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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Design of Mechanisms
Rigid Body Guidance and Function Generation Michael M. Stanii sc

April 22, 2009

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Outline

Rigid Body Guidance Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example Function Generation Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Problem Denition
Rigid Body Guidance - Design a mechanism so that a rigid body is guided through the three positions, A1 B1 , A2 B2 and A3 B3 . B1 A1 B3 A2 A3
fig194a

B2

Figure: Three desired positions of a rigid body AB

This is the Three Position Problem. There are also Four and Five Position Problems.
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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Circling & Center Points


A is a circling point and Oa is the respective center point. B is a circling point and Ob is the respective center point. Ob

A1 A2 Oa A3
fig194c

B1 B2 B3

Figure: The circle containing A1 , A2 and A3

fig194d

Figure: The circle containing B1 , B2 and B3


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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

111 000 111 000 111 000

B1 A1 B3 A2

B2

1111 0000 1111 0000

A3
Figure: One of an 4 of Solutions

fig194e

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Model of a Rigid Body Displacement

i Y

P x1

Y1 P x1 position 1 X1 xi yi = cos i sin i sin i cos i xi ai

ni i ti o s po

Xi

1111111111 0000000000

X1

fig162

x1 y1

aix aiy
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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

xi = [xi , yi ]T are coordinates of a circling point, x = [x , y ]T are coordinates of corresponding center point R is the radius of the circle circling point

xi x i

xi Y1 X1 x

center point

fig196

(1 x ) (1 x ) = (i x ) (i x ) x x x x 2 scalar equations in 4 scalar unknowns, x1 and x .

(i = 2, 3)
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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Given the circling point x1, nd the center point x

x =

W2 V2 W3 V3 U2 V2 U3 V3

and y =

U2 W2 U3 W3 U2 V2 U3 V3

where, Ui = x1 (cos i 1) y1 sin i + aix Vi = x1 sin i + y1 (cos i 1) + aiy Wi =


a2 +a2 ix iy 2

+ x1 (aix cos i + aiy sin i ) + y1 (aiy cos i aix sin i )

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Given the center point x , nd the center point x1

x1 =

C2 B2 C3 B3 A2 B2 A3 B3

and y1 =

A2 C2 A3 C3 A2 B2 A3 B3

where, Ai = x (cos i 1) + y sin i aix cos i aiy sin i Bi = x sin i + y (cos i 1) + aix sin i aiy cos i Ci =
a2 +a2 ix iy 2

aix x aiy y

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Example

B1
B3

B2

A1

Y1
A2

X1
Y2

A3

1 in

X3
fig194f

Position 2 : a2 = Position 3 : a3 =

1.1842 1.4050 0.7917 2.4392

inches , 2 = 46.36 inches , 3 = 71.90


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Y3

X2

Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Y1
x 1 in Take:

X1

x 111111 000000 111111 000000


111111 000000 111111 000000
fig194i

x=

0.246 0.573

inches

Compute:

x =

0.677 1.58

inches

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

Y1 X1
x x

1 in Take: x= 2.06 0.912 inches

111111 000000 111111 000000 fig194f 111111 000000 111111 000000

Compute:

x =

3.22 2.58

inches

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Circling & Center Points Example

111 000 111 000 111 000

B1 A1 B3 A2

B2

1111 0000 1111 0000

111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000


fig194g

A3

111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

Problem Denition
Function Generation - Design a mechanism so that the output rotation 4 is a desired function of the input rotation 2 . 4 = f (2 ) 3 2 2
111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000

4 4
111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000
fig065aa

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

The Vector Loop


r3 Y 3 r2 2
111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 r1 111 000 111 000 111 000 r2 + r3 r4 r 1 = 0

r4 4
fig065aaa

r2 cos 2 + r3 cos 3 r4 cos 4 r1 = 0 r2 sin 2 + r3 sin 3 r4 sin 4 = 0 r3 cos 3 = r2 cos 2 + r4 cos 4 + r1 r3 sin 3 = r2 sin 2 + r4 sin 4
2 2 2 2 r3 = r2 + r4 + r1 2r2 r4 cos 2 cos 4

+2r1 r4 cos 4 2r2 r1 cos 2 2r2 r4 sin 2 sin 4


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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

2 2 2 2 r3 = r2 + r4 + r1 2r2 r4 cos 2 cos 4

+2r1 r4 cos 4 2r2 r1 cos 2 2r2 r4 sin 2 sin 4


2 2 2 2 r2 r3 + r4 + r1 + 2r1 r4 cos 4 2r2 r1 cos 2 =

2r2 r4 cos 2 cos 4 + 2r2 r4 sin 2 sin 4 dividing through both sides by 2r2 r4
2 2 2 2 r2 r3 + r4 + r1 r1 r1 cos 4 cos 2 = + 2r2 r4 r2 r4 R3 R2 R1

cos 2 cos 4 + sin 2 sin 4


cos(2 4 )

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

Freudensteins Equation

R3 + R2 cos 4 R1 cos 2 = cos(2 4 ) where: R1 =


2 2 2 r1 r 2 r3 + r4 + r 1 r1 , R2 = and R3 = 2 r4 r2 2r2 r4

Given three pairs of 2 and 4 values, Freudensteins Eqn can be written three times giving a system of three equations which are linear in the three unknowns R1 , R2 and R3 .

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

Example
Design a four bar linkage to replace a pair of gears with a 2:1 ratio, i.e. a four bar mechanism that generates the function, 2 = 24 . 2 70 100 130 4 10 25 40 cos 4 0.985 0.906 0.766 cos 2 0.342 -0.174 -0.643 cos(2 4 ) 0.500 0.259 0.000

R3 + 0.985R2 0.342R1 = 0.500 R3 + 0.906R2 + 0.174R1 = 0.259 R3 + 0.766R2 + 0.643R1 = 0.000 Solution, R3 = 0.2061 , R2 = 0.5858 , R1 = 0.3774
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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

R3 = 0.2061

R2 = 0.5858

R1 = 0.3774

Take r1 = 10 inches, and solve R1 =


2 2 2 r1 r 2 r3 + r4 + r 1 r1 , R2 = and R3 = 2 r4 r2 2r2 r4

for r2 , r3 and r4 , r2 = 17.071 inches , r4 = 26.497 inches , r3 = 30.117 inches

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

2 70 100 130

4 10 25 40

2 30 30 70
111 111 000 10 000 111 000 111 000 15 15 4 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000

fig403

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Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation

Prob. Def. Freudensteins Eqn. Example

4 vs. 2 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 50 100 4 (degrees) actual desired

150 2 (degrees)

200

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