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BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE Digital Computer A fast electronic calculating machine that accepts digitized

input information processes it according to a list of internally stored instructions and produces the resulting output information. Computer Program List of instructions Memory Internal Storage Types of Computers 1. Personal Computers The most common computer which has found a wide use in school, homes, and business offices. 2. Workstations Although still of desktop dimensions these machines have a computational power which is significantly higher than that of personal computers. Workstations are often used in engineering applications especially for interactive design work. 3. Mainframes a large and powerful computers used in business data processing in medium to large corporations that require much more computing and storage capacity than workstations can handle. 4. Supercomputers These are used for large scale numerical calculations found in applications such as weather forecasting and aircraft design and simulation. BASIC FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF A COMPUTER 1. Input Units accepts coded information from human operators. Memory Unit 1. Primary Storage or Main Memory This is where programs are stored during their execution and he fast memory capable of operating at electronic speeds. Random Access Memory (RAM) Is a memory in which any locations can be reached in a short, fixed amount of time. 2. Secondary Storage This is used when large amounts of data have to be stored, particularly if some of the data need not to be accessed very frequently. Arithmetic and logic Unit (ALU) This is where the execution of the most operations takes place. It contains a number of high speed storage elements called registers. Registers Used for temporary storage of frequently used operands, each registers can store one word of data, and access times are 5 to 10 times faster than the memory access times. Control Unit (CU) This is the nerve centre of a computer. It sends signals to other units and senses their state. Central Processing Unit (CPU) it comprises with the ALU and CU. 3. Output Units It sends processed results to outside world.

OPERATION OF A COMPUTER 1. Accepts information 2. Processes the information 3. Gives the results (Output) 4. All activities inside the machine are directed by the control unit. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE is the design of computers, including their instructions sets, hardware components, and systems organization. Von Neumann Architecture Programs are stored in main memory during the execution.