Dama. The Democratic Co-operative Party (DEMCOP) is formed in Ovamboland by Johannes Nangutuuala to oppose SA’s "homelands" policy. SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development MC Botha claims that Dama Headman David ||Goreseb would support a Dama "homeland" in terms of the Odendaal Plan. Some Dama have elected their own spokesmen and a Damara Council of Headmen is subsequently established, led by Chief Justus ||Garoëb. Hendrik Witbooi joins SWAUNIO in the early 1970s. Jesaya Nyamu becomes SWAPO's political secretary in DarEs-Salaam/Tanzania. The territory’s total exports: mining 59%, fishing 25%, agriculture 16%. By this year only one inshore diamond mine near Oranjemund is operating. The Matchless mine starts with production. The copper deposits at the Otjihase mine northeast of Windhoek are discovered. The first computer in Namibia is installed in the SWA Roads Department.

30.01.

11.03.

July

The leader of the National Party of SWA, AH du Plessis, officially proposes incorporating the territory into the Republic of South Africa as a fifth province. The Von Bach Dam on the Swakop River near Okahandja is officially opened. A test observatory is erected on the Gamsberg, 120 km southwest of Windhoek, by the Max Planck Society, Heidelberg, Germany. The UN Security Council declares SA an illegal occupation force in Namibia (UN SC Resolution 276). Later this year, the Council calls on states by UN SC Resolution 283 to take a large number of steps to demonstrate their denial of South Africa’s authority in SWA and to refrain from giving any form of assistance to South Africa’s administration in Namibia - inter alia to take measures to end trade or commercial dealings with or investments in Namibia. Local authority "all-white" elections are held in Namibia. The newly created Ad-Hoc Sub-Committee UN Security Council asks all its members to break off diplomatic and economic relations with SA. It recognises the liberation struggle of the Namibian people against the SA authorities as justified. UN SC Resolution 284, asks the International Court of Justice to give a legal opinion in the Namibia dispute. Hosea Kutako dies, having asked to be buried alongside Jonker Afrikaner in Okahandja.

Grave of Hosea Kutako, who died on 18.07.1970: Okahandja: The Grave is next to

the Grave of Jonker Afrikaner: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

18.07.

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako at the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Alfons Kaihepaovazandu Maharero from Okonja (near Otjinene) at the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

20.07.

Clemence Kapuuo becomes Chief of the Ovaherero.

06.10. 09.12.

Ondonga King Pau (Paulus) Elifas dies. His successor is the 16th Ondonga King Filemon (Shuumbwa) yElifas lyaShindondola (1970-1975). The new blacktop road from Swakopmund to Walvis Bay is officially opened. The highway replaces the old salt gravel road.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1971

05.02.

04.04.

21.06.

The Rehoboth Baster Association (RBA) is formed by Ben Africa, John McNab and Piet Junius. The Party joins the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) in November 1977. The United Party in SWA (UP) is established when the UNSWP merges with the United Party in SA. Hifikepunye Pohamba is transferred to Algeria to become SWAPO’s representative in northern Africa. Falconbridge Exploration (Pty) Ltd. brings the Oamites Mine on line. The mine closes in 1984 due to the exhaustion of the copper ore. The first land mines are planted in Namibia. Windhoek has 65 000 inhabitants, of whom 36 000 are "white" (60% Afrikaans-speaking, 34% German-speaking and 6% English-speaking). Timothy Hadino Hishongwa becomes SWAPO’s representative in East Africa, based in Dar-Es-Salaam. Jesaya Nyamu becomes SWAPO's representative in Lusaka/Zambia. SA requests the ICJ to hold a plebiscite in the territory to establish whether its would wish to be administered by SA or the UN. The Damara Council is established as an interim "homeland" administration. Gaob (traditional title) Justus 5 Garoëb becomes member and in 1977 its President. Lazarus Gurirab is its Secretary-General, and Simpson Tjongarero its Politburo Director. The Council later forms an alliance with the United Democratic Front of Namibia (UDF)(1989). A new ICJ ruling declares SA’s presence in the territory illegal. All new measures after 1966 are declared to be legal offences. SA’s plebiscite is rejected. Vorster and the SA Minister for Foreign Affairs, Hilgard Muller, reject the court ruling, as do the vast majority of "whites" in SWA. The majority of "blacks" and SWAPO, however, are encouraged by it. SWAPO perceives itself as "the nation in state of becoming". David Hoveka Meroro, SWAPO National Chairman, welcomes

26.06.

30.06.

JuneAugust 03.08.

18.08.

05.10.

the court ruling but cautions that whatever the international community is doing, freedom for Namibia is primarily a matter to be decided by its people. A new rest camp at Ai-Ais is opened by SWA/Namibia Administrator JGH van der Wath. Lutheran church leaders Nangolo Leonard Auala and Paul ||Gowaseb, supported by Lukas de Vries, condemn the contract labour and the apartheid system (Open letter of Namibian church leaders to SA Prime Minister Vorster signed by Auala and ||Gowaseb). This protest is supported by the Roman Catholic church leaders, Bishop Koppmann from Windhoek and Bishop Eduard Schlotterback from Keetmanshoop. The German Evangelical Lutheran Church (DELK) under Otto Milk rejects the letter. Leaders of the Lutheran churches publicly support the ICJ ruling. Many demonstrations occur nationwide to indicate approval of the ruling. Senior Headman Justus ||Garoëb of the Damara Council and Josephat Gawanab of the Damara Executive Committee (DEC) are sworn in by SA as leaders of the Dama. The church leaders Nangolo Leonard Auala, supported by Petrus Shipena and Vilho Kaulinge, and Paulus ||Gowaseb, supported by Elifas Eiseb, Albertus Maasdorp and Günther Reeh, meet SA Prime Minister John Vorster in Windhoek. Vorster tries to defend the South African Apartheid system as a Christian philosophy. This is rejected by the Namibian church leaders. Sam Nujoma is invited to address the UN Security Council. This is a historic moment because he is the first African liberation movement representative to be so invited. SA Prime Minister Vorster announces that two police vehicles operating in the Caprivi Strip have been destroyed by land mines and that one policeman has been killed. PLAN activities in the Caprivi Strip mark the opening of a new front in the struggle against SA colonialism and apartheid.

20.10.

13.11.

15.11. 16.11.

13.12.

The ICJ ruling is adopted by the UN Security Council. The National Convention (NC), also known as the National Convention of Freedom Parties of Namibia (NCFP) (and from 1975 as the Namibia National Convention (NNC)) is formed as a "united front" of liberation forces. SWAPO under Meroro, NUDO under Kapuuo and the Rehoboth Volksparty under Diergaardt participate. A further attempt to unite follows on 13.02.1972. MC Botha, SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, expresses the view in Oshakati that the majority of Ovambo workers prefer to work under the contract labour system. The new Ongandjera King Omukwaniilwa Japhet Malenga Munkundi, is sworn in at Okahao. The largest strike in Namibia’s history begins. The labour strike shakes the foundations of the political and economic establishment in Namibia. The activities of the strikers stretch out from Windhoek, Walvis Bay and Lüderitz where there are well organised concentrations of workers, right up and including Ovamboland. Many workers out on strike are deported to "Bantustans", especially to the north. It is not clear whether the National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW) is involved in setting up workers’ committees and in organising the strike (The National Union of SWA Workers (NU of SWAW)) was established in exile at Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania following a decision taken by SWAPO in December 1962 to train trade unionists for a future labour movement in Namibia. The NU of SWAW was re-named into the National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW) during the Tanga Congress of December 1969). The objective of the strike is to abolish SWANLA and the contract labour system, and to ensure freedom to select one’s place and type of employment, better wages, permission for migrant workers to bring their families with them to their place of work, and the resolution of the negative social effects of the migrant labour

system on family life. This strike is provoked by a remark by the Commissioner-General for the Indigenous People, Jannie de Wet. He says that "contract workers are under no obligation to re-engage, and that Owambos are "quite happy", with Namibia’s labour system. Thus a veld fire is ignited which spreads quickly through the length and breadth of Namibia.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1972

The UN General Assembly reacts to the ICJ ruling by establishing a United Nations Fund for Namibia. Theo-Ben Gurirab, currently SWAPO’s representative in North America, is appointed UN Mission Chief. Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua is appointed as SWAPO’s Head of Finance in Dar-Es-Salaam. SA offers the Dama a Legislative Council. Construction begins on the Dama tribal capital, Khorixas, temporarily known also as "Welwitschia". The majority of Dama headmen reject the offer of a Legislative Council. Dama living outside the proposed "homeland" reject the authority of Justus ||Garoëb and the Damara Advisory Council, which is formed by a minority living in Damaraland. These people become members of the Damara Executive Committee (DEC), led by Oscar Karuchab. Others are organised in the Damara Tribal Executive Committee (DTEC). The latter later also subscribes to the Namibia National Convention (NNC). Namibia has 749 000 inhabitants, 90 000 of whom are "white". There are 43 000 "black" contract labourers working in the developed southern economic sector of Namibia: some 11 000 in farming, 14 000 in the government service, commerce and industry, 3 000 in fishing and 3 000 in domestic service. Good rains fall in the country. The railway line between Mariental and Salzbrunn is washed away. PLAN fighters operate from Zambia against SA troops. Matchless Mine 40 km west of Windhoek is closed. Fishing quotas of 400 000 t in total are approved. In 1971, 72 363 tonnes of pilchard, 204 127 tonnes of anchovy and 80 193 tonnes of other pelagic fish are caught. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of SWA (ELC) holds its fourth synod at Otjimbingwe. Lucas de Vries becomes Preses of the ELC. Albertus Maasdorp who is favoured by the "white" members of the ELC is defeated. In the aftermath of the strike of December 1971 thirteen

25.01.

JanuaryFebruary

persons appear before the Windhoek Magistrate Court. They are charged for contraventions of the "Masters and Servants" laws (1916/1920)(Proclamation No. 2 of 1916). The accused are: Harold Sam, Immanuel Mbolili, Erastus Shanila, Thomas Shepumba, Vilho Villiha, Cleopas Kapapu, Maiakias Hiloohamb, Lazarus Shikongo, Jason Nhituamata, Jonas Nejulu, Matupang Shimuefeleni and Leonard Nghipandula. At the end of the trial the accused are all sentenced to a small fine. They score a moral victory. Peasants rise in Ovamboland. A state of emergency is imposed by way of Emergency Proclamation R17 of 1972 (04.02.1972). This proclamation is one of the main legislative measures to intimidate and control the upsurge of "black" national political consciousness. Military measures are taken to stifle all political protest. The December-1971-Strike also takes its toll in Ovamboland. Johannes Nangutuuala and Andreas Nuukuawo (Democratic Co-operative Party (DEMCOP)) and Johannes Otto (SWAPO) are arrested unter the proclamation. Other activists to be prosecuted are Jimmy Hmapula, Thomas Kamati, Keshi Nathaniel, Rehabeam Namuhaya, Shipanga Kanjouda, Shilikumye Hiveluah, Ndaxu Namuloc and Frieda-Nela Williams. In the case against Nangutuuala and Kamati, they are convicted in the Ondangwa Magistrate’s Court but their sentences are set aside by the SWA Division of the Supreme Court (13.08.1973). The so-called "Grootfontein Agreement" leads to the dissolution of SWANLA, but does not really improve the situation. Identity documents based on racial classification are introduced in Namibia. UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim is ordered by the Security Council to contact the SA Government to negotiate a solution to the Namibia problem (UN SC Resolution 309). The Security Council again declares SA’s presence in Namibia illegal (UN SC Resolution 310).

The SA Government expels the Anglican Bishop of Damaraland, Colin O’Brien Winter, and three of his assistants, David de Beer, Stephen Hayes and Ms Halberstadt in terms of the Undesirables Removal Proclamation No. 50 of 1920. Winter’s successor becomes Richard Wood. On 16.06.1975, a deportation order is served on him in terms of Proclamation No. 50 of 1920 (Ed Morrow becomes Wood’s successor, but is also deported in July 1978). The National Convention (NC) is further strengthened during a meeting in Rehoboth attended by parties like SWAUNIO, the Voice of the People Party, SWANU under Gerson Hitjevi Veii, NAPDO and the Association for the Preservation of the Tjamuaha-Maharero Royal House. The NC appoints Kapuuo as Chairman and Veii as Secretary. Other parties, including 13.02. DEMCOP, the Herero Chiefs’ Council, the Nama Chiefs’ Council and the Damara Tribal Executive Committee (DTEC) later join the NC. The NC later refuses to participate in the South African Advisory Council for South West Africa (the constitutional predecessor of the Turnhalle Conference of 1975). Waldheim visits both SA and Namibia. In Namibia he speaks to all parties (pro-apartheid and pro-independence). The proindependence parties are the NC, SWAPO, the Herero Chiefs’ Council, the National Convention Independence Party (NACIP), NUDO, SWANU, the Rehoboth Volksparty and the Voice of the People Party. The pro- Apartheid forces are represented by some tribal elites in Ovamboland and the Kavango as well as some groups in Damaraland and in the 06./10.03. "coloured" community. Romanus Kampungu, ChiefCouncillor in the Kavango, explains to Waldheim that "if the United Nations would enforce a central government on the tribes, this would mean political suicide." He also strongly opposes the implementation of the name "Namibia" because "the Namib Desert represents only a part of the territory". David Hoveka Meroro tries to present a petition to Waldheim, 01.02.

but is arrested with 100 SWAPO supporters, detained and later goes into exile. Missionary Heinrich Vedder dies in Okahandja.

26.04.

House of the Rhenish Missionary Heinrich Vedder on the Land of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Okahandja: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Three offshore oil concessions are issued. The Toscanini oil well is drilled onshore to a depth of 1 736 m. Many Dama go on strike for better working conditions and June/July better wages, and against generally bad economic conditions in Damaraland. DEMCOP announces that the majority of "blacks" in Namibia July reject the contract labour system. After hearing Secretary-General Waldheim’s report (17.07.), the UN Security Council confirms that Namibia has the right to be independent within inviolable national borders. The UN Council for Namibia requests all foreign companies 01.08. to report on the working conditions of their employees. Waldheim’s mandate is extended by the Security Council. The Security Council adopts UN SC Resolution 319. Alfred Escher is consequently appointed as Waldheim’s personal representative. The first phase of the Kunene water supply system for 31.08. 21.06.

31.08.

Ovamboland is completed. SWAPO is given observer status at the UN Trusteeship September Committee. The State Conservatoire for Music is opened in Windhoek. 09.09. Naute Dam, south west of Keetmanshoop, is opened. A UN delegation under Alfred Escher is nominated to tour 25.09. both SA and Namibia. Escher visits Namibia. He holds 74 meetings, all without the 12./29.10. presence of SA officials. Due to the fact that Escher takes a friendly stance with the South African view of "bantustans" he is later denounced by SWAPO. Direct dialling by telephone is for the first time possible between Namibia and South Africa. This system is later extended by a micro wave system between Windhoek, 25.11. Keetmanshoop and Upington. The telephone exchanges grow from 99 to 467. There are 5 400 farm lines with a total distance of 46 466 km. This delegation presents a report stating that its talks with inhabitants have revealed that the majority of Namibians 06.12. reject both SA’s foreign rule and the "homelands" concept. The UN Security Council again extends Waldheim’s mandate. The South West African Non-European Unity Movement (SWANEUM) is formed as a rival to the National Convention. Late 1972 The prime mover is Andrew Kloppers. SWANEUM is supported by the Rehoboth Baster Association of Rehoboth, the Association for the Preservation of the TjamuahaMaharero Royal House and some Nama led by David Isaaks.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1973

February

March

Fifty-five thousand Portuguese soldiers are at war against the three Angolan liberation movements – the MPLA, the FNLA and UNITA. Since 1973 there has been concerted opposition from SWAPO, especially from the SWAPO Youth League, to the Odendaal-type elections in Ovamboland, and this triggers an increased crackdown by the SA Police. Nahas Angula of SWAPO establishes the Namibia Education Centre for Displaced Children in Zambia (and leads this institution until 1976). Timothy Hadino Hishongwa opens SWAPO’s office for West Africa in Dakar/Senegal. With the renaming of the SWA Coloured Organisation, the Federal Coloured People’s Party (FCPP) is formed under the leadership of Andrew Kloppers. The Ovamboland Independence Party (OIP) is formed by Silas Ipumbu. Plans to deport some 900 people from the Riemvasmaak area near the Augrabies Falls at the Oranje River in South Africa to Namibia – to areas west of Khorixas – are reported. Namibia has 3 600 km of trunk roads, 9 248 km of main roads, 19 627 km of district roads and 25 408 km of farm roads. SWA/Namibia Administrator BJ van der Walt initiates the installation of the first government computer in the new administration building. The inflation rate in Namibia is 7%. The Otjihase mine is developed by the Otjihase Mining Company. The Brandberg West Mine is closed. Chief Hendrik Witbooi of Gibeon, supported by the headmen of Berseba and Soromas, sends a telegram to the UN Secretary-General, asking him to "urgently free us from South African colonial rule". Oscar Karuchab of the DEC urges SA to grant independence to Namibia.

01.03.

23.03.

April

SA establishes a Multi-National Advisory Council for SWA. Prime Minister Vorster appoints Billy Marais as its first Chairman. The Advisory Council, excluding SWAPO, SWANU and the National Convention, meets three times. Kapuuo rejects it because of its "ethnic" foundation. A further important event is the walkout of the Ovambanderu leader, Munjuku Nguvauva II, from the Council. Also, the Rehoboth Volksparty withdraws. The Advisory Council meets for the first time in Windhoek behind closed doors. Lutheran church leaders Auala and De Vries (After leaving the ELC, De Vries joins the Federal Party (FP) in 1979. After the dissolution of the FP, De Vries joins the Liberated Democratic Party/Rehoboth Liberation Front (LDP/LF) in 1985 and ends up as a Deputy Minister of the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) in 1986.), representing some 335 000 Namibian church members, meet SA Prime Minister Vorster and the Commissioner-General of the Indigenous Peoples, Jannie de Wet. The Lutherans complain about the restricted mobility of people in the north of Namibia and the brutality of the SA Police and the South African Defence Force (SADF). They hand over a list of names of 37 persons who have stated that they have been tortured. Shortly after these events an explosion destroys the offices and printing works of the Ovambo-Okavango Evangelical Lutheran Church at Oniipa in Ovamboland. The "police investigation" reveals nothing. Consequently ELOC leader Leonard Auala and Thomas Kamati, supported and guided by the Anglican Bishop of Damaraland, Richard Wood, and Advocate David Soggot, spearhead court proceedings to try and end the brutal beatings of young "black" Namibians in Ovamboland by the Tribal Authority, aided and abetted by the South African Government and their security police. The SWA Division of the Supreme Court dismisses the application and applies the rule nisi. However, the Appellate Division of the Supreme

27.04.

30.04.

May

04.05.

Court of South Africa in Bloemfontein supports the application to put a stop to the barbaric practice revealed in the case. The beatings were administered to the following persons: Thomas Kamati (31 strokes); Johannes Nangutuuala (21 strokes); Frans Nangutuuala (17 strokes); Nathanael Homateni (17 strokes); Andreas Nuukuawo (15 strokes); Nicky Alweendo (15 strokes) and to many others, including several women. The beatings were inflicted on the naked body and caused grave injuries to many victims. The judgement sets an important precedent relating to the fundamental rights of Namibian citizen. Proclamation R104 of 1973 provides for Ovamboland to be a self-governing area in Namibia with Ongwediva as its seat of government. Ndonga, English and Afrikaans are the official languages. The Legislative Council for Ovambo makes provision for designated (35) and elected (21) members. Elections are planned for August 1973. Political opponents such as SWAPO, DEMCOP and the Ovambo-Okavango Evangelical Lutheran Church decide to boycott the elections. SWAPO activists like John Ya Otto are detained in terms of the emergency regulations. Only the Ovamboland Independence Party (OIP) is allowed to campaign freely. SA reports to the UN (S/10832 and S/10921) that it intends to accelerate the policy of ethnic fragmentation, and goes on to totally neglect the process of nation-building in Namibia. SA continues to apply its "homeland" policy (Development of Self-Government for Native Nations in South West Africa Amendment Act, No. 20 of 1973), even though negotiations with the UN are still underway. The Kavango is declared a self-governing area within Namibia in terms of Proclamation R115 of 1973. The official languages are English, Afrikaans and Kwangali. Rundu is the seat of government. A Legislative Council for Kavango is established with designated members for the five tribal areas (Gciriku, Kwangali, Mbukushu, Mbunza and Shambyu) and

elected members. A poll tax of R 4 per annum has to be paid by every male 29.06. burger (citizen) of Rehoboth. This tax is paid over into the Rehoboth Community Fund. De Wet announces that other than the South African Press 27.07. Association (SAPA), the press is barred from Ovamboland. The Multi-National Advisory Council for SWA meets for the August second time, in Johannesburg. Elections take place in Ovamboland, with only about 2,5% of all potential voters going to the polls. Nearly 3 000 students and school children are on strike and demonstrate their solidarity for the election boycotts. Centres of the protest actions are learning institutions at Odibo, Oshigambo and Ongwediva. This highly successful boycott is organised by SWAPO and DEMCOP (the latter is defunct in 1976). After the elections many supporters of SWAPO and DEMCOP are 01./02.08. arrested. Many are flogged in public, including Johannes Nangutuuala, leader of DEMCOP. SA allows these floggings, which serve as punishment for its political opponents. Also women such as Netumbo Nandi Ndaitwah are flogged. Other students participating in the protests are Martin Shali, Phillip Namholo and Pendukeni Iivula Ithana. The Christian Centre (from 1978 Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN)) is established by the Namibian churches (except the "white" churches). 29./30.08. Elections take place in Kavango, with a 66,2% turnout at the polls. The Multi-National Advisory Council for SWA meets for the September third time, in Cape Town. Auala receives a reply from SA Prime Minister Vorster that his complaints are unfounded. SWA issues the second definitive stamp series with 01.09. succulents as motif (no water mark). Clemence Kapuuo of NUDO tries to obtain UN recognition for

the National Convention. He is supported by David Hoveka November Meroro of SWAPO and Gerson Hitjevi Veii of SWANU, but is unsuccessful in his effort. Alfons Majavero is elected Chief Minister for the Kavango. The UN Security Council breaks off all negotiations with the SA Government. The UN General Assembly acknowledges 11.12. SWAPO (UNGA Resolution 3111) as the authentic representative of the Namibian people. SA registers its protest by withdrawing from the UN Trusteeship Committee. The UN Commissioner for Namibia, Sean McBride, is 18.12. nominated. The UN Council for Namibia issues travel documents and stamps. December SWAPO’s national conference in Walvis Bay takes place under the chairmanship of David Meroro.

Clemence Kapuuo and Dirk Mudge: 24.09.1973
Namibia State Archive

Ovambanderu Chief Munjuku Nguvauva II: 09.02.2002
Dr. Klaus Dierks

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The OIP is renamed the National Democratic Party (NDP) to contest Ovambo elections. The NDP is founded by Cornelius Tuhafeni Ndjoba. It joins the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference in 1975. John Ya Otto flees to Zambia via Angola. Ben Ulenga joins PLAN. The Damara United Front (DUF) is formed after the Damara Council splits. Its Chairman is Engelhardt Hubertus Lourentius Tuban Christy. The National Independence Party (NIP) is formed in 1974 Keetmanshoop by Charlie Hartung and Albert Krohne. The party joins the Namibia National Front (NNF) in 1977. Natural dry gas is discovered by SOEKOR and Chevron 170 km west of Oranjemund, in a water depth of 170 m (today known as the "Kudu Gas Field"). Political considerations, however, prevent any further investigation. Due to the "oil crisis", fuel is rationed in Namibia and there are no fuel sales during nights and on weekends. The international mining concerns Rössing Uranium, General Mining and Anglo-American begin with geological investigations in the vicinity of Swakopmund. SWAPO President Sam Nujoma visits Liberia to brief Liberian February President William Tolbert for the forthcoming state visit of SA Prime Minister Vorster to Liberia. The last All-White Elections for the Legislative Assembly take 24.04. place and is convincingly won by the National Party. There is a coup-d’état in Portugal. The dissolution of the Portuguese colonial empire begins. The breakdown of Portuguese colonialism in Angola and in Portugal facilitates both flight (approximately 10 000 refugees escape to Namibia in 1975) and increased guerrilla activity. SWAPO Secretary 25.04. Moses ||Garoëb declares in London that the occurrences in Portugal will stimulate the liberation struggle of the Namibian people. In consequence of this SWAPO moves its headquarter from Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania to Luanda in

May

June

27.08.

Angola (1975). The first group of SWAPO members going into exile is led by the PLAN commander Patrick Iyambo (Lungada) and John Ya Otto. The group includes Sam Nujoma’s three sons Utoni, Ndeshipanda and Nefungo. There is a mass exodus into exile of about 6 000 SWAPO members due to a wave of detentions. The exodus significantly boosts SWAPO’s capabilities for extending its military frontier by over 1 500 km – from Ruacana in the west to the Caprivi Strip in the east. Due to the thousands of Namibians fleeing to Zambia via Angola and to the Katanga Province in Zaire, SWAPO is forced to open an office in Katanga with Peter Tsheehama as representative. Among those detained in Namibia are Axel Johannes, David Meroro and Thomas Kamati. Between 1974 and 1978 Axel Johannes is repeatedly detained and tortured in an attempt to make him a state witness against Hendrik Shikongo and Aaron Mushimba in the Swakopmund trial following the assassination of Filemon Elifas in 1975. Other SWAPO activists who are arrested and sentenced to varying prison terms "for sabotage" are Jerry Ekandjo, Jacob Nghindinua, Martin Kapewasha, Eliakim Andreas and the SWAPO Youth League Leader, Ezriel Taapopi. Nghindinua, in his final statement before sentence, says: "We have sabotaged nothing. We are oppressed. The people in Namibia who do sabotage are the whites of South Africa. This court is here illegal and terrorises us in our own land. Only the United Nations may hear us. We do not recognise this court. And we will be back ... ." Most of the accused spent many years on the notorious South African prison island Robben Island. An ethnic army is created for Ovamboland. The SA Minister for Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, Hennie Smit, announces that 1 000 372 ha had been purchased for Namaland and 73 790 ha for Rehoboth.

The leader of the Executive Committee of the National Party of SWA, AH du Plessis, operating under directives from Pretoria, states that it has been decided that "the time is opportune for 24.09. the whites in the Territory to take positive action to hold talks with members of other population groups with a view to reaching agreement as to the political future". SA’s expulsion from the UN becomes a distinct possibility. It October is only momentarily averted by a triple veto of the three Western powers in the Security Council. Self-government is granted to the Eastern Caprivi Strip as from 01.04.1976. The new tribal entity is named "Lozi", with English and Lozi as official languages, and the entity has its own flag and national anthem despite the fact that it is to remain under SA rule. The administrative structures created 22.10. by Kurt Streitwolf in 1909 remain in force. The two main communities are the Subiya (approx. 38 % of the total population) in the east and the Fwe in the west. These are the only communities which are officially recognised. Others such as the Yeyi (Mayeyi) or the Mayuni are left out. This leads to many conflicts in the next twenty years. Elections are held for the South West Africa Coloured Council. The FCPP, led by Andrew Kloppers, wins the election. The National Independence Party wins two seats – for Charlie 30.10. Hartung and Albert Krohne. SWAPO, SWANU and the Namibia National Convention (NNC) (founded in February 1975) question the legitimacy of the Council. Dirk Mudge, member of the Executive Committee of the "allwhite" Legislative Assembly, explains that the "whites" are 20.11. "extending a hand of friendship" to the "non-whites" and that he invites them "to work together with us in a political dispensation in which there will be room for all". The National Convention (NC) of 1971 dissolves, after SWAPO leaves it (Conference of Okahandja, under the chairmanship of Zephania Kameeta). December Clemence Kapuuo keeps the original NC alive for a short

17.12.

while. Dirk Mudge of the National Party of SWA and leader of the "allwhite" Legislative Assembly approaches leaders of the principal groups in Damaraland with a view to uniting different factions. UN Security Council Resolution 366 of 1974 gives the SA Government until 01.05.1975 to act positively on Namibian decolonisation and self-determination.

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5. THE COLONIAL PERIOD: SOUTH AFRICAN RULE RULE
5.5 THE INDEPENDENCE PROCESS: PERIOD OF INTERIM ADMINISTRATIONS: 1975-1987
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany declares that Germany’s policy on Namibia has changed, and it now recognises that SA occupies Namibia illegally. The Namibia Democratic Party is founded at Vaalgras by Emil Appolus from the remnants of the defunct SWAUNIO. The Nama Alliance is formed under Daniël Luipert. It later joins the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference. The Rehoboth Liberation Party is formed under Hans Diergaardt after a split in the Rehoboth Volksparty. Hifikepunye Pohamba becomes SWAPO’s Secretary for Finance and Administration in Lusaka. Daniel "Danny" Tjongarero becomes active in SWAPO politics. He and the British lawyer Cedric Thornberry draft a discussion paper on a Constitution for an independent Namibia. Many provisions contained in SWAPO’s Discussion Paper for Independent Namibia resurfaced 14 years later in the SWAPO Election Manifesto, 1989. A second Swakop River dam, the Swakoppoort Dam, is built 57 km west of Okahandja. The SA Rand devalues against the US Dollar by 17,3%. New elections are held in the Ovambo region. Massive repressive measures ensure that 76% of all voters participate in the north, and that 4% of migrant workers in the centre and south also vote. SWAPO’s attempt to boycott the elections largely fails – although SWAPO SecretaryGeneral Axel Johannes had confidently predicted its

1975

January

22./23.02.

28.02.

April 06.04.

success – because the party’s internal wing has been paralysed by the mass exodus of the previous year. Angolan liberation movements sign the "Alvor Accords" that set 11.11.1975 as the date for Angola’s independence. The period of transitional government begins, the government including members of all three liberation movements: the MPLA, the FNLA and UNITA. The National Convention (NC), an alliance of the majority of "black" political organisations founded in 1971, experiences a split once the internal wing of SWAPO has left it (December 1974). SWAPO, SWANU and other organisations form the Namibia National Convention (NNC). The NNC uses the original slogan of the NC: "From Divided Doom to United Existence". NAPDO joins the NNC. The NNC is later opposed to the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference and refuses to participate in its deliberations. Danny Tjongarero and Zephania Kameeta are involved in organising the NNC. A second grouping, mainly of Nama and Dama origin, later forms the Namibia National Council (during the Okahandja National Unity Conference of 1975). But others remain in the original NC under the leadership of Clemence Kapuuo. The FCPP is renamed the Labour Party (LP), headed by Andrew Kloppers. The LP joins the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference together with its opposition, the National Independence Party (NIP); later (1981) renamed the Namibia Independence Party (NIP)). The SA Minister for Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, Hennie Smit, announces that the "reserve" of the Bondelswarts Nama at Warmbad has been deproclaimed, and 379 Bondelswarts are deported, mainly to Gibeon. The Damara Advisory Council proposes elections for all Dama in the territory in order to unite the different Dama factions. Joel Stephanus is inaugurated as Chief of the Vaalgras

06.04.

05.05.

20.05.

June 24.06.

Mid-year

July

Traditional Authority. A symposium takes place in Windhoek to prepare a handpicked group of "white" bureaucrats for the changes lying ahead. Pik Botha, SA’s Ambassador to the UN, as well as Dirk Mudge and Eben van Zijl, address the symposium and declare that since the days of General Hertzog, SA has had no claim to SWA/Namibia. SA Prime Minister Vorster states before the "Afrikaanse Chamber of Commerce" at the Windhoek High School that in his Government’s view, "[It is] for the peoples of SWA to determine their own political and constitutional future ... all options are open ... including that of independence", but SA rejects UN supervision of SWA/Namibia. The NNC plans a march through the streets of Windhoek, but the SA authorities prohibit the march. The HNP under its leader Albert Hertzog states that "South West Africa constitutes an integral part of South Africa". Members of the SWAPO Youth League enter into a heated argument with the exiled SWAPO leadership during a meeting in Lusaka. They call for a Congress which is already some months overdue in accordance with the principles of the Tanga Congress of December 1969. The SA Minister of Bantu Administration and Development, MC Botha, in an attempt to curb the dissension among different Ovaherero factions, and after intense lobbying on the part of Clemence Kapuuo, informs the Ovaherero at Okakarara that they can stay in Aminuis, and that the Aminuis Ovaherero will not be relocated to the Rietfontein Block in Hereroland East. A "homeland" for the Tswana ("Tswanaland") in parts of Aminuis, was originally planned in accordance with the Odendaal Plan. Botha thus dismembers the Odendaal Plan by eliminating Tswanaland as one of its proposed ethnic "homelands". This move influences Kapuuo later to join the Turnhalle Conference.

01.08.

16.08.

SWAPO's PLAN takes advantage of the open frontiers between Angola and Namibia and attacks South African troops in Ovamboland and the Calueque Dam (the dam is situated on Angolan territory) near Ruacana. This leads to South African raids on the Angolan MPLA and the permanent guarding of the dam by the SADF. During its first session the South West Africa Coloured Council demands virtual economic integration with the "white" minority. The SA Government is also requested to substitute the term "coloured" with "brown". During the Council’s second session delegates express open animosity and disappointment with regard to SA’s apartheid policy. Dawid Bezuidenhout joins the LP. Chief Minister of the tribal Ovambo Executive, Ondonga King Filemon Elifas Shuumbwa, is killed in Onamagongwa in the Ondangwa area. SWAPO National Chairman David Meroro denies that SWAPO is responsible for his death. Many SWAPO supporters, inter alia the leader of SWAPO in Ovamboland, Skinny Hilundwa, are arrested after the killing of Elifas. Many of SA’s subsequent suppression measures are carried out in terms of legislation which has now been made applicable to Namibia, namely the Riotous Assemblies Act of 1956 and the Suppression of Communism Act of 1950, which is later renamed the State Security Act of 1950. Aaron Mushimba, Axel Johannes, Hendrik Shikongo and Victor Nkandi are all arrested together and sentenced to death in the Swakopmund trial. After hearing argument on appeal, the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa in Bloemfontein sets aside the conviction and sentences on the ground of irregularities in the court proceedings (March 1977 and 24.10.1977 in the case of Nkandi). All the accused are released and go into exile. Thousands of SWAPO-members, mainly young people, flee to Zambia. The SWAPO leadership in Zambia is not

26.08.

01.09.

prepared for such a massive influx of people. This leads later to a serious crisis within SWAPO ( SWAPO crisis of 1976). Reverend Cornelius Tuhafeni Ndjoba is elected new Chief Minister of the tribal Ovambo Executive. The Turnhalle Constitutional Conference, plans for which had already been announced in November 1974, is constituted along ethnic lines. SWAPO is excluded, and during its inauguration holds demonstrations under the leadership of Danny Tjongarero to protest this SA-initiated conference. The conference is preceded by a wave of arrests of "black" opposition leaders, notably from SWAPO and the NNC. Clemence Kapuuo’s participation in the Turnhalle Conference constitutes an effort to improve the situation of the Ovaherero. Peter Katjavivi, SWAPO’s representative in Western Europe, dismisses the Turnhalle Conference as "puppets in the silence of a political graveyard". Some Dama parties, such as the DEC, Justus ||Garoëb’s Damara Council (together with Paulus ||Gowaseb and Simon Immanuel !Gobs) and the DTEC, oppose the Turnhalle Conference, while Engelhardt Christy’s DUF supports it. The "white" members of the Turnhalle Conference are Dirk Mudge, Eben van Zijl, AH du Plessis and ET Meyer. The appointment of AH du Plessis, leader of the NP of SWA and SA Minister of Community Development, reflects a deliberate move by Pretoria to tighten its ideological control over the Turnhalle Conference. This appointment exacerbates the growing differences within the NP of SWA on the issues of apartheid and "white" parliamentary representation in SA. This appointment also leads to a split in the NP of SWA, and the establishment of the Republican Party (RP) within the Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) under Dirk Mudge. It furthermore exacerbates the growing dissatisfaction among the liberal faction of German-

speaking Namibians, and is one of the reasons for the establishment of the Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Südwester (IG) in 1977. Other ethnic groups are represented as follows: Ovaherero (Johannes Karuaihe, E Hiiko, Levy Nganjone, G Kanguvi); Coloureds (Dawid Bezuidenhout, Joey Julius, Barney Barnes, Andrew Kloppers), Basters (Ben Africa, Abraham Strauss, Justice Chris Mouton, Piet Junius); Tswana (Gregor Tibinyane, Matheus Lebereki, Gates Mootseng, P Tibinyane); Dama (T Eigab, Johannes Gâseb, Engelhardt Christy, Johannes Skrywer); Ovambo (Immanuel Nghihulifua, Toivo Shiyagaya, Peter Kalangula, T Nakambonde); Caprivi (Gabriël Siseho, Richard Muhinda Mamili, M Moraliswani, F Mungu); Nama (Cornelius Cloete, Ernst Kuhlmann, Frans Afrikaner, Daniël Luipert); Kavango (Alfons Majavero, Josef Kandjimi, Rudolf Ngondo, L Hakusembe); and San (Bushmen) (Geelbooi Kashe, Martin Xaesce). The Conference Secretary is Billy Marais. SWAPO National Chairman David Meroro goes into exile in Zambia via Botswana. The NP of SWA presents the Turnhalle Conference as its 23.09. own idea, while the HNP rejects it outright (May 1975). After the killing of King Omukwaniilwa Elifas, Immanuel 28.09. Elifas (Kauluma)(1975-present) becomes the 17th Ondonga King. He resides at Onamungundo. Sept./October UNITA and the FNLA split from the MPLA, and fighting begins in Angola. The Federal Party (FP) is constituted when the United Party in SWA (UP) breaks with the United Party in SA. Bryan O’Linn becomes the party leader. Some UP members 14.10. under Jacques Pierre Niehaus leave to form the SWA Action Group (SWAAG), which later joins the Action Front for the Retention of Turnhalle Principles (ACTUR). The Okahandja National Unity Conference takes place in opposition to the Turnhalle Conference. One of the

10.11.

11.11.

December

participating groups is the NNC, consisting of SWAPO, SWANU, the Rehoboth Volksparty, the Damara Tribal Executive Committee and NAPDO.Another group of participants mainly comprises parties supported by Nama and Dama, with a small Ovaherero faction which does not want to join forces with the NNC. This second group consists of the Damara Executive Committee (DEC), the Damara Council, the Namibia Progressive Party (Bondelswarts), the Hoachanas community, the Vaalgras community, the Witbooi section of Gibeon, the Democratic Organisation of Namibia, the two Ovaherero factions (Mbanderu Council and the Association for the Preservation of the Tjamuaha-Maharero Royal House), as well as the Voice of the People Party. This group later constitutes itself as the Namibia National Council. The second session of the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference commences. Angola gains its independence. The country’s first President is Agostinho Neto (52), who unilaterally declares independence from Portugal. He requests aid from Cuba, after South African troops in Operation Zulu and the FNLA under Holden Roberto have penetrated deeply into Angola. Zaire supports the SA-led coalition with the military Chipenda Column. The South African troops conquer Benguela, Lobito and Novo Redondo. The FNLA reach the Caxito River, only 30 km from Luanda. An estimated 50 000 Cuban troops start arriving in Luanda. The first Minister of Foreign Affairs is José Eduardo dos Santos (33). The Cuban troops stop the South African advance at the Queve River, just two hours driving from Luanda.

Turnhalle Building, 1975
Namibia State Archive

The Grave of Ondonga King Filemon Elifas Shuumbwa at Olukonda
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

1976

The Lusaka Manifesto confirms that the decolonisation of Namibia by SA in collaboration with the UN would be a prerequisite of "black" Africa for détente with Pretoria. The UN General Assembly confirms SWAPO as "the sole and authentic representative of the Namibian people" (UNGA Resolution 146 (XXXI). The SA Defence Force attacks the PLAN base at Shatotwa in Zamibia, causing losses on the SWAPO side. Timothy Hadino Hishongwa becomes SWAPO’s representative for Scandinavia, West Germany and Austria, based in Sweden. John Ya Otto becomes SWAPO’s Secretary for Labour and leader in exile of the National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW). Jesaya Nyamu becomes SWAPO's Vice Secretary for Information in Luanda/Angola. SA decides to establish an Advisory Council for Namaland, and to grant self-government for Rehoboth and the Eastern Caprivi Strip. Namaland is planned to comprise 2,2 million hectares. The leader of the Nama delegation to the Turnhalle Conference, Daniël Luipert, declares that a political platform for the Nama has to be created. The SA Minister for Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, Hennie Smit, declares that a nation demanding development should have its own "fatherland", such as Namaland. Tribal entities for Berseba under Headman Stephanus Goliath and for Tses under Headman Joel Stephanus are not yet created. It is planned that Namaland’s main town will be erected at the Brukkaros station, while Gibeon and Berseba will be developed, as well as a hotel at Asab. A faction of the Association for the Preservation of the Tjamuaha-Maharero Royal House joins SWAPO. Bartholomeus Gerhardt Karuaera, who was along with Clemence Kapuuo the secretary of Hosea Kutako, is one of the leaders of the Royal House. NAPDO, which strongly opposes the Turnhalle Conference,

withdraws from the NNC and joins SWAPO. The DUF is renamed the South West African People’s Democratic United Front (SWAPDUF). Its President is Joseph Haraseb and its Vice-President Engelhardt Christy. SWAPDUF forms an alliance with the DTA. The National Independence Party (NIP) joins the Namibia National Front (NNF) (reconstituted again as the Namibia Independence Party (NIP) in 1981). NNC office-bearers include, inter alia, SWAPO politicians Zephania Kameeta and Danny Tjongarero. The exodus of "Portuguese whites" from Angola continues. New conflicts arise around the disputed Kasikili Island in the Chobe River. At its annual congress the NNC calls for "dialogue with all January other forces that are genuinely seeking the liberation of Namibia from foreign domination". The International Conference for Namibia in Dakar, Senegal, 05./08.01. is organised by the International Institute for Human Rights based in Strasbourg. Three hundred international lawyers participate. SWAPO’s liberation struggle is supported. The UN Security Council unanimously passes SC Resolution 385 which calls on SA to take the necessary steps to transfer power to the people of Namibia and to allow free elections by 30.01. 31.08.1976. This resolution becomes the springboard for decisive action by five western countries (Canada, England, France, Germany and the USA). Four "white" Namibians are killed by PLAN soldiers. Filemon Nangolo is arrested and charged for killing the farmers (together with Kanisius Hanilesi who escapes arrest but is later killed by a field fire while fighting with the police near February Windhoek): Shirley Merle and Bertus Nico Louw near Grootfontein as well as Gerd and Elke Walters near Okahandja. Filemon Nangolo is subsequently sentenced to death and executed (30.05.1977) while he is still in a wheelchair as a result of the wounds he sustained during the

arrest. The frustrations of many exiled Namibians in Zambia come to a head - a full year after a heated meeting with SWAPO leaders in Lusaka where demands for a long overdue Party congress were presented (the rebellion has already been smouldering since June 1974). Matters are worsened by a March/April rebellion by PLAN fighters in Zambia’s Western Province. External SWAPO later faces a crisis in the form of multiple detentions, Andreas Shipanga (former SWAPO Secretary) being the most prominent person detained in Zambia together with Solomon Mifima and Immanuel Engombe. SWAPO later calls the rebellion the "Shipanga Rebellion". The third session of the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference is held. Some "black" participants threaten to withdraw if the 02./19.03. harsh interference of the NP continues. The legitimacy and credibility of the Conference are fundamentally undermined by the ambiguity of the SA Government, especially with regard to continuing the implementation of the Odendaal Plan. Danny Tjongarero states that the Turnhalle Conference plan 11.03. "seems unacceptable because it divides the country on an ethnic basis". SA Minister of Defence PW Botha announces in Parliament that SA will commence with the withdrawal of SADF troops from Angola. SWAPO's PLAN starts to organise their troops within Angola, under the command of General Dimo Hamaambo. Angola's President Neto gives SWAPO the old iron mine of Cassinga 25.03. as a transit centre. Lubango becomes SWAPO's military operational headquarters in southern Angola. SWAPO's Provisional Headquarters are moved from Lusaka in Zambia to Luanda in Angola. However, the South Africans remain in control of the Angolese air space and are able to install their ally UNITA at Jamba in south-eastern Angola, near the Caprivi Strip, in order to intercept PLAN soldiers. Despite some initial military successes South Africa forced to

26.03.

April

01.04.

21.04.

May

01.05.

withdraw from Angola under a storm of domestic and international condemnation. The second group of parties (see above – October 1975) participating in the Okahandja National Unity Conference transforms the Conference into the Namibia National Council, which disbands after most parties join the NNF in 1977. The Eastern Caprivi Strip under its new name, "Lozi", becomes a self-governed tribal entity. The new capital is Linyanti. The Mayuni Fwe (Mayuni is a village between Kongola and Sibbinda in the Mashi/Kwando river valleys) call themselves the "True Mafwe". There are some tensions between the Mafwe from Linyanti and the "True Mafwe". To distinguish themselves from the Linyanti-Fwe the "True Mafwe" call themselves "Mayuni" (Mayuni is also the Chief's name: currently: Tembwe Mayuni). On request of the SWAPO leadership in Zambia, 27 SWAPO members (many SWAPO Youth League members), including Andreas Shipanga together with Solomon Mifima and Immanuel Engombe, are arrested by the Zambian authorities. They are brought to Nampundwe Camp and later to prisons in Tanzania. Between 1 600 and 2 000 dissident PLAN fighters are rounded up in the Western Province and taken to Mboroma Camp near Kabwe in Zambia. De Wet announces further measures to improve security on the border between Ovamboland and Angola. Self-government is granted to Rehoboth in terms of the "paternal laws" of 1872. A Chief’s Council will head the proposed Rehoboth Government. The SA Minister for Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, Hennie Smit, indicates that general elections for the Legislative Council for Rehoboth will take place in September 1977. In June 1977 elections are to be held for the Kaptein (Captain) of Rehoboth. The Bantu Investment Corporation under Johan Lerm creates its own development body for Kavango, known as Ekuliko Kavango Limited. Its projects are, inter alia, the Shadikongoro,

Vungu-Vungo and Musese irrigation projects, and the Mangetti farming project. SWAPO holds a national congress in Walvis Bay which totally 29.-31-05. rejects the Turnhalle Conference and endorses the leadership of SWAPO. The Turnhalle Constitutional Conference holds its fourth 02.06. session. The Ya Otto Commission which was charged by SWAPO to investigate the circumstances which led to the rebellion of some SWAPO cadres between June 1974 and April 1976 04.06. submits its findings: 1. Enemy infiltration; 2. Power struggle within SWAPO; 3. Incompetence within the Party and 4. Misguided elements. Elections for the Lozi Legislative Assembly take place in the Eastern Caprivi Strip, with 83% of registered voters casting a 27.07. vote. Chief Richard Mamili of the Fwe succeeds former Chief Minister, Subiya Chief M Moraliswani, as first Chief Minister of Lozi. SWAPO’s enlarged Central Committee releases in Nampundwe, Zambia a new party constitution and political 28.07.programme. The party constitution seeks to redress some of 02.08. the problems identified by the Ya Otto Commission. Hidipo Hamutenya is elected to SWAPO’s Central Committee and Politburo. Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda and Mosé Tjitendero jointly open the United Nations Institute for Namibia (UNIN) in Lusaka, which is to train Namibian administrators. UNIN was initiated by the UN Commissioner for Namibia, Sean McBride. August Hage Geingob becomes its Director. Hidipo Hamutenya is one of its founding members. Frans Stellmacher, Chairman of the Rehoboth Volksparty, dissolves this party and joins SWAPO so as to move from an ethnic to a Namibian dispensation. During the fifth session of the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference, the delegates reach consensus on an interim

three-tier Constitution providing for autonomous units as well as a national government with clearly-defined powers. It is suggested that an "interim government" should be established on 01.01.1977 and should remain in place for two years while a permanent government commission works out a Constitution for an independent Namibia. The 18.08. constitutional plan of the Turnhalle provides for the institution of a "multi-racial" interim government, for independence by the end of 1978, and for maintaining the "homelands" and the division of government according to ethnic principles. The US Government, apparently not satisfied with this policy, involves Kissinger, US Secretary for Foreign Affairs, in Namibian matters (from April onwards). The UN Council for Namibia rejects the Turnhalle proposals. The National Party Congress takes place in Windhoek ("Uhuru Congress"). The congress still believes that an interim government would provide for the maximum autonomy of ethnic groups, and that the hegemony of "whites" would therefore not be challenged. The hardline Du Plessis-Van Zijl axis presses for the dismissal of Billy Marais, Turnhalle 24./27.08. Conference Secretary and confidante of Dirk Mudge, in order to undermine Mudge’s position in the Turnhalle. Marius Maree is appointed in place of Marais. Vorster later announces that Walvis Bay will be incorporated into SA on 01.01.1977, and that he will implement the decisions of the Turnhalle even if this is not to the UN’s liking, and that "South West Africa will not be handed over to SWAPO." These announcements further erode the credibility of the Turnhalle Conference. 15.09. The Roman- Catholic Church opens all its private schools to all Namibians. After three meetings have been held between Vorster and Kissinger (June-September), the US comes up with a plan of its own: the Western powers will support free and fair elections ("One Man, One Vote") in a unitary Namibia. The continued stratagem between the Turnhalle and the SA

Government to exclude nationalist forces such as SWAPO and SWANU in the process of decolonisation, leads to a draft resolution of the "African group" in the UN to call for a October mandatory arms embargo against SA. This resolution is blocked by a triple veto of the Western powers in the UN Security Council. Theo-Ben Gurirab, SWAPO’s spokesman at the UN, strongly condemns this veto. Rössing Uranium, a transnational firm of parent company Rio Tinto Zinc, begins to operate near Swakopmund. Rössing soon creates an extensive training programme for its personnel. Today Rössing is one of the largest opencast uranium mines in the world. The polity speculates on whether Dirk Mudge will eventually 29.11. be "shot down" by the Du Plessis-Van Zijl axis, or whether he will leave the NP due to his differences with the party. The UN General Assembly passes several resolutions. In Resolution 31/146 it supports the armed struggle of the Namibian people under the leadership of SWAPO, supports furthermore self-determination and independence and 20.12. condemns the "constitutional talks" in Windhoek. In Resolution 31/152 the Assembly decides to grant SWAPO permanent observer status at the UN, and in Resolution 32/9 it condemns the pending annexation of Walvis Bay. The NNC breaks up due to SWAPO’s withdrawal. The rivalry between SWAPO and SWANU during the 1960s recurs in the NNC in the ’70s. SWAPO takes four groups with it into a merger: the Nama of Gibeon, Vaalgras, Hoachanas and Keetmanshoop, under the leadership of Hendrik Witbooi. End 1976 Witbooi becomes SWAPO Secretary for Education and Culture in Namibia (until 1983). Mburumba Kerina, who leads the pro-Turnhalle PROSWA/Namibia Foundation, supports the Turnhalle principles. He even goes so far as to allege that the Turnhalle has met every condition set by the OAU, UN, ICJ and "Lusaka Manifesto".

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1977

March

18.03.

Niko Bessinger becomes treasurer of the SWAPO Office in Windhoek. Crispin Mabebo Matongo becomes Branch Chairman of SWAPO in Kitwe (Caprivi Strip). Danny Tjongarero is arrested in Oshakati by the SA Security Police. They release a statement ostensibly written by Tjongarero which is critical of SWAPO, and which Tjongarero later withdraws since it was written under coercion and torture. Jan Samuel Herero (|Hô|arab) becomes leader of the Bethany Nama (until 1984). John McNab, Karl Freygang and AJ Strauss leave Ben Africa’s RBA and found the Rehoboth Democratic Party. Due to the depressed copper prices the Otjihase Mine has to close but re-opens again in 1980. The HNP forms a "white resistance movement" called Beweging vir die Behoud van die Onverbreekbare Eenheid tussen die Republiek en Suidwes-Afrika (BOERSWA) (Movement for the Indissoluble Unity between the Republic and South West Africa). The Turnhalle principles are typified as a "race federation", which would result in "black majority rule" and the "alienation of the white man" in Namibia. The outline of a Constitution for Namibia is finally ratified by the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference. The official "white" opposition, the FP under Bryan O’LINN, voices wellsubstantiated criticism against the Turnhalle Constitution. Kozonguizi, legal adviser to the Ovaherero delegation to the Turnhalle, supports it as "viable". Substantial criticism comes from the major churches in Namibia: the United Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Anglican Church and the Roman Catholic Church. SWAPO rejects the Turnhalle Constitution as a "neo-colonialist ploy by South Africa to ensure the fragmentation or ‘Bantustanisation’ of Namibia, while relying on the help of a few loyal tribal chieftains". The SA Parliament takes no decision on the Turnhalle’s constitutional outline because representatives of five Western

22.03.

April

07.04.

12.04. 22.04.

countries (Canada, England, France, Germany and the USA) intervene in the UN Security Council with the aim of resolving matters on the basis of SC Resolution 385 of 1976. The UN Security Council enters a new debate on Namibia. The African states call for a mandatory arms embargo and a curb on all new loans for and investments in SA, unless Pretoria brings its illegal occupation of Namibia to a speedy end. After the internal wing of SWAPO has split from the NNC (end of 1976), the NNC links up with the Namibia National Council to form the Namibia National Front (NNF). The NNF is formed as an alliance between the Damara Council (and the DEC), the FP, SWANU, the Mbanderu Council, the Namibia Progressive Party (Bondelswarts), the National Independence Party and the Voice of the People Party. The SWAPO Democrats (SWAPO-D) under Andreas Shipanga later form a working alliance with the NNF. The NNF favours a unitary independent Namibia free from SA control, the abolition of apartheid, a bill of fundamental human rights, an independent judiciary and a mixed economy. The NNF becomes dormant in 1980. The five Western countries ("Western Contact Group") meet with SA Prime Minister Vorster in Cape Town to discuss the Namibia issue on the basis of a strongly-worded diplomatic note pertaining to SA ending its illegal occupation of Namibia ("First Cape Town Summit"). Hompa Daniel Sitentu Mpasi is inaugurated as the new Uukwangali Chief in Kahenge in the Kavango. Vorster summons the Turnhalle Constitutional Committee under the chairmanship of Dirk Mudge to Cape Town before negotiations with the Western Contact Group are resumed. The Western Contact Group, led by Don McHenry, deputy to Andrew Young (who is later pivotal in the creation of SC Resolution 435), begins tough bargaining with Vorster and Pik Botha. Following this, SWAPO (through Peter Katjavivi)

27.04.

18.05.

20.05.

30.05. 06.06. 08.06.

10.06.

makes it clear that it will only participate in the constitutional process if the Turnhalle principles are abolished, if elections on a non-ethnic basis are held under UN supervision, and if the SADF leaves the country prior to the elections. In a "whites-only" referendum 94,69% of all "whites" vote in favour of the Turnhalle proposals on independence and on a Constitution. Special emphasis is placed on the "principle of group autonomy". A "Yes" means a vote for the NP’s policy and a "No" means a vote for the ultra-conservative HNP’s policy. Vorster meets the US Vice-President, Walter Mondale, in Vienna. Mondale speaks on three issues: majority rule for Namibia, majority rule for Rhodesia, and a progressive transformation for SA to the same end. Anna Katrina Christian becomes the new Chief of the Bondelswarts. The Western Contact Group hands over a diplomatic note to the effect that SA must pursue the Namibia case further. A strong Turnhalle contingent meets the SA Government in anticipation of a new round of deliberations with the Western Contact Group. The Western Contact Group again meets with the SA Government in Cape Town ("Second Cape Town Summit"). SA agrees to suspend plans to establish an interim government in Namibia, to allow free elections for a Constituent Assembly, persuades Turnhalle delegates to drop their plans. In preparation SA passes the South West Africa Constitution Amendment Act No. 95 of 1977 and appoints an Administrator-General to administer the territory and to work with a UN Representative in the run-up to the UNsupervised elections. However, Pretoria still follows a twotrack approach by continuing to work actively towards an internal settlement in Namibia, largely on SA’s own terms, while co-operating in the diplomatic venture to reach a peaceful and internationally recognised settlement on

11.06.

22.06. July

04.07.

15.07.

27.07.

Namibia. SWAPO rejects the idea of a Pretoria-appointed Administrator-General and prefers direct UN control over the transitional process in Namibia. Theo-Ben Gurirab states that "South Africa has no legal, moral or other rights to administer the territory either now or during the interim period". Hendrik Witbooi is forced to resign as headmaster of a school in Gibeon, after 22 years of service, due to his involvement with SWAPO. Namibia starts to establish its own national defence force – the South West Africa Territory Force (SWATF). Sam Nujoma addresses the OAU Summit and states that "these Western initiatives are appreciated", but he warns the Contact Group "not to bypass the UN". Vekuui Rukoro, NNF Secretary for Information, also dismisses the idea of SA installing an Administrator-General. Since last year members of SWAPO’s PLAN and those who give them assistance, are increasingly brought before the courts of charges of contravening the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967. The charges against Ruben Hengula, Michael Shikongo and Lazarus Guiteb refer to alleged acts of "terrorism" committed in 1976. They are all sentenced to high prison terms. Shortly after the case against Hengula, Shikongo and Guiteb, Ben Ulenga is taken prisoner by the South Africans, put on trial and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment, of which he spends nine years on Robben Island. A Damara Representative Authority is created, led by Justus ||Garoëb. Some German-speaking Namibians found a political pressure group (initiated in June), the Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Südwester (IG) (Community of Interests of German-Speaking South Westers), to lobby for the interests of the German-speaking community in an independent Namibia and to make a

contribution to the independence process in the interest of Namibia (Slogan: "Landesinteressen gehen vor Eigeninteressen"). This lobby group later co-operates with the 11.08. DTA (terminated in 1983) but is not really a political party. The IG is supported by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its first President is Herbert Halenke, its first Chairman Konrad Lilienthal, and its first board members are Klaus Dierks, Claus Kock, Herbert Schneider, Hans-Erik Staby, Johann-Albrecht Brückner, Volker Rodenwoldt, Eberhard von Alten, Adolf Bartsch and Wilhelm Weitzel. Within two years the IG establishes 18 regional branches throughout the country with nearly 3 000 members. Walvis Bay Administration Proclamation R202 of 1977 makes provision for incorporating Walvis Bay and the Atlantic 31.08. offshore islands (Mercury, Bird, Seal, Penguin, Halifax, Possession, Albatross, Pomona, Plum Pudding, the Roast Beef Islands and Long Island) into the Cape electoral division of Namaqualand. The envoys of the five Western powers hold a third round of talks in Pretoria. The major issue of contention is the continued presence of SA troops in Namibia, and this becomes one of the "make-or-break" issues in the international diplomatic efforts to gain independence for the territory. Theo-Ben Gurirab wants the SA troops out "before the political process starts". UN Secretary-General Waldheim meets with various experts on UN peace-keeping operations, notably Brian Urquhart. A UN task force of 7 000 to 10 000 members is envisaged. SWAPO insists that all SA troops must leave prior to the elections. The UN proposes that Pretoria compromise by September reducing the SA troop strength to between 5 000 and 7 000, and confining these troops to base at Grootfontein or Oshivelo or both. Vorster rejects this proposal. SA suggests monitoring the Angolan border from both sides, and accepts Martti Ahtisaari as Waldheim’s representative to supervise

01.09. 26.09. 28.09.

October

03.10.

"free and fair" elections for a Constituent Assembly. Such elections are envisaged for the second half of 1978. Apart from the disagreement between SWAPO, the Western powers and SA on the issue of UN military presence, the Walvis Bay issue is another stumbling block. SWAPO demands the "total reintegration of Walvis Bay into an independent Namibia". The negotiations come close to collapse and a fourth summit is envisaged. SA appoints Marthinus Theunis Steyn as AdministratorGeneral for SWA/Namibia, to rule by proclamation as set out in Government Notice 1666 of 19.08.1977. A group under Dirk Mudge breaks away from the NP of SWA, which has controlled the legislature ever since its first election victory in 1950. The NP of SWA severs it links with the NP of SA. The Administrator-General repeals the Mixed Marriages and Immorality Acts. The pass laws are also repealed, but the contract labour system is continued. The Roman-Catholic Church holds its first Synod of the Vicariate of Windhoek at Mariabronn near Grootfontein. For the first time representatives of all communities meet officially in a common meeting. An election is held for a Kaptein (Captain) for Rehoboth in terms of the Rehoboth Self-Government Act, No. 56 of 1976. The election is narrowly won by Ben Africa, leader of the Baster delegation at the Turnhalle Conference and of the Baster Vereniging. His opponent is Diergaardt of the Rehoboth Liberation Party. Diergaardt challenges the outcome of the election in court, and the court rules that Africa cannot be installed as Kaptein of the Rehoboth Gebied (District). Such institutionalisation of further ethnic councils still clearly forms part of Pretoria’s Gaullist approach towards Namibia’s decolonisation. A new party, the Republican Party (RP), is formed (05.10.). The leadership of the "all-white" RP consists of Dirk Mudge,

Hans-Erik Staby, Abraham Davids, Anna Frank and "Bertie" Botha. The NP residue is later re-organised (1978) as the Action Front for the Retention of Turnhalle Principles (ACTUR). The Turnhalle Constitutional Conference is officially dissolved 06.10. by the Administrator-General, Steyn. 21.10. The inaugural congress of the "all-white" RP is held. Elections for the Rehoboth Volksraad are held and won by 31.10. Diergaardt. SA incorporates Walvis Bay into the Cape electoral division of 01.11. Namaqualand. The UN Security Council unanimously passes UN SC 04.11. Resolution 418 which provides for a mandatory and extensive arms embargo against South Africa. The Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) is founded, with Ovaherero Chief Clemence Kapuuo as its first President and Dirk Mudge its Chairman. The NUDO (Clemence Kapuuo), the RBA (Ben Africa), the LP (Andrew Kloppers), the RP (Dirk Mudge), SWAPDUF (Engelhardt Christy), the Nama Alliance (Daniël Luipert) and the NDP (Cornelius Ndjoba) join the DTA 05.11. as member parties. The Caprivi Alliance Party (CAP) is formed with Gabriël Siseho as its President, and CAP joins the DTA. The Kavango Alliance Party (KAP)(Alfons Majavero) is constituted to join the DTA. The Tswana Alliance (P. Tibinyane) is formed by Turnhalle delegates to join the DTA. Administrator-General Steyn announces the abolition of the "Bantu education system". The Department of Water Affairs December and the Department of Bantu Administration and Development, Coloured, Rehoboth and Nama Relations, are transferred to the Administrator-General. The RP establishes the newspaper Die Republikein. First 01.12. editor is Johannes Petrus Spies. 05.10.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1978

The Western Contact Group determines 31.12.1978 as the final date for Namibia’s independence, and UN-supervised elections for a Constituent Assembly are to take place in June 1978. The Action Front for the Retention of Turnhalle Principles (ACTUR) is formed by the NP under the chairmanship of AH du Plessis as an election front supporting the original Turnhalle principles. ACTUR becomes dormant in 1983. Katuutire Kaura returns from exile and becomes actively involved in NUDO which he joined in 1975. The Namibia Christian Democratic Party (NCDP) is founded in the Kavango. Hans Röhr is its leader and Wolfgang Adam its Honorary President. The Bushman Alliance (BA) is formed to join the DTA. The Liberal Party is founded by Andrew Kloppers after the LP splits and Kloppers leaves. The Liberal Party joins ACTUR but withdraws in 1979. The LP remains in the DTA under the leadership of Joey Julius. The Damara Christian Democratic Party (DCDP) is formed under Theophelus Arend. The DCDP joins ACTUR under the name Damara Action Group (DAG), but withdraws in 1979. It joins the Namibia People’s Liberation Front (NPLF) and withdraws in 1986. The Rehoboth Action Group (RAG) is formed to join ACTUR. RAG becomes defunct in 1980. The Kavango Action Group (KAG) is formed to join ACTUR. KAG becomes defunct in 1989. The Namibia Patriotic Coalition (NPC) is formed by Mburumba Kerina to join a short-lived alliance with the Rehoboth Liberation Front (LF) and the Liberal Party. The Namibia People’s Liberation Front (NPLF) is founded as an alliance between the Voice of the People Party under Kephes Conradie, the DEC under Fritz Gariseb and the Bondelswarts Council under Chieftainess Anna Christian, shortly before these parties break away from the NNF. Danny Tjongarero becomes SWAPO’s Deputy National

Chairman in Namibia. Billy Marais, DTA Secretary-General, reports later (03.09.1997) that the funds of the DTA are exhausted. Then a bag full with money comes in which leads to the vast "slush fund" of the DTA in the years to come. Marais tells the story: "We had borrowed two men from Anton Rupert for the DTA, ... and André Diedericks, who was then our account. ... And Theo [Theo Mey from the SA Defence Force] came and put down a suitcase next to my table. I said to him. ‘And this?’ Then he said: ‘No, do not ask questions'. ... We were then upstairs in Hans-Erik Staby’s old architect’s office and Standard Bank was just below. ... We want to count money ... R 300 000 [US $ 450 000 in 1978], the first of much, much money from the same source." This "DTA-slush fund" leads over the years to January hundreds of millions of Rand which are paid over by South Africa to the DTA, although the existence of such a "slush 1978 fund" is vehemently denied by Dirk Mudge. The Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Südwester (IG) also mobilises funds for the DTA. Parts of the funds are channelled via the German Hanns-Seidel-Foundation (representative in Windhoek: Klaus Wolff) of the Christlich Soziale Union (CSU) under the leadership of the conservative Bavarian Prime Minister Franz-Joseph Strauss. Diether Lauenstein from Germany uses these opportunities (by transactions which were never established to date) and buys the publishing house John Meinert in order to establish a conservative course at the Allgemeine Zeitung and The Windhoek Advertiser. Kurt Dahlmann from the Allgemeine Zeitung and Hannes Smith from the Windhoek Advertiser have to leave. PLAN attacks under the command of Kakuwa Kembale and February Immanuel Noshingulu the SA army base at Elundu in the Ohangwena area. During the operation the South African Johan van der Mescht is taken prisoner. The Ovambo Minister of Health, Toivo Shiyagaya, is assassinated in Okahao during a DTA rally. The assailant,

07.02.

March

27.03.

Mathias Mauni, is shot by the Ovambo Home Guard, a South African Defence Force sponsored paramilitary unit, at the same occasion. Andreas Shipanga is with the aid of Amnesty International and the International Red Cross released from prison in Keko/Tanzania. Unrest commences in Katutura between different Namibian population groups. Julius Kambirongo, a close aide of Clemence Kapuuo, is killed, after he fires on a group of SWAPO supporters. Clemence Kapuuo is, in the presence of Gerson Hoveka, the Ovaherero Chief of the Epukiro Reserve, and other friends, assassinated in Katutura. Clashes between Ovambo and Ovaherero follow in Katutura/Windhoek and Okakarara. Quickly the South African Administration accuses SWAPO of the murder, although nobody is ever formally charged with the killing. The killing is never clarified. If the question is asked who benefits from the murder, the scenario becomes clearer. The SWAPO activist Axel Johannes is charged by the South African security forces with the murder, tortured and mock executed, although he could prove that he was not in Windhoek during the incident. The killing, and the accusation which is levelled against SWAPO, is used to justify the crackdown by the South African Defence Forces on SWAPO followers inside Namibia and on SWAPO bases outside Namibia, thus efficiently and effectively derailing the United Nations peace process. Finally it leads to the fall of the Vorster government and the advent of PW Botha's government of "securocrats".

Grave of Clemence (Clemens) Kapuuo in Okahandja, who is killed on 27.03.1978 in Windhoek (Katutura): The Grave is next to the Grave of Hosea Kutako: Otjozondjupa Region: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

06.04.

10.04.

25.04.

A new weekly newspaper, The Windhoek Observer, is launched. Its first editor is Hannes Smith. The five Western countries in the UN Security Council negotiate with SA and SWAPO. Their proposals are submitted to the Security Council (S/12363). These include: elections for a Constituent Assembly, supervised by the UN in conjunction with the SA-appointed Administrator-General, by 31.12.1978; a cease-fire; a reduction of SA troops and their confinement to base in Grootfontein or Oshivelo or both; the restriction of SWAPO soldiers to a specified number of locations in southern Angola; the disbanding of local commandos and tribal forces in Namibia, with all of these to come under UN supervision; amnesty for political detainees on both sides; and granting Namibians in exile the right to return. After an unpublished clarification of matters submitted by the "Western Five" (as these countries came to be known), SA accepts these proposals. Nine executive members of SWAPO are arrested in Namibia. After a five year construction period (since May 1973) the Ruacana Hydro Power Station is commissioned. The power station is situated at the Ruacana Waterfalls in the Kunene River. After a southbound run from Angola, the river makes a right turn to flow directly in the Atlantic Ocean, creating a natural setting for the underground Ruacana hydroelectric scheme. From here, Namibia draws most of its electric power. To accommodate the three 80 Megawatt turbine generators, as well as the transformers, the switchgear, and

the entry and discharge tunnels, more than 400 thousand cubic metres of rock had to be removed from the underground caverns. Water from the Kunene River is regulated by a series of dams in Angola, most importantly the Matala and Gove dams on the Angolan highlands, and a diversion weir at Calueque (completed in 1976), to channel part of the flow to a surge head bay on top of the mountain. The water drops almost 134 m down vertical shafts into the heart of the mountain, where it drives the three Francis Turbines before rejoining the Kunene River from a tailrace tunnel near the Hippo Pool. When in full operation, the turbines can generate about 240 Megawatts, which is fed into the Namibian power grid at 330 000 Volts. The underground power station consists of three parallel caverns, draft tubes, interconnecting galleries and ducts.

The Ruacana Falls in the Kunene River during the Dry Season in the Omusati Region, October 2002: With the Calueque Control Weir (in Angola) to Regulate the Inflow into the Ruacana Power Station in the Background
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

View from the Top of the Ruacana Power Station (Surge Headbay) to the West: In the Direction of the Kaokoveld and the Lower Kunene River
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

May

Ruacana Power Station: Overview: Situated 130 m Deep inside the Hill South of the Palmwash Ravine: Southwest of the Ruacana Falls: The Power House Consists of Three Long Parallel Running Caverns: Turbines/Generator Tunnel; Transformator Tunnel and Tailrace Tunnel
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ruacana Power Station: Turbines/Generator Tunnel: Three Francis Turbines: 80 MW Each: Provision is Made for a Fourth One
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Ruacana Power Station: Turbine/Generator No. 1: Is Currently Under Maintenance: October 2002
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Aerial View of the Landscape Southeast of Ruacana Town: October 2002: Omusati Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

04.05.

SA invades Angola and attacks Cassinga (Operation Reindeer), a SWAPO camp, leaving between 600 and 1 200 casualties on the SWAPO side. Those who are taken prisoner are brought to the notorious prison camp at Kaiganachab, west of Mariental. SWAPO breaks off all negotiations, but with some reservations accepts (mid-July) the Western Five proposals, which the Security Council then ratifies in SC Resolution 431. A UN Special Representative for Namibia, Martti Ahtisaari, is nominated to prepare for the UN-supervised elections. Hendrik Witbooi is detained following SA’s raid on Cassinga and the subsequent SWAPO attack on the Guruchab Bridge on the highway between Keetmanshoop and Grünau. PLAN also attacks a railway bridge between Karibib and Usakos. After that some SWAPO activists are arrested: Peter Nangolo Iilonga, John Alfons Pandeni and Wilhelm Biwa. They are charged in terms of the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967 and sentenced to prison terms between 18 (Pandeni) and six years (Biwa). The SWAPO Democrats (SWAPO-D) party is founded by

10.06. 21.06. 03.07.

Mid July

27.07.

dissident SWAPO members in Sweden, namely Andreas Shipanga supported by, inter alia, Philemon Moongo, Phil Ya Nangoloh, Solomon Mifima, Ottilič Abrahams and Kenneth Abrahams. SWAPO-D joins the NNF but later withdraws. The Caprivi Strip is reintegrated into the territory. Chief Minister of the Ovambo Government, Ndjoba, becomes the new DTA President, Ben Africa becomes Vice-President and Dirk Mudge remains Chairman. Kuaima Riruako becomes the new Chief of the Ovaherero and leader of NUDO. SWAPO accepts, with some minor adjustments, the proposals of the Western Contact Group which consequently is ratified by the UN Security Council. The UN Security Council in SC Resolution 431 notes the proposals for the settlement of the Namibia situation and requests the appointment of a UN Special Representative "to ensure the early independence of Namibia through free elections under the supervision and control of the United Nations". Ahtisaari’s assistants are: The Force Commander, Lt. General Dewan Prem Chand from India; the Police Commander, Chief Superintendent Steven Fanning from Ireland; the Director of Elections, Hisham Omayad from Ghana; the Director of Administration, Abdou Ciss from Senegal; and the Director of the Special Representative’s Office, Cedric Thornberry. The Security Council declares in SC Resolution 432 that the territorial integrity and unity of Namibia must be assured through the reintegration of Walvis Bay into the territory, and that pending the attainment of this objective, SA must not use Walvis Bay in any manner prejudicial to Namibia’s independence or the viability of its economy. SA is dissatisfied with SC Resolution 432 and warns that as a consequence of it, SC Resolution 431 for independence is in jeopardy. The UN condemns this stance. The major issues of contention between Pretoria and SWAPO are still the number

July

and positioning of SA troops in Namibia, the composition and number of members of the proposed United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG), and the timing of elections for a Constituent Assembly. The Roman-Catholic priest Heinz Hunke is, due to his resistance against the racial policy of the South Africans, expelled from the country. After the death of Witbooi Nama Chief Hendrik Samuel Witboo (18.01.1978), Hendrik Witbooi becomes the new Witbooi chief in Gibeon while still in South African detention.

29./30.07.

Graves of the Witbooi Dynasty at the Gibeon Cemetery: Tombstone for Hendrik Samuel Witbooi
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The UN Special Representative for Namibia, Martti Ahtisaari, 05./22.08. visits Namibia to start preparing for UN-supervised elections for a Constituent Assembly. Nine SADF soldiers and 16 PLAN soldiers are killed during a 23.08. PLAN attack on Katima Mulilo. In the deteriorating situation of intensified war actions and pervasive mistrust, the Special Representative’s proposals are reiterated in the "Waldheim Plan", which further advises 30.08. postponing the date for independence and deploying 7 500 military personnel and 360 policemen under UN control during an interim period (S/12827). SA rejects the "Waldheim Plan", while SWAPO (08.09.) and

the UN Security Council adopt it. The stalemate can be interpreted as an "approach-avoidance" tactic adopted by 20.09. Pretoria on its international negotiating track so as to make time for its internal track to develop. Vorster announces his resignation as of 28.09., and that internal elections in Namibia will take place in December 1978. S/12869 clarifies the Secretary-General’s report of 28.08. and addresses concerns expressed by SA. It also explains the UN policy of equitable representation, and clarifies the 28.09. composition and costs of UNTAG as well as the details of the electoral process. SC Resolution 435 is passed by the Security Council, replacing SC Resolutions 385 (1976), 431 (1978) and 432 (1978). Based on the "Waldheim Plan", Resolution 435 demands free elections to pave the way to Namibia’s 29.09. independence. The internal elections are declared "null and void". SWAPO’s Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Peter Mweshihange, as well as Theo-Ben Gurirab and Ernest Ngarikutuke Tjiriange, give input into Resolution 435 on behalf of SWAPO. October Arthur Surén takes over the Allgemeine Zeitung. The Western Five try to prevent the internal elections envisaged by SA ("Jacaranda Summit" in Pretoria). They also 14.10. pay attention to certain aspects of the "Waldheim Plan" which are considered not to be in accordance with the earlier Western Five proposals of April 1978. In S/12903 the Secretary-General reports on the implementation of Resolution 435 and notes the assurances 21.10. of full co-operation given by the neighbouring states of Angola, Botswana and Zambia. The Roman-Catholic priest Hermann Klein-Hitpass is November expelled from the country, because he opposes the internal elections. Pieter Willem Botha succeeds Vorster as SA Prime Minister

Pieter Willem Botha succeeds Vorster as SA Prime Minister after Vorster’s resignation. Despite a compromise offer, the UN fails to prevent the 13.11. holding of internal elections, which are then declared illegal in SC Resolution 439. In S/12938 the Secretary-General reports on the progress of Resolution 435, and summarises discussions held with SA 24.11. (Pik Botha and Fourie Brand), during which SA requests that the elections it intends to supervise in Namibia in December should not be cancelled. In S/12950 the Secretary-General reports on discussions with 02.12. the SA Minister of Foreign Affairs. Internal elections are held with the exclusion of SWAPO, the NNF and SWAPO-D. The DTA wins 82,1% of the seats, ACTUR 11,9%, the NCDP 2,8%, the HNP 1,8% and the Rehoboth Liberation Front (LF) 1,4%. SWAPO’s rejection of these internal elections is backed up by various violent actions and land-mine explosions, particularly in Ovamboland. The strong presence of the SADF – particularly in the "operational area" in the north where a non-vote has been deemed a positive vote for SWAPO – is a source of psychological coercion and explains why a high percentage (78,4%) of voters in Ovamboland go to the polls. The high DTA victory can be explained by the secret funds which were put to 04./08.12. the disposal by the SA Defence Force. Canvassing for DTA election meetings was enormously facilitated by the jamboree atmosphere that prevailed throughout. Spectators were induced to come forward by the DTA organisers with brass bands and the liberal free issues of barbeque steaks and boerewors (sausage). Over 400 DTA organisers were put into the field, 132 vehicles were purchased for the election campaign, 36 party offices were opened while supporters were collected from all corners of Namibia and bussed free of charge to the rallies. The outcome can be analysed as a "protest vote" against the apartheid-past of ACTUR, which in the absence of SWAPO, was given to the DTA as the second 07.11.

20.12.

22.12.

30.12.

best. In terms of Proclamation AG63 of 1978 the newly-elected Constituent Assembly meets and elects Johannes Skrywer as its first President. The Constituent Assembly supports internationallysupervised independence for Namibia in terms of SC Resolution 435, with some harsh DTA-stipulated conditions for continued co-operation and participation in the UN’s proposed transitional plan for Namibia. A bomb explodes in the Putensen bakery in Swakopmund.

Children in Katutura (Windhoek)
Namibia State Archive

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1979

13./22.01.

The Nama Alliance is renamed the Democratic Turnhalle Party (DTP). The Liberated Democratic Party/Rehoboth Liberation Front (LDP/LF) is formed as a merger of the Rehoboth Democratic Party and the Rehoboth Liberation Front (LF), and later forms (1988) an alliance with the Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN). Diergaardt is the first LDP/LF President. Hifikepunye Pohamba becomes SWAPO’s Chief of Operations in Luanda. John Ya Otto leaves Zambia for Luanda. He is Editor-inChief of The Namibian Worker, a publication of the NUNW. Axel Johannes flees the country after years of detention and torture. Gertrud "Rikumbi" Rikumbirua Kandanga is arrested and detained without trial. More and more civilians are caught in the pincers between the South Africans and PLAN fighters. Two cases may serve as examples. In both cases civilians are accused and sentenced in terms of the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967 in that they had rendered assistance to a person or persons to be believed to be "terrorists". The one accused is an evangelist of the Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo-Kavango Church (ELOC), one Imene. The other is Alfeus, a shopowner in Ovamboland. Nord Mining and Exploration starts the exploitation of tungsten at the Kranzberg Mine (until 1980). UN Special Representative Martti Ahtisaari again visits Namibia, as well as SA, to discuss the UN independence plan for Namibia in terms of SC Resolution 435. UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim stipulates 15.03.1979 as the date for a cease-fire on the Namibia- Angola border. SA rejects this date, and insists on the original settlement proposal of 25.04.1978 which provides that PLAN fighters must return without arms through designated entry points to participate peacefully and freely in the political process. PLAN attacks the SA army base at Okongo east of Eenhana

PLAN attacks the SA army base at Okongo east of Eenhana in the Ohangwena area. In S/13120 the Secretary-General outlines UN arrangements for the return of exiles to Namibia, for the restriction and monitoring of SADF and PLAN soldiers, for the gradual withdrawal of the SADF and for the composition of UNTAG. 26.02. After the rejection of the Waldheim Plan by the SWA/Namibia Constituent Assembly, the Assembly proposes to the South African Government the establishment of a National Assembly consisting of 50 members with legislative and executive powers. Early March SA launches an air and ground attack against SWAPO bases in southern Angola. With a view to implementing SC Resolution 435, "Proximity Talks" are held in New York with all parties concerned in the 19.03. dispute (including the African Frontline States), but the talks break down. Forty SWAPO leaders are arrested, and SWAPO closes all April offices inside the territory (27.04.). Tswana Chief Kgosi-kgolo (traditional title) Constance 28.04. Letang Kgosiemang is sworn in as traditional leader of the Tswana community in Gobabis. The South West African Broadcasting Corporation (SWABC) comes into operation in terms of Proclamation A-G 16. In 01.05. addition to the four radio services broadcasting from Namibia, SWABC in September 1979 introduces the Afrikaans Service. The DTA introduces a motion in the Constituent Assembly 02.05. providing for the establishment of a National Assembly comprised of 50 members of the Constituent Assembly. In terms of SA Proclamation No. 85 of 1979 a Central 04.05. Revenue Fund is created for Namibia. In terms of Proclamation AG21 of 1979 the establishment 14.05. and powers of the National Assembly are outlined. 13.02.

21.05.

23.05.

27.05.

31.05.

June

08.06.

The National Assembly is formally opened in Windhoek. From the outset the DTA and SA-appointed AdministratorGeneral try to persuade the NNF and SWAPO-D to join the National Assembly, but both parties sharply decline because they will not become involved in "a neo-colonial plot by South Africa against the people of Namibia". One NNF member party, the FP under Bryan O’Linn, breaks away from the NNF in order to join the National Assembly, but later decides not to join. ACTUR challenges the legitimacy of the National Assembly the minute it passes a bill to abolish racial discrimination. Once the National Assembly (with limited legislative powers) has been constituted (21.05.), the SA delegation at the UN is excluded from negotiations in the UN General Assembly, and Sam Nujoma makes a statement before the General Assembly. The Roman-Catholic Bishop Rudolf Koppmann rejects the SWAPO liberation movement and also condemns the ecumenical Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN) as too political and too friendly to SWAPO. SWAPO receives the unequivocal support of the UN General Assembly, which includes military support and the total rejection of the National Assembly. SA’s "special operations" unit, Koevoet (crow bar), is founded as an "anti-insurgent" unit by Brigadier Hans Dreyer of the SA Police’s Security Branch. This notorious unit will be responsible for numerous human right abuses in Namibia. Its top echelon comprises battle-hardened veterans of the Rhodesian War, among them Colonels Eugen de Kock and Eric Winter, Captains Sakkie van Zyl and "Beachball" Vorster, Lieutenant Frans Conradie and Warrant Officer Sakkies Greyling. Dirk Mudge tables the Abolition of Racial Discrimination Bill in the National Assembly. The Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in SWA protests

13.06. 26.06.

29.06.

07.08.

11./23.08.

10.09.

01.10.

against the bill. Following a number of demonstrations against the bill, a bomb is thrown in the Masonic Hall in Windhoek, killing John Rees. With angry resistance from ACTUR the bill is passed, and Andrew Kloppers leaves ACTUR in protest. Resentment mounts among certain "whites" in Namibia as racial discrimination is abolished step by step, and various "white" resistance and vigilante groups are formed, such as BLANKSWA (White SWA), the Wit Weerstandsbeweging (White Resistance Movement), the SWA Vroue (SWA Women) and the Eenheidsfront (Unity Front). This bill not only weakens Dirk Mudge and his RP, but also leads to the removal of Steyn as Administrator-General. Marthinus Theunis Steyn leaves Namibia. His successor is Gerrit N Viljoen, Rector of the Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit (Rand Afrikaans University) and leader of the "Broederbond" in SA. James Murray, a representative of the Western Contact Group, visits SA to bring some proposals from Angolan President Agostinho Neto. Among these is a proposal for the creation of a UN-monitored Demilitarised Zone (DMZ) along the Namibia- Angola border, which is seen as a means of breaking the deadlock that has arisen from SWAPO’s demand for internal bases in Namibia. SA is not in favour of the DMZ proposal because it would mean the end of its support for UNITA guerrillas fighting the Angolan MPLA Government in southern Angola. Agostinho Neto, Angola’s first President, dies in Moscow. His successor is José Eduardo dos Santos. The South West African Broadcasting Corporation (SWABC) establishes the German Radio Service. A month later an English Service is introduced, sharing frequencies with the German Service. Only in 1982 the two services begin broadcasting on alternate evenings, but in 1983 each gets

02.10.

29.10. 02.11. 06.11.

12./17.11.

20.11.

its own channel. In 1981 SWABC introducing a Tswana Service (later Tirelo ya Setswana). SA opens a branch of its Public Service Commission in Windhoek, called the Central Personnel Institution, in order to create an independent civil service in the territory. Government departments, several of which are now called "directorates", are transferred back from Pretoria to Windhoek. Exceptions are the Departments of National Security, External Affairs and Excise and Import Duties, as well as the SA Police, SADF, and SA Railways and Harbours. SA troops attack southern Angola, destroying parts of the railway line and the road between Lubango and Namibe, as well as the Kunene road bridge at Xangongo and further road bridges between Ondjiva and Lubango. The UN Security Council condemns SA’s attack on Angola in SC Resolution 454. UN Secretary-General Waldheim invites the SA Government, the Western Five, the Frontline States and SWAPO to attend a conference in Geneva to clarify the DMZ proposal. After negotiations are stopped in March and resumed in August, and after the Western Five submit new proposals on 02.10., a new "all-party" conference is held under the chairmanship of Brian Urquhart in Geneva, concerning a DMZ in the north. SA does not take part in the conference. Sam Nujoma takes part as do some internal Namibian parties, namely the DTA, the NNF, the FP, SWAPO-D, the Liberal Party and the NCDP, as well as an observer from ACTUR. In S/13634 the UN Secretary-General reports to the Security Council that SA continues to find elements of report S/13120 unacceptable. After a final agreement is reached between the DTA and ACTUR over the division of functions between the three tiers of government (central, regional and local), the Administrator-General makes proposals to the National

28.11.

Assembly for the creation of "Second-Tier Authorities" with extensive legislative and executive powers. Functions not expressly mentioned in the proposals automatically become functions of the National Assembly and the AdministratorGeneral’s Council. The UN General Assembly again confirms SWAPO as "the sole and authentic representative of the Namibian people", MidDecember and SA is condemned for "obstructing" the UN peace plan. Member countries are asked to support SWAPO’s "armed struggle".

G Viljoen (New AdministratorGeneral for SWA) at Press Conference: August 1979
Namibia State Archive

[Return to Table of Contents]

1980

General Prem Chand of UNTAG visits Namibia. The Damara Council is reconstituted (after being abolished in 1977) as a political party (leader: Justus ||Garoëb). The NNF is defunct. The DTP becomes the Democratic Turnhalle Party of Namibia (DTPN) in alliance with the DTA. Daniël Luipert is the DTPN leader, and additional members are Ernst Kuhlmann, Jeremiah Jagger and Emil Appolus. The Tswana Alliance becomes a party, named the Seoposengwe Party and led by Tswana Chief Constance Kgosiemang. Seoposengwe forms an alliance with the DTA. The Riemvasmaak United Party (RUP) is formed under the presidency of Dawid Dawids to join the NPLF. The United Namibia People’s Party (UNPP) is formed under the presidency of Hizipo Shikondombole after a split in SWAPO-D. The new party joins the NNF to form an alliance in 1989. Pendukeni Iivula Ithana, who left Namibia in 1974, becomes Secretary of the SWAPO Women’s Council. Jesaya Nyamu becomes SWAPO's representative in Addis Ababa. The Original People’s Party of Namibia (OPPN) is founded. It forms an alliance with the United Democratic Front of Namibia (UDF) in 1989. The OPPN leader is Theophilus Soroseb. A new power line is built between Aggeneys in SA and Windhoek. Commercial Granite production starts at Rooikop, east of Walvis Bay. Telephone connections are established with some places in Ovamboland (Ondangwa and Oshakati are connected with automatic services). Opuwo in the Kaokoland and Rundu in the Kavango are also linked. Katima Mulilo in the Caprivi Strip can be reached by radio (a telephone line from Rundu and Katima Mulilo is completed in 1986). Direct dialling is possible to 33 countries. Namibia has 53,9 telephone lines

per 1 000 inhabitants (Kenya has 7,2 and Zambia 12,6 in comparison), the second best telephone system on the African continent after South Africa. 07./14.01. The pre-implementation conference for SC Resolution 435 fails in Geneva. The election victory of ZANU-PF under Robert Mugabe leads March to independence for Rhodesia, which is renamed Zimbabwe. The Lüderitzbucht Stiftung (Lüderitzbucht Foundation) is 21.03. founded by the IG in order to revive the ailing town of Lüderitz. Since 1983 Crispin Clay is the first chairman of the initiative. In S/13862 the UN Secretary-General reports that SA agrees 31.03. to the DMZ concept. A new Chief for the Veldschoendrager (||Hawoben), Hans J 03.05. Titus, is inaugurated in Keetmanshoop. SA announces that it still seeks "an international settlement 12.05. for the conflict", but it complicates the situation by hinting that UNITA should be involved as well. A new railway line "behind the dunes" between Swakopmund 14.06. and Walvis Bay is officially opened by SA Minister of Transport Chris Heunis. The UN Secretary-General accepts virtually all SA’s 20.06. reservations, but SA is still not satisfied as far as UN "impartiality" is concerned. The Chief of the Topnaar (#Aonin) Nama, Seth Koitjie, is 28.06. sworn in in Walvis Bay. CANU and SWAPO split. Most of the past CANU members such as Mishake Muyongo and Siseho Simasiku leave SWAPO. CANU is revived by Muyongo in Lusaka. In 1987 July Muyongo becomes first Vice-President and later President of the DTA. After Dirk Mudge’s retirement in April 1995, Muyongo is re-elected president of the DTA. In 1992, Simasiku joins SWAPO again. The National Assembly receives executive powers when the

01.07.

01.08.

05.08.

Minister’s Council is established to replace the (governing/advisory) Council of the Administrator-General. The new Constitution, known as "AG8", establishes a threetier government in Namibia: the first tier handles central government issues under the supervision of the Administrator-General; the second tier comprises the "ethnic" governments of Namibia’s 11 "nations"; and the third tier comprises the local authority administrations. Dirk Mudge becomes Chairman of the Council of Ministers. The Council, however, is not recognised by the Western Five. The South West African Government Service is established. The South West Africa Territory Force (SWATF) is established, and male citizens of Namibia are subject to conscription. The function of the SWATF is to support SADF war efforts. During the war between SWAPO’s PLAN and the SADF many atrocities against alleged SWAPO sympathisers are pledged. Very few cases ever become the topic before a court of justice. One of the few examples is the case of Johannes Kakuva who dies at Opuwo as a result of torture while he is in the custody of the SA Security Police. In spite of all evidence against Captain King and in spite of his admission of guilt, the court finds King "not guilty" during a trial in 1987. Another case which can be regarded as "travesty of justice" happens in 1981. A member of the South African forces, Louis Conrad Nagel, who is charged to have killed Fritz Reinholdt with his own weapon, is treated very moderately by the courts. In spite of the overwhelming evidence the accused is sentenced to a prison sentence of six years. The court imposes another mild sentence on two "white" members of the South African security forces, TE Kruger and D van den Heever, who in November 1981 kill Andreas Nelomba under aggravating circumstances. In the case of a "black" member of the security forces, the court sentences are not so modest. The Koevoet member, Jonas Paulus, is sentenced to death and executed in Windhoek on 04.06.1985 for murdering an old man in a village near Oshakati in January 1983.

01.09.

The transfer of control over the police is instituted. September Danie Hough is nominated for the position of AdministratorGeneral. In the aftermath of SA’s attack on Cassinga (Operation Reindeer) in May 1978, some PLAN soldiers are charged in accordance with the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967. When the South African military forces attacked and destroyed the SWAPO bases Cassinga and Vietnam on 04.05.1978, it brought back to Namibia a considerable number of captives including children. These captives are detained in the prison camp at Kaiganachab, west of Mariental in accordance with various security laws. Several of these captives, including children, are selected as witnesses in a number of criminal trials in the Regional Magistrate’s Court at Otjiwarongo during 1978. Heiki Shililifa is one of a number accused rounded up 15.09. in Namibia and charged with contravening the Terrorism Act in that they had given assistance to Namibians to leave the country for the purpose of undergoing training outside Namibia. Shililifa is convicted and sentenced to five years imprisonment. Subsequently (1984 and 1987) three bishops from Namibian churches (Bishop Bonifatius Hausiku from the RomanCatholic Church, Anglican Bishop Kauluma and ELCIN Bishop Kleophas Dumeni) apply for the release of 36 detainees which are kept in terms of Proclamation AG 9 of 1977. The bishops succeed in substance but fail on the legal issues decided by the courts. The AG8 Act is promulgated, providing for an ethnic authority 29.09. for each of the 11 ethnic groups. In accordance with AG8, 355 candidates are proposed for nine ethnic authorities. DTA President Cornelius Ndjoba resigns. A UN delegation under the leadership of Urquhart and October Abdulrahim Farah visits SA. Urquhart observes that virtually all points of dispute are solved, but SA is not committed to any real progress in implementing SC Resolution 435.

SWA issues the third definitive stamp series with animals as motif (no water mark). 02.10. Danie Hough replaces Viljoen as Administrator-General. Ida Jimmy is charged in accordance with the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967. She is one of the Namibian women 15.10. supporting in public the struggle for the liberation of Namibia. She is sentenced to a high prison term for propagating the armed struggle at a public meeting in Lüderitz. Elections for the nine ethnic authorities take place. In the "white" Legislative Assembly the NP of SWA under AH du Plessis maintains its majority over the RP under Dirk Mudge. This proves that the majority of "whites" are opposed to moderate change, even along the lines of " cautious 11./13.11. multiracialism". Taken as a whole, the ethnic elections of 1980 represent a setback for the DTA. Only 33,6% of registered voters vote for the DTA, 12,8% vote for the opposition parties and 53,6% abstain. No ethnic elections take place in Ovamboland, the Caprivi Strip, Bushmanland and Rehoboth. In S/14266 the UN Secretary-General details the discussions held between SA and the UN mission to SA led by Brian Urquhart, and concludes that a cease-fire plan must be set and the implementation of SC Resolution 435 should be 24.11. started early in 1981. In S/14333 the Secretary-General concludes that the Geneva talks held in January have failed because SA is not ready to accept SC Resolution 435. 01.10.

South African Army in the North of Namibia, 1980s
Namibia State Archive

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1981

The NUDO Progressive Party (NUDO-PP) (also known as "Jo’horongo") is formed under Johannes Karuaihe after a split in NUDO, and NUDO-PP forms an alliance with the FCN. Barney Barnes becomes new leader of the LP , causing Joey Julius to lead a breakaway faction to form the Democratic People’s Party (DPP) in 1982. The National Assembly is given extended powers (Dirk Mudge is still its Chairman). Military service becomes compulsory for all male citizens of Namibia between the ages of 18 and 24. Hidipo Hamutenya becomes SWAPO’s Secretary for Information and Publicity. South Africa now declares a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles from the shore and a fishing zone of 200 nautical miles, but the new limits are not recognised internationally, with the result that foreign vessels are able to plunder the rich fish resources of Namibia without let or hindrance. The value of the pre-independence hake catch (before 1990) can give some idea of the value of the depleted Namibian fish. From 1965 to 1989, according to the declared catch reflected in The value of the pre-independence hake catch (before 1990) can give some idea of the value of the depleted Namibian fish. From 1965 to 1989, according to the declared catch reflected in International Commission for the South-East Atlantic Fisheries (ICSEAF) statistics, 10 664 600 tonnes of hake were removed from Namibian waters, valued at 1996 prices at US$ 15 084 million. Virtually nothing of this accrued to Namibia. Television is introduced in Namibia. Initially it is relayed from the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), or as a cassette service, flown in daily for rebroadcast. This service is gradually complimented by some Namibian local programmes. Later this service is extended to Oshakati and Walvis Bay and broadcasts are usually a day or two late. The second pre-implementation conference for SC Resolution 435 held in Geneva is abortive because SA and

the "internal parties" introduce the issue of "UN impartiality". The Western Five envisage three-phase negotiations on the Namibia question, but a breakdown is imminent when the DTA presents the UN with a list of seven demands relating to the UN’s alleged bias towards SWAPO. Administrator-General Hough announces that "the inhabitants 19.01. of SWA/Namibia will have to find solutions to the problems themselves". The Ipelegeng Democratic Party (IDP) is formed under the leadership of Gates Mootseng after a split in the Seoposengwe Party. RP member of the "white" Legislative Assembly, Staby, February supports the language policy of the IG to give the German language official status. The motion is, however, defeated by the NP of SWA (10 votes against seven). However, in June 1984 the NP supports the German language rights. German thus becomes official language on the ethnic "white" second level. After the US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Chester A Crocker, visits 10 African countries, including SA, April the US tries to normalise relations between these countries and SA. Some PLAN soldiers, Sagarius, Jason and Malambo, attack 15./18.04. the farm Sachsen, near Tsumeb. They are charged in terms of the provisions of the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967 and sentenced to high prison terms. US (William Clark, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs) introduces the issue of "linking" the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola to the successful implementation of SC Resolution 435, as part of the US "constructive engagement" policy in relation to SA, after Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as US President on 10.01.1981. June SWAPO rejects this "linkage" outright. The influence of the other Western Five members in relation to the Namibia dispute begins to wane. January

The Anglican seminar and school at St. Mary’s mission at Odibo in the Uukwanyama area is partly destroyed by South African troops. In "Operation Protea" an estimated 15 000 SA soldiers invade August to Angola, moving 120 km into Angolan territory backed by tanks September and the SA Air Force. The Angolan Government estimates that over 700 Angolans are killed and 130 000 left homeless in the fighting. October The Western Contact Group visits Namibia. The Communist Party of Namibia (initially known as the "Party of Jacob Morenga" (on the 74th anniversary of Jakob Marengo’s death)) is formed in Angola in alliance (1989) with 03.10. the Socialist Alliance of Namibia (SAN)(Hiskia Uanivi is founder). The Communist Party’s Secretary-General is Rirua Karihangana. In "Operation Daisy" SA undertakes search-and-destroy activities against SWAPO fighters in Angola. November The Namibia Federation of Trade Unions (NFTU) is established in northern Namibia to represent mine workers there. The Government Service Staff Association (GSSA) is founded. December Hans Feddersen takes over the Allgemeine Zeitung.

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1982

15.02.

10.03.

After becoming defunct the NPC is reconstituted as the Namibia National Democratic Coalition (NNDC) under Mburumba Kerina. The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) is formed as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Democratic People’s Party (DPP), under the leadership of Andrew Kloppers. The CDU joins the DTA, while the LP under Barney Barnes leaves the DTA. The US and SA assert that the question of Namibian independence has to be linked to the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola. Dirk Mudge proposes negotiating with SWAPO. George Shultz succeeds Alexander M Haig as US Secretary of State after the latter resigns. Shultz proposes the retreat of Cuban troops from Angola. The Administrator-General appoints a commission to establish the border between the Fwe and Subya areas in the Eastern Caprivi Strip. The commission should delimitate the border on historical and ethnographical grounds. The outcome of the commission’s work is rejected by both communities. The tensions between the two groups begin to escalate. Both communities demand supremacy in the Eastern Caprivi Strip. Peter Kalangula, former President of the NDP, the Ovambo faction in the DTA, leaves the DTA because he fails to convert the "ethnic" Second-Tier Authorities into "non-ethnic" ones. He forms the Christian Democratic Action for Social Justice (CDA), which succeeds in gaining control of the Ovambo Legislative Assembly. Former NP and DTA member Ernst Werner Neef leaves with Kalangula. The South African para-military unit Koevoet raids the village Oshipanda near Oshikuku in the Uukwambi area. Gisela Uupindi and eight other civilians including two children are killed in the raid. The Roman-Catholic priest Gerard Heimerikx takes secret photos of the incident and distributes them internationally. He has to flee the country.

In "Operation Super" SA undertakes new search-and-destroy activities against SWAPO fighters in Angola. The Western Contact Group sends a text of principles concerning the SWA/Namibian Constituent Assembly and Constitution to the UN Secretary-General (S/15287)(the first draft was released in October 1981). The Contact Group establishes the principles for a Constituent Assembly and 12.07. Constitution for an independent Namibia, and submits its proposals to the UN Secretary-General, now Javier Péres de Cuéllar. Eight supplementary points are added to SC Resolution 435. The constitutional guarantees include a bill of rights, a multi-party democracy and an independent judiciary. The Western Contact Group meets with SWAPO and 12.08. representatives of the African Frontline States to determine a cease-fire date. Henry Kissinger, former US Secretary of State, meets with 31.08. members of the "Interim Government" in Windhoek. Under the newly nominated Bishop Bonifatius Hausiku, the September Roman-Catholic Church becomes a full member of the Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN). In "Operation Kerslig (Candle Light)" South Africa again 30.11. attacks SWAPO bases in Angola. The first talks between SA and Angola take place in Cape 07.12. Verde. March

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1983

18.01.

19.01.

25.01.

01.03.

After a split in KAP, the Namibia National Independence Party (NNIP) is formed under the presidency of Rudolf Ngondo to oppose the DTA. The NNIP later forms an alliance with the UDF. The Thirion Commission investigates the misuse of state funds by the Interim Government. Hendrik Witbooi becomes Acting Vice-President of SWAPO. Dirk Mudge decides to give up his position as Chairman of the Council of Ministers due to his dissatisfaction with AG8 of 1980, with SADF interference and with SA public holidays being applicable in Namibia. The National Assembly is summarily and unceremoniously dissolved by South Africa. This leads to the restoration of the dominant position of the Administrator-General, who directly expresses Pretoria’s interests. Willie van Niekerk becomes the new Administrator-General. SA sends former Secretary for SWA Jan F Greebe to Namibia to take up the post of Chief Executive Officer with full executive powers. The SWA Society of Advocates requests the AdministratorGeneral to appoint a Judicial Commission to consider the problem of security legislation, the abuse of power by the authorities, the deaths in detention and to protect Namibian citizens against abuse. Subsequently the AdministratorGeneral appoints the Van Dyk Judicial Commission (12.09.1983). The report of the Van Dyk Commission deals not in detail with the many allegations of abuse, especially made by the SWA Society of Advocates against members of the para-military units Koevoet. However, it makes some recommendations for consolidating the security legislation and to make it more consistent with the Rule of Law, but most of the changes are merely cosmetic. Hans Berker becomes the new High Court President, succeeding Frans Badenhorst. The Subya Chief Moraliswani applies to the Windhoek High Court to recognise him as the supreme leader of all

communities in the Eastern Caprivi Strip. All communal land has to come under his control. He further applies that the name "Caprivi" be replaced by Itenge. After the independence of Namibia in 1990, the new government establishes new regions in the whole of Namibia. For the Region of Caprivi the Cabinet decides on the name Liambezi. Maps and plans are April already printed, but some tribal complaints result in the retention of the colonial name Caprivi. Peter Nanyemba, SWAPO’s Secretary for Defence, dies in a car accident in Lubango (allegedly by suicide for his attempted coup against Sam Nujoma: Nujoma was informed by Hishongwa about this). Nujoma takes over the defence portfolio. Richard Kapelwa- Kabajani becomes Deputy Secretary for Defence. SWAPO’s enlarged Central Committee sits at Cabuta 17./20.04. (Kwanza Sul Province, Angola) and drafts an amended party constitution and political programme. The new Chief of the Ombalantu area, Elenga 13.05. (Enene)(Oshivambo traditional title) Oswin Shifiona Mukulu, is sworn in at Outapi. In S/15776 the UN Secretary-General summarises developments since 1981 regarding SC Resolutions 435 and 19.05. 439. He notes that SA co-operation is dependent upon the total withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola. In SC Resolution 532 the UN Security Council calls on SA to 31.05. make firm commitments as to its readiness to comply with SA Resolution 435. Administrator General Van Niekerk initiates the setting up of a State Council comprising 50 representatives to be drawn from the internal parties and private sector. The Council would act in an advisory capacity and formulate a new July constitution which would be submitted to the electorate in a referendum. But, the State Council is effectively dead and buried two months later when the new Multi-Party Conference (MPC) takes its place in September.

UN Secretary-General Javier Péres de Cuéllar visits Windhoek. Parties such as the CDA, the HNP and SWANU reject invitations for talks. In S/15943 the UN Secretary-General indicates that "prolonged and intensive consultations have resulted, as far as the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) 29.08. is concerned, in resolving virtually all outstanding issues". He concludes that SA views the removal of Cuban troops as a precondition for the implementation of Resolution 435. Nineteen "internal parties" decide to create a Multi-Party September Conference (MPC) to implement SC Resolution 435. Initiator is Moses Katjiuongua. In SC Resolution 539 the UN Security Council condemns 28.10. SA’s obstruction of the implementation of Resolution 435. The MPC meets for the first time. SWAPO, the CDA and the 12.11. Namibia Independence Party (NIP) refuse to participate. In Operation Askari South Africa launches a major military attack on SWAPO bases in Angola. At the conclusion of this November/ campaign South Africa controls the whole of the Kunene January Province east of the Kunene River and as far north as 1984 Cassinga and Tetchamutete. This considerably enlarges the area of real estate that PLAN soldiers have to negotiate before reaching the Namibian border. December SA offers to withdraw its troops from southern Angola provided that Angola withholds support to SWAPO. 26.08.

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1984

January 06.01. February

06.02.

09.02. 18.02.

The Kavango Alliance Party (KAP) is renamed the National Democratic Unity Party (NDUP) under the presidency of Alfons Majavero, and forms an alliance with the DTA. Hendrik Witbooi becomes Vice-President of SWAPO. Barney Barnes loses his position as LP leader and Dawid Bezuidenhout replaces him. The LP joins the MPC. The LP’s eight seats are filled at various intervals by, inter alia, Bezuidenhout, Harry Boysen and "Dino" Mohammed Stuart. Reggie Diergaardt becomes LP Secretary-General. NUDO-PP joins the Namibia National Democratic Coalition (NNDC). Justus ||Garoëb declares that he supports SWAPO. The Navachab gold deposits are discovered. Exploration drilling starts in 1985 and operations are started by Erongo Mining and Exploration Company Ltd. in 1989. Angola conditionally agrees to the SA troop withdrawal plan. Sam Nujoma writes a letter to UN Secretary-General Javier Péres de Cuéllar demanding that the latter initiates cease-fire negotiations between SWAPO and SA. SA begins to withdraw its troops from southern Angola. SA signs a treaty with Angola that maps out a plan for the removal of SA troops from Angolan territory (the first task is the withdrawal from the fortresses of Xangongo and Ondjiva) and for the protection of the border between Angola and Namibia. This treaty is arranged by Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda. The Lusaka Agreement (USA, RSA and Angola) is to be supervised by a Joint Monitoring Commission (JMC) consisting of SA and Angola. SA Foreign Minister Pik Botha declares in Cape Town that a cease-fire agreement is "practically" in force. German Foreign Minister Hans Dietrich Genscher meets SWAPO President Sam Nujoma in Paris. The leaders of the parties in the MPC announce the "Windhoek Declaration of Basic Principles", which later

24.02.

27.02.

01.03.

19.03. 15.04.

allows these parties to form the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU). SWANU splits into two: SWANU-MPC, with Moses Katjiuongua as leader; and SWANU-Progressive (SWANU-P), with Vekuui Rukoro as President. SWANU-P emerges as the "legitimate heir" to the original SWANU formed in 1959, and adopts an anti-capitalist position. Its leadership includes Nora Schimming-Chase and Gerson Hitjevi Veii. SWANUMPC later forms an alliance with the National Patriotic Front (NPF) and SWANU-P with the Namibia National Front (NNF). Chester Crocker, US President Ronald Reagan’s Africa expert, holds talks with the SA Prime Minister and SWA/Namibia Administrator-General Willie van Niekerk regarding a cease-fire. Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo is released from Robben Island. After a brief stay in Namibia he leaves for Lusaka (together with Hendrik Witbooi, Danny Tjongarero, Niko Bessinger and Crispin Matongo). Other political prisoners follow. Erik Binga refuses to be conscripted and fights for his right of conscientious objection. Angola and Cuba reiterate that they would "reinitiate, by their own decision and in exercise of their sovereignty, the execution of the gradual withdrawal of the Cuban military contingent ... ". Two US diplomats, Denis Keogh and Ken Crabtree, are killed in a bomb explosion in Oshakati. SWAPO, the Administrator-General and representatives of various internal parties, represented by the MPC, meet in Lusaka at the invitation of Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia. The Lusaka talks largely fail due to the fact that the MPC wants to talk and keep on talking - but it has no mandate to sign an agreement. The leader of the MPC delegation is Moses Katjiuongua. The MPC delegation includes the SWAPO Democrats (SWAPO-D) under Andreas Shipanga. The SWAPO side includes Justus

5 Garoëb from the Damara Council, whose party had in 1981

won the ethnic election in terms of AG8 of 1980. This comes as a surprise, as the Damara Council is up to now regarded as a participant in the MPC. SWANU-Progressive (SWANU-P) members Vekuui Rukoro and Nora Schimming-Chase are also part of the SWAPO delegation. Anton Lubowski becomes a member of SWAPO in Lusaka. Included are also 11./13.05. representatives from the NUDO Progressive Party (NUDOPP), the Mbanderu Council and the Namibia Independence Party (NIP). The IG takes also part in the talks. Although the IG had similar talks with SWAPO in Geneva (January 1981), Paris (1982) and Harare (1983), the overwhelming majority of the members of the IG and the German speaking community in Namibia speak out against any contacts with SWAPO. Even the IG leadership denounces the reality of any future independent Republic of Namibia under the leadership of the SWAPO Party. The only exception is the IG member, Klaus Dierks, who joined SWAPO in 1982. He becomes 1990 the only former prominent IG member (he retired from the IG board on 24.08.1981 and leaves the IG in 1985) who as a SWAPO member is elected into the first parliament of the independent Republic of Namibia and is appointed into a ministerial position in the first Cabinet. PW Botha’s journey through Europe (29.05.-12.06.) is used to propagate SA policy and to explain the preconditions for any May-June SA withdrawal from Namibia. At the same time SWAPO members attending a private function in Döbra are detained. It is estimated that 30 000 to 80.000 people, or 15% to 40% of the potential work force in Namibia, are unemployed. 01.06. David Frederiks becomes leader of the Bethany Nama. 24.06. The power station in Ondangwa is sabotaged. SWAPO President Sam Nujoma and Administrator-General 25.07. Willie van Niekerk meet in Cape Verde, their talks yielding no results.

Konrad Lilienthal establishes as a counterweight to the September conservative Allgemeine Zeitung, the liberal Namibia Nachrichten (NN) which is published for the first time on 07.12.1984. New conflicts arise regarding the disputed Kasikili Island in the Chobe River. Members of the Botswana Defence Force shoot at SA soldiers. This struggle leads later to the Pretoria October Agreement which supports Botswana’s position. Political differences (strong bias in favour of South Africa and anti-independence) in the SWABC leads to the resignation of Jürgen Hecker and six other staff members within the German Radio Service of the SWABC. S/16838 communicates the outline of Angola’s platform for resolving the south-western Africa situation, as presented to 17.11. the UN Secretary-General by the Angolan President. The outline also addresses the question of Cuban troop withdrawal from Angola. Democratic Action for Namas (DAN) is formed under the 20.11. chairmanship of Willem !Oasib Boois.

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1985

February

April 01.04.

The Windhoek High Court rejects Subya Chief Moraliswani’s application (April 1983) to become the supreme leader of all communities in the Eastern Caprivi Strip. The Subya reject this court ruling and repeat their demands from time to time. Tensions grow between Fwe and Subya. The result is that the majority of the Fwe (Muyongo) join the DTA and the majority of the Subya join SWAPO. The True Namibia Independence Party (TNIP ) is formed, and becomes defunct in 1986. The Committee of Parents is formed. It splits later in the year and the Parents’ Committee is formed to lobby for the release of alleged "SWAPO detainees". Its leaders are Stella-Maria Boois, Talita Schmidt and Phil Ya Nangoloh. Timothy Hadino Hishongwa opens a SWAPO mission in Melbourne, Australia. The Roman-Catholic priest Bernhard Nordkamp succeeds Heinrich Henning in his position as Vicar General of the church. The Namibian Agronomic Board is established in terms of the Agronomic Industry Proclamation (AG 11 of 1985). The Agronomic Board has to regulate and control the production and marketing of controlled agronomic products. These amount to a one-channel, fixed price marketing scheme for controlled crops. The "Joint Monitoring Commission (JMC)" is disbanded and the fighting in southern Angola involving Cuban, South African and SWAPO troops escalates again until 1988 when a military stalemate is reached in Cuito Cuanavale. The Roman-Catholic Commission on "Justice and Peace" under the fathers Heinrich Steegmann and Willy Amutenya condemns plans by the MPC to create a Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU). Assets of South African Transport Services in SWA and of Namib Air are transferred to the Administrator-General. The MPC adopts a "Bill of Fundamental Rights and

18.04.

06.06.

17.06.

Objectives", meant to guarantee "fundamental liberties". It agrees on a formula for an interim government and requests SA to create a "Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU)". The Bill is contained in an annex to Proclamation R101 of 1985. The status of this Bill becomes subsequently an issue before the Courts. In the "State vs Angula and Others", the South West Africa Division of the Supreme Court of SWA decides in 1986 that the Bill is part of the substantive law of the country. The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa in Bloemfontein, however, finds that the Bill has no application to existing laws. The formulation of the Bill also clearly indicates an intention to protect the existing Apartheid structure including segregation in schools and hospitals. In S/17242 the UN Secretary-General summarises significant new developments in the Namibian situation. He reiterates that although virtually all outstanding issues are resolved in UNTAG’s view, SA’s insistence on a Cuban troop withdrawal bars the implementation of SC Resolution 435. He also opposes SA’s plan to establish a new interim government in Namibia. The TGNU is installed after SA agrees to the MPC proposals. The TGNU is granted legislative and executive powers under SA Proclamation R101 but always subject to South Africa’s authority. For three months under a rotational system, Dawid Bezuidenhout, Minister of Transport of the TGNU, is the first Cabinet Chairman. Further ministers are: Hans Diergaardt, Minister of Local Authorities and Civic Affairs; Moses Katjiuongua, Minister of Manpower, National Health and Welfare; Jariretundu Kozonguizi, Minister of Justice, Information, Post and Telecommunication; Andrew Matjila, Minister of Education and Central Personnel Institution; Dirk Mudge, Minister of Finance and Government Affairs; Andreas Shipanga, Minister of Nature Conservation, Mining, Commerce and Tourism and Eben van Zijl, Minister of

19.06.

27.06.

July

Agriculture, Water Affairs and Fisheries. At the inauguration of the TGNU, thousands of supporters celebrate. But at the same time 4 000 people attend a meeting called by the Peoples Consultative Conference in Katutura (Windhoek) in protest against the MPC government. After the meeting 600 demonstrators march peacefully through the streets of Katutura. They are then set upon by members of the para-military unit Koevoet, clubbed and teargassed. Many supporters are women who are beaten, some of them while they are on the ground. Seventy-one people are injured. In SC Resolution 566 the UN Security Council condemns SA for installing an interim government in Windhoek, and declares this action to be illegal, null and void. Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi grants SWAPO gets full diplomatic status. Other countries follow suit. The Chief of the Uukolonkadhi area, Elenga David Shooya, is sworn in at Onesi. South Africa and Botswana demarcate the international boundary around the Kasikili Island according to the Pretoria Agreement of December 1984. The survey comes to the conclusion that the northern channel of the Chobe River represents the main-thalweg of the river. Kasikili thus belongs to Botswana. This survey is never ratified by the General Assembly of the United Nations and so is not binding. Thus, the conflict is not resolved, even after Namibia’s independence when further "Chobe island conflicts" arise, for instance, around the Situndu Island situated between Linyanti (New Linyanti) and Sangwali, near the village Batubaya. Ownership of the island can only be determined on the basis of the positions surveyed in relation to the thalweg of the Chobe River. The ICJ gives a judgement on the Kasikili island conflict on 13.12.1999. It rules in favour of Botswana. Mishake Muyongo returns to Namibia. Subsequently the United Democratic Party (UDP) is formed by a merger of

CANU and CAP. CANU and CAP dissidents do not join the UDP and reconstitute CANU (under the leadership of Siseho Simasiku) and CAP. The UDP joins the DTA. The UDP’s President is Muyongo and its leadership includes, inter alia, Cooks Muyoba and Geoffrey Mwilima. The Namibia National Trade Union (NNTU) is founded as an umbrella body to encourage the establishment of trade unions. The US "Clark Amendment" is repealed, allowing the US to August resume its aid to UNITA. PLAN attacks the SA army base Eenhana in the Ohangwena area. During the annual congress of the IG most board members resign. New president becomes Konrad Wilfried von Marées. The Namibian newspaper is established in Windhoek, this being the first newspaper to advocate for Namibian 30.08. independence on the basis of SC Resolution 435. Its editor is Gwen Lister. The Parents’ Committee in Windhoek approaches the September Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN), and later the public world-wide, to express its distress concerning the fate of relatives in exile. SA troops enter Angola claiming to be pursuing SWAPO 17.09. guerrillas. December The Namibia Trade Union (NTU) is established to represent domestic, farm and metal workers. 08.07.

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1986

The Mmabatho People’s Party (MPP) is formed under the leadership of Michael Simana after a further split in the Seoposengwe Party. The MPP becomes the opposition in the Tswana Second-Tier Authority. Simon "Mzee" Kaukungua is transferred to Angola as Head of the SWAPO Centre. Peter Mweshihange becomes SWAPO’s Acting Secretary for Defence following the death of Peter Nanyemba in April 1983. His deputy is Richard Kapelwa-Kabajani. Namibia has 4 040 km of trunk roads, 8 936 km of main roads, 28 596 km of district roads and 22 058 km of farm roads. The TGNU appoints a Constitutional Council to draw up a Constitution to replace AG8 (National Assembly Act No. 8 of 1985). The first four cases of HIV/Aids are officially recorded in Namibia. During the period 1980 to 1988 PLAN intensifies its war against civilian targets in Namibia. Some PLAN soldiers are caught and put on trial under the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967. Consequently Johnny Heita, Solomon Paulus, Andreas Tangeni, Gabriel Matheus, Martin Akweenda, Johannes Nangolo, Petrus Nangombe and Sagarias Nangombe appear before the SWA Division of the Supreme Court. However, several of the police witnesses have to admit third degree methods, including vicious assaults on the detainees. It is clearly established that these methods are not only used in this case, but are fairly common practice to extract information from prisoners. One of the notorious persons who does the beating is the South African Captain Ballack from Koevoet. He is, however, never prosecuted for his deeds. In spite of the forced confessions, the accused are sentenced to high prison terms (up to 18 years). The Constitutional Council begins to work on a Constitution (under SA Judge Hiemstra). Members of the NUNW form a Workers' Steering Committee to promote the ideas of trade

unionism and to help form trade unions. Between April and December, five trade unions are registered (from 1976 to 13.01 1986 only the SWA Construction Workers Union and Fishermen’s Union in Lüderitz are registered). The new unions are as follows: Drivers, Transport and Allied Workers Union (NNTU affiliate); Automobile and Metal Workers Union (NTU affiliate); Rössing Mineworkers Union (NUNW affiliate); Namibian Food and Allied Workers Union (NAFAU)(NUNW affiliate), Mineworkers Union of Namibia (MUN)(NUNW affiliate). The |Ai-||Gams Conference Group is formed under the aegis of the CCN (President of the CCN: Abisai Shejavali). Its participants include, inter alia, SWAPO, SWANU-P, the Namibia Independence Party (NIP), the Namibian National Students Organisation (NANSO), Namibian Women’s Voice, April the CDA (Peter Kalangula's CDA fails, however, so sign the joint declaration at the end of the conference), the NCDP, the NUDO-PP, the Damara Council and the Mbanderu Council. The group is set up to ensure the immediate implementation of SC Resolution 435, ans it projects itself as the Namibian United Democratic Front (UDF). The United Party of Namibia is formed by Barney Barnes. It May joins the DTA alliance. The Roman-Catholic procession "Corpus Christi" under the leadership of the Roman-Catholic priests Heinrich Steegmann and Bernhard Wolf as well as the Anglican 31.05./01.06 Bishop Kauluma and Zephania Kameeta from the ELC takes place in Windhoek. The South African security forces try to break up the peaceful demonstration and to provoke a massacre. The self-control of the participants averts a catastrophe. The UN Council for Namibia organises the Conference for 07.-11.07. the Immediate Independence of Namibia in Vienna/Austria. UN Secretary-General Javier Péres de Cuéllar takes part in the conference.

27.07.

Some members of the South African Defence Forces (CJ Harmse, FJ Herps, DF Esselen and J Fernando) are charged by the Namibian Attorney General for murdering a SWAPO member, Frans Uapoto in Onengali, Ovamboland. But the court proceedings are on direct intervention from the South African Prime Minister, PW Botha, stopped and the accused are walking out, free men. In view of this remedy, nullifying a prosecution by means of a certificate issued by the South African State President and so usurping the functions of a court of justice, is prima facie male fide from the outset and normally used to cover up a crime reflecting on the government and the military as later this year is attempted in the case of Immanuel Shifidi. Prominent "whites" (founding members are inter alia Christo Lombaard, Nahum Gorelick, Brian Harlech-Jones, Peter Koep, Ulli Eins, Pierre Roux, Klaus Dierks, Manfred Schier, Allen Liebenberg, Theo Frank, Charles Courtney-Clarke) under the leadership of Bryan O’Linn form the group called Namibia Peace Plan 435 (NPP-435), whose objectives are to propagate public interest in SC Resolution 435, to assist in its implementation and to encourage "true reconciliation" among Namibians. The group becomes defunct in 1990, Peter Koep being its last leader.

November

Bryan O'Linn: Leader of the NPP-435 Group: August 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

15.11.

30.11.

Daniël Luipert is appointed as Chief of the Swartboois (||Khau-|gőan) in Gainatzeb near Franzfontein. The Progressive People’s Party (PPP) is formed after the RBA splits. The RBA is renamed the Rehoboth Democratic Turnhalle Alliance Party (RDTAP) and is led by Ben Africa. A SWAPO meeting in Katutura leads to clashes with the police. Immanuel Shifidi, a former Robben Island prisoner, is stabbed and subsequently dies. The alleged killers from the South African 101 Battalion (Johannes Hendrik Vorster, Willem Hendrik Welgemoed, Antoinie Johannes Botes, Nicolaas Jacobus Prinsloo, Eusebias Christiaan Kashimbi and Steven Festus) are brought to trial, but again on direct intervention from the South African Prime Minister, PW Botha, are released. It must be noted that this crime was allegedly planned at the South African Defence Headquarter and that senior "white" officers were involved.

[Return to Table of Contents]

Moses Katjiuongua announces that his party, SWANU-MPC, will be renamed the Namibia African National Union (NANU) at independence or when SWA/Namibia is officially named Namibia. Andrew Kloppers takes the CDU out of the DTA. Mishake Muyongo becomes Vice President of the DTA. Kuaima Riruako is the President of the DTA.

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako: Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

1987

Herero Day in Okahandja: Memorising the Home Coming of Late Samuel Maharero: 23./26.08.1923: Ovaherero Chief Kuaima Riruako marches from the Grave Yard of the Maharero Dynasty to the Graves of Hosea Kutako and Clemence Kapuuo:

Otjozondjupa Region: 24.08.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Timothy Hadino Hishongwa becomes SWAPO’s Youth League Secretary in Luanda. The Afrikaner Weerstands Beweging (AWB) launches a branch in Namibia under the leadership of Hendrik van As. Namibia has 4 402 km of paved roads, 23 505 km of gravel roads, 13 019 km of earth roads, 228 km of salt-gravel roads and 418 km of " sandspoor" roads. A total of 514 road bridges have thus far been built or otherwise planned. The National Transport Corporation Act is passed by the National Assembly. A strike takes place at Taurus Chemicals in Lüderitz, involving the Namibian Food and Allied Workers Union and clashes with the police. The chief of the Fwe community in the Caprivi Strip, Richard (Temuso) Muhinda Mamili, is replaced by Boniface Bebi Mamili who wins the election ahead of George Simasiku. The build up of modern petroleum exploration in Namibia begins when SOEKOR drills a further two holes in the Kudu Gas Field. The discovered many trillion cubic feet of very clean natural gas are of high economic interest and it seems that the southwestern off-shore region of Africa could be a petroleum province. Diamond Area No. 2 which is situated between 26o South and the areas north of Conception Bay (Lange Wand) is added to the newly proclaimed Namib Naukluft Park. The eastern part of Diamond Area No. 1 between 26o South and the trunk road between Lüderitz and Aus also becomes part of this nature reserve. Thus, only the western part of Diamond Area No. 1 north of Lüderitz remains part of the Sperrgebiet. Action National Settlement (Aksie Nasionale Skikking) (ANS),

February

06.02.

31.03. April July

06.07.

26.07.

later in alliance with the NPF, is founded by Eben van Zijl as a development lobby. ANS members are, inter alia, Johannes Diergaardt, Petra Hamman and Frans Louis van Zyl. A bomb is exploded in front of the Barclays Bank in Oshakati. Apart from damages at the building, several persons are injured and one Levi Ipinge dies as a result of the explosion. One accused, Afunda Nghiyolwa, is charged in terms of the Sabotage Act, No. 76 of 1962, as amended by Act No. 62 of 1966 and sentenced to a high prison term. In S/18767 the UN Secretary-General reports that the Cuban troop withdrawal from Angola is the only unresolved problem. The Namibia United Front (NUF) is formed by a merger of CANU and CAP. The Constitutional Council completes a draft Constitution and refers it to the TGNU Cabinet, but SA rejects it. SWAPO launches a car bomb attack on the Kalahari Sands Hotel in Windhoek, causing considerable material damage. Two PLAN members, Paulus Andreas and Stephanus Nghifikwa, are charged in the SWA Division of the Supreme Court in terms of the Sabotage Act, No. 76 of 1962, as amended by Act No. 62 of 1966. Both are sentenced to high prison terms. After a consumer boycott of "white-owned" businesses in Tsumeb, 4 000 employees of Tsumeb Corporation Limited (TCL) go on strike at the Tsumeb, Kombat and Otjihase mines. (The TCL shareholders are Newmont of the USA, BP Minerals of the UK and Goldfields of the RSA). On 31.07., workers who do not turn up for work are evicted from the company’s hostels. The Windhoek Supreme Court rules that TCL’s dismissals and evictions are legal (18.08.). The Mineworkers Union of Namibia is involved in organising this strike, in negotiations and in legal support actions, but the union is snubbed by TCL’s management and by the TGNU Cabinet. The Rössing Mineworkers Union, which is affiliated to the

Mineworkers Union of Namibia and NUNW, signs a recognition agreement with Rössing Uranium. The Namibia Wholesale and Retail Workers Union, the Namibia Builders Trade Union, and the Metal and Allied Namibian Workers Union are established. Talks are renewed between Angola and the USA (Chester JulySeptember Crocker) regarding Namibia, the Cuban troop withdrawal and diplomatic links. Judge J Bethune orders the release of a number of SWAPO activists (Hendrik Witbooi, Danny Tjongarero, Niko Bessinger, 11.09. Anton Lubowski, John Pandeni and Ben Ulenga) who are detained in terms of the Terrorism Act, No. 83 of 1967. South African security forces totally destroy the Roman Catholic church of Omuluukila in the Ombalantu area in Ovamboland. In response Bishop Bonifatius Hausiku orders October that on the following Sunday, all the Roman Catholic churches of Windhoek remain closed. The Holy Mass should be celebrated outside the churches as in the ruins of Omuluukila. For the "white" Catholics, this eloquent sign is another "pro-SWAPO" provocation of the Church. In SC Resolution 601 the UN Security Council affirms that all outstanding issues relevant to the implementation of SC Resolution 435 have been resolved. The Security Council 30.10. authorises the Secretary-General to proceed with arrangements for a cease-fire between SA and SWAPO, following which administrative and practical steps can be taken for UNTAG’s deployment. December SWAPO creates the Namibian Press Agency (NAMPA) to cover the liberation struggle from bureaux in four continents. In UN SC Resolution 606 the UN Security Council strongly 23.12. condemns the presence of South African troops which are, against all agreements, still in Angola. The Deutsche Aktion: Deutsch-Südwester Komitee (DSK) is 31.12. formed in alliance with Action Christian National (ACN) in August

Karibib. DSK Chairman is Hans Engelhardt.

[Return to Table of Contents]

6. THE INDEPENDENCE PROCESS LEADS TO NAMIBIA'S FREEDOM: 19881990
The National Progressive Party is formed under the presidency of Patrick Mufalo Limbo after the UDP splits. The Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN) is formed in Rehoboth under Hans Diergaardt and Mburumba Kerina. Aksie Kontra 435 (Action against 435) is formed in Keetmanshoop under the leadership of Louis van der Westhuizen. Andrew Kloppers disbands the CDU and merges with the LP once again. The LP leader is Reggie Diergaardt. The Namibia Volksparty (People’s Party) is formed by Willem "Billy" Phillips, after he leaves the LP with a number of supporters. The Supreme Court gives an advisory opinion that AG8 contradicts the Bill of Fundamental Human Rights as contained in Proclamation R101. The SA Court of Appeal rejects the opinion. The potential for escalating conflict in southern Angola between SA/UNITA and Cuba/MPLA halts internal constitutional developments in Namibia as negotiations around SC Resolution 435 and related matters begin between Angola, Cuba and SA, with US mediation and with support from the Soviet Union. Mosé Penaani Tjitendero becomes Director of the UN Vocational Centre in Angola. The Okorusu fluorspar mine is reopened by Okorusu Fluorspar (Pty) Ltd. The Yeyi community in the Eastern Caprivi Strip directs an application for autonomy to the chief of the Fwe, Richard Muhinda Mamili. Mamili rejects this and punishes the

1988

16.01.

28.01.

17.02.

rebellious Yeyi. He appoints his uncle, George Simasiku, as chief of the Yeyi. The South African Defence Force destroys Ondonga King’s Immanuel Elifa’s (Kauluma) homestead at Onamungundo (Olukonda) because he is a strong supporter of SWAPO. A series of military battles take place in the south-eastern corner of Angola. They derive from a MPLA-Soviet-Cuban assault on UNITA-held territory and bases, UNITA being given substantial support by South Africa. The MPLA troops fail in their assault on Mavinga and then loose a battle at the Lomba River. About 6 000 SA troops together with UNITA forces commence operations to conquer Cuito Cuanavale, but they are finding strong resistance. UNITA breaks off contacts with the SA troops. In May the SA forces return to the Namibian side of the border, calculating that there would be no further assault by the MPLA before the end of the rainy season. During the visit of the West-German right-wing politician Franz-Joseph Strauss in Windhoek, PLAN explodes a bomb in the South African Suiderhof military base. A bomb explodes in the First National Bank in Oshakati, killing 27 and wounding 70 people. Among those killed is the daughter of ELCIN Bishop Kleophas Dumeni. Both sides blame each other for the atrocity, although strong indications show that the South Africans, in attempt to discredit SWAPO, are responsible. Subsequently Leonard Sheehama is arrested on 09.07. and charged with the attack on the Oshakati bank. The court case is still pending at Namibia’s independence on 21.03.1990 and is not pursued further after the implementation of the policy of national reconciliation after independence. After Sheehama’s arrest it is established that he had allegedly planted bombs in various public places in Walvis Bay and at the Okambebe School in the Omungwelume area in Ovamboland. However, during the court case, the South African police officer, Lieutenant Hillhause, admits third degree methods, including vicious

March

07.03.

assaults on Sheehama. Consequently his appeal (28.03.1991) against the death sentence for the Walvis Bay bombings is successful and he is released and returns to Namibia. Several attacks by PLAN troops on South African military bases in Okatope, Eenhana, Okongo, Onesi and Okalongo take place. An application is brought before the SWA Division of the Supreme Court whether the Proclamation on Representative Authorities according to the AG 8 Act of 1980 are not in contradiction to the "Bill of Fundamental Rights and Objectives" in the annex to Proclamation R101 of 1985. The court rules in favour of abolishing of the AG 8 Act. However, the Action Front for the Retention of Turnhalle Principles (ACTUR) remains opposed to the abolition. The dispute in the Transitional Government of National Unity (TGNU) is still not resolved by the 1 April 1989, when the implementation of SC Resolution 435 commences. About 50 000 Cuban, Angolan and PLAN troops succeed in pushing the SADF back at Cuito Cuanavale. The Cuban forces together with their allies are even successful in carrying out a flanking manoeuvre south-westwards. They establish a 400 km southern front running parallel to, and in some cases only 20 km from the Namibian border. The front is protected by the Cuban and Angolan Air Force stationed at the newly upgraded airbases at Cahama and Xangongo. The Cubans have MIG-23 planes and are equipped with the full range of modern Soviet weaponry, with heavy armour, full airdefence radar and several ground-to-air missiles. For its part, South Africa begins bringing up heavier fighting units and mobilises the SWA Territory Force (SWATF). During the advance Cuban war planes carry out a successful air attack on Techipa and the Calueque Dam, just outside Namibia on the border of the two countries, threatening the water supply to northern Namibia and the electricity supply from Ruacana. Cuban planes even begin to appear in Namibian air space

including some low-level fly-pasts above the huge SADF air base at Grootfontein. By this stage, also, though the South 04.05. African military is still generally well-equipped, the international arms boycott is affecting aspects of its capability, especially as regards aircraft, two of which are lost at Calueque. Nor does the SADF possess attack helicopters. Estimates are placing the cost of the war at not less than US$ two billion a year, and it is increasingly unpopular among South African conscripts and their families. The impact of sanctions, and of the huge disinvestment that had taken place are finally taking a major toll on the South African economy. Chester Crocker quotes an estimate of 17% decline in the South African GNP from 1987 to 1991. Even nature turns hostile - a virulent, often fatal, strain of malaria in the border regions had become resistant to prophylactics and is rife among South African soldiers. South Africa’s will to defend Apartheid is weakening, as is its control over Namibia. All these events force SA to begin serious negotiations on the implementation of SC Resolution 435, despite the fact that SA and UNITA still both claim victory. On the same day Sam Nujoma announces in Washington D.C. a policy of national reconciliation, neutrality and nonalignment by a future SWAPO government in Namibia. Angola, Cuba, and SA meet in London, later Cairo (where on 24./25.06. the uncompromising attitude of the South African Defence Minister Magnus Malan nearly wrecks the second Mayround of negotiations), then in New York (20.07.: The August agreement on "Principles for a Peaceful Settlement in South West Africa, Angola, Cuba and South Africa") and finally in Geneva (02./05.08.). 75 000 school students boycott schools throughout the Beginning country in protest at the South African army and police June repressions. The boycott begins at the Ponhofi Secondary School in Ovamboland. The National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW) organises 20.-21.06. a general strike in support of the students. More than 60 000

workers support the strike. There is a heavy clash between PLAN, Cuban and Angolan 27.06. troops on the one side and South African troops on the other at the Calueque Dam near Ruacana. The SWAPO leadership (Sam Nujoma, Hage Geingob and Hidipo Hamutenya and others) and a delegation of "whites" from Namibia meet in Stockholm. Present is also the newly appointed UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson. SA continues its troop withdrawal from Angola. June-July A conference is held in Bremen, West Germany, on "Education for Liberation", attended by SWAPO members including, inter alia, Mosé Penaani Tjitendero, Nahas Angula, Helmut Kangulohi Angula, Nangolo Mbumba and Klaus Dierks, as well as a representative of the University of Bremen, Manfred Hinz. During the 11th annual congress of the Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Südwester (IG), the Namibisch-Deutsche Stiftung für kulturelle August Zusammenarbeit (NaDS) is established (board members: Volker Gretschel, Gerhard Tötemeyer, Imke Weitzel and Marianne Zappen-Thomson). The Multimodal National Transport Corporation is 01.07. established. Discussions in Geneva between Angola, Cuba and SA lead to the "Geneva Protocol", which stipulates that SC Resolution 435 will be implemented on 01.11. Angola and Cuba sign a bilateral accord to govern the Cuban withdrawal from Angola (02.08.: The South Africans again delay the negotiations by a new demand that Angola ceases assisting the South African 02./05.08. ANC). Mediator is Chester Crocker. In view of the fact that SWAPO is not a party to the "Geneva Protocol", it is provided that "Angola and Cuba shall use their good offices so that, once a total withdrawal of South African troops from Angola is completed and within the context also of the cessation of hostilities in Namibia, SWAPO’s forces will be

deployed to the north of the 16th parallel." SA voluntarily commits itself to a de facto cessation of 08.08. hostilities. S/20109 conveys the US Permanent Mission’s verbal note to 10.08. the UN Secretary-General, and also contains the text of the joint statement issued in Geneva on 08.08. 12.08. The cease-fire is observed by SWAPO (S/20129). 30.08. SA completes the withdrawal of its troops from Angola. Five meetings are held in Brazzaville, Zaire (Congo), between 24.08./Angola, Cuba and SA under the chairmanship of the US and 13.12. with Soviet observation. UN Secretary-General Péres de Cuéllar visits Angola and SA (the South Africans still try to delay the peace process by September demanding an all-party conference in Namibia before SC Resolution 435 comes into force) to discuss the implementation of SC Resolution 435. In S/20208 the UN Security Council President indicates 20.09. Council members’ support for the implementation of SC Resolution 435. The summit meeting between the US President Ronald Reagan and the Secretary-General of the Communist Party of 29.09. the Soviet Union Michael Sergejewich Gorbachev paves the way to finally resolve the situation in Namibia and Angola. A number of African heads of state meet in Franceville, October Gabon, and Gbadolite, Zaire (Congo), to discuss and facilitate the peace process in Namibia. A "Consultative Conference" is held between SWAPO and progressive Namibians (inter alia Immanuel Ngatjizeko, Anton Lubowski, Frieder Rohn, Gerd Hanekom, Klaus Dierks, Bernd Riehmer, Peter Borsutzky, Hans Röhr, Christo 09./11.10. Lombard) in Kabwe, Zambia. Prominent exiled SWAPO leaders are present, including, inter alia, Sam Nujoma, Hage Geingob, Theo-Ben Gurirab and Hidipo Hamutenya. Bryan

16.11.

O’Linn, Chairman of the Namibia Peace Plan 435 (NPP-435), takes not part because the CDA leader, Peter Kalangula, is not invited by SWAPO. The SA Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, and the head of the SA National Intelligent Service, Neil Barnard, argue the need for the earliest action to resolve the Namibian question, which is destabilising the region and "seriously complicating" the major issue which South Africa itself would shortly have to face. Ten years later Botha speaks of the "decisive effect" which the Namibian Peace Process and Namibia’s Independence had had on the abolition of Apartheid in South Africa. The new Kai5 khaun leader from Hoachanas, Petrus Simon Moses Kooper, is sworn in.

03.12.

The Kai5khaun (Red Nation) Chief of Hoachanas, Petrus Simon Moses Kooper, Son of Reverend Markus Kooper: Hardap Region: April 2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

The "Mukorob" (a.k.a. " Finger of God") near Tses collapses during a heavy storm.

04.12.

The Mukurob (Finger of God), near Asab, collapsed on 04.12.1988. Nama oral tradition relates that the power of the "White Man" would end when this Rock fell
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks (Photo was taken a few days before the collapse)

13.12.

14.12. 20.12. 21.12.

SA, Angola and Cuba sign the "Brazzaville Protocol", which recommends that the UN Secretary-General sets 01.04.1989 as the deadline for the implementation of SC Resolution 435. The protocol also establishes a " Joint Monitoring Commission (JMC)". In S/20325 the Charge d’affaires of the US Permanent Mission transmits the text of the "Brazzaville Protocol" to the UN Secretary-General. The UN Security Council sets up the United Nations Angolan Verification Mission (UNAVEM) in SC Resolution 626. The UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, is killed in the Pan Am air disaster at Lockerbie in Scotland, while on his way to the signing ceremony at New York. SA, Angola and Cuba sign the "New York Treaty" (or "Tripartite

22.12.

Agreement") at UN Headquarters, which finalises the agreements reached earlier in Geneva. Angola and Cuba also sign a bilateral agreement on the Cuban troop withdrawal from Angola, which paves the way for SC Resolution 435 to be implemented on 01.04.1989. The parties also confirm that the Joint Monitoring Commission (JMC) will monitor the implementation of the agreements. The US and Soviet Union both participate as observers and facilitators.

[Return to Table of Contents]

1989

16.01.

18.01.

20.01.

February

John Ya Otto becomes General Secretary of the NUNW. The first group of 450 Cuban troops withdraw from Angola in the second week of January. UN Secretary-General Péres de Cuéllar recommends substantial cuts to the size and cost of UNTAG’s military component (from 7 500 to approximately 4 500 troops). At the same time SA Foreign Minister Pik Botha announces the reduction of SA Police personnel in Namibia, and General Johannes Geldenhuys, SADF Commander in Namibia, announces cutbacks in the number of troops stationed in the territory. After many previously attempts the UN Security Council manages to agree that implementation of Resolution 435 would begin on 01.04.1989. The civilian component of UNTAG is established with 300 professional personnel for the political, electoral and administrative offices at headquarters in Windhoek and the 42 regional and district political field offices. A second group of about 180 comes for the registration process, which begins after three months. Timothy Dibuama, the UN Secretary-General’s military adviser, proposes that UNTAG keeps the original ceiling of 7 500 troops, but in the first instance only 4 650 would be deployed: three battalions, each with five companies: the other four battalions would be kept in their home countries, in reserve. The United Democratic Front of Namibia (UDF) is formed, with Reggie Diergaardt’s LP and Justus ||Garoëb (Damara Council) as founding members. The Rehoboth Volksparty is revived by Arrie Hermanus Smit, and forms an alliance with the NNF. The United Liberation Movement is formed to join the NPLF. The Namibia National Democratic Party (NNDP) is formed under the chairmanship of Paul Helmuth after a split in the National Democratic Party. The NNF is revived. Action Christian National (ACN) is formed under the

16.02.

20.02.

24.02.

26.02.

28.02.

leadership of JWF "Kosie" Pretorius. In passing the enabling SC Resolution 632, the UN Security Council agrees to the terms of implementation of Resolution 435 on 01.04.1989. By that date, UNTAG forces are to be in place, including those to man the reception points at which PLAN soldiers are to be confined to base. South African troops are to be restricted to bases at Grootfontein or Oshivelo, or both In particular, the Council is at last freed from constraints preventing UNTAG from sending preparatory staff into the country. Abdou Ciss is now able to bring his key personnel to Windhoek where they meet with Steven Fanning and Rachel Mayanja. South Africa objects that Sweden provides UNTAG with a transport company. Timothy Dibuama proposes that Poland might just be able to fulfil this task. It is under greatest pressure that South Africa accepts this proposal, and Australia, Canada and Denmark for logistical support. New problems in the implementation of Resolution 435 come to the forefront. The "Non-Aligned-Movement" questions whether UNTAG is permitted to purchase in South Africa despite the existence of sanctions, in spite of the fact that UNTAG cannot survive in Namibia without purchasing from South Africa. Only the hint that independent countries like Zambia and Zimbabwe are massively dependent upon South Africa, despite the sanctions, resolved the situation. General D Prem Chand, Commander of UNTAG’s military contingent, and 20 other senior military and UNTAG officials arrive in Windhoek. The first contingent of UNTAG soldiers arrives some days later. The TGNU dissolves itself. Administrator-General Louis Pienaar assumes control over governmental affairs in Namibia. The Christian Democratic Party (CDP) is formed under the leadership of Petrus "Piet" Matheus Junius, as a merger with the CDU. The latter is disbanded by its leader Andrew

March

01.03.

14.03.

16.03.

21.03.

29.03.

Kloppers, who in 1988 had left the DTA to join the LP, and thereafter the Namibia Volksparty in alliance with the DTA. The National Patriotic Front (NPF) is formed by SWANU-MPC (Moses Katjiuongua), CANU (Siseho Simasiku) and ANS (Eben van Zijl). The UN General Assembly accepts the Namibian peace plan, but cuts its budget from US $ 700 million to US $ 416 million. The UN Secretary-General, Péres de Cuéllar, proceeds to arrange for the formal agreement on a cease-fire between SWAPO and South Africa as envisaged in UN SC Resolution 435. In this regard he addresses identical letters simultaneously to SWAPO (accepted on 18.03.) and the South African Government (accepted on 21.03.), suggesting the beginning of the formal cease-fire at 04:00 Greenwich Mean Time on 01.04.1989. UN lawyers have been allowed to make a major concession to the South Africans during the final stages of negotiation of the "UNTAG Status of Forces Agreement". They agree with South Africa that SA could refuse visas to anybody of UNTAG if and when they feel like it. Consequently the South Africans deny visas to many UNTAG staff, especially press and information people. Martti Ahtisaari exercises strong pressure on the South African representative in Windhoek, Jeremy Shearar, to get this ban lifted. Vezera "Bob" Kandetu, Deputy Secretary of the Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN), expresses that the Namibian churches are concerned "about how the South Africans are preparing to "cook" events, especially the arrangements concerning the elections". General Prem Chand from UNTAG expresses concern that up-to-date, three days before the implementation of UN SC Resolution 435, there is no indication of a cease-fire on the South African side. Sam Nujoma inspects military parades of PLAN soldiers at the Hainjeko Military Academy in Lubango, Cahama,

Xangongo and other SWAPO military training centres in 29./30.03. Angola, and reads to them the terms of the cease-fire which is to come into full effect on 01.04.1989. He tells them that from that day most of them will become civilians again and will return to Namibia to take part in the "political mobilisation of the masses and to vote for SWAPO". The Special Representative for UNTAG, Martti Ahtisaari, arrives in Windhoek to take over the functions of the interim government together with the Administrator-General. He is received at the Windhoek International Airport by pro-South African forces. SWAPO gives an order to stay away from the event. SWAPO supporters should rather delay their demonstrations until the real implementation of SC Resolution 435 commences on 01.04.1989. Sam Nujoma announces the United Nations supervised cease-fire in Lubango, in the presence of Hidipo Hamutenya and the Governador da Provincia du Cunene (Angola), Pedro Mutindi. Ahtisaari holds its first "cabinet meeting" with Prem Chand, Danny Opande (Brigadier-General, Kenyan, Chand's Deputy), Abdou Ciss, Steven Fanning,, Hisham Omayad, Cedric Thornberry and Omar Halim ( Indonesian, Thornberry’s deputy) in the afternoon in Windhoek. Prem Chand reports that matters are moving along pretty well on the military side, but he lacks vehicles. He has a liaison team in Angola, and the Angolans have promised to be co-operative over SWAPO’s "confinement to base". However, at the moment he is not monitoring them there and does not even know how many PLAN soldiers are in base, or where the bases are. Roman-Catholic missionary stations in Ovamboland, with 31.03. their well organised information network, report to their headquarters in Windhoek that on the evening of 31.03. South African security forces are concentrated on the northern border. This is in contravention of SC Resolution 435 which states that the SA forces are to be restricted to base (Oshivelo or Grootfontein). The church reports that the South Africans

April

are apparently preparing to stop PLAN soldiers infiltrating the country. The Vicar General, Nordkamp, immediately contacts both the UN representatives in Windhoek and the South African authorities. The UN do not believe him. The South Africans answer him: "We have found the enemy. Tomorrow [01.04.1989] we will seize them". In the evening South Africa hosts an official dinner for UNTAG at the "South West Africa House", the residence of the Administrator-General, Louis Pienaar. The South African Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, and the SA Minister for Defence, Magnus Malan, give a chilling account of what is happening on the northern border to Angola. They maintain that SWAPO has put about 150 of its PLAN soldiers across the border, fully armed, and that it has a further 750 troops just to the north, apparently ready to cross. After the dinner Ahtisaari calls New York and suggests the UN Secretary-General to call in Theo-Ben Gurirab, SWAPO’s representative at the United Nations and the Angolan Ambassador and to tell them what the South Africans have said tonight and to convey the gravest concern to them. Four reception centres for returning Namibian exiles (approximately 40 000) are designed by Namibia Consult Incorporated under the directorship of Klaus Dierks. The centres are located at Döbra, Mariabronn near Grootfontein, and at Ongwediva and Engela in Ovamboland. They are administered under the auspices of the Repatriation, Resettlement and Reconstruction Committee (RRR Committee: Chairman: Wilfried Neusel, Secretary-General: Immanuel Dumeni, Treasurer: Carl Scholz) of the CCN. During UNTAG’s peak they have more than 8 000 personnel from 21 countries (military ), 25 countries (police) and 80 countries (civil) in Namibia. UNTAG’s postal services have a civil component (G Andal) in the Philip Troskie Building in Windhoek. The military component is served by the Danish UNTAG contingent (Borge Knudsen) in the Suiderhof military base in Windhoek. Implementation of SC Resolution 435 commences, initiating

the holding of UN-supervised free and fair elections for a Constituent Assembly. The cease-fire between SWAPO and SA comes into effect. UNTAG is not yet fully deployed (fewer than one quarter of the envisaged - already reduced - 4 650 UNTAG troops are present in Namibia and are not strategically deployed as yet, especially not in the north). The independence process falters the day it begins, as an estimated 600 PLAN soldiers (as claimed by Pik Botha) enter Namibia from Angola and clash with SA-led security forces in northern Namibia. This allegation reflects the South African position as supported by some of the western powers. The real number of PLAN soldiers which enters Namibia from Angola, or whether these troops really come from Angola, or whether they are already in Namibia, are issues still to be verified by further research. The incident is used by the South Africans to motivate the Special Representative for UNTAG, Martti Ahtisaari (he receives an ultimatum from the South Africans who give him only half-an-hour to think it over), to release South African troops out of their restricted bases at Grootfontein and Oshivelo. On the other hand many Namibian sources show that PLAN soldiers have always been in northern Namibia. One witness , Johannes Kutumba, is the only survivor of 28 PLAN soldiers who are killed during April 1989. Kutumba reports that his unit has been in hiding in northern Namibia since December 1988. Klaus Dierks reports later that he personally had been inside PLAN camps within Namibia before the 01.04.1989. The decisive clause in SC Resolution 435 states that "Provision for SWAPO forces inside Namibia at the time of cease-fire to be restricted to base at designated locations inside Namibia to be specified by Special Representative after necessary consultation". As regards "SWAPO bases in Namibia", all available evidence points to the reality that although PLAN soldiers frequently cross from Angola into Namibia, and stay for longer periods in the bush and among the people, they return to

01.04.

Angola once their tasks had been carried out. They don’t have "bases" in Namibia, in the sense of permanent installations containing personnel and technical infrastructure. The South Africans maintain that PLAN has come to carry out offensive actions against South African security installations, to cut of the Ondangwa to Oshakati highway, to sabotage the southward power line from Ruacana, telephone lines and road bridges. There are plans for large-scale mine-laying, the cutting of water pipelines and to infiltrate the "white" farming areas around Tsumeb. The chief of the SWA Police, Dolf Gous, maintains that the PLAN forces don’t care about the proposed cease-fire. "They are not even trying to hide their tracks". These South African accusations are never found to be substantiated. Two taken PLAN prisoners-of-war - who were seriously beaten up by the South Africans - are interrogated by Daniel Opande and Ed Omotoso from UNTAG. The answers the two prisoners are giving are consistent and are holding up under detailed questioning. Both men are found to be convincing. Each says that "they have been ordered by his commander to enter Namibia peacefully and not to engage the South African security forces, because a cease-fire comes into effect on 01.04.1989 and there is to be no more fighting. The UN personnel would come and take care of them". Instead of being received by UNTAG, the PLAN soldiers are ambushed by the South African forces. Preliminarily the clashes are concentrated in the areas of Ohangwena, Omafu, Onuno, Engela, Endola and Ondeshifiilwa. The real fighting only starts on 02.04. when the situation becomes clear that there is no cease-fire. In the next days and weeks the South African counterinsurgency forces cannot be restrained. They choose instead to have a bloodbath, a massacre. In 1998 the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission refers to the suspicion that grave crimes were committed by those forces at that time. It was alluding to reports of the summary execution of many

SWAPO prisoners [Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission 1998, Vol. 2]. Pro-SWAPO demonstrations staged in Windhoek to welcome UNTAG are from the start crushed by the SWA Police under the command of Jumbo Smit. The German member of Parliament, Uschi Eid, and Klaus Dierks lodge a protest with the UN representatives in Windhoek, without any success. The demonstrations continue, however, in Katutura. With between 10 000 and 15 000 participants, these are the largest demonstrations ever held in the history of Namibia. The British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher arrives in Windhoek, coming from Blantyre in Malawi. She immediately supports Botha's stand on the events at the northern border without any inquiry being made as to the truth of his claims.

Monument at Ondeshifiilwa remembering the Occurences of April 1st, 1989
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

03.04.

SA troops (three battalions) which, according to SC Resolution 435 are to be restricted to base at Oshivelo and Grootfontein, leave their bases with the approval of UN Special Representative Martti Ahtisaari, to stop the SWAPO troops. Heavy fighting ensues, with 300 SWAPO (some of the killed persons are not PLAN soldiers but merely known local SWAPO supporters and private people) soldiers and 27 SA soldiers killed.

04.04.

06.04.

Theo-Ben Gurirab, SWAPO’s representative at the United Nations, rips into Martti Ahtisaari speaking of the hands of the United Nations covered in Namibian blood. Peter Mweshihange, SWAPO’s Secretary for Defence, speaks in Luanda, Angola. He says that SWAPO has been waiting for the United Nations to put an end to the fighting for the last three days and that it is ready to accept a new cease-fire. It is now up to Ahtisaari, who had requested the use of the South African troops, to get his allies also to accept a cease-fire. The PLAN soldiers have orders now to lie low, inside Namibia, until the cease-fire is in place. Then, they have to be regrouped in order to present themselves to UNTAG. "Unfortunately, UNTAG denied them this opportunity. UNTAG’s and South Africa’s insistence that SWAPO cadres should be expelled from Namibia, their one and only motherland, to Angola, is contrary to the UN independence plan ... ." However, internal SWAPO leaders like Niko Bessinger, Jerry Ekandjo and Danny Tjongarero are obviously not informed by the SWAPO leadership in Luanda about SWAPO’s latest movements, though they are the designated liaison personnel until the external leadership would return to Namibia. David Smuts, Namibian lawyer who runs the Namibian human right’s centre, informs UNTAG about events in the north of Namibia during the last weekend. It is a chilling account, suggesting the arrival and congregation of PLAN forces in a peaceful manner and their being set upon by the South African security forces. Bodies were then piled together in heaps and left to decompose. South Africa proposes that PLAN soldiers who disarm would be taken out of the country to designated entry points at the northern border and would then be brought back as returnees. The Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN) informs Martti Ahtisaari that they had been caught entirely by surprise by the events of 01.04.1989.

The Administrator-General Pienaar unilaterally suspends the independence process. The SA Foreign Minister Pik Botha quickly contradicts Pienaar with a statement that South Africa 07.04. remains fully committed to SC Resolution 435. The UN Secretary-General orders the early mobilisation of three UNTAG-battalions from Finland, Kenya and Malaysia. Sam Nujoma, in order to safeguard the peace process according to SC Resolution 435, orders all SWAPO troops to cross the border into Angola. But the fights still continue until 24.04. The Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN) proposes that 08.04. church premises in the north (Oniipa, Oshigambo, Engela, Odibo, Mpungu, Okatana, Oshikuku and Anamulenge) could provide the place UNTAG needs to accommodate SWAPO soldiers before their return to Angola. The combination of church sanctuary and UN flag would be a potent solution. Representatives of SA, Angola and Cuba in the Joint Monitoring Commission, with US (Chester Crocker), Soviet (Anatoly Adamishin), and UNTAG observation, meet at Mount Etjo to salvage the independence plan. The parties agree that 09./11.04. SWAPO troops should be assembled at 16 assembly points and withdraw from Namibia to the 16th latitude in Angola, under guarantee of safe passage. All assembly points would be under UNTAG supervision and be operational by noon on 11.04.1989. The Mount Etjo Agreement is in jeopardy before its starts because the South African troops continue fighting and block the PLAN combatants’ withdrawal to Angola. Very few PLAN fighters show up at the official assembly points due to the highly visible South African army mechanised infantry units camping alongside the unarmed UN peacekeepers. 11.04. Administrator-General Louis Pienaar states that UNTAG and the South African security forces had "agreed that PLAN soldiers would be interrogated in order to verify the suspected number of infiltrators ... ". Pienaar’s statement is

13.04.

17.04.

18.04.

consequently overruled by Pik Botha who states there is no question of interrogation. Even without the threat of interrogation, the SA security forces keep a high intimidatory profile and move freely and openly around the assembly points and the churches. No PLAN soldiers come to the assembly points and very few to the churches. A fatal encounter takes place in the Kaokoveld, at an assembly point near Swartbooisdrift. It looks as if some wounded stragglers were trying to reach some form of sanctuary and were ambushed by the South Africans just short of it. Only seven PLAN soldiers have come so far to the official assembly points and to the churches. UNTAG advance parties of the three 850 all-ranks battalions from Finland, Kenya and Malaysia - were in Namibia prior to 01.04.1989, but the remaining troops do not arrive before 17.04. (Finland) and 01.05. (Kenya and Malaysia). Indeed, their arrival has been advanced in all cases by two weeks because of the new conflict. The Finns go to the Kavango, the Malaysians to Ovamboland, and the Kenyans to the centre and the south of the country. The four remaining battalions from Bangladesh, Togo, Venezuela and Yugoslavia - are held on reserve in their home countries. Angola and Cuba demand direct talks between SWAPO and the South Africans in order to save the Mount Etjo Agreement. SWAPO and South Africa agree to meet at Ruacana. The SWAPO delegation is led by Nahas Angula and Erastus Negonga while the South Africans are led by General Willie Meyer and Carl von Hirschberg. The talks lead to a South African agreement to respect the cease-fire agreement, and to initiate to a 60 hours cease-fire beginning at 26.04. UNTAG opens the first United Nations Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) office in Windhoek-Katutura. Two hundred UN police men will be sent to the north by next week. UNTAG is, however, held back by the lack of accommodation, vehicles,

communications, and in the north by the absence of mineresistant vehicles (MRVs). UNTAG cannot send the police around in the north in soft-skinned vehicles. The SA security 20.04. forces, who know the situation much better than the United Nations, never leave paved roads without their MRVs. UNTAG gets the first twenty MRVs from the SA Army, but only four are working. Most of UNTAG’s military observers in Angola are by this time stationed in the south of the country, at Chibemba, where they can keep track of the number of SWAPO soldiers coming north. The South African security forces inform UNTAG at Oshakati that they have the intention to hand over a number of SWAPO prisoners taken during the previous weeks’ fighting. When Martti Ahtisaari and Marrack Goulding arrive on 26.04. they are told that 31 prisoners would be given to UNTAG. But, no handover arrangements are made with the Angolese authorities, and there is no accommodation at Oshakati. So UNTAG has 25.04. to fall back on its church friends, and Bishop Kleophas Dumeni from ELCIN agrees to provide such accommodation at Ongwediva for the 26 who are reasonably fit (five other are taken to the church hospital at Oniipa). On 27.04. the 26 PLAN soldiers go by road to the Angola border, having been checked medically, and interviewed to make sure that they want to go back. The South African troops are again confined to base for 60 hours in order to enable SWAPO troops to cross the border 26.04. into Angola at certain agreed points under the control of the UNTAG military component. The Cape Town Joint Commission is attended for UNTAG by Martti Ahtisaari, Marrack Goulding, Prem Chand and Ed Omotoso and by the South African Administrator-General for SWA. Its key decision is that, following the confinement to base of South African forces that is occurring simultaneously 27./28.04. with the meeting, a "process of verification", lasting fourteen days until 06h00 on 13.05., would be conducted. "On this

28.04.

30.04.

May

08.05.

date, the confinement of all SWAPO troops in Angola to bases north of the 16th parallel under UNTAG monitoring, would have been completed. The South African forces will resume restriction to base and the implementation of Security Council Resolution 435 will continue as originally scheduled". After the expulsion of the president George Mutwa together with Lemmy Matengu and Ernest Likando CANU splits, into CANU-NPF and CANU-UDF (allied to the United Democratic Front). Siseho Simasiku becomes president of the CANUNPF and Mutwa president of the CANU-UDF. The British newspaper Sunday Telegraph reports an account of the condition of eighteen bodies of killed PLAN fighters with wounds consistent with their having been executed rather than killed in combat. UNTAG military forces and civilian police personnel finally reach their mandated strength. The UN appoints a commission to investigate all complaints of violations of the principles of impartiality during the transition. The Workers Revolutionary Party (WRP) is founded under the leadership of, inter alia, Werner Henry Mamugwe, Attie Beukes (grandson of Samuel Beukes who fought the Germans in 1915 and the South Africans in 1925) and Erica Beukes. The WRP joins the UDF alliance and later the Socialist Alliance of Namibia (SAN). The Administrator-Generals’s senior staff are improving their relations with UNTAG. UNTAG is now able, sometimes informally, to do a great deal of business with people like Carl von Hirschberg, Kobus Bauermeester, Gerd Roux and John Viall. On the same day UNTAG asks for the suspension of a senior policeman as a result of a South African police raid (Koevoet (crow bar)) on a church hospital in the north where Koevoet broke into the place in search of SWAPO soldiers whom they thought had sought sanctuary there. Von Hirschberg granted the suspension and proposed a joint committee to which all

13.05.

15.05.

16.05.

17.05. 19.05.

22.05.

problems about bias and intimidation could be sent, with the authority to call on the Attorney-General to initiate prosecutions. The South African security forces return to base. Since the Cape Town Joint Commission meeting at the end of April they had searched for SWAPO arm caches and had killed four more SWAPO personnel. A second meeting at Ruacana between UNTAG and the South Africans takes place. South Africa confirms now that the situation existing on the 31.03.1989 has now been restored and that South African security forces should continue to be restricted to base. UNTAG General Opande tells the meeting that he had counted 1 442 PLAN members returning to Angola and Angolan General Ndalu confirms that there are no SWAPO personnel south of the 16th parallel. The parties agree to meet again at Cahama in Angola on 19.05. Angola proposes a peace plan to eight African leaders at a Luanda summit. UN Secretary-General Péres de Cuéllar presents to the UN Security Council a resolution on the need for impartiality of the United Nations (UN Document S/20635). The Administrator-General appoints the Judicial Commission for the Prevention of Intimidation and Election Malpractices (The Commission winds up its work on 17.11.). Chairman is Bryan O’Linn. Hompa Angelina Matumbo Ribebe is inaugurated as Queen of the Shambyu area in Kayengona in the Kavango. The Administrator-General commences to pass the necessary legislation and takes the appropriate administrative measures to ensure the envisaged free and fair process leading to Namibian independence. The first one is Proclamation AG 11 which provides for the "Establishment and Powers of the Commission for the Prevention and Combatting of Intimidation and Election Malpractices". Another 1 200 Cuban troops leave Angola, bringing the total of

Another 1 200 Cuban troops leave Angola, bringing the total of Cubans having left to 2 000 (since January). SC Resolution 435 requires the demobilisation of the South West Africa Territory Force (SWATF) and of what is called "citizen forces" and "commandos" which should have been completed by 01.04.1989. The latter two number 11 158. Their arms and equipment is deposited in drill halls and is guarded by UNTAG infantry. The SWATF consists of 21 661, all ranks, and should have been demobilised by 01.04.1989. Much of it had then been remobilised after the events of 01.04 and thereafter, but it fully stands down by to-day. Its members, 01.06. however, believe themselves to be on indefinite leave, rather than demobilised. They keep their uniforms and report twice a month to receive their pay from South African senior officers (all in civilian clothes). UNTAG believes this is a breach of the Settlement Plan, dismissing South African arguments based on the danger of future SWAPO incursions. This thorny issue is not resolved until the November 1989 elections, when the possibility begins to be examined of creating a national army for Namibia. The Administrator-General passes Proclamation AG 14 for 08.06. the "First Law amendment (Abolition of Discriminatory of Restrictive Laws for purposes of Free and Fair Elections)". The Administrator-General declares a general amnesty for all Namibians living abroad, lifts prohibitions on political 12.06. activities and repeals or amends 46 discriminatory laws (AG 16 of 1989). This enables the return of Namibian exiles. By this time UNTAG has its five official networks in place. The military component provides the first network. The second link is the UN’s civilian police who was increased from 500 to 1 500 during the first months of the mission. The UNTAG administration represents the third network which attends to mission support and logistics. The fourth one is the electoral division, headed by Hisham Omayad. The fifth network is mid-June supported by 42 regional (ten) and district (32) centres. Although the United Nations High Commission for Refugees June

18.06.

(UNHCR) and the RRR Committee of the CCN operate autonomously, they are in fact co-ordinated closely with UNTAG, and its network of primary and secondary reception centres (planned by Namibia Consult Incorporated under the directorship of Klaus Dierks) provide an important potential link between the United Nations and various events in Namibia. The repatriation of Namibian exiles begins in the second week of June, under the auspices of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and the RRR Committee of the CCN. The first group of senior SWAPO leaders returns from exile (inter alia Hage Gottfried Geingob, Libertine Amathila, Theo-Ben Gurirab, Hidipo Hamutenya and Pendukeni Iivula Ithana), and SWAPO’s first appeal for national reconciliation follows their return. Altogether 42 736 Namibians return from exile from 42 countries, including about 7 000 PLAN soldiers in civilian clothes with their commanders, far more than the 30 000 Namibians who fought against SWAPO in the South West Africa Territorial Force (SWATF) and around 6 000 others who belonged to the South West African Police or para-military units such as Koevoet. Most of the exiles return from the SWAPO Camp Kwanza Sul in Angola. The South Africa controlled South West African Broadcasting Corporation (SWABC) ignores completely this major event. Not only was there no news item on the evening news, there was no news at all, without explanation. When SWAPO held its first press conference on the eve of Ahtisaari’s arrival on 31.03.1989, at least SWABC didn’t panic so much that they cancelled the news, they just ignored SWAPO and promoted the DTA instead. The SWABC’s partiality in favour of the South African colonial authority under the leadership of Piet Venter and his deputy, Piet Coetzer, continues until well after the November elections. UN document S/20883 dated 06.10.1989 describes the unsatisfactory performance of the SWABC.

22.06.

26.06.

30.06. 01.07.

UNTAG’s failure to change the SWABC’s biassed behaviour can be described as its principal failure in Namibia. The Namibia Peace Plan 435 (NPP-435)(Nahum Gorelick) monitors continuously the SWABC conduct. Pendukeni Ithana becomes Deputy Head of Legal Services in the SWAPO Election Directorate. Mosé Penaani Tjitendero joins the Election Directorate after his return from exile. The South African Government withdraws their budget subsidy of about US$ 200 million per annum to the Namibian treasury. The outcome of South Africa’s decision would be a serious deterioration in the country’s infrastructure and the abolition of many essential services. It would not be possible to meet civil services salaries throughout the financial year ending on 31.03.1990. UNTAG warns South Africa that Namibia is South Africa’s responsibility until independence. Angolan President Dos Santos and UNITA leader Savimbi shake hands at Gbadolite in Zaire, and agree on a cease-fire to begin at midnight. The Socialist Alliance of Namibia (SAN) is formed, but becomes dormant in the same year. The Party’s SecretaryGeneral is Rirua Karihangana. After complex negotiations between UNTAG and the Administrator-General, agreement is finally reached concerning the qualifications for voters registration. The criteria of four years residence in Namibia, insisted on by the United Nations, is now accepted for non-native Namibians. South African military or civilian officials who wish to apply to register are required to make an additional sworn affidavit that they intend to settle in the territory after independence. The electorate would also include the adult children of native-born Namibians. The Administrator-General passes Proclamation AG 19 for the "Registration of voters (Constituent Assembly Proclamation)". The election campaign officially starts.

01.07.

02.07.

04.07.

The National Transport Corporation is renamed TransNamib. SWAPO’s vision of Independent Namibia is published in its Election Manifesto which is based on the drafted Constitution of 1975. It makes provision for a bill of fundamental rights, the structure of state organs, citizenship requirements and the fundamental characteristics of the future Namibian state under the principle of "justice and equality for all". The registration of voters begins. Anyone entitled to register can do so at any registration point in Namibia. Sixty nine registration centres are established within the 23 electoral districts. Additionally 110 mobile registration teams are deployed to cover 2 200 registration points in the rural areas. UNTAG estimates that approximately 685 276 Namibians are qualified to vote (On the 23.09.1989 701 483 eligible voters are registered). Special voting stations are to be set up in Swakopmund to cater for those coming from Walvis Bay which is still part of South Africa. Others are arranged at villages in the extreme south of Namibia for those travelling to register from other parts of South Africa. Another is created at the Windhoek International Airport. The Political Consultative Council (PCC) is formed in Angola by a pressure group of 153 "SWAPO detainees" to campaign for the release of other "detainees" allegedly still being held in Angola (as result of the so-called "spy-crisis"). These detainees are to be returned to Namibia, under UN auspices.The PCC leaders are, inter alia, Riundja Kaakunga and Johannes Konjore. The Roman-Catholic Commission on "Justice and Peace" condemns human right violations in the SWAPO camps. External SWAPO communities, based in Zambia, and later in Angola, had been concerned at the possibility of infiltration by agents of South Africa. As with all the other southern African liberation movements, this had always been a real danger and was certainly prevalent. But there has also been always some form of paranoia on the SWAPO side. Even SWAPO President’s wife, Kovambo Theopoldine Nujoma, née

Katjimune and brother-in law, Aaron Mushimba, are believed to have been detained at one time or another, and some quite senior SWAPO people had reportedly still be in detention as late as February 1989. The European Parliament adopts a resolution on SWAPO’s prisoners, at the instigation of a parliamentarian group, most of whose members had shown little previous concern for the victims of Apartheid. On 05.05.1989 Martti Ahtisaari had sent a letter to the South African Administrator-General, to Sam Nujoma, and to the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Zambia and Angola, asking for the information about all Namibian prisoners and detainees, held under their authority or in their territory. Replies were requested by 20.05.1989. SWAPO and Angola reply within the deadline. Angola is bland. It says that there are "presently no Namibian prisoners or detainees in Angolese prisons or SWAPO camps". During September 1989 UNTAG sends a UN mission, the UN Mission on Detainees (UNMD), led by Nigerian exAmbassador BA Clark, to Angola and Zambia. The mission roams both countries for several weeks, with the support of the governments concerned, going everywhere they want, sometimes with minimal notice, but finds no Namibian detainees. Ombara (traditional title) Tuhavi David Kambazembi is sworn in as Chief of the Kambazembi Royal House in Okakarara.

Meeting between the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the

Liberation Struggle (AACRLS) and the Council of the Royal Kambazembi House: Okakarara: 29.07.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

17.07.

Ovaherero Community of the Kambazembi Group at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): Okakarara: 29.07.2003
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Chief Tjikuua of the Ovaherero Community at Okakarara at the Meeting with the Cabinet Committee: Archives of Anticolonial

Resistance and the Liberation Struggle (AACRLS): 29.07.2003
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

20.07.

21.07.

The Patriotic Unity Movement is founded under the presidency of Eric Biwa and joins the UDF alliance. The Administrator-General publishes a draft proclamation on the election process. Reaction throughout Namibia is hostile because South Africa wants to heavily influence the forthcoming elections. Discussions on the election topic between the A.G. and UNTAG continue throughout the months of August and September and are prolonged and at times bitter. They are so difficult in their final days at the beginning of October that UNTAG seriously considers to postpone the elections. One point of concern is that UNTAG requires that political party agents are allowed at polling stations and at the count, and that they be allowed to be present at all stages of the polling. This is to help ensure not only that the voting would be free and fair, but also that it would be seen to be so by the Namibian people. This is opposed by the South African side. South Africa tries to the last moment in October 1989 to influence the establishment of the Constituent Assembly. The draft proclamation gives renewed proof of South Africa’s embittered determination to dominate the constitution-making process in Namibia and to retain control up to the last moment, and possibly beyond. UN Secretary-General Péres de Cuéllar visits Namibia. He is disturbed about the continued violence, especially in the northern regions. One of the UN Secretary-General’s main priorities is to meet with all the parties and meet with them all together. Everybody comes - the representatives of ten political parties, large and small, and all the Namibian press to record this unprecedented meeting. Péres de Cuéllar declares inter alia to the political parties "Sooner or later, UNTAG and the South Africans will depart. You, as the

representatives of the Namibian people, will achieve your long-delayed inheritance of independence. You will also shoulder the full responsibilities of independence, and of nation-building ... ." Péres de Cuéllar’s suggestions are adopted by all parties. One outcome of the meeting is the "Code of Electoral Conduct" of 12.09.1989. The Popular Movement 1904 (PM 1904) is founded as a political pressure group with the aim of "regrouping the discarded remnants of exterminated Namibians and securing the safe return with their cattle and belongings" of all refugees 25.07. who settled in Botswana in the aftermath of the OvahereroGerman War of 1904/06 and the Ovambanderu War of 1896. Another aim is to bring about "Namibian dedication to the cause of returning confiscated land". The movement’s first Secretary is Rirua Karihangana. The UN Council for Namibia arranges the UN Conference: "Contingency Planning for Technical Assistance to Namibia during the Transition to Independence" in Vienna/Austria. 24.-28.07. Namibian participants are inter alia: Lindi Kazombaue, Immanuel Dumeni, Solomon Amadhila, Pius Dunaisky, Fanuel Tjingaete, Ben Kathindi, Calle Schlettwein, Hermann Weitzel, Bob Meiring and Klaus Dierks. The Liberal Party is revived by Andrew Kloppers, and joins the FCN alliance. Following the death of Andrew Kloppers Snr, August Andrew "Andy" John Fred Kloppers becomes the party’s leader. The notorious South African Civil Co-operation Bureau (CCB) which in the past has been responsible for numerous human right abuses in Namibia such as the killing of PLAN prisoners of war, tries to disturb the peace process. Wouter Basson 04.08. allegedly tries to poison the water supply system at the Döbra reception centre for returning Namibian exiles with Vibrio Cholera bacterium. Later (2000) it is established that he allegedly ordered the "poisoning" of more than 200 SWAPO soldiers.

10.08.

14.08. 23.08.

endAugust

28.08.

04.09.

South African right-wingers Horst Klenz, Darryl Stopforth and Leonard Veenendal (the so-called three "Outjo firebomb attackers") attack the regional offices of UNTAG in Outjo. In the process two Namibians, Theophilus Haoseb and Ricardo van Wyk, are killed. After initial arrest, the three South Africans manage to flee and escape to South Africa. The South African President PW Botha resigns. His successor is FW De Klerk (with effect from 15.08.). Some SWA police officers, including Koevoet soldiers, shoot at SWAPO members during election meetings at Onaukali and Okatope. To halt intimidation in Namibia, the UN Security Council unanimously passes UN SC Resolution 640 calling for the demobilisation of all paramilitary groups and local units (SWATF, Koevoet). On 01.09.1989, in reaction to this resolution, the South African Minister for Foreign Affairs, Pik Botha, bellows at Martti Ahtisaari "And tell your SecretaryGeneral to go to hell. If that’s the line the Secretary-General is taking after the Security Council, I’ll advice the Acting State President (FW De Klerk) today, and we’ll suspend the application of 435 tomorrow." South Africa continues with its support of the biassed SWABC and of Koevoet and the policy of destabilisation of SWAPO. Pik Botha later (25.07.1991) admits that South Africa had set up a massive "slush fund" of 100 million South African Rand to fund all opposition parties, especially the DTA, in an effort to defeat SWAPO in the UNO supervised elections. Charlie Marengo (born 1901), son of Jakob Marengo, dies in Kakamas, SA. The Registration of Political Organisations Proclamation is issued and provides for a judicial hearing of applications for registration. Each political party has to be able to present 2 000 signatures of supporters who are also registered votes, and to make a deposit of R 10 000, returnable to it if one or more of its candidates succeed in being elected to the

08.09.

09.09.

12.09.

14.09.

Constituent Assembly. Ten parties are eventually registered. After all the efforts by UNTAG to get Koevoet demobilised, the Administrator-General comes up with a big surprise. He decides that he would discharge Koevoet, after all. He will place them on leave until the end of the elections. They will hand in their uniforms and their weapons, and return to civilian life. Charlie Marengo is buried at Vaalgras/ Koichas. Wilhelm Konjore, Jakob Marengo’s great grandson, conducts the burial service. Klaus Dierks and Henning Melber are the only "whites" to participate in the ceremony. Advocate Anton Lubowski, one of SWAPO’s few "white" members and Acting Director of Finance and Administration in the SWAPO Election Directorate, is assassinated outside his home in Windhoek. Reportedly the CCB is also responsible for this murder. SWAPO President Sam Nujoma, accompanied by Moses Makue ||Garoëb, returns after 30 years in exile. He is greeted by SWAPO leaders such as Nathaniel Maxuilili, Hendrik Witbooi and Hage Geingob and thousands of SWAPO supporters at the Windhoek International Airport. UNCIVPOL reaches its final strength of 1 500. Policemen of 25 countries take part in the peacekeeping effort. For the first time both Germanies participate with their police forces in this effort. The German Democratic Republic (GDR) tumbles over themselves to offer police contingents. UNTAG thinks the presence of their police, monitoring the South West African Police (SWAPOL), might be an interesting consciousnessraising exercise. Indeed the GDR police are enthusiastically ensuring Namibia’s free and fair elections the very moment on 09.11.1989 that, back home, their own excited citizens are ripping down the "Berlin Wall". A special task is to control SA’s "special operations" unit, Koevoet (crow bar) which still intimidates the local population in the north. Many Koevoet and SWAPOL members are essential there to enforce a

colonial-Apartheid system, rather than to be upholders of a neutral system of law and order and to protect the people. 15.09. One example stands for many others. On 15.06. Koevoet brandished their power at the UNHCR camp for returning refugees at Ongwediva. UNTAG counted between 70 and 80 casspir armoured vehicles encircling the camp. But the strength of SWAPOL begins to diminish after UNCIVPOL has reached its full strength. By the time of the November elections, UNCIVPOL is effectively the only organised lawenforcing body in the north of Namibia. UNCIVPOL also provides first-line policing for the UNHCR’s programme of returnee-return, being present at the critical points of entry, and at the primary and secondary reception centres. UNCIVPOL is especially active in monitoring SWAPOL as the election campaign and programme of rallies becomes more intense. By the time of the elections UNCIVPOL is attending about 100 rallies a week, with SWAPOL appearing only sporadically. 22.09. The registration of voters ends. At Windhoek-Katutura there is an affray between SWAPO and the DTA supporters, the worst such incident since the beginning of the year. About 500 DTA people march into the middle of the SWAPO area of the township, with clubs and 28.09. sticks. Fighting breaks out almost at once and, after a few minutes, someone drives up and opens fire in all directions. Several people are injured, miraculously, nobody is killed. The South West African Police (SWAPOL) is suspiciously absent. The election campaign reaches its "hot" phase. A number violent incidents erupt between supporters of SWAPO and the September DTA, particularly in the north. UNTAG manages to contain the to October violence by persuading all parties to sign a "Code of Electoral Conduct" (12.09.)(UN Document S/20883). However, at the end of October calm settles over Namibia like a soft, gentle blanket.

The South African Administrator-General Louis Pienaar Beginning transfers the Namibian civil service pension fund from the October Namibian administration to trustees who could move it to South Africa. The estimated outflow of Namibian pension funds is 1,2 billion Rand. Martti Ahtisaari declares the following: "In our view the Constituent Assembly is to be a creature of the Namibian people, and, like parliamentary bodies everywhere, is to be largely self-governing. Naturally it will, at least until it adopts the Constitution, be a body with a strictly limited mandate, that is, to formulate and bring into force a Constitution for an 10.10. independent Namibia, to declare independence and in that connection to establish the initial Government for the new country. All it will require from the existing Government, that is from the Administrator-General, are the material resources to enable it to function, and protection from any outside interference." The Administrator-General passes Proclamation AG 49 for the "the Holding of an Election for a Constituent Assembly". This final version of the proclamation provides for all registered voters in possession of the correct documents to cast "ordinary ballots" if they vote in districts where they had registered. "Out-of district voters" are required to cast 13.10. "tendered ballots" which are subject to verification before being counted. All ordinary ballots are counted at the respective district headquarters. Tendered ballots are counted in Windhoek. Overall, voters tendering ballots amount later to 13,4% of the total electorate. In an overall turnout of more than 97% of the registered voters, 1,4% votes are finally rejected for one reason or another. South Africa’s position is becoming more liberal and less extreme. The new South African President, FW De Klerk, 15.10. permits a huge anti-Apartheid demonstration in Cape Town and all the South African ANC leaders, except Nelson Mandela (released on 11.02.1990), are released from jail.

20.10.

24.10.

01.11.

A young South African civil servant, Sue Dobson, reports about a big, heavily funded disinformation campaign against UNTAG and the Security Council Resolution 435. UNTAG receives reports from various sources about unexplained destabilising activities in the north. One example shows activities by the Ombili Foundation. This foundation supports Bushmen (San or Khoesan) activities in the north and has two objectives. One is to try to create and support a DTA presence in what is otherwise a SWAPO stronghold area through enticement and a show of force. The other is to conduct liaison with a large UNITA camp just across the Angolan border, close to Beacon 34. The foundation is providing transit camps and general security for the supply route to this UNITA formation from the Tsumeb-Grootfontein area. They also support the readiness of South Africa supported Bushman contingents as a potential guerilla-type defensive entity. For the last, South Africa discharges a noisy explosion on Namibia’s eventful path to independence. SA troops are placed on alert after reports of a SWAPO troop presence on the Angola-Namibia border. South African Foreign Minister Pik Botha alleges that South Africa has been monitoring UNTAG’s communications for several days and has now clear and unambiguous proof that UNTAG is aware of SWAPO plans for a mass invasion from Angola into Namibia more or less on the eve of the elections. Very quickly and after experts have checked the "evidence", the threat turns out to be a hoax and crude forgery; a case of deliberate misinformation by "anti-independence" forces. Pik Botha later admits that these reports were communicated to him by General Johannes Geldenhuys from the same source as information on the events of 31.03./01.04.1989 which had led to the attack and death of PLAN troops and civilians. SWAPO’s Peter Katjavivi remarks that "Pik Botha’s stupidity brings SWAPO near to a two-third majority". On the eve of the Elections for the Constituent Assembly, Fred

Eckhardt, UNTAG’s spokesperson declares that all UNTAG monitors are reporting that "Namibia from Oshakati to Keetmanshoop, from Swakopmund to Gobabis, report that the country is exceptionally calm". 07./11.11. Elections for the Constituent Assembly take place. UN Special Representative Martti Ahtisaari declares the following: "I have now received preliminary reports from virtually all parts of the country in regard to the 358 polling stations supervised and controlled by UNTAG . ... However, I foresee the possibility of delay due to the unexpected tidal wave of voters on the first day. Namibians have gone to the polls with overwhelming determination and enthusiasm. In some places, they began to line up 81/2 hours before voting 07.11. stations opened at 07h00 hours today. From all over the country, UNTAG Regional Directors have reported that queues began to form in the middle of the night. Though stations notionally closed at 19h00 hours, Namibians who were already in line at that time are still voting at 20h30 hours local time, so overwhelming has been the resolve to determine their country’s future. ... All regions have described a situation of overall calm ... ". At the second voting day, voting is quite as heavy as on the first, but is better organised by more experienced personnel, so that kilometre-long queues, widespread on 07.11., are 08.11. rare. The situation remains calm to very calm throughout the country. However, a problem arises over the shortage of ballot boxes and papers in the north. The problem of shortages of ballot boxes and papers is resolved on the third and fourth day of the elections. It had been caused by attempts of political parties to avoid the long 09./10.11. lines at some stations. They had bused supporters, en masse, to less populous regions and stations, and these stations, though supplied with 50% more materials than they anticipated a need for, quickly ran out. The fourth day of voting is extremely quiet. Several stations 06.11.

10.11.

11.11.

14.11.

15.11.

16.11.

had already seen well over 100% of the numbers they had estimated would be voting there. UN Special Representative Martti Ahtisaari certifies that the elections were "free and fair". He declares "But it is the people of Namibia whom I chiefly wish to congratulate. They have patiently waited many years for this opportunity to take their future into their own hands. During the campaign, and especially during this week, they have demonstrated vast resources of calm, self-discipline and determination. This week, the people of Namibia have given the whole world an exemplary lesson in democracy. It has been a privilege for all of us from the United Nations to participate in this historic process, an experience none of us will ever forget". The election results are announced: SWAPO 57,3%, DTA 28,6%, UDF 5,6%, ACN 3,5%, NPF 1,6%, FCN 1,6%, NNF 0,8%, SWAPO-D 0,5%, CDA 0,4% and NNDP 0,1%. Over 97% of registered voters of 701 483 go to the polls. SWAPO polls just over 57% to win 41 of the 72 seats in the Assembly. The DTA manages to block a two-thirds SWAPO majority by winning over 28% of the votes cast and 21 seats. Of the 23 electoral districts, the DTA wins 14, SWAPO 8 (including the three largest - Ovamboland, the Kavango and Windhoek) and the UDF one. The high DTA poll is achieved by a concerted South African effort to transport thousands of "white" South Africans and Angolan UNITA supporters to Namibia in order to vote against SWAPO. The two party leaders, Sam Nujoma and Mishake Muyongo, accept the voting results as free and fair. SWAPO President Sam Nujoma announces that SWAPO does not want to create an one-party state, but would rather work together with its political opponents to build the new state. Namibia obtains a new definitive stamp issue (fourth decimal definitive issue) with mineral and mining pictorials as motif (no water mark). These stamps still use the name "SWA"

16.11.

20.11.

21.11.

although SWAPO had just won the election and some weeks later the new independent Republic of Namibia comes into being. The last 1 500 SA troops start to leave Namibia within a week of the elections being certified. Sam Nujoma opens the Constituent Assembly exactly one week after the elections being certified. The sixty-six men and six women of the Constituent Assembly represent a total of seven political parties. Theo-Ben Gurirab proposes the adoption of the 1982 Constitutional Principles of the Western Contact Group (UN Report S/15287 dated 12.07.1982). It is agreed that Namibia will be a multi-party democracy with an independent judiciary and a strong Bill of Rights which would protect civil liberties and oppose arbitrary expropriation of private property without justification. Nico Bessinger proposes that Hage Geingob, SWAPO’s election campaign manager, is elected Speaker. He chairs a Standing Committee consisting of twelve SWAPO members and nine from other parties (DTA: four and NNF, FCN, ACN and UDF one member each) to draft the rules of procedure which are adopted by the end of November. Later Geingob chairs the constitutional Drafting Committee. Dirk Mudge from the DTA proposes the acceptance of the SWAPO draft as the basis for drafting the Constitution. The constitutional draft is decisively designed by Hartmut Ruppel and the President of the NNF, Vekuui Rukoro. Namibia is the second country in Africa (after Cape Verde) abolishing the death penalty. The basic human rights cannot be changed, not even with a two-third majority in Parliament. At the end there are only two points of material dispute between the parties: over the question of an Executive President and whether or not there should be a second chamber of Parliament. UNTAG commander Daniel Opande is present in Lubango in Angola when the last of the SWAPO camps are closed down. By this time 290 personnel in civilian clothes await repatriation to Namibia, together with 50 women and children.

23.11.

27.11.

07.12.

SWAPO’s arms are handed over to the Angolese army. UNTAG’s last monitoring post in Angola is closed on 31.12.1989. There is a general break-down of law and order in the north with SWAPOL being virtually passive. Many members are packing their goods to return to South Africa. The vacuum that is developing in the north is troublesome. Kobus Bauermeester from the AG office is reminded by UNTAG that until independence South Africa has the responsibility for the maintenance of law and order. The Joint Monitoring Commission (JMC) meets at Sanbonani near the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Theo-Ben Gurirab speaks about three issues of which SWAPO has still concerns as to South Africa’s intentions: the need for international support of various kinds right up to independence, the position of South African troops in Walvis Bay, and as regards the South Africa supported Bushmen (San or Khoesan) military units and still active Koevoet units. The British Ambassador, Robin Renwick, reports that SWAPO has approached him for help in the creation of the Namibian Defence Force (NDF) and the Commonwealth (which Namibia will join with independence) for the formation of a national police force (NAMPOL). This follows a letter which Sam Nujoma has written in this connection to the UN Secretary-General, Javier Péres de Cuéllar, on 23.11.1989. Just before Christmas two committees are established to look at the creation of the nucleus of a national army, and at the integration and training of a new Namibian police force. On 12.12.1989 the Home Affairs Minister-Designate, Hifikepunye Pohamba, approves a training course for the future NAMPOL. The Administrator-General puts three options on the table concerning the Bushmen (San or Khoesan) military units: First, that ex-South West Africa Territorial Force (SWATF) Bushmen should be taken, with their families to South Africa and resettled in Kimberley - as promised over the years by

08.12.

21.12.

South African Army generals. Secondly, they could simply be left to their own devices in Namibia and thirdly, South Africa could fund - for a time - some international body to administer and support them. The South African General, Kit Liebenberg, says that he would prefer if the Bushmen could stay in Namibia, but, "if nothing is done", it would be better for them to be resettled in South Africa. Martti Ahtisaari states that this problem is essentially a Namibian issue and that the future Namibian Government must be consulted and has to participate in finding a solution. Consequently a "Tripartite Working Group on the Bushmen Issue" is established. Sam Nujoma announces his Shadow Cabinet for the first freely-elected Government of the Republic of Namibia. Hage Gottfried Geingob becomes Prime Minister. The following ministries are created (Minister, Deputy Minister, Permanent Secretary): Agriculture, Fisheries, Water and Rural Development (Minister not appointed yet, Gerd Hanekom is appointed as Minister as from February 1990, Kaire Mbuende, Calle Schlettwein); Defence (Peter Hilinganye Mweshihange, Phillemon Malima, Frans Kapofi); Education, Culture and Sport (Nahas Angula, Buddy Wentworth, Vitalis Ankama); Finance (Otto Herrigel, Deputy Minister not appointed yet, Godfrey Gaoseb); Foreign Affairs (Theo-Ben Gurirab, Netumbo Nandi Ndaitwah, Andreas #Guibeb (son of Diederick #Guibeb)); Health and Social Services (Nicky Iyambo, Deputy Minister not appointed yet, Solomon Amadhila); Home Affairs (Lucas Hifikepunye Pohamba, Nangolo Ithete, Ndali Kamati); Information and Broadcasting (Hidipo Hamutenya, Daniel Tjongarero, Vezera Kandetu); Justice (Ernest Ngarikutuke Tjiriange, Vekuui Rukoro (NNF), Albert Kawana); Labour, Public Service and Manpower Development (Hendrik Witbooi, Timothy Hadino Hishongwa, Tuli Hiveluah); Land, Resettlement and Rehabilitation (Marco Hausiku, Marcus Shivute, Uitala Hiveluah); Local Government and Housing (Libertine Amathila, Jerry Ekandjo, Nghidimondjila Shoombe); Mines and Energy (Andimba Toivo

28.12.

Ya Toivo, Helmut Kangulohi Angula, Leake Hangala); Trade and Industry (Ben Amathila, Reggie Diergaardt (UDF), Tsudao Gurirab); Wildlife, Conservation and Tourism (Niko Bessinger, Pendukeni Iivula Ithana, Hanno Rumpf); Works, Transport and Communication (Richard Kapelwa-Kabajani, Klaus Dierks, Peingeondjabi Shipoh). Further members of the Cabinet are the Secretary General of SWAPO (Moses Makue ||Garoëb); the Minister of State for Security (Peter Tshirumbu Tsheehama); the Attorney-General (Hartmut Ruppel); the Auditor-General (Gerd Hanekom, later Jan Jordaan) and the Director-General of the National Planning Commission (Zedekia Ngavirue). While approximately 50 % of the government positions have been allocated to the Oshivambo speaking community, other Namibian communities are also represented. The key positions are filled by formerly exiled SWAPO members of the SWAPO Central Committee. The "white", and especially the German speaking group is clearly over-represented. Two deputy ministers belong to opposition parties (NNF and UDF). This indicates SWAPO’s policy of "National Reconciliation". The first group of UNTAG soldiers leaves Namibia. However, Sam Nujoma asks one Kenyan battalion to stay behind and assist in the establishment of the future Namibian Defence Force. Likewise, the British Government undertakes to support this task.

Martti Ahtisaari and the SA

Administrator--General, Louis Pienaar at the Press Conference on 31 March 1989
Namibia State Archive

UNTAG Helicopter
Namibia State Archive

Voters during the November 1989

Election
Namibia State Archive

[Return to Table of Contents]

7. THE PERIOD AFTER NAMIBIA'S INDEPENDENCE
7.1 THE FIRST TEN YEARS 1990–2000
Prior to independence, education in Namibia was characterised by inequality and fragmentation. Apartheid in education, training and culture led to differentiated access to employment and hence to wages. Learner-teacher ratios varied from 13 to 1 in schools under the "Administration for Whites" to 37 to 1 for schools under the "Administration for Ovambos". Inadequate provision for teachers and buildings meant large classes, often in excess of 50 learners. Books and teaching aids were also in short supply. The result of such severe limitation was a high drop-out rate and frequent repetition of grades. To change this situation is only one of the numerous challenges facing the incoming government of independent Namibia. The diamond mine of Auchas at the Oranje River is brought into production. On New Year’s Eve the Constituent Assembly votes unanimously for Namibia to become independent on 21 March 1990 (officially announced on 29.01.1990). This symbolic date must be seen as a remembrance of the occurrences in Sharpeville, South Africa, in March 1960. TransNamib sells 40 locomotives, without informing the newly created Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication. This sale marks the beginning of TransNamib’s erosion of assets which leads ten years later to the financial problems of the Namibian railway company.

1990

01.01.

10.01.

South Africa unilaterally closes the border post at Mata Mata, the entrance point from Namibia into the South African Kalahari Gemsbok Park. A national flag and symbols are adopted for the new nation.

02.02.

07.02.

08.02.

After the appointment of the Shadow Cabinet on 21.12.1989, a number of government ministers and senior officials attend the Tripartite Working Group on the Bushmen Issue which was established in December 1989. They plead to the Bushmen (San or Khoesan) that they are welcome to stay in Namibia and that they could contribute as citizens, that their land rights would be protected, that they could move and settle anywhere they want in Namibia and that the new Constitution would fully protect them. Sam Nujoma reiterates this pledge by a letter to the Bushmen groups. But, the Bushmen begin to realise that they cannot any more expect their former high salaries paid by the South Africans and that they would be better off -so many believe in South Africa. The designated Minister for Finance, Otto Herrigel, announces in his first official speech that independent Namibia will follow a pragmatic economic course. Namibia intends to stay for at least three years in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU). Furthermore he proposes the establishment of an independent Central Bank (later Bank of Namibia). The Constituent Assembly unanimously adopts a new Constitution. This symbolically and materially ends an era

09.02.

14.02.

of colonial oppression and resistance against foreign rule. It is adopted at an outdoor ceremony before the facade of the Tintenpalast. This is covered by a huge banner reciting the Preamble of the Constitution. Article 133 of the new Constitution provides that the Constituent Assembly would become the first National Assembly of Namibia, the first president being the person elected to that office in the Constituent Assembly. Windhoek Municipality plans to celebrate Windhoek’s Centenary anger those people who believe the festivities would be honouring colonialism, as Windhoek is much older than hundred years. SWAPO declares that the liberation movement would have nothing to do with the Centenary celebrations. This development leads later to the cancellation of the planned Centenary celebrations. The South African Defence Force (SADF) asks the exsoldiers of the Bushmen (San or Khoesan) military units whether or not they want to move to South Africa. A vote is taken in each Bushmen village. Overall, 327 want to go to South Africa, 77 to Botswana and 255 would like to remain in Namibia. Sam Nujoma strongly rejects the idea of relocating Bushmen of Namibian origin, but the first group is relocated to South Africa on 20.02.1990. Shadow Minister for Land, Resettlement and Rehabilitation, Marco Hausiku, declares that it would be better if a period of time is allowed to elapse during which the Bushmen could think the matter over after the intense South African propaganda to which they had been exposed. The Home Affairs Minister-Designate, Hifikepunye Pohamba, with just a few weeks of UNTAG’s mandate to run, declares that SWAPO has approached seven countries (Canada, Germany, Ghana, India, Nigeria, Pakistan and Sweden), seeking the continuance of their police, now members of UNCIVPOL, after the end of the mandate. Ghana, India, Nigeria and Pakistan agree to provide police support for a time after independence. As regards the

16.02.

20.02.

27.02.

establishment of a new National Army, there is a political need for a military nucleus by independence day. Such a nucleus of the future Namibian Defence Force (NDF) is in fact brought together and with, the help of the Kenyan battalion, given training by 21.03.1990. The Constituent Assembly unanimously elects Sam Shafiishuna Nujoma President of the future independent state. The Deputy Minister designate for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, travels to Luanda/Angola, to prepare an agreement in order to rebuild the destroyed road from Oshikango at the border between Namibia and Angola to Lubango and Namibe (Namibe-Corridor). This is followed by a further visit, together with the Angolan Ambassador to Namibia, Bento Ribiero, in July to finalise the agreement. Dierks announces policy guidelines for transport and communications for the independent Namibia. Firstly the transport and telecommunications infrastructure between the two Namibias (first world and third world Namibia) has to be balanced by the establishment of engineering infrastructure in the so far neglected parts of the country, especially Ovamboland. Secondly the one-sided transport link to South Africa (noose or lifeline transport situation) has to expanded by the creation of new east-west-transport corridors to the landlocked neighbours in the east, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Trans Kalahari and Trans Caprivi highways) and the construction of the missing link between Keetmanshoop and Lüderitz, the Aus to Goageb highway. Environmental and social issues have to be brought into the future planning process of transport infrastructure. The unemployment has to be eased by the application of labour-based construction methods. Furthermore efficiency in the transport sector will be increased by deregulation and competition as well as a road sector reform based on privatisation. The reintegration

28.02.

End February

05.03.

of the Walvis Bay enclave will be a top priority for the new government. Furthermore a commercial pilot training college is planned for Keetmanshoop. As far as any future transcontinental air services of Namib Air (the subsequent Air Namibia) are concerned, Dierks supports such an undertaking only with the back up of a strong international airline partner which has the essential resources which Namib Air lacks now and in the foreseeable future. He opposes Namib Air’s new flight between Windhoek and Frankfurt/Germany without a strong airline partnership, although, for political reasons, South African Airways (SAA) cannot be allowed to continue to use the traffic rights on this route. Therefore, there is currently no alternative but to allow Namib Air to operate this route. The !Kung Traditional Authority appoints its Chief, ||’Aiha (traditional title) John N. Arnold in the Omatako Valley, followed by the Ju|’hoansi Traditional Authority, which elects the traditional leader, ||’Aiha Tsamkxao #Oma, in Tsumkwe on 05.07. After an official visit to Angola (21.01.) Nujoma calls on Congo, Algeria, Libya and Kuwait to thank these countries for the support for Namibia’s liberation struggle. Angola’s Foreign Minister, Van Dunem, reiterates Angola’s concern over the porosity of the Namibian frontier. He speaks of the efforts to negotiate an end to Angola’s war with UNITA and to bring about national reconciliation in Angola. However, UNITA is increasing its military activities. Meanwhile, the Angolan government is very much aware of developments in South Africa. Van Dunem reports, that SA’s Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, had mentioned to him that South Africa wants to establish conditions for peace and stability in all southern Africa countries. Apartheid, Botha had said, has been "a very serious mistake", and the whole system of "white" hegemony has to be abolished very quickly.

07.03

12./13.03.

15.03.

At Omega (West Caprivi), members from the Tripartite Working Group on the Bushmen Issue meet with Bushmen (San or Khoesan) elders, then with about 150 ex-soldiers of the Bushmen. The SWAPO delegation leader, Peter Naholo, says he has brought a message from President Nujoma, personally, of reconciliation, protection and opportunities for all, without discrimination. The Bushmen should recall that South Africa has its own problems, which are going to deepen. He says: "It’s for you to decide. We are not forcing you one way or other. But, you must understand that if you decide to go, there will be no coming back". Naholo advise them to stay in Namibia in which they are genuinely welcome, rather than depart for some foreign country. In reply, one Bushmen leader says that they had already taken their decision. They feel they are being pressured. They have chosen their future one year ago, and would not change their minds each time somebody visits Omega. At the Bushmen village of Mangetti Dune the same routine and much of the same discussion takes place. The leaders, when asked why the Bushmen want to leave their native country, refer to incidents of discrimination and hostility towards Bushmen in Namibia. Because they have decided to leave, they have sold their houses and cattle, and there is now only one way to go - south. 1 340 Bushmen and their dependants - and one day later 585 leave for Kimberley in South Africa. The move will be complete on 16.03.1990, five days before Namibia’s independence. The Namibian Department of Post and Telecommunications proposes the issuing of a set of stamps (designed in South Africa), depicting the Namibian independence. This issue nearly causes a stir because the Deputy Minister designate for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, rejects the stamp design because the liberation struggle leading to the hard won

15.03.

21.03.

independence is not pictured. He insists on one of the three stamps on a motive of open hands releasing a dove of peace with some broken chains around the wrists. This again is turned down by the South African Government. Only after a threat by Dierks to make the issue public and not to allow the publishing of the independence stamps, Dierks’ design is accepted and the stamps released. The year of Namibia’s independence brings historic rains to the country, one of the best rainy seasons in living memory. Here, rain means not only growth and fertility: it means god is watching over you. Today the Republic of Namibia is born, with Sam Nujoma its first President. Nujoma is sworn in by UN SecretaryGeneral, Javier Péres de Cuéllar. 30 000 spectators in the Windhoek Sport Stadium view the great event. The independence celebrations are witnessed by representatives of 147 countries including 20 heads of state. Extraordinary sights are to be seen. Leaders meet whom international politics had previously precluded from official meetings - FW De Klerk meets with Yassir Arafat, Kenneth Kaunda and the great South African leader, just released from prison, Nelson Mandela who makes a precisely timed arrival, immediately before proceedings begin. At the beginning of the proceedings turmoil erupts. Security people push some Prime Ministers into their seats. The new British High Commissioner lands on the lap of Karen Dierks. The turbulence results in some delays. Independence is delayed by 15 minutes. And the new proud flag of independent Namibia doesn’t fly because there is no breeze, and the South African flag droops limply, just as does the Namibian flag, as it goes up. A corner stone of the national policy of the new independent Namibia is the policy of national reconciliation. The policy seeks to address the consequences of the legacy of Namibia’s violent past, dating back to German colonial times, the South African oppression and effects of the

22.03. 28.03.

31.03.

apartheid system together with human rights violations committed during the liberation struggle. This policy of national reconciliation will also redress economic disparities in order to achieve the fruits of the Namibian independence. The 78 members (including six appointed members by the President) of the National Assembly of the Republic of Namibia are sworn in. Mosé Penaani Tjitendero is the elected Speaker of the lower house of Parliament. The last South African Administrator-General Louis Pienaar is given an official farewell by President Sam Nujoma. UNTAG’s mandate is coming to an end. When it pulls back from its 236 premises, it does so with remarkable speed. In order to protect her (by foreign nations) depleted Atlantic Ocean fishing grounds, Namibia pleads to the International Commission for South East Atlantic Fisheries (ICSEAF) to urge the member states to withdraw all foreign fishing trawlers from Namibian territorial waters. Subsequently Spain informs the European Community that this move risks 6 000 employment possibilities on Spanish fishing trawlers. Countries like Spain, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union and the Scandinavian countries try intensively to obtain Namibian fishing quotas. The value of the pre-independence hake catch can give some idea of the value of the depleted Namibian fish. From 1965 to 1989, according to the declared catch reflected in International Commission for the South-East Atlantic Fisheries (ICSEAF) statistics, 10 664 600 tonnes of hake were removed from Namibian waters, valued at 1996 prices at US$ 15 084 million. Virtually nothing of this accrued to Namibia. However, the combination of favourable environmental conditions and the implementation of a sound Namibian fishing policy for the restoration of the stocks, brings about a marked improvement in the fish stocks in the first part of the 1990s.

01.04.

10.04.

12.04. 17.04. 17./19.04. 23.04. 26.04.

27.04

Namibia is admitted to the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) as the tenth member state. The Minister Foreign Affairs, Theo-Ben Gurirab, announces that Namibia will follow a pragmatic approach against South Africa but will not send an ambassador as yet. The question of the reintegration of the Walvis Bay enclave will not be taken up in the moment. Unofficially it is agreed that Namibia will have free access to the Port of Walvis Bay. South Africa announces the appointment of a permanent diplomatic representative in Windhoek. In UN SC Resolution 652 the UN Security Council resolves to recommend to the General Assembly to admit the Republic of Namibia as member to the world body. President Sam Nujoma visits Zimbabwe. The General Assembly accepts with GA Resolution S-18/1 (1990) Namibia as 160th member of the organisation. Namib Air inaugurates its first transcontinental flight from Windhoek to Frankfurt, Germany. The first Parliamentarian Question in the history of the new National Assembly (Member Barney Barnes of the DTA) deals with a speech of the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, before the International Tourism Fair in Berlin during March. Dierks demands a pragmatic attitude by South Africa in the question of the reintegration of the Walvis Bay enclave. Otherwise Namibia would refuse traffic rights for South African planes in the Namibian air space. Although the speech sparks sharp criticism in the ranks of the opposition parties, a wide range of Namibians applaud Dierks' sentiments. He is fully exonerated by both the Prime Minister, Hage Geingob and the Minister of Works, Transport and Communication, Richard Kapelwa-Kabajani. President Sam Nujoma announces that the fight against

01.05.

05.05.

19.05.

23.05.

28./31.05.

29.05. 01.06.

unemployment enjoys top priority. He further declares the future establishment of a mixed economy between state owned and private enterprises. The Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) comes into being as successor of the South West African Broadcasting Corporation (SWABC). First Managing Director is Nahum Gorelick. His deputy is Piet Coetzer of the past SWABC. A Border Security Agreement is concluded between Namibia and Angola. A Joint Border Commission will supervise the agreement. This agreement is expanded by a Joint Cooperation Agreement for the Development and Utilisation of the Kunene River Basin (18.09.). The National Assembly adopts the Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone of Namibia Bill. This legislation creates Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Miles) along the Atlantic coast will protect Namibia’s fishing interests. Negotiations take place between the governments of Namibia (Minister of Education, Culture and Sport, Nahas Angula) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR)(Minister of Education, Prof. Meyer) in Berlin. The topic is the return of several hundred Namibian children who found refuge in the GDR during the liberation war (the socalled "GDR-Children"). 291 are school children in a school (Schule der Freundschaft) at Staßfurt near Magdeburg. 134 are pre-school children from the SWAPO children hostel at Bellin near Güstrow. Eight are small children. The children are accompanied by 29 Namibian adults. The Namibian Government maintains close ties with other African independence movements. Consequently Namibia takes up diplomatic relations with the Algeria supported Frente Polisario. The Organisation for African Unity (OAU) establishes a permanent diplomatic mission in Windhoek. During the first session of the National Assembly Prime

04.06.

05.06.

11.06.

Minister Hage Geingob supports a parliamentarian motion by the DTA and other opposition parties to establish an AllParty Commission to investigate the fate of SWAPO detainees which allegedly are still being held in Angola (the so-called "spy-crisis"). However, the Commission is not successful in completing its task. Therefore, at the beginning of November the Prime Minister proposes a motion in the National Assembly to ask the International Red Cross to look into the matter. Namibia becomes a full member of the Tripartite Agreement between South Africa, Angola and Cuba. A crisis looms in the Rehoboth area. The former South African Policy of Apartheid is manifested in a demand by the political leadership of the Baster, under the Baster Captain Diergaardt, for autonomy for the Rehoboth area. During an unofficial Referendum, 84,1% of 9 289 Baster voters call for a far reaching autonomy and special rights for the Baster. The conflict escalates because Diergaardt refuses to vacate his official residence. A High Court decision (25.09.) influences the Baster to accept the court ruling. A visit of President Nujoma on 03.11. defuses the situation. The Navachab gold mine comes into operation. It is envisaged to mine two tons of gold annually. The mine is run by the Erongo Mining and Exploration Company Ltd. Further shareholders are the De Beers Consolidated Mines, the Anglo-American Company, the Canadian Metal Mining Corporation (a subsidiary company of the German Metallgesellschaft). Rössing Uranium concludes an agreement with a French concern in order to mine 5 200 tons Uranium Oxide between 1995 and 2002. In spite of this Rössing Uranium has to curb its production to 75% of its capacity. The tin production at the Uis Tin Mine is abandoned due to low tin world market prices. Also Tsumeb Corporation Limited (TCL) announces losses due to low copper prices. The Southern African Transport and Communications

Commission (SATCC) (Maputo/ Mozambique) of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)(founded 1980 at Gaborone, Botswana), initiated by the Namibian Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and 12.06./15.06. Communication, Klaus Dierks, approves at Lilongwe, Malawi, road projects for the Trans Kalahari and Trans Caprivi Highways, a Zambezi Bridge between Namibia (Katima Mulilo) and Zambia (Sesheke), the Aus to Goageb highway and the Ovambo Road Network Master Plan. After the meeting the ten SADCC Ministers of Transport are received by President Hastings Kamuzu Banda in Blantyre. Shots are fired by unknown offenders on the houses of the 21.06. Ministers of Defence, Peter Mweshihange and Home Affairs, Lucas Pohamba. The International Donor Conference for Namibia takes place in New York. This conference is awaited with high expectations, also to address the expected budget deficit inherited by the SA Colonial Administration to the tune of R 500 Million. The pledged US $ 200 Million is not meeting the Namibian expectations. President Nujoma appeals to the conference to grade Namibia as "Least Developed Country", in spite of the relatively high average per-capita income of US $ 1 044 (1988), and in the light of the extreme skew income relations between the rich, mainly "white" and 21./22.06. the poor, mainly "black" income groups. Namibia joins the European Community sponsored Lomé Agreement and gets subsequently access to development aid to R 60 million by the European Community. Rand 14 million is provided as budget assistance and a further R 14 million for five development projects. Namibia also becomes a member of the European Community sponsored African/ Caribbean/Pacific member states. A compromise is found in the allocation of an beef export quota (13 000 tons annually with 10 500 tons for 1991) to the European Community.

End June

30.06.

06.07.

The Kenyan battalion of the former UNTAG is replaced by the first Namibian infantry battalion. This marks the beginning of the Namibian Defence Force which reaches 5 000 soldiers by the end of 1990. In the spirit of the policy of national reconciliation , the battalion consists of members of the former PLAN and the former SWATF forces. In the same vain also members of the former colonial administration and the SWA Police are kept in the new Namibian Civil Service. Namibia invites the Secretary General of the African National Congress (ANC), Alfred Nzo. The newspaper The Namibian reports that 500 "white" extremists of the former colonial dispensation plan to overthrow the new Namibian Government. On 05.08. a bomb is thrown on the Namibian. Later (end of August, beginning of September and on 12.10.) ten "white" men are arrested. Before the court case for high treason can be opened on 08.10., most of them manage to flee to South Africa. The Minister for Finance, Otto Herrigel tables the Budget for the Financial Year 1990/91. The budget makes provision for an expenditure of R 2 576 million against an expected revenue of R 2 336 million. No tax increases are envisaged. The major share of the total budget goes to the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication (R 550 million), followed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (R 469 million), the Ministry of Finance (R 379,5 million) and the Ministry of Health and Social Services (R 352 million). The biggest part of the capital expenditure of R 261 million goes to the Ministry of Works, Transport and Communication, mainly for road projects as proposed and planned by the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, (Trans Kalahari and Trans Caprivi highways, the Aus to Goageb highway and a new surfaced road between Gibeon Station to Gibeon). The Cabinet of the Republic of Namibia approves new

17.07.

consolidated political and administrative regional structures for the country. According to the recommendations of the Delimitation Commission, chaired by Gerhard Tötemeyer, Namibia will be subdivided into 13 regions. These regions form the base to select the second chamber of Parliament, the National Council. The elections have to take place within two years. For the Region of Caprivi the Cabinet decides on the name Liambezi. Regional maps and plans are successively printed, but some tribal complaints result in the later retention of the colonial name Caprivi. Some regional names, as suggested by the Commission, are rejected by Cabinet. Mopane Region becomes Omusati, Maroela becomes Ohangwena and Waterberg makes headway for the Otjozondjupa Region. During the same cabinet session, Namibia’s new national anthem is accepted which was written and composed by Axali Doeseb: "Namibia land of the brave - Freedom fight we have won - Glory to their bravery - Whose blood waters our freedom". On 11.11.1991 Namibia’s national anthem is adopted by the National Assembly (National Anthem of the Republic of Namibia Bill). The Cabinet also approves the opening of 18 Namibian Embassies and Diplomatic Missions, of which nine will be established in the near future. These include High Commissions in London, Lagos and Lusaka, Embassies in Moscow, Washington, Addis Ababa and Stockholm, a Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York and a Permanent Mission to the European Union in Brussels. Further Diplomatic Missions are envisaged in Berlin (GDR)(the Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, has already received a principal assurance from the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, that Namibia could obtain the former SWAPO Embassy in Berlin, Wilhelmsruhe for a nominal price but this is later not followed up by the Permanent Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Andreas #Guibeb), Paris,

23.07.

01.08.

02./05.08. 03.08.

26./31.08.

Harare, Beijing, Algiers, New Delhi, Tokyo and Luanda. By this time Namibia already has signed more than 100 agreements on the establishment of Diplomatic missions in Namibia (21 credentials of Ambassadors and High Commissioners are received to date). President Ketumile Masire from Botswana is the first head of state on a state visit to Namibia. His top priority is the speedy completion of the Trans Kalahari Highway. The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, hands over to him his planning study for a Trans Kalahari Railway Line from South Africa via Botswana to the Port of Walvis Bay. In subsequence of the Cabinet Decision dated 17.07. the Government appoints Regional Commissioners for the 13 regions. In the spirit of the policy of national reconciliation members of other political parties and former SWAPO detainees are also appointed. The Namibian Central Bank (later Bank of Namibia) is established with a founding capital of R 40 Million. The Minister for Finance, Otto Herrigel, announces that Namibia will get her own currency (Namibia Dollar) within two years. President Sam Nujoma visits Zambia. TransNamib changes the name "Namib Air" into "Air Namibia". The "GDR-Children" are brought back to Namibia. They are accompanied by two members of the last, democratically elected GDR Parliament (Volkskammer): Anne-Katrin Glase (Christian Democratic Party (CDU)) and Jürgen Leskien (Partei Demokratischer Sozialisten (PDS)). The return is organised by the Repatriation, Resettlement and Reconstruction Committee (RRR Committee). The children are initially accommodated in the Peoples Primary School at Katutura (Windhoek). After the re-unification of Germany (03.10.1990) assists the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in the education of the "GDR-

Children". Prime Minister Hage Geingob visits Mozambique. The Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Südwester Beginning (IG) holds its 13th annual congress. The IG is now named September Interessengemeinschaft Deutschsprechender für Namibia (IG). 03./07.09. President Sam Nujoma visits Botswana. 11.09. The UN Council for Namibia dissolves itself. President Nujoma meets Angola’s President, dos Santos, 18.09. in Lubango, Angola. Nujoma announces that an attractive investment climate will be created and that a pilot training college is planned for Keetmanshoop by British Aerospace (as initiated by the 20.09. Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks). The declared Exclusive Economic Zone (200 Miles) along the Atlantic coast will protect Namibia’s fishing interests and benefits the economy. During the 45. Session of the UN General Assembly President Nujoma renews his appeal from the International Donor Conference for Namibia in New York (21. to 22.06.) to grant Namibia "Least Developed Country" status. Subsequently several countries grant donor assistance. Germany becomes with US $ 60 Million the biggest donor, followed by Sweden (US $ 16 Million), Norway (US $ 11 27.09. Million), Finland (US $ 10 Million), the USA (US $ 10 Million) and Denmark (US $ 6 Million). Other countries like Great Britain, the Netherlands, France, Italy and South Africa pledge various levels of donor assistance. The organisational framework of Namibia’s donor assistance is aggravated because the National Planning Commission is still in its infancy. The former Chief of the Secret Service of PLAN, Solomon "Jesus" Hawala becomes the Commander of the Namibian Defence Force, after the Namibian Cabinet had 27./30.08.

23.10.

disapproved such a move in August. Due to his involvement into the treatment of former SWAPO detainees in Angola, the Council of Churches in Namibia (CCN) criticises the appointment. The NUNW supports Hawala’s engagement. The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, announces at Swakopmund concrete plans to increase the efficiency in the transport sector by deregulation and competition as well as a road sector reform based on privatisation. He stresses that road maintenance costs have to be cut by ensuring that existing regulations on axle loads are complied with and that the End October Namibian rail system has to play a full part in freight operations. Road users have to pay what they consume and therefore an equitable, fair, cost-reflective and transparent road user charging system has to be put in place. As an initial step a Transport Advisory Board has to be established as a new statutory body representing all transport interests. Reserved goods permits for road hauliers will be phased out and the road haulier market will be opened to all Namibians. Beginning Air Namibia announces new regional flights to Gaborone, November Harare and Lusaka. In order to balance "the two Namibias", Dierks makes known a major road upgrading programme for the formerly neglected Ovamboland. This programme will be put into effect in six phases. Phase one consists of the immediate rehabilitation of 450 km of gravel and earth roads in order to provide a skeleton network of acceptable secondary roads. Roads to be improved are the Oshakati to Okahao road with a link to Oshikuku, the Omafu to Mpungu (Kavango regional border) road via Eenhana and Elundu, the Omafu to Okalongo road via Engela and Ongenga, the Onethindi to Eenhana road via Oniipa and Oshigambo, the Onethindi to Olukonda road, the Onathinge to Elundu road via Okankolo, the Outapi (Ombalantu) to Okahao road via Tsandi, the Outapi to Okalongo road, the Tsandi to Onesi road and the

01.11.

Okahao to Onaanda road. Special emphasis is laid on the concept of appropriate engineering standards for low volume roads which are cost-optimised and economically and financially feasible, taking into account social problems like unemployment, gender balance and environmental arguments. To this effect labour-based construction methods will be used. Two labour-based test sections (Spoorbaan test section near Oshakati and the Okahao to Onaanda road) are initiated during this year. This basic road backbone network has to be completed within the next five years. Phase two consists of the Ovambo Road Network Master Plan, pointing out priorities for the construction, upgrading and maintenance standards to stimulate economic growth in Ovamboland and capacity building mechanisms. The emphasis also lies on new road links to Angola (Namibe Corridor) and a new link road to the Kavango. Phase three focusses on the speedy construction of two highways, the Oshakati to Ongenga road via Okatana, Endola and Omungwelume and the Oshikuku to Okalongo roads. Phase four concentrates on new feeder roads to agricultural growth points like a road between Oshikango to Odibo. This phase also includes the further upgrading of some projects to bituminous standards in the next five years. Phase five deals with the development of appropriate engineering standards for the construction and maintenance in Ovamboland with a special emphasis on solutions to the peculiar road building material problems experienced in Ovamboland. Phase six again focusses on the upgrading of existing paved roads in the area. Some of these roads carry among the highest traffic loads in Namibia. The financing of these ambitious projects has to be realised from Namibian budget allocations and donor assistance from various countries. The realisation of all these ambitious projects in the next ten years comprises one of the greatest successes of the SWAPO-Government. President Nujoma warns that foreign fishing trawlers

05.11.

25.11.

26.11.

27.11. 14.12.

15.12.

violating Namibian territorial waters would be punished. The private German airline LTU tries to land at Windhoek International Airport, without landing rights or any air services agreement between Namibia and Germany in place. Temporary landing rights are granted by the Namibian Government as an exception and in the interest of the passengers. Five Spanish fishing trawlers fishing illegally in Namibian waters are captured by the Namibian Authorities. They transport Namibian fish to the value of R 15 million. The five captains are arrested and the crew released from prison on 15.12. After the President has until now proclaimed Namibian public holidays such as the commemoration of the "Old Location Uprising (10.12.1959)", the battle of OmugulugOmbashe (26.08.1966) or the South African raid on Cassinga (04.05.1978), the National Assembly passes the Public Holidays Bill. The Cabinet approves the development of the NamibeCorridor between Angola and Namibia. Prime Minister Hage Geingob announces that the Namibian Government donates one million Rand to the African National Congress (ANC). The Deputy Minister for Works, Transport and Communication, Klaus Dierks, makes known a major telecommunications programme in the so far neglected north, especially in Ovamboland. He announces that Namibia with 5,4 telephone lines per 100 inhabitants does not compare too bad with the world average of 19,1 lines, but this figure has to be balanced between "the two Namibias" and brought to 10 lines within ten years.

New Roads in Ovamboland, built

after Independence

District Road 3605 from Oluno to Uukwiyo in the Oshana Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3625 between Oshigambo and Ondobe (Ohangwena Region) in the Oshikoto Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Main Road 110 between Elundu, east of Eenhana, and Okongo in the Ohangwena Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3608 between Engela and Ongenga in the Ohangwena Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3609 between Ongenga and Oshakati in the Ohangwena Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3608 between Okalongo and Anamulenge in the Omusati Region: Dry Season
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3615 between Oshikuku and Elim in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3626 between Okahao (Ongandjera) and Etilyasa in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

Main Road 123 between Outapi and Tsandi in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photos: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3633 between Tsandi and Omugulu-g'Ombashe in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

District Road 3617 between Onesi and the Kaokoveld in the Omusati Region
Copyright of Photo: Dr. Klaus Dierks

[Return to Table of Contents]

1991

02.01.

One of the major challenges for the new government is to restructure the Civil Service. At Independence, there were a total of some 42 500 filled posts in the public service. Until 1991, an increase of about one third or roughly 15 000 public servants could be recorded, bringing the total of filled posts to about 57 500. The main reason for this that new ministries like Defence and Foreign Affairs had to be created. The new government structure is thus set up on the two axes of a theoretical design for tasks so far tackled by the colonial power and so far untested against a national policy or plan, and an inherited Apartheid administration from the pre-independence era. The new postindependence administration structure is extremely centralised and centralising, partly by inheritance and in accordance wit