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POST-TENSIONED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE GIRDER BRIDGE FOR A HIGH LEVEL ROAD WAY -A Study a mini- project report submitted

to Department of CIVIL Engineering, Chaitanya Engineering College In Partial Fulfilment of the requirements for the award of DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Y.S.G.GOVINDBABU M.MOHAN KUMAR V.BHARATH CHANDRA ANUSHA DEVI D.CHINAKONDAMMA 08L61A0150 08L61A0126 07L61A0110 08L61A0104 09L65A0106

Under the guidance of SRI N.AMMI REDDY, DEPUTY EXECUTIVE ENGINEER, ROADS AND BUILDINGS DEPARTMENT, NH-SUBDIVISION, AMALAPURAM. PROF.B.V.SARMA, B.E. (CIVIL), M.E. (STRUCTURES), ADV.PG.DIP.IN HOUSING (NETHERLANDS), PROFESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CHAITANYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE (AFFILIATEDD TO JNTU-KAKINADA) VISAKAPATNAM - 530048(A.P)

CERTIFICATE
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BATCH

Y.S.G.GOVIND BABU M.MOHAN KUMAR O8L61A0150 08L61A0126

V.BHARATH 07L61A0110

Y.ANUSHA DEVI O8L61AO104

D.CHINAKONDAMMA 09L65A0106 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our gratitude to SRI N.AMMIREDDY garu, Deputy Executive Engineer, R&B Department, NH-Subdivision, Amalapuram for his kind gesture and his personal involvement in guiding us at our site work. We express our deep sense of gratitude to our guide Prof. B.V.SARMA, Head of Department, Department of Civil Engineering, Chaitanya Engineering College, Visakhapatnam (Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada) for his kind attitude, invaluable guidance, keen interest, immense help and encouragement which helped us in carrying out our mini-project work. We are also thankful to the Staff of the Department for having helped and supported us during the progress of the work. It gives us great pleasure to acknowledge and express gratitude to our families, friends for the constant support. At length we would like to thank all those who have directly and indirectly contributed towards the completion of our project work.

Y.S.G.GOVINDBABU M.MOHAN KUMAR V.BHARATH CHANDRA ANUSHA DEVI D.CHINAKONDAMMA

08L61A0150 08L61A0126 07L61A0110 08L61A0104 09L65A0106

NOMENCLATURE:
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A-Area b- Breadth of beam or shorter dimension of a rectangular column


bef- Effective width of slab. bw- Breadth of web or rib

D-Overall depth of beam or Slab or Column


Df- Thickness of flange

DL- Dead load d- Effective depth of beam or slab d- Depth of compression reinforcement from the highly compressed face
Ec- Modulus of elasticity of concrete Es- Modulus of elasticity of steel

e- Eccentricity
fck- Characteristic compressive strength of concrete

fy- Characteristic strength of steel Ii- moment of inertia of the girder


k- Constant or coefficient or factor
Ld- Development length

LL-Live load
Lx-Length of shorter side of slab Ly-Length of longer side of slab

M- Bending moment m- Modular ratio

s- Spacing of stirrups or standard deviation v- Shear force


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W-Total load WL-Wind load x- Depth of neutral axis


st Permissible stress in steel tension sv- Permissible stress in shear reinforcement cmax- Maximum shear stress in concrete with reinforcement bd Design bond stress

v- Nominal stress c Shear stress in concrete - Diameter of bars M.F.L- Maximum flood level F.S.L-Full supply depth C.B.L- Canal bed level T.B.L- Top of bank level F.S.D- Full supply depth

CONTENTS CERTIFICATE
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT NOMENCLATURE CONTENTS ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 ACTIVITIES INVOVED 1.2 DEFINITION OF A BRIDGE 1.3 HISTORY OF A BRIDGE 2. BRIDGES-TYPES 2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES 2.1.1 Function 2.1.2 Material of construction 2.1.3 Form 2.1.4 Inter-span relations 2.1.5 Position of the bridge to the superstructure 2.1.6 Method of connections 2.1.7 Method of clearance 2.1.8 Length of bridge 2.1.9 Degree of redundancy 2.1.10 Type of service 2.2 TYPES OF BRIDGES 2.2.1Beam bridges 2.2.2 Cantilever bridges

iv v vii xii 1 1 2 2 3 3

2.2.3 Arch bridges 2.2.4 Suspension bridges 2.2.5 Cable-stayed bridges and 2.2.6 Movable bridges 2.2.7 Truss bridges 2.2.1.1 Beam bridges 2.3 NEED FOR INVESTIGATION 2.4 ECONOMIC RANGE OF SPAN LENGTHS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURES 2.5 SELECTION OF BRIDGE SITE 3. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
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5 6 7

3.1 STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR ROAD BRIDGES 3.2 LOADS TO BE CONSIDERED IN A DESIGN 3.2.1 Dead Load 3.2.2 Live load 3.2.3 Impact 3.2.4 Wind Load 3.2.5 Longitudinal Forces 3.2.6 Dynamic Load 3.3 INDIAN ROAD CONGRESS BRIDGE CODE 3.4 BRIDGE LOADING STANDARDS 3.4.1 IRC Class AA Loading 3.4.2 IRC Class70 R Loading 3.4.3 IRC Class A loading 3.4.4 IRC Class B loading

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7 7

3.5 WIDTH OF CARRIAGEWAY 3.6 CLEARANCES 4. COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE 4.1 TYPE OF FOUNDATIONS 4.1.1 Shallow foundations 4.1.2 Deep foundations 4.1.2.1Well foundations: 4.1.2.2 Pile foundations 4.2 PIERS 4.3 ABUTMENTS 4.4 BEARINGS
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10 10 11 11

13 14 15

4.5 SUPER STRUCTURE

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4.5.1 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF GIRDERS IN SUPER STRUCTURE 4.5.1.1 Girder and slab type 4.5.1.2 Girder slab and diaphragm type 4.5.1.3 Girder, slab and cross beam type 4.5.2 TYPES OF PRESTRESSING AND ITS PROPER USE 5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR DIFFERENT BRIDGE 5.1 CONCRETE BRIDGES 5.2 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES 5.2.1. STEEL USED IN CONCRETE 5.2.2. WEB THICKNESS 22 22 23

5.3 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROAD BRIDGES 5.3.1 DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE 5.3.1.1 INTRODUCTION 5.3.1.2 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES: 5.3.2.1 Steel Girders 5.3.2.2 Concrete Girders 5.3.3 Road bridge design 5.3.3.1 Approach to design 5.4 DESIGN OF CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES 5.4.1 DESIGN OF THE LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS 5.4.1.1 Courbons Method 5.4.1.2. Henry-Jaegers Method 5.4.1.3. Marcie Little Method 5.5 DESIGN FEATURES OF THE PIER
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5.6 DESIGN FEATURES OF THE ABUTMENT 6. WELL FOUNDATIONS 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.2 COMPARISION WITH PILE FOUNDATIONS 6.3 WELL TYPES AND THEIR SUTABILITY 6.3.1Circular well 6.3.2Double D well 6.3.3Double Octagonal Well 6.3.4Rectangular Well 6.3.5Twin circular well 6.3.6Wells with Multiple Dredge Holes

37 38 38 38 40

7. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 7.1 DEFINITION 7.2 PRETENSIONED CONCRETE 7.3 POST TENSIONED CONCRETE 7.3.1 BONDED POST TENSIONED CONCRETE 7.3.2 UNBOUNDED POST TENSIONED CONCRETE 7.3.3 PROCEDURE FOR TENSIONING AND TRANSFER 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 7.5 TERMINOLOGY 7.6 APPLICATIONS 8. MISCLANEOUS ITEMS OF WORK 8.1 Material to be used 8.1.1 Concrete 8.1.2 Under water concreting 8.1.2.1. Tremie 8.1.2.2. Direct placement with pumps
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44 44 44 45

48 50 52 53 53

8.1.2.3. Drop bottom bucket 8.2 STEEL 8.3 FUTURE PRESTRESSING ARRANGEMENTS 8.4 HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE 8.5 ANTI CORROSIVE TREATMENT 8.6 ERECTION SCHEME OF GIRDERS 61 57 58 59 60

ABSTRACT This mini project is about a precast prestressed girder bridge located at Borduskuru in Andhra Pradesh, which involved in study of foundations adopted, piers, abutments and bearings. The study also includes the precasting of girders their launching and launching of launching system along with the methods of prestressing and prestressing techniques. This report also attempts to explain the design procedure of some components of this bridge structure. The practical problems encountered along with their solutions are also illustrated.

1. INTRODUCTION
A bridge project from its conception to completion involves various stages of planning, design, approval/sanction, tendering and execution. Also inspections, maintenance and repairs are continuing activities for enhancing the service life of the structure. 1.1. ACTIVITIES INVOVED : A bridge project is required to carry out survey for the bridge location and collect requisite preliminary survey data that is required for bridge planning and design. Generally 2-3 cross sections at prospective sites are taken and the bridge length is decided for the purpose of preparing stage-I estimate needed for obtaining Approval. Depending on site conditions, particularly the foundation conditions (which could be a guess/ interpolation at this stage) the type of bridge viz. P.S.C., R.C.C., high level, submersible etc. is decided. For bridges having span more than 60m, detailed estimate is required to be submitted to Government for obtaining administrative approval. It is, therefore, necessary that site is to be finalized by the Engineer. So that detailed soil explorations as may be necessary could b e done. The detailed proposal is then prepared by Engineer. The detailed proposal would generally mean giving sufficient details for preparation of estimate after working out the stability of structures i.e. piers and abutments and deciding the tentative dimensions for superstructure and other components along with specifications.

1.2 DEFINITION OF A BRIDGE: A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed, the material used to make it and the funds available to build it. 1.3 HISTORY OF A BRIDGE: The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans. The Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs. Some stand today. Rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century. During the 18th century there were many innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich, Johannes Grubenmann, and others. With the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron did not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of Gustave Eiffel. In 1927 welding pioneer Stefan Brya designed the first welded road bridge in the world, which was later built across the river Sudwia Maurzyce near owicz, Poland in 1929. 1.4 IMPORTANCE OF BRIDGE: Bridges have always figured prominently in human history. Cities have sprung up at a bridgehead or where at first a river could be forded at any time of the year. Examples: London, Oxford, Cambridge and Innsbruck. Bridges add beauty to the cities. Examples: the bridges across the river seine in Paris and the bridges across the river Thames in London. They enhance the vitality if the cities and aid the social, cultural and economic improvements of the areas around them. Great battles have been fought for cities and their bridges. The mobility of an army at war is often affected by the availability or otherwise of the bridges to across rivers. That is why military training puts special emphasis on learning how to destroy bridges during combat and while retreating and how to build new ones quickly while advancing.

2. BRIDGES-TYPES
2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES: Function Material of construction Form Inter-span relations Position of the bridge to the superstructure
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Method of connections Method of clearance Length of bridge Degree of redundancy Type of service Bridges may classify in many ways as below: 2.1.1. FUNCTION: According to function as aqueduct (canal over a river), viaduct (road or railway over a valley), pedestrian, highway, railway, road-cum-rail or a pipeline. 2.1.2. MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION: According to the material of construction of the superstructure as timber, masonry, iron, steel, reinforced concrete, pre-stressed concrete, composite or Aluminium Bridge. 2.1.3. FORM: According to the form or type of the superstructure as slab, beam, truss, arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge. 2.1.4. INTER -SPAN RELATIONS: According to the inter-span relations as simple continuous or cantilever bridge. 2.1.5. POSITION OF THE BRIDGE TO THE SUPERSTRUCTURE: According to the position of the bridge to the superstructure as deck, though, half-through or suspended bridge. 2.1.6. METHOD OF CONNECTIONS: According to the method of connections of the different parts of the superstructure, particularly for the steel construction as pin connected, riveted or welded bridge. 2.1.7. METHOD OF CLEARANCE: According to the method of clearance for the navigation as high-level, movable-bascule, movable-swing and transporter bridge. 2.1.8. LENGTH OF BRIDGE: According to the length of bridge as culvert (<6m), minor bridge (6to60m), major bridge (>60m) or a long span bridge when the main span of the major bridge is above 120m. 2.1.9. DEGREE OF REDUNDANCY: According to the degree of redundancy as determinate or indeterminate bridge. 2.1.10. TYPE OF SERVICE: According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as permanent, temporary, military bridge. 2.2. TYPES OF BRIDGES: There are six main types of bridges: Beam bridges, Cantilever bridges, Arch bridges, Suspension bridges, Cable-stayed bridges and Truss bridges

2.2.1 Beam bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by abutments, hence their structural name of simply supported. When there is more than one span the intermediate supports are known as piers. 2.2.2 Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers horizontal beams supported on only one end. Most cantilever bridges use a pair of continuous spans that extend from opposite sides of the supporting piers to meet at the center of the obstacle the bridge crosses. Cantilever bridges are constructed using much the same materials & techniques as beam bridges. The difference comes in the action of the forces through the bridge. 2.2.3 Arch bridges have abutments at each end. The earliest known arch bridges were built by the Greeks, and include the Arkadiko Bridge. The weight of the bridge is thrust into the abutments at either side. 2.2.4 Suspension bridges are suspended from cables. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. In modern bridges, the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams. The caissons or cofferdams are implanted deep into the floor of a lake or river. 2.2.5 Cable-stayed bridges like suspension bridges are held up by cables. However, in a cable-stayed bridge, less cable is required and the towers holding the cables are proportionately shorter. 2.2.6 Movable bridges are designed to move out of the way of boats or other kinds of traffic, which would otherwise be too tall to fit. These are generally electrically powered. 2.2.7 A truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight) which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. Truss bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges. 2.2.1.1 Beam bridges: Beam bridges are the most simple of structural forms being supported by an abutment at each end of the deck. No moments are transferred through the support hence their structural type is known as simply supported. The simplest beam bridge could be a slab of stone, or a plank of wood laid across a stream. Bridges designed for modern infrastructure will usually be constructed of steel or reinforced concrete, or a combination of both. The concrete used can either be reinforced, prestressed or post-tensioned. Types of construction could include having many beams side by side with a deck across the top of them, to a main beam either side supporting a deck between them. The main beams could be I-beams, trusses, or box girders. They could be half-through, or braced across the top to create a through bridge. 2.3 NEED FOR INVESTIGATION: Before a bridge can be built at a particular site, it is essential to consider many factors, such as the need for a bridge, the present and the future traffic stream characteristics subsoil conditions, alternative sites, aesthetics and cost. The aim of the investigation is to select a suitable site at which a bridge can be built economically, at the sometime satisfying the demands of traffic, the stream, safety and the aesthetics. The investigation for a major bridge project should cover studies on technical feasibility and economic considerations and should result in an investigation report. The
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success of the final design will depend on the thoroughness of the information furnished by the officer in charge of the investigation. 2.4 SELECTION OF BRIDGE SITE: This is particularly so in case of bridges in urban areas and flyovers. For river bridges in rural areas, usually a wider choice may be available. The characteristics of an ideal site for a bridge across a river are: i. A straight reach of the river. ii. Steady river flow without serious whirls and cross currents iii. A narrow channel with firm banks iv. Suitable high banks above high flood level on each side v. Rock or other hard in erodible strata close to the river bed level vi. Economical approaches which should not be very high or liable to flank attacks of the river during floods; the approaches should be free from obstacles such as hills, frequent drainage crossings, sacred places, graveyards or built up areas or troublesome land acquisition vii. Proximity to a direct alignment of the road to be connected viii.Absence of sharp curves in the approaches ix. Absence of expensive river training works and x. Avoidance of excessive underwater construction 2.5ECONOMIC RANGE OF SPAN LENGTHS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURES Apart from the estimated cost based on schedule of rates, costs as quoted during tendering may be used for constantly updating the cost analysis data. The ranges of span length within which a particular type of superstructure can be economical along with other considerations Rice type of foundation etc. are given be low:R.C.C. single or multiple boxes Simply supported RCC slabs Simply supported RCC T beam Simply supported PSC girder bridges Simply supported RCC voided slabs Simply supported/continuous PSC voided slabs Continuous RCC voided slabs RCC box sections simply supported / Balanced cantilever continuous PSC box sections; simply supported / Balanced cantilever
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1.5 to 15 m 3 to 10 m 10 to 24 m 25 to 45 m 10 lo 15 m 15 to 30 m 10 to 20 m 25 to 50 m 35 to 75 m 75 to 150 m

PSC cantilever construction / continuous Cable stayed bridges Suspension bridges

100 to 800 m 300 to 1500 m

3. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS
3.1 STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR ROAD BRIDGES: Standard specifications and code of practice have been evolved by the concerned government agencies and professional institutions, based on years of observation, research and development. The purpose of the codes is to ensure adequate safety and afford protection against legal liability arising out of failures due to no fault of the designer. Since the public roads and railways in India are owned and controlled by the government the bridges built on them should follow the instructions follow specifications laid down by the respective authorities. All highways bridges have to be built in accordance with the Indian Road Congress (IRC) CODES, besides specifications prescribed by the Ministry of Surface Transport (Roads Wing), Government of India (MOST).Similarly Indian Railway Standard (IRS) Bridge rules should be followed for the design of railway bridges. 3.2 LOADS TO BE CONSIDERED IN A DESIGN: 3.2.1 DEAD LOAD: The dead load consists of the weight of superstructure in any fixed support by the member. 3.2.2 LIVE LOAD: Class AA and a loading are adopted in the design. The standards are adopted as per IRC recommendations. As the pedestrian traffic is very less, design load of kerb is sufficient. 3.2.3 IMPACT:

To take in to account the higher stresses is caused by the dynamic forces of the moving load, an impact allowance should be made. The standards are adopted as per IRC recommendations. 3.2.4 WIND LOAD: These forces are considered to act horizontally and in such a direction as to cause the maximum stresses in the member under consideration. The area to be considered on which the wind force is assumed to act is, the area of the structure as seen in the elevation including the floor system less the area of perforations. The wind loads are adopted as per IRC recommendations. 3.2.5 LONGITUDINAL FORCES: Tractive effort caused due to the acceleration of the driving wheels. Braking effect caused due to the application of brakes to the wheels. Resistance to the movement of bearings is due to temperature changes.

3.2.6 DYNAMIC LOAD: The force exerted on a bridge as a result of unusual environmental factors, such as earthquakes or strong gusts of wind. 3.3 INDIAN ROAD CONGRESS BRIDGE CODE: The Indian Road Congress (IRC) Bridge code as available now consists of eight sections as below: a) Section I General features of design b) Section II- Loads and Stresses c) Section III-Cement concrete ( plain &reinforced) d) Section IV- Brick, stone and block masonry e) Section V- Steel road bridges f) Section VI- Composite construction g) Section VII- Foundations and substructure h) Section IX- Bearings 3.4 Bridge Loading Standards: Bridge loading standards in many countries were first formulated to regulate heavy military vehicles and were generally specified by local authorities. The loadings often considered of steam rollers and some form of traction engines. The earliest specifications of highway bridge loadings originated from the need to transport heavy military vehicles in U.K and Europe.

The first loading standards in India was published by the Indian roads congress in 1958 and subsequently reprinted in 1962 and 1963.The I.R.C 6 code has revised to include the combination of loads forces and permissible stresses in fourth revision published in 2000. I.R.C. evolved different standard live loads. In terms of train tracked vehicle and wheeled vehicle with standard axle loads and spacing. I.R.C class AA loading: Only adopted for bridges which are within certain municipal limits, in certain industrial areas and on certain specified highways. Bridges designed for class AA loading are to be checked for class A loading because under certain conditions class A loading causes heavier stresses than class AA loading. I.R.C. class A loading (IRC standard loading): Adopted for permanent bridges other than those specified under class AA loading. I.R.C. class B loading (IRC light loading): Used for temporary bridges. I.R.C. class 70R loading (IRC heavy loading): This has been evolved to confirm to required standard loading of defence authorities. This is to be used in place of class AA loading. This government prescribed class 70R loading for bridges on national highways. According to present practice, it is necessary to compute the maximum live load bending moment for three different conditions of loading, and then adopt for design the greatest of three values. The computation of live load bending moment only one loading condition need be considered namely Class AA wheeled vehicle span up to 4m. Class AA tracked vehicle span exceed 4m. If shear is desired to be computed, class AA wheeled vehicle considered span up to 6m and tracked vehicle beyond 6m for single lane bridge. However, for 2 Lane Bridge the shear due to class AA wheeled vehicle controls the design for all spans from 1m to 8m. The design moment for distribution is taken as 0.3 of Live load +0.2 Dead load moment. The ministry of surface transport government of India, referred here in as most, has published a set of plans for 3.0m to 10.0m span reinforced deck slab. 3.4.1. IRC Class AA Loading Two different types of vehicles were specified under this category grouped as tracked and wheeled vehicles with loadings of 700 kN and 400 kN respectively.
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All the bridges located on National Highways and State Highways have to be designed for this heavy loading. These loadings are also adopted for bridges located within certain specified municipal localities and along specified Highways. Alternatively, another type of loading designated as Class70R is specified instead of Class AA loading. 3.4.2. IRC Class70 R Loading IRC 70 R Loading consists of following three types of vehicles. (a) Tracked vehicle of total load700 KN with two tracks each weighing 350Kn (b) Wheeled vehicle comprising 4 wheels, each with a load of 100 kN totalling 400kN (c) Wheeled vehicle with a train of vehicles on seven axles with a total load of 1000kN. The various categories of loads are to be separately considered and worst effect has to be considered in design. Only one lane of Class70R or Class AA load is considered whereas both the lanes are assumed to be occupied by Class A loading if that gives the worst effect. 3.4.3 IRC Class A loading IRC Class A type loading consists of a wheel load train comprising a truck with trailers of specified axle spacing and loads as shown in fig. The heavy duty trucks with two trailers transmits load from 8axle varying from a minimum of 27kN to a maximum of 114kN.The Class a loading is a 554 KN train of wheeled vehicles on eight axles. Impact has to be allowed as per the formulae recommended in the IRC:6-2000.This type of loading is recommended for all roads on which permanent bridges and culverts are constructed. 3.4.4 IRC Class B loading Class B type of loading is similar to Class A loading except that the axle loads are comparatively of lesser magnitude. The axle loads of Class B are a 332kN train of wheeled vehicle on eight axles as shown in fig. 3.5 WIDTH OF CARRIAGEWAY: The width of carriage way required will depend on the intensity and volume of traffic anticipated to use the bridge. The width of carriage way is expresses in terms of traffic lanes, each lane meaning the width required to accommodate one train of class A vehicles. The minimum width of carriageway for a one-lane bridge is: 4.25m The minimum width of carriageway for a two-lane bridge is: 7.5m For every additional lane, a minimum of 3.5m must be allowed. Three- lane bridges should not constructed, as these will be conducive to the occurrence of accidents.
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In case of a wide bridge, it is desirable to provide a central verge of at least 1.2m width in order to separate the two opposing lines of traffic. From consideration of safety and effective utilization of carriage way it is desirable to provide footpath of at least 1.5m width on either side of the carriageway for all bridges. 3.6 CLEARANCES: The horizontal and vertical clearances required for highway traffic are given in fig., below wherein the maximum width and depth of a moving vehicle are assumed as 3300mm and 4500mm respectively.

4. COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE:
The main of a bridge structure are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Decking, consisting of deck slab, girders, trusses etc.; Bearings for the decking; Abutments and piers; Foundations for the abutments and piers; River training works, like revetment for slopes for embankment at abutments, and aprons at river bed level; vi. Approaches to the bridge to connect bridge proper to the roads on either side and vii. Handrails, parapets and guard stones Some of the components of a typical bridge are shown below: a) The components above the level of bearings are grouped as superstructure. b) While the parts below the bearings level are classed as the substructure. c) The portion below the bed level of a river bridge is called the foundation. d) The components below the bearing and above the foundation are often referred Sub-structure. 4.1 Type of foundations: The subsoil characteristics obtained at a particular site and consequently "file" type of foundations feasible, is one of the major "considerations- in selector of type of structure and span arrangement as already mentioned: 4.1.1 Shallow foundations: Isolated open foundations are feasible where an SBC of about 15t/m2 or more is available at shallow depths with in-redouble substratum. Here again, open excavation is feasible only up to a depth of 3 to 4 m where the subsoil is porous and water table is high. In cases, where the SBC is still less and where ~ smaller spans arc economical from other considerations, raft foundations or box structures with floor' protection arid curtain
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walls are the other options. 4.1.2 Deep foundations : Where suitable founding strata is available at a depth of 6 m or more with substantial depth of standing water, highly pervious substratum and large' scour depth'/it may be "advisable to go for deep foundation like (a) well, or (b) piles. 4.1.2.1 Well foundations : This is one of the most popular 'types of deep foundations in our Country, due various reasons like its simplicity, requirement of very little of equipment's for' its execution, adaptability to different subsoil conditions and difficult site conditions like deep standing water and large depths to good founding strata. Caissons are an adaptation of well foundations to sites with deep standing water" 4.1.2.2 Pile foundations: Pile foundations are another type of deep foundations which are suited for adoption in the following situations:-Availability' of good founding strata below large deep soft soil Need to have very deep foundations beyond the limit of pneumatic operations usually depth beyond 35 meters or so. In some cases of, strata underlying deep standing water and the strata being very hard not permitting easy sinking of wells or based on economic factors deciding the use of piles as compared to wells. However, pile foundations are not preferred within the flood zone of the river with deep scour. Classification of piles (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Precast driven piles Driven cast-in-situ piles Bored cast-in-situ piles Bored recast piles and Driven steel piles

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fig 4.1: components of bridge structure

4.2 PIERS:
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Piers are structures located at the ends of bridge spans at intermediate points between the abutments. The function of the piers is two-fold to transfer the vertical loads to the foundation, and to resist all horizontal forces and transverse forces acting on the bridge. Being one of the most visible components of a bridge, the piers contribute to the aesthetic appearance of the structure. The general shape and features of the pier depend to a large extent on the type, size and dimensions of the super structure and also the environment in which the pier is located.

Fig 4.2: Pier 4.3 ABUTMENTS: An abutment is the substructure which supports one terminals of the superstructure of a bridge and laterally supports the embankment which serves as an approach to die bridge. It consists of generally three structural elements. a) The Brest wall, which directly supports the dead and live loads of the superstructure, and retains the filling of the embankment in its rear. b) The wing wall. Which act as extensions of the breast wall in retaining the fill, not taking loads from the superstructure c) The back wall, which is small retaining wall just behind the bridge seat.

Fig 4.3-Abutment
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4.4 BEARINGS: 4.4.1 Bearings are vital components of a bridge which while allowing of longitudinal and/or transverse rotations and/ or movements of the superstructure with respect to the substructure (thus relieving stresses due to expansion and contraction), effectively transfer loads and forces from superstructure to substructure. Adequate care shall be exercised in selecting the right type of bearings based on the guidelines given below: (a) For solid/voided- slab superstructure resting on unyielding supports, no bearings arc generally provided if the span length is less than 10m. The top of piers/abutments caps are however rubbed smooth with carborandum stone. (b)For girder and slab spans more than 10m length and resting on unyielding supports, neoprene bearings may be considered. For spans larger than 25m roller and rocker bearings or PTFE bearings could be considered. (d)For very large spans and where multidirectional freedom of movement and rotation are to be allowed provision of pot bearings may be considered. 4.4.2 The design of metallic bearings and neoprene bearingsshall be in conformity with IRC: 8: Parts I & II respectively. 4.4.3 In case of roller-cum-rocker bearings only full circular rollers are to be
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provided.

4.4.4 In order to cater for any possible relative undue movement of bearings over the abutment resulting in girder ends jamming against the dirt wall preferably a larger gap may be provided between the girder end and the dirt wall. 4.4.5 All bearings assemblies shall be installed in accordance with. the instructions contained in the codes and specifications and on the approved drawings. In particular the following important points shall not be lost sight of: (a)All bearings shall be set truly level so as to have full and even seating. Thin mortar pads (not exceeding 12mm) may be used to meet this requirement. (b)The bottoms of girders resting on the bearing shall be plane and truly (c)In case of rockers and roller bearings, necessary adjustment for temperature at the time of placement, shrinkage, creep and elastic shortening shall be made, such that the line of bearing is as central as possible on the bearing plates at the normal temperature taken in design. (d) For elastomeric bearing pads, the concrete surface shall be level such that the variation is not more than 1.5mm from a straight edge placed in any direction across the area. (e) For spans in grade, the bearings shall be placed horizontal by using sole plates or suitably designed R.C.C. pedestals. (f)Bearings of different sizes must not be placed next to each other to support a span. (g)Installation of multiple bearings one behind the other on a single line of Support is not permitted. (h)The bearings shall be so protected while concreting the deck in situ that there is no flow of mortar or any other extraneous matter into the bearing assembly and particularly on to the bearing surfaces. The protection shall be such that it can be dismantled after the construction is over without disturbing the bearing assembly. 4.5. Superstructure: (i) It is the superstructure of a bridge that directly supports the traffic and facilitates its smooth uninterrupted passage over natural/manmade barriers like rivers, creeks, railways, roads etc. by transmitting the loads and forces coming over it to the foundation through the bearings and substructure. (ii) The minimum functional requirement of superstructure are specified in IRC: 5 and IRC: 21. In case of box girder superstructure, the minimum clear height inside the box girders shall be 1.5 m to facilitate inspection. (iii)Aesthetics will be one of the major considerations while deciding superstructure of a bridge keeping in view the criteria mentioned therein. oil the type of horizontal.

(iv)Consistent with economy and local availability of the materials, labour and technology for a particular type of superstructure selection may have to be made out of the following material options:
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(a) Masonry (b)Reinforcedcementconcrete (c)Pre-stressedconcrete (d) Steel (e)Composite construction

(v) Reinforced cement concrete superstructure: These are the most popular type of superstructure in the present day which may take the form of solid slab, voided slab. T-beam and slab, box girder, rigid frame, arch, balanced cantilever or bow-string girder.

Fig 4.4-Superstructure ( girder and slab type)

4.5.1 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF GIRDERS IN SUPER STRUCTURE: Typical arrangements of RCC as well as PSC girder and slab type .It will be found that the main reinforcement becomes heavy and for long spans becomes inconvenient for placement. The alternative arrangement is to provide for box girders in which case a single box for both lanes or twin boxes for two lanes can be provided. Recent long-span girders have been designed with a single box per pair of lanes also. The typical arrangements for box for a two- lane bridge are indicated. There are three different
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ways of providing the beams and slabs. These arrangements are equally applicable if the RCC T- beam is replaced by prestressed concrete girders. As will be seen in the arrangement the three different arrangements for T-beam girders will have differing effects on distribution of loads on slab as well as between girders. 4.5.1.1. Girder and slab type: In this, the deck slab is supported on and cast monolithically with the longitudinal girders and no cross beam is provided. This has the disadvantage of providing no torsional rigidity and there will be always the danger of the girders tending to separate at the bottom level. They tend to tilt, particularly at bearings, and cause uneven loading across the bottom bearing area. The slab is designed as a one-way continuous slab spanning between the longitudinal girders. 4.5.1.2. Girder slab and diaphragm type: In this arrangement also, the slab is supported on and cast monolithically with longitudinal girders. However, diaphragms are provided to connect the girders at the supports and on one or more location within the length of span. Since these diaphragms do not extend up to the slab, the slab design is similar to the one mentioned in (a). The girders, however, are rendered more rigid by the diaphragms, and the distribution of load between the girders , becomes more uniform. 4.5.1.3. Girder, slab and cross beam type: In this, the diaphragms are replaced by cross beams provided at the ends and one or more intermediate locations making any least three. They are cast monolithically with the deck slab. In this case, the deck slab is thus supported on all four sides and hence it can be designed as a two- way slab. The cross beams provide still better stiffness than diaphragms, and this hence results in a still better distribution of the loads among the longitudinal girders in multiple-lane bridges. This also provides the advantage of reducing the number of longitudinal beams as spacing can be increased without the fear of the need to have a deeper slab since the slab will be designed as supported on all four sides. Some experiments conducted by Prof. Victor at IIT Madras on one-sixth micro concrete model of a bridge 20, three- span girder bridge for these types gave the following conclusions: (1) The deflection of superstructure of type (b) and (c) were only 74 per cent and 63 per cent , respectively, of the deflection for type (a) (2) The transverse load distribution between the girders was better with type (b) and best with type (c); and (3) The ultimate load-carrying capacity for the combined superstructure of types (b) and (c) were 132 per cent and 162 per cent, respectively, of the capacity for type (a).The only disadvantage in type (c) is the complication involved in fixing form work and tying reinforcements. The current Indian practice is to use the type (b) or (c) with one cross beam on each support and at least three cross beams in between for long spans. The spacing of cross beams or diaphragms is generally kept not more than 1.5 times the spacing of the longitudinal girders. A few more typical arrangements of beams and boxes below the slabs for RCC/PSC bridges are indicated.
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4.5.2 TYPES OF PRESTRESSING AND ITS PROPER USE Basically two types of prestressing i.e. pre tensioned and post tensioned are applied in bridge engineering. Generally pretensioning is very rarely used in the state because of its limitations like proximity and availability of plant, size of member, number of units etc. Post tensioning system is mainly used in the state. Various systems of prestressing are (a) Freyssinet, (b) Magnel-Blaton, (c) Gifford- Udall system

Fig 4.5(a)-Freyssinet system

Fig 4.5(b) - Freyssinet system

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Fig 4.6-Gifford - Udall system

Many of the post tensioning devices are covered by patents. In case of Freyssinet system, cable with a fixed number of wires e.g. 12-5f or 12-7f or 19-7f are used. The sheathing as specified in IRC: 18-2000 is generally (CRCA) Mild Steel of bright metal finish or corrugated High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

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5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BRIDGES


5.1 CONCRETE BRIDGES: Reinforced concrete and pre stressed concrete have been found most suited for the construction of highway bridges, the former for small and medium spans and the latter for long spans .Reinforced concrete has been used on railways up to 10m span and pre-stressed concrete up to 24m in India but up to 35m in many countries. Reinforced concrete even in form of open web type of girders is being tried in longer railway spans in Japan. They have used continuous deck type spans up to 105m.There is however, reluctance on the part of Indian railway engineers to adopt reinforced and pre-stressed concrete for longer spans on railways, due to the heavy dead load to be dealt with the comparatively longer construction time and difficulty in maintaining adequate quality control at the site of construction. They are also difficult to be replaced under traffic when the loading conditions alter or major damages are caused due to derailments and the superstructure requires to be changed The various codes referred to for design of the concrete bridges and bridges elements are: 1. IRS Code for concrete and pre stressed composite bridges on railways; 2. IRC 21-2000, standard specification and code of practice for road bridges, section 3, cement concrete (plain and reinforced); 3. IS: 456-1964 Indian standard specification and code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete; 4. IS: 432-1966, Indian standard specification for mild and medium tensile bars and hard drawn wire for concrete mix for cement; 5. IS: 1139-1959, Indian standard specification for hot rolled mild steel and medium tensile deformed bars for concrete reinforcement; 6. IRC: 18-2000, design criteria for pre stressed concrete road bridges (post-tensioned);and

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7. IS: 1786-1966, Indian standard specification for cold twisted steel bars for concrete reinforcement-tensile steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement. 5.2 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES Ordinary Concrete with nominal mix by volume is used in bed blocks, column footing, foundation and mass concrete works where the standard of specification and workmanship are likely to be lower. The maximum permissible stresses in concrete for various mixes Controlled concrete is used in all girder parts, particularly in super-structure slabs and girders, precast piles and for all prestressed concrete work. The minimum quantity of cement to be used for controlled concrete on the railways according to the IRS concrete code is 325 kg/m3of concrete. IRC stipulates 360 kg/m3 for major bridges. When the mix design and testing is done, the relationships used for arriving at various strengths are: Fc= 28 days works test strength on cubes of size 150 mm in kg/cm2 fc= 28 days works test strength on cubes of size 150 mm in N/mm2 Cylinder strength=Cube strength*0.8 Works test strength: Preliminary test strength=1.25 to 1.33 The various proportions for permissible stresses used are: Direct compression = 0.26Fc or 0.26fc Compression due to bending = 0.34FC or 0.34fc Shear (as inclined tension) = 0.034FC or 0.034fc Where shear reinforcement is used, four times the shear above is permissible.
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Bond average for anchorage = 0.04Fc or 0.04fc Bond-local = 1.75 times average, i.e., 0.07FC or 0.07fc

Bearing pressure on plain concrete-average on full area= 0.20Fc OR 0.20fc Bearing pressure on plain concrete-average on an area less than one-third of full area= 0.30Fc or fc Tensile stress in bending for plain concrete is same as permissible for shear stress 5.2.1. STEEL USED IN CONCRETE: The modulus of elasticity for steel to be used in prestressed concrete work is as follows. Plain drawn wires Heat treated alloy bars Concrete 1.96105 N/mm2 (2106 kg/cm2) 1.71105 N/mm2 (1.75106 kg/cm2) 5630fc N/mm2 18000Fc kg/m2 Permissible stress in other steel bars used in all RCC and PSC works In prestressed concrete, the concrete used should have fc not less than 41.1 N/mm2 for pretensioning and not less than 34.3 N/mm2 for post-tensioning. The quantity of cement used for prestressed concrete should preferably be equal to 530 kg/m3 the minimum being 380 kg/m3 for post-tensioning. The compaction and vibration should be such that the density of the concrete is not less than 2400 kg/m3. The ultimate strength of concrete at transfer should not be less than (2/3) Fc used for design. Modular ratio is taken as 276/3 fc N/mm2 (or 2812/3 FC kg/cm2). or

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Minimum cover and spacing for reinforcement: The higher of the two alternatives mentioned will apply ( stands for diameter of bar). Each end 25mm or 2 Longitudinal bars in column 38mm or For columns of size 20 cm and 25mm or Under Longitudinal bars in beams 25mm or Bars in slabs 13mm or Any others 13mm or Foundation footings 50mm For structures submerged in water 75mm from surface or ends Minimum distance between bars:

1. Horizontal

if diameters are equal or

a. of largest bars or
b. Nominal maximum size of aggregate +6 mm

2. Vertical spacing between two horizontal layers

< 13mm.

3. Pitch of main slabs >300mm or > twice effective depth. 4. Pitch of distribution bars in slabs > 600mm or > 4 times effective depth.
5.2.2 Web thickness: Minimum diaphragm thickness should not be less than the web thickness of the girders connected the diaphragm should be designed to resist 3% of the total compressive force carried by both the girders and provided both at the bottom and top of the deformed bars with nominal reinforcement in the middle portion. In addition, the end diaphragms in prestressed concrete girders should take the stress that may be induced due to different cracking at the ends of the girders. The Column reinforcement should not be less than 0.8 per cent of the cross- section. When lapping is required, the maximum area should be restricted to 4 per cent of the area of crosssection. The minimum diameter of the main reinforcement in the column will be 13mm. In addition, a minimum 0.3 per cent of the area should be provided near the face which is subject to tension when the column is to be provided with tension reinforcement also.

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5.3 Design Criteria for road bridges: IRC 21-2000 applies to design of road bridges in concrete. Nominal mix concrete is not included for use in road bridges. Material specifications and permissible stresses to be used for the concrete and steel generally follow the provisions in relevant IS codes IS: 456, IS: 432, IS: 1139, IS: 1566, IS: 1786 subject to some minor changes. Minimum cement content for major bridges is 360 kg/cum and maximum 540 kg/cum. It specifies different minimum grades for culverts and major bridges. For bridges in severe exposure conditions one grade higher concrete is to be used. For calculating stresses in section a modular ratio of 10 may be adopted. Permissible shear stress without stirrups varies with the percentage of steel provided from 0.18Mpa to 2.5Mpa for M20 concrete and 0.15% reinforcement for M40 and 3.0% for above grades of concrete. Minimum cover to be provided for the reinforcement depends on the exposure conditions also. In moderate conditions of exposure, minimum cover from any exposed surface shall be 40 mm and in conditions obsevere exposure, it shall be 50 mm. In conditions of alternate wetting and drying the code requires provision of 75 mm cover. Minimum size of bar to be used is 8 mm and in columns, minimum size of longitudinal bar is 12 mm. The code also prohibits maximum diameter as 40 mm or a section of equivalent area, except in special circumstances.

Fig 4.7-Cross section across diaphragm wall

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Cross girders monolithic with the deck slab should be provided at bearings and may be provided in intermediate locations according to design requirements. Minimum thickness shall not be less than that of deck slab and it should extend at least three- fourths depth of main beams. They are designed with reinforcement equal to approximately 0.50% of gross area at the bottom and 0.25% of gross area of steel in top. Nominal two legged stirrups of 12mm diameter at 150mm centers are provided. 5.3.1 DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE: 5.3.1.1 Introduction: The design procedures for railway and road bridges primarily differ in consideration of loading. In general, EUDL tables are available for design of not only main beams but also floor systems for railway bridges. On the other hand, the highway bridge design takes into consideration individual disposition of the wheel loads of the vehicles. The procedure is briefly dealt with individually for these two in this section. 5. 3.2 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES: 5.3.2.1 Steel Girders (a)Deck-type bridges: Generally, deck-type bridges are designed with two girders carrying a track. Some principles of spacing of girders have already been indicated in subsection. The track is carried over the girders generally using timber or steel sleepers which are connected to the top flanges of the girders by means of the girders by means of hook bolts or other bolts. The sleepers can be designed to carry the loads coming through the two rails as concentrated loads and for all standard spans up to 91.44 m and issued drawings to show general arrangements as well as details of members and joints. 5.3.2.2 Concrete Girders As mentioned earlier, so far as the design of long-span concrete girders for railway loading is concerned, the determination of the forces becomes simple since each track is carried by a pair of girders, spanned by the deck slab as they are assumed to act only as stiffeners to the girders. End diaphragms are designed to take up secondary forces that will be induced due to differential prestressing in girders. The shorter due concrete spans are provided with one pair of girders per track or a number of T beam and slabs placed side by side. In the matter case, the distribution of load between the girders is decided by using one of the standard methods evolved and mentioned subsection.
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5.3.3 ROAD BRIDGE DESIGN 5.3.3.1 Approach to design Since concrete girders are mostly used for road bridges, only the design procedures for concrete bridge are indicated here. Each component of the girder has to be designed separately by working out the worst effect on the component by the most severe pattern of placement of vehicles adopted for the particular class of loading. In general, as indicated, road bridges are designed for IRC class AA loading and also checked for class A loading for the number of lanes can be occupied by class A load also. Once the worst loading moments and shear forces are determined for the severe conditions of loading on each component, the design boils down to a problem of structural engineering. The section is designed by the trial and error method starting with an assumed section and verifying if resultant stresses are within permissible limits mentioned in respective IRC Codes for RCC and PSC and IS 456 as the case may be. For short spans up to 6m, flat RCC slabs are adopted. Alternative arrangements of using precast PSC slabs are indicated IRC has issued standard drawings for standard span slabs and beams. They contain full details and can be adopted directly. Normally, the minimum width for standard road bridge is far two lanes which, even without taking into consideration the footpath, are 7.5 m. It is inconceivable to provide such a wide slab over two girders and where the lanes are more, more number of girders are to be provided. With availability of computers for design, stresses are computed using Finite Element Method.

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5.4 DESIGN OF CONCRETE ROAD BRIDGES (a)Design of Deck Slab: This first depends on the method of dispersion of wheel load and effective width of slab to be considered for working out moments and shear. The methods used for this are based on Pigeauds method or Westerguards method. Generally, Pigeauds method is used in India. It has three provisions: (1) Determination of effective width of slab for a single concentrated load over a slab simply supported at two ends; (2) Determination of effective width of slab for a single concentrated load placed on a cantilever slab; and (3) Determination of effective area over which the concentrated load is dispersed and coefficients to be used for working out moments in either direction when slab is supported on four sides For (1) effective width e is given by

e=kx(1- x/l)+W
Where l = effective span in case of simply supported slab and clear span in case of continuous slabs x= distance of centre of gravity of load from the near support W= width of concentration of load .i.e. Width of tyre or track at road surface in a direction perpendicular to span, plus twice thickness of wearing coat. k= a constant depending on l/l where l is the width of the slab and is tabulated in Annexure 14.5. For (2), i.e. in the case of the cantilever slab, the effective width e=1.2x+w. Knowing e and the load plus impact, BM for unit width of slab can be calculated. The dispersion of load on slab supported on all four sides will be shown x=a in direction L
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b in direction B Knowing U and V , the coefficients m1and m2 are read from pairs of graphs provided by Pigeaud for values corresponding to U/B and V/L. M1= moment in short span = (m1+m2) P M2= moment in long span =(m1+m2) P = value of Pigeauds ratio, taken as 0.15 for RCC This method has following limitations. 1. It applies to loads placed at centers. Since a number of loads will come on a panel and only one may be at centre, some approximations will have to be made while considering the effect of non-central loads.

2. Where V/L is small, the values of m1 and m2 tend to become less accurate.
3. This method is most useful when k is more than0.55.The curves useful for design by this method are available in many textbooks. The curves have been evolved for different values of K, i.e. the ratio of the short span to the long span of the slab varying from 0.4 to 1.0. Readers more interested in the method may refer to Victors Essentials of bridge Engineering where the full set of curves is reproduced. For precast slabs, the width of each slab is taken as the effective width. Otherwise, the design of the slab is like any two way RCC slab reinforcement. The portion beyond the girder is designed as a cantilever for taking generally one track or line of wheels and or foot path loading plus parapet loading.

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5.4.1 DESIGN OF THE LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS For the computation of the bending moments due to live load, the distribution of the live load between the various longitudinal girders has to be first determined .When there are only two girders, the reactions can be worked out assuming the deck slab as unyielding and by determining the worst placement. When three or more girders are provided, the load distribution is estimated by using any one of the following three methods. (a) (b) (c) Courbons method Henry-jaegar method Morice and Little version of Guyon and Massonnet method

These three methods are briefly described below. 5.4.1.1 COURBONS METHOD: This is the simplest of the three methods in application. It requires no reference to any tables or charts and also is applicable to majority of modern Tbeam bridges. This method, however, has certain limitations, as it is applicable only to cases where: (1) (2) The ratio of span to width of deck is more than 2 but less than 4; The longitudinal beams are interconnected beams/diaphragms, symmetrically spaced; and by at least five cross

(3)

The depth of cross girders/diaphragms is not less than 0.75 of the depth of main girders. If these conditions are satisfied, for a system of wheel (live) loads across a cross section under the loads, the proportion of the load carried by a girder is given by

Ri= PIi/Ii(1+ Ii/Ii di^2*edi) Where P= sum of loads at the section Ii= moment of inertia of the girder e=eccentricity of the loads with respect to axis of the bridge
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di= distance of the girders under consideration from axis of the bridge 5.4.1.2 Henry-Jaegar method: This method assumes that all the cross beams can be replaced by a uniform, continuous, transverse medium of equivalent stiffness. In the absence of cross beams, it takes into account the stiffness of the slab over its entire length. The distribution of the loads between the girders is based on three dimensional parameters as given below: A=12/^4*(L/h)^3*nEIT/EI E=^2/2n(h/L)CJ/EIT where cross beams exist And F= LEIT When there is no cross beam c=EI1/EI2 Where L= Span length of bridge h= spacing of longitudinal beams n= number of cross beams EI= Flexural rigidity of one longitudinal girder CJ= Torsional rigidity of one longitudinal girder EIT= Flexural rigidity of one cross beam EI1 and EI2 are flexural rigidities of outer and inner longitudinal beams if they are different. However, normally these will be equal particularly in RCC T- beam bridges. In a bridge with three or four longitudinal with a number of cross beams F is taken as .

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The distribution coefficients are given in a graphical form with parameter A as abscissa and moment coefficient m as ordinate. Different sets of graphs exits for F=0 and F= and for different number of girders in the system. For intermediate values of F the coefficient is interpolated using the formula mF= m0+(m-m0)FA/3+FA Graphs are available for system of 3 or more girders. Further information and graphs can be had from The Analysis of Grid Frameworks and related structures. 5.4.1.3 Marcie Little Method: The method also calls for the use of standard graphs evolved for moment of coefficient. It applies the orthotropic plate theory to concrete bridge systems, based on the approach first suggested by Guyon neglecting torsion and later extended by Massonnet including torsion. Complete details of the method are described along with graphs in the Concrete Bridge Design by R E Rowe. Some of the graphs are reproduced also by Victor. Only the basic principle is given below for an appreciation of the method. The distribution of loads between longitudinal girders is correlated to the differential deflection between the longitudinal girders at a section where load are applied which can be as indicated. For arriving at various factors, the girders and position of loads are divided If the longitudinal girders are spaced at p, the effective width of deck is mp which is equated to 2b and b is divided into four equal parts of considering reference stations for the coefficients and assumed load position. The span L is equated to 2a. The distribution coefficient is given by k0=k0 + (k1-k0) where is torsional rigidity parameter of the bridge deck. Values of k1 and k0 are given in separate sets of graphs for each reference station 0, b/4, -b/4, etc., the abscissa representing and ordinate giving the k 0 or k1 value. k0=value is for =0

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k1= value is for =1, and is parameter giving flexural properties of the bridge deck as a whole. Values of and are arrived at a follows. =b/2a(i/j)^0.25 = a(i0+j0)/2Ej and i= I/p i.e. longitudinal moment of inertia (MI) of equivalent deck per unit width, I being MI of each girder and p being their transverse spacing. J= transverse MI of equivalent deck/unit length = J/q, J being MI of each transverse diaphragm or cross girder and q being their spacing E= Youngs modulus of material of deck G= modulus of rigidity of material of deck I0= I0/P, i.e. longitudinal torsional stiffness per unit length J0=J0/q , i.e. transverse torsional stiffness per unit length I0 and J0 are torsional stiffness factors of each longitudinal beam and cross beam/diaphragm respectively. The graphs are available in the reference quoted above and have been reproduced by Victor also. In all the above methods, the distribution factor for each beam and proportion of load is worked out for each beam. The proportion of loads is worked out for the worst transverse position of each set of axles first. For applying the morice little method a system of tabulation is required to arrive at the worst effect. Then, the worst position of load system longitudinally for producing maximum BM and shear over the length is determined and then the maximum BM and load in intermediate beams and end beams are calculated.

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5.5 DESIGN FEATURES OF THE PIER: PIERS: Piers are of: Solid piers Single column piers Cellular piers Trestle piers Hammer head piers Solid and cellular piers for river bridges should be provided with semi-circular cutwaters to facilitate streamlined flow and to reduce scour. Solid piers can be of mass concrete or of masonry for heights up to about 6m and spans up to about 20m. It is permissible to use stone masonry for the exposed portions and to fill the interior with lean concrete. The stone layers should be properly bonded with the interior with bond stones. Single column piers are increasingly used in urban elevated highway applications, and also for river crossings with a skew alignment. In an urban setting, single column piers provide an open and free-flowing perception to the motorists using the road below. Such piers when used for a skew bridge across a river results in least obstruction to passage of flood below the bridge. Cellular, trestle, hammer head and single column types use reinforced concrete and suitable for heights above 6m and span over 20m. The cellular type permits saving in the quantity of concrete, but usually requires difficult shuttering and additional labour in placing the reinforcements. The thickness of the walls should not be less than 300mm. The lateral reinforcement of walls should not be less than 300mm. the lateral reinforcement of walls should be 0.3% of the sectional area of the wall of the pier, and the quantity should be distributed as 60% on the outer face and 40% on the inner face. The trestle type consists of columns with a bent cap at the top. For all trestles, as in flyovers and the elevated roads, connecting diaphragms between the columns may also be provided. The hammer head type provides slender sub-structure and is normally suitable for the elevated roadways. When used for a river bridge eg. Jawahar setu across Sone River at Dehri, this design leads to minimum restriction of the waterway. The construction procedure should be arranged such that the construction joints are minimized. Simple geometry of the pier leads to reduce construction costs. The top width of the pier depends on the size of the bearing plates on which the super structure rests. It is usually kept at a minimum of 600mm more than the out-to-out dimension of the bearing plates, measured along the longitudinal axis of super structure. The length of the pier at the top should not be less than 1.2m in excess of the out-to-out dimension of the bearing plates measured perpendicular to the axis of the super structure. The bearing plates are so dimensioned that the bearing stress due to dead and live loads does not exceed 4.2 MPa. Other innovative designs for piers to suit urban site requirements includes H-shaped.
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Piers flaring at the top provide wider base at the top pier for stability of the deck and limited use of space at the base of the pier at the ground level. The bottom width is pier usually larger than the top width so as to restrict the net stresses within the permissible values. It is normally sufficient to provide a batter of 1 in 25on all sides for the portion of the pier. In the case of river bridges, the portion pier located between wind and water, that is the portion of the masonry surface which lies between the extreme high and extreme low water, is particularly vulnerable to deterioration and hence needs special attention. Reinforced concrete framed types of piers have been used in recent years. The main advantage in their use is due to reduced effective span lengths for girders on either side of the center line of the pier leading to economic in the cost of super structure. Reinforced concrete framed piers of V shaped supporting a short length of reinforced concrete decking have been used successfully in conjunction with suspended spans of pre-stressed concrete for bridges in hilly areas. The top width of pier depends on the size of the bearing plates on-which the super structure rests. It is usually kept at a minimum 600mm more than more than the out-to-out dimension of the bearing plates, measured along the longitudinal axis of super structure. The length of the pier at the top should not be less than 1.2m in excess of the out-to-out dimension of the bearing plates measured perpendicular to the axis of the super structure. The bottom width is pier usually larger than the top width so as to restrict the net stresses within the permissible values. It is normally sufficient to provide a batter of 1 in 25 on all sides for the portion of the pier between the bottom of the bed block and the top of the well.

The loads to be considered in the design of pier are I. Dead load of super structure and the pier itself. II. Live loads of traffic passing over the bridge. The effect of eccentric loading due to the live load occurring on one span only should be considered. III. Impact effect of live load. IV. Effect of wind on moving loads and on the superstructure. V. Force due to wave action, if applicable. VI. Longitudinal force due to the tractive effort of vehicles. VII.Longitudinal force due to breaking of vehicles. VIII.Longitudinal force due to resistance in bearings. 5.6 DESIGN FEATURES OF THE ABUTMENT An abutment is the substructure which supports one terminals of the superstructure of a bridge and laterally supports the embankment which serves as an approach to die bridge. It consists of generally three structural elements.

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a) The Brest wall, which directly supports the dead and live loads of the superstructure, and retains the filling of the embankment in its rear. b) The wing wall. Which act as extensions of the breast wall in retaining the fill, not taking loads from the superstructure c) The back wall, which is small retaining wall just behind the bridge seat. In abutment design, the forces considered are: i) Dead load due to superstructure. ii) Live load on the superstructure. iii) Self-weight of the abutment. iv) Longitudinal forces due to tractive effort and braking effort and due to temperature variation. v) Thrust on the abutment due to retained earth and effect of live loads on the fill at the rear end of the abutment. It is important on abutment construction to replace the fill material carefully and to arrange for its proper drainage. A good drainage system is secured by placing rock fill immediately behind the abutment and proper drain pipes at the bottom.

6. WELL FOUNDATIONS
6.1 Introduction:

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Well foundations had their origin in India and have been used for hundreds of years for providing deep foundations below the spring water level for important buildings and structures. The technique of sinking masonry wells for drinking water is very ancient and even today small drinking water wells are constructed all over the country using the same methods as were prevalent centuries ago. Well foundations were used for the first time for important irrigation structures on the Ganga canal including solani aqueduct at Roorkee (India), which were constructed in the middle of the nineteenth century. With the advent of Railways in India, construction of a large number of bridges across major rivers became necessary and it was recognized very soon that much bigger and deeper well foundations were required for their piers and abutments.

Fig 6.1-well foundations 6.2 Comparison with Pile Foundation i) Well foundations provide a solid and massive foundation for heavy loads as against a cluster of piles which are slender and weak individually and are liable to get damaged when hit by floating trees or boulders rolling on the river bed in case of bridge piers. ii) Wells have a large cross sectional area and the bearing capacity of soil for this area is much greater than that of the same soil at the same depth for section.
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bearing piles of small cross-

iii) Well foundations can be provided up to any depth if only open sinking is

involved and

upto a depth of 33.5m if pneumatic sinking is required to be done. Pile foundations are generally economical up to a depth of 18m and in some cases for depths up to 27m. iv) Piles cannot be driven through soil having boulders. Logs of wood which are very often found buried even at great depths also obstruct a pile. It is possible to sink a well after overcoming these obstructions. v) The size of well foundations cannot be reduced indefinitely as the dredge hole must be

enough to enable a grab to work and the steining must have the thickness necessary to provide the required sinking effort. It is, therefore, not economical to use well foundations for very small loads and pile foundations are more suitable for them. vi) Wells are hollow at the center and most of the material is at the periphery. This Provides a large section modulus with the minimum cross-sectional is large. The section modulus of area. They can resist large horizontal forces and can also take vertical loads even when the unsupported length individual piles in a cluster is small and cannot carry large horizontal force or vertical loads when the unsupported length is considerable as in case of bridge piers and abutments in scourable riverbeds. vii) The bearing capacity of a pile is generally uncertain. In most cases, it is not possible to determine the exact strata through which each individual pile has passed. It cannot be said with confidence in the case of bearing piles if they have gone and rested on the strata taken into account while designing them or if they are resting only on an isolated boulder. In case of wells sunk by dewatering or pneumatic sinking, it is possible to visually examine the strata through which sinking is done in its natural state and the material on which they are finally founded. Even when sinking is done by dredging, the dredged material gives a fairly good idea of the strata through which the well is sunk. Drilled piles and caisson piles also have this advantage over the driven piles.

viii) Masonry in the steining wells is done under dry conditions and the quality of masonry Or concrete is much better than in case of cast in situ piles for which concreting is done below the ground level and in many cases below the water level, where it cannot be inspected. Even in case of precast piles, the concrete is subjected to a lot of hammering and
37

damage to it cannot be ruled out. ix) In case of wells rising of the well steining and sinking are done in stages and a decision about the foundation level can be taken as the work progresses piles and the strata conditions become known. In case of precast piles, a decision about the depth has to be taken in advance. If the bearing capacity of the piles at the design depth is found to be less than the calculated value after testing, it may become necessary to redesign the foundation and the piles of short length already cast may have to be rejected or additional number of piles may have to be provided in each cluster. On the other hand if the stratum is too hard, it may not be possible to sink them to the design depth and the piles may have to be cut which is costly and situ piles. 6.3 Well Types and Their Suitability: The followings are the different types of well in common use in Indian as below: 6.3.1Circular well This type of well is used most commonly and the main points in its favour are its strength. Simplicity in construction and ease in sinking. It requires only one dredger for sinking and its weight per sq. metre of surface is the highest due to which the sinking effort for this well is also high. The distance of the cutting edge from the dredge hole is uniform all over and the chances of tilting are the minimum for this type of well. The well is generally adopted for piers of single track railway bridges and those of bridges on narrow roads. When the piers are very long the size of circular wells becomes unduly large, which makes them costly and disadvantageous hydraulically also as they cause excessive obstruction to the flow of water. Nine metres is generally considered as the maximum diameter of circular wells. Allowing cantilever of one metre on either side the maximum length of the pier resting on this type of well is about 11 metres. 6.3.2Double D well
38

wasteful. This does not apply to cast in

Railways as

well as roadways. The advantages and disadvantages of each type have also been discussed

This type of well is most common for the piers and abutments of bridges which are too long to be accommodated on circular well. The shape is simple and it is easy to sink this type of well also. The dimensions of the well are so determined that the length and the width of the dredge holes are almost equal. It is also recommended by some engineers that the overall length of the well should not be more than double the width. The disadvantage of this type of well is that considerable bending moments are caused in the steining due to the difference in the earth pressure from outside and water pressure from inside which result in vertical cracks in the steining particularly in the straight portions where join the partition wall.

6.3.3Double Octagonal Well These types of wells are free from the shortcoming of double D-well. Blind corners are eliminated and bending stresses in the steining are also reduced considerably. They, however, offer greater resistance against sinking on area. Masonry in steining is also more 6.3.4 Rectangular Well These types of foundations are generally adopted for bridge foundations having shallow depths. They can be adopted very conveniently where the bridge is designed for open foundations and a change of well foundations becomes necessary during the course of construction on account of adverse conditions such as excessive in flow of water and silt into the excavation. 6.3.5 Twin circular well This type of foundation consists of two independent circular wells placed very close to each other with a common well cap. It is necessary to sink these wells simultaneously to ensure that the cutting edges are almost at the same level all the time. The wells have a tendency to tilt towards each other during the course of sinking on account of the fact that the sand between them becomes loose and does not offer as much resistance against sinking as on the other sides. If the depth of sinking is small say up to 6 or 7 metres, the clear space between the two wells may be kept 0.6 to 1 m to avoid tilting.
39

account of the increased surface

difficult than in case of double D wells.

For greater depth of sinking spacing of 2 to 3 meters may be necessary. Since it is necessary to sink these wells simultaneously it is obligatory to have two sets of equipment for well sinking and in this respect they do not offer any advantage over double D or double octagonal wells. They are, however, advantageous where the length of the pier is considerable and the sizes of the double D or octagonal wells become unduly large to accommoda te the pier. If, however, the soil is weak, the larger size of double D or double octagonal wells may be required to keep the bearing pressure on the soil within limits. Twin circular wells are advantageous only when the depths of sinking is small and the foundation material is soft rock or kankar or some other soil capable of taking fairly high loads. Design of well caps for the twin circular wells also requires special care. Allowance is made for relative settlement of the two wells and this adds to its cost. The possibility of development of cracks in the pier due to relative settlement cannot be ruled out inspite of the heavy design of the cap except where the wells are founded on rock or other incompressible soils.

6.3.6 Wells with Multiple Dredge Holes For piers and abutments of very large sizes, wells with multiple dredge holes are used. Wells of this type are not common in India. Wells of this type were, however, used for the towers of Howrah Bridge. The size of these wells is 24.8m x 55m and there are 21 dredge holes in each of them, In the United States wells of this type are more common. The overall dimension of the largest well are 60.5m x 29.6m and they support the piers of San Okland Bridge. Each well has 55 square dredge holes of 5.2m x 5.2m size. Francisco

40

Fig 6.2-shapes of well foundations

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7. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
7.1 DEFINITION: Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. It can be used to produce beams, floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete. Prestressing tendons (generally of high tensile steel cable or rods) are used to provide a clamping load which produces a compressive stress that balances the tensile stress that the concrete compression member would otherwise experience due to a bending load.

7.2 PRETENSIONED CONCRETE: Pre-tensioned concrete is cast around already tensioned tendons. This method produces a good bond between the tendon and the concrete, which both protects the tendon from corrosion and allows for direct transfer of tension. The cured concrete adheres and bonds to the bars and when the tension is released it is transferred to the concrete as compression by static friction .However, it requires stout anchoring points between which the tendon is to be stretched and the tendons are usually in a straight line. Thus, most pre-tensioned concrete elements are prefabricated in a factory and must be transported to the construction site, which limits their size. Pre-tensioned elements may be balcony elements, or a method of lintels, floor slab, beams or foundation piles. An innovative bridge construction method using pre-stressing is described in Stressed Ribbon Bridge.

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7.3 POST TENSIONED CONCRETE: 7.3.1 BONDED POST TENSIONED CONCRETE:

Fig 7.1-pre stressing cables along with reinforcement for I -girder Bonded post tensioned concrete is descriptive term for a method of applying compression after pouring concrete and the curing process. The concrete is cast around plastic, steel or aluminum curved duct, to follow the area where otherwise tension would occur in the concrete element. A set of tendons are fished through the duct and the concrete is poured. Once the concrete has hardened, the tendons are tensioned by hydraulic jack tzhat reacts against the concrete member itself. When the tendons have stretched sufficiently, according to the design specifications (see Hookes law), they are wedged in position and maintain tension after the jacks are removed, transferring pressure to the concrete. The duct is then grouted to protect the tendons from corrosion.

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Fig 7.2-showing base plates fixed in concrete girder This method is commonly used to create monolithic slabs for house contraction of the underlying soil is taken (such as adobe clay) create problems for the typical perimeter foundation. All stresses from seasonal expansion and contraction of the underlying soil are taken into the entire tensioned slab, which supports the building without significant flexure. Post-tensioning is also used in the construction of various bridges; both after concrete is cured after support by false work and by the assembly of prefabricated sections, as in the segmental bridge. The advantages of this system over unbounded post-tensioning are: 1) Large reduction in traditional reinforcement requirements as tendons cannot distress in accidents. 2) Tendons can be easily weaved allowing a more efficient design approach. 3) Higher ultimate strength due to bond generated between strand and concrete. 4) No long term issues with maintaining the integrity of the anchor/dead end.

7.3.2 UNBOUNDED POST TENSIONED CONCRETE: Unbounded post tensioned concrete differs from post-tensioning by providing each individual cable permanent freedom of movement relative to the concrete. To achieve this, each individual tendon is coated with grease (generally lithium based) and covered by a plastic sheathing formed in an extrusion process. The transfer of the tension to the concrete is achieved by the steel cable acting against steel anchors embedded in the perimeter of slab. The main disadvantage over bonded post tensioning is the fact that a cable can distress itself and burst out of the slab if damaged (such as during repair on the slab).The advantages of this system over bonded post-tensioning are:
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1) The ability to individually adjust cables based on poor field conditions. 2) The procedure of post-stress grouting is eliminated. 3) The ability to de-stress the tendons before attempting repair work. 7.3.3 Procedure for Tensioning and Transfer: Stressing: The tensioning of prestressing tendons shall be carried out in a manner that will induce a smooth and even rate of increase of stress in the tendons. The total tension imparted to each tendon shall conform to the requirements of the design. No alteration in the prestressing force in any tendon shall be allowed unless specifically approved by the designer. Any slack in the prestressing tendon shall first be taken up by applying a small initial tension. The initial tension required to remove slackness shall be taken as the starting point for measuring the elongation and a correction shall be applied to the total required extent of correction shall elongation to compensate for the initial tensioning of the wire. The

be arrived at by plotting on a graph the gauge reading as abscissa and extensions as ordinates: the intersection of the curve with the Y axis when extended shall be taken to give the effective elongation during initial tensioning, and this effective to the measured elongation to arrive at the actual total elongation. When two or more prestressing tendons are to be tensioned simultaneously, care shall be taken to ensure that all such tendons are of the same length from grip to grip. The provision shall be more carefully observed for tendons of a length smaller than 7.5 m. The placement of cables or ducts and the order of stressing and grouting shall be so arranged that the prestressing steel, when tensioned and grouted, does not adversely affect the adjoining ducts. Measurement of Prestressing Force : The force induced in the prestressing tendon shall be determined by means of gauges attached to the tensioning apparatus as well as by measuring the extension of the steel and relating it to its stress-strain curve. It is essential that both methods are used jointly so that the inaccuracies to which each is singly susceptible are be made for the frictional losses in the tensioning apparatus. The pressure gauges or devices attached to the tensioning shall be periodically calibrated to in reading exceeding 2 percent. In measuring the extension of prestressing steel, any slip which may occur in the gripping device shall be taken into consideration. Breakage of Wiresthe breakage of wires in any one
45

elongation shall be added

minimized. Due allowance shall apparatus to measure the force

ensure that they do not at any time introduce errors

prestressed concrete member

shall not exceed 2.5 percent during tensioning. Transfer of Prestressing Force

Wire

breakages

after

anchorage,

irrespective of percentage, shall not be condoned without special investigations.

The transfer of the prestress shall be carried out gradually so as to avoid large differences of tension between wires in a tendon, application of stress to the concrete. Where the total prestressing force in a member is built up by successive transfers to the force of a number of individual tendons on to the concrete, account shall be taken of the effect of the successive prestressing. In the long line and similar methods of prestressing, when the transfer is made on several moulds at a time, care shall be taken to ensure that the prestressing force is evenly applied on all the moulds, and that the transfer of prestress to the concrete is uniform along the entire length of the tension line. 7.4 ADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE:
i.

severe eccentricities of prestressing force and the sudden

Simple to design: A variety of components can accommodate various load carrying capabilities and span potentials. Connections between elements are simple carefully panned details.

ii. Well- developed and time tested standards:

Since the first introduction of pre-stressed concrete in the US, the design standards for bridge structures have continually evolved and are today governed by national AASHTO standards, as well as design, manufacturing and quality assurance standards of the Common wealth of Pennsylvania and other states.
iii. Adaptable to a wide variety of situations:

Precast pre-stressed concrete products can be designed and manufactured for any application, ranging in size from short span bridges to some of the largest projects in the world. When using pre-stressed concrete beams for replacement of existing bridges, the existing abutments and piers frequently can be used. iv. Attractive and aesthetic fit: Because of the simple, clean shapes of the member used, pre-stressed concrete bridges offer attractive views from all sides. Strong, tough, durableyet graceful bridges result from the low depth span ratios which are possible through the use of prestressed concrete.
v. Low life cycle costs:

The overall economy of a structure is measured in terms of life cycle cost. This includes the initial cost of the structure plus the maintenance cost. Pre-stressed concrete bridges do well in both these aspects. vi. Low initial costs:
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Pre-stressed concrete bridges are economical as well as provide minimum down time for construction. Carefully planned details speed the total construction process and result in overall economy.

vii. Minimal maintenance: Of course no painting is needed. Some engineers believe that this alone adds about 10 to 20% of the initial costs of a steel bridge over the period of its useful life. viii.Durable: Because of high quality of materials used, pre-stressed concrete members are particularly durable. Fatigue problems are minimal because of minor stresses induced by traffic loads. High strength pre-stressed concrete has excellent freeze- thaw and chloride resistance, as demonstrated by the performance of pre-stressed concrete girders. ix. Fire resistance: Pre-stressed concrete bridges are not easily damaged by fire. Fires hot enough to consume metal bridge rails require only cosmetic repairs to a pre-stressed concrete bridge to its original condition.
x. Widely used and accepted:

While pre-stressed concrete is a relatively new product the first use of pre-stressed concrete in US was in a bridge, built in the early 50s in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania today about a third of all bridges built use pre-stressed concrete beams. xi. Inherently safe: Pre-stressed concrete has many things going for it no fatigue- prone details built in redundancy no special design, overloads and excess capacity, better deck durability because of reduced deflections, better substructure stability from increased dead loads. xii. Excellent riding characteristics: The public will not only be safe, but also feel secure and comfortable on abridge that can hold vibrations to a minimum.
xiii.Efficient material usage:

Pre-stressed concrete is engineered high technology at its best. It is carefully designed using a variety of materials, each selected only for the benefits it brings to get the job done. High strength steel pre-stressing strands to provide load needed. Concrete to give permanence &strength and good riding characteristics. Reinforcing bars to further improve the long term quality of the concrete. i. Impacts local economy directly:

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Pre-stressed concrete is produced by local small business employing local labor. Most of its raw materials are also locally purchased and the health of the local pre-stressed concrete industry directly impacts further on the local economy.

7.5 TERMINOLOGY: i. Tendon: A stretched element is used in a concrete member of structure to impart prestressed to concrete. High tensile steel wires, bars, cables are used as tendons. ii. Anchorage: A device generally used to enable the tendon to impart and maintained prestressed in the concrete, the commonly used anchorages are the Fressiynet, Magnel blaton & other systems.

iii. Pre-tensioning:

A method of pre-stressing concrete in which the tendons are tensioned before the concrete is placed. iv. Post tensioning: A method of pre-stressing concrete by tensioning tendons against hardened concrete.

v. Bonded pre-stressed concrete: Concrete in which pre-stressed is imparted to concrete through bond between the tendons & surrounding concrete pre-tensioned members are belong to this group. vi. Non bonded pre-stressed concrete A method of construction in which the tendons are not bonded to the surrounding concrete. The tendons may be placed in the ducts formed in the concrete members or they may be placed outside the concrete section. vii. Full pre-stressing: Pre-stressed concrete in which tensile stress in the concrete are entirely obviated at working loads by having sufficiently high pre-stress in the members.
viii.Limited or partial pre-stressing: 48

The degree of pre-stress applied to concrete in which tensile stress to a limited degree are permitted in concrete under working loads.
ix. Moderate pre-stressing:

In this type no limit is imposed upon the magnitude of tensile stress at working loads this form of construction is not really pre-stressed concrete but is to be regarded as reinforced concrete with reduced cracking and the section should be analyzed according to the rules of reinforced concrete as a case of bending combined with axial force. x. Axial pre-stressing: A member in which entire cross section of concrete has a uniform compressive pre-stress in this type of pre-stressing the centroid of the tendons coincides with that of concrete section. xi. Cracking load: The load on structural element corresponding to the first visible crack. xii. Creep in concrete: Progressive increase in the inelastic deformation of concrete under sustained stress components. xiii.Cap cable: A short curved tendon arranged at the interior supports of continuous beam. The anchorages are in compression zone. While the curved portion is in tensile zone.

xiv.Degree of pre-stressing: A measure of the magnitude of the pre-stressing force related to the resultant stress occurring in the structural member at working load. xv. Debonding: Prevention of bond between the steel wires to its surrounding concrete. 7.6. APPLICATIONS: 1. Slabs on ground: Today, PT is used extensively for slabs on grade where soils are likely to move especially in the American southwest. Jim Rogers, editor &publisher of the Post Tension Magazine, says that until housing construction ground to a halt last year, about half of all post-tensioning work was slabs on ground for homes. Residential Concrete Magazine had a good. 2. Another good application for PT slabs is producing crack-free tennis courts. 3. A recently developed application of PT is external post-tensioning for strengthening of existing structures, especially as an upgrade to resist seismic forces. The best review of this is available from the International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI) , Guidelines for the selecting and strengthening Of Concrete Structures.
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4. Bridge designers have used PT both for cast-in-place concrete and for precast segmental construction. PT allows longer spans & keeps cracks tight. 5. Concrete water tanks are often post-tensioned to crack width and leakage. 6. Masonry walls can be post tensioned this is usually done with a solid steel fastened to the foundation and stressed with a nut the walls top. A good article on PT for masonry is available on Masonry Concrete Magazine. 7. One interesting application is for a concrete countertop that needed to span 6feet and carry a heavy load. 8. Pre-stressed concrete is the predominating material for floors in high rise buildings and concrete chambers in nuclear reactors. 9. Unbounded post-tensioning tendons are commonly used in parking garages barrier cable. Also due to its ability to be stressed and then de-stressed, it can be used to temporarily repair a damaged building by holding up a damaged wall or floor until permanent repairs can be made. 10. The first pre-stressed concrete bridge in North America was Walnut Lane Memorial Bridge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 11. Pre-stressing can also be accomplished on circular concrete pipes used for water transmission. High tensile strength steel wire is helically wrapped around the outside of the pipe under controlled tension and spacing which induces a circumferential compressive stress in the core concrete. 12. This enables the pipe to handle high internal pressures and the effects of external earth and traffic loads.

8. MISCLANEOUS ITEMS OF WORK


8.1. Material to be used: 8.1.1. Concrete: In specifying a particular grade of concrete, the following information should be included: a) Type of mix, that is, design mix concrete as nominal mix concrete. b) Grade designation. c) Type of cement d) Maximum aggregate. nominal size of

e) Minimum cement content (for design mix concrete) f) Maximum water cement ratio. g) Workability
50

h) Mix proportion (for nominal mix Fig8.1-Batching plant for weigh batching and mixing concrete). of concrete i) Exposure conditions - As guided by table No. 4 & 5 of IS-456:2000. j) Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing. k) Method of placing and l) Degree of supervision. The protection of the steel in concrete against corrosion depends upon an adequate thickness of good quality of concrete. The free water cement ratio is an important factor in governing the durability of concrete and should always be the lowest value. Cement content not including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in excess of 450 kg/m 3 should not be used unless special consideration has been given in design to the increased

risk of cracking due to drying shrinkage in thin sections as to early thermal cracking and to the increased risk of damage due to alkali silica reactions. Fig 8.2-fresh flowing concrete

(Clause N0. 5.2.1 of IRS CBC) When the designer wishes to have an of the tensile strength from compressive strength, the following used. fcr = 0.7fck ,
51

estimate

expression may be

fcr is the flexural strength in N/mm2; and fck is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete in N/mm2. Under water concrete should have a very high degree of workability and confirm to IS: 9103.The water cement ratio shall not exceed 0.6 and ma y need to be smaller, depending on the grade of concrete or the type of chemical attack. For aggregates of 40 mm maximum particle size, the cement content shall be at least 350 kg/m3 of concrete.

In case of plain concrete wells, the concrete mix for the steini ng shall not normally be leaner than M-15. In case of marine or other similar conditions of adverse exposure, the concrete in the steining shall not be less than leaner than M-20 with cement not less than 310 kg/m3 of concrete and the water cement ratio not more than 0.45. The well curb shall invariably be in reinforced concrete of mix not leaner than M-25. The mix used in bottom plug shall have a minimum cement content of 330 kg/m3 and a slump of about 150mm to permit easy flow of concrete through tremie to fill up all cavities. Concrete shall be laid in one continuous operation till dredge hole is filled to required height. For under water concreting the concrete shall be placed gently by tremie boxes under still water condition and the cement contents of mix be increased by 10 percent. In case grouted concrete, e.g. concrete is used, the grout mix shall not be leaner than 1:2 and it shall be ensured by suitable means, such as, controlling the rate of pumping that the grout fills up all interstices up to the top of the plug. If any dewatering is required it shall be carried out after 7 days have elapsed after bottom plugging. (Clause No. 708.10.1 IRC 78:2000) A 300mm thick plug of M-15 cement concrete shall be provided over the filling. 8.1.2 Under water concreting: (Clause N0. 14.2 & 14.2.4 of IS-456:2000) When it is necessary to deposit concrete under water, the method, equipment, materials and proportions of the mix to be used shall be submitted to and approved by the engineer-in-charge before the work
52

started. Concrete cast under water should not fall freely through the water. it may be leached and become segregated. Concrete shall be continuously until it is brought to the required height. While Otherwise deposited

depositing, the top

surface shall be kept as nearly level as possible and the formation of seams avoided. The method to be used for depositing concrete under water shall be one of the following-

8.1.2.1. Tremie:

Fig8.3-concreting using tremie pipes


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The concrete is placed through vertical pipes the lower end of which is always inserted sufficiently deep into the concrete which has been placed previously but has not set. The concrete emerging from the pipe pushes the material that has already been placed to the side and upwards and thus does not come into direct contact. When concrete is to be deposited under water by means of tremie, the top section of the tremie shall be a hopper large enough to hold one entire batch of the mix or the entire contents the transporting bucket, if any. The tremie pipe shall be not less than 200mm in diameter and shall be large enough to allow a free flow of concrete and strong enough to withstand the external pressure of the water in which it is suspended, even if a partial vacuum develops inside the pipe. Preferably, flanged steel pipe of adequate strength for the job should be used. A separate lifting device shall be provided for each tremie pipe with its hopper at the upper end. Unless the lower end of the pipe is equipped with an approved automatic check valve, the upper end of the pipe shall be plugged with a wedding of the gunny sacking or other approved material before delivering the concrete to the tremie pipe through the hopper, so that when the concrete is forced down from the hopper to the pipe. It will force the plug (and along with it any water in the pipe) down the pipe and out of the bottom end, thus establishing a continuous stream of concrete. It will be necessary to raise slowly the tremie in order to cause a uniform flow of the concrete but the tremie shall not be emptied so that water enters the pipe. At all times after the placing of concrete is started and until all the concrete is placed, the lower end of the tremie pipe shall be below the top surface of the plastic concrete. This will cause to the concrete to build up from below instead of flowing out over the surface, and thus avoid the formation of laitance layers. If the change in the tremie is lost while depositing, the tremie shall be raised above the concrete surface and unless sealed by a check valve, it will be re-plugged at the top end, as at the beginning, before refilling for depositing concrete. 8.1.2.2 Direct placement with pumps As in the case of tremie method, the vertical end piece of the pipe line is always inserted sufficiently deep into the previously cast concrete and should not move to the side during pumping. 8.1.2.3 Drop bottom bucket
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The top of the bucket shall be covered with a canvas flap. The bottom doors shall open freely downward and outward when tripped. The bucket shall be filled completely and lowered slowly to avoid backwash. The bottom door shall not be opened until the bucket rest on the surface upon which the concrete is to be deposited and when discharged, shall be withdrawn slowly until well above the concrete. 8.2 Steel: (Clause No. 708.3.4 IRC 78:2000) for plain concrete wells, vertical reinforcements (whether mild steel or deformed bars) in the steining shall not be less than 0.12 per cent of gross sectional area of the actual thickness provided. This shall be equally distributed on both faces of steining. The vertical reinforcements shall be tied up with hoop steel not less than 0.04 percent of the volume per unit length of the steining. (ClauseNo.708.3.5IRC78:2000) In case where the well steining is designed as a reinforced concrete element, it shall be considered as a column section subjected to combined axial load and bending. However, the amount of vertical reinforcement provided in the steining shall not be less than 0.2 percent (for either mild steel as deformed bars) of the actual gross section area of the steining, on the inner face, a minimum of 0.06 percent of gross area steel shall be provided. The transverse reinforcement in the steining shall be provided in accordance with the provisions for a column but in no case shall be less than 0.04% of the volume per unit length of the steining. The mild steel cutting edge shall be facilitate sinking of the well strong enough and not less than 40 kg/m to through the types of strata expected to be encountered Fig8.4-reinforcement provided to well staining

without suffering any damage. It shall be properly anchored to the well curb. For sinking through rock cutting edge should be suitably designed. The well curb shall invariably be in R.C. of mix not leaner than M-25 with minimum reinforcement of 72 kg/m3 excluding bond rods. The steel shall be suitably arranged to prevent spreading and splitting of the curb during sinking and in service. (Clause No. 708.7.4 IRC 78:2000) In case blasting is anticipated, the inner faces of the well curb shall be protected with steel plates of thickness not
55

less than 10mm upto the top

of well curb.

Fig8.5-Bluster blocks for future pre stressing

8.3 FUTURE PRESTRESSING ARRANGEMENTS In case of prestressed concrete structures, located in severe/saline exposure conditions, provision of future prestressing arrangement is necessary and should be obligatory. In case of box structures, holes are kept in the end diaphragms at top portion. If intermediate diaphragms are provided then holes should be left in these also keeping in view the alignment of external cables. It is preferable to get the cable profile approved before approving the superstructure drawing. If the diaphragms are very wide/thick, then holes should be rectangular in size to adjust the profile of alignment. For prestressed structure, suitable arrangement for external prestressing should be decided at design stage. Such arrangement should be for imparting about 20 % of the prestressing force originally applied.

8.4 HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE The last 10 or 20 years have seen an important evolution in materials and construction. The material concrete itself has changed a lot much. Until recently structural concrete was considered as a unique material, of course with some variation adopted to different possible applications. Concrete can practically be designed for many different applications. Classical structural concrete has a characteristic strength ranging up to 50 MPa (500 kg/cm2). More and more use of high performance concrete (HPC) with characteristic strength ranging from 60 MPa to 80 MPa is being used world over. The reason for using high performance concrete is to increase concrete strength driving important normal and bending forces. Major goal of specifying HPC is drastic increase of durability and a large compactness which comes with a high concrete strength is the best solution to limit penetration of corrosive agents like chlorides. Self placing concrete which is a rather recent development is more and more preferred to classical concrete. Three main reasons for this are i) Placing is easier; allows for reducing equipment and man power and finally produces Financial benefits. ii) When the reinforcement ratio is very high, when shape does not allow for easy vibration or When there is no access in some zones-or of segregation is more limited than with traditional concrete. iii) It allows to give concrete structure more complex shapes, a serious advantage when Considering some tendencies of modern architecture. We have to evoke very high performance fiber concretes, which have been developed by
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Some companies with a characteristic Fig8.6-Anti corrosive treatment strength ranging from150 to 200 MPa. Some structures have already been built in the world with such materials. 8.5 ANTI CORROSIVE TREATMENT Due to saline atmosphere, steel gets corroded due to electro-chemical action. Not only the reinforcing steel but also the standards/wires used for prestressing gets corroded. Adequate care, therefore, need to taken to protect the bridge structure from this dangerous phenomenon. The concrete and steel have to be provided with some anticorrosive treatment. The bridges lying in coastal area are most affected by corrosion. At places the atmosphere may itself be corrosive due to heavy chemical industrialization. The channel may also carry waste produce from the industries, which may lead to corrosion. The anticorrosive treatment is required to be applied to concrete and reinforcement steel in case of saline and severe exposure conditions. REINFORCEMENT: Anticorrosive treatment to reinforcing steel shall be CPCC (Cement Polymer Composite Coating) developed by Karaikudi or FBEC (Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating). The anchorage / bond length in Case of FBEC Bars shall be increased by 50 % of normal values specified in I.R.C. Fig8.7-Reinforcement bars with CPCC coating

GALVANISATION: Recently galvanization to reinforcing bars is also considered as an alternative


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anticorrosive Treatment CONCRETE SURFACE: A. Over mild steel liner to piles : One coat of zinc rich epoxy primer and two coats of coal tar epoxy to the outside surface, B. In case of part of substructure in contact with earth and upto H.T.L. + 0.9 m or H.F.L. whichever is higher one coat of primer and two coats of coal tar epoxy. C. In case of part of substructure exposed to atmosphere water proof cement paint. D. In case of parapets water proof cement based paint in three coats is applied. E. In case of deck / girder / box epoxy based paint with one coat of primer and further two coats are applied. Cement Polymer Composite Coating is used in our site as anti corrosive treatment for reinforcement. 8.6 ERECTION SCHEME OF GIRDERS: 1. The piers and bed blocks must be completed in all respects from one and of the bridge, for commencement of erection / launching of the pre-cast PSC girders. 2 .A two spans continuous launching truss may be used to span across the first two spans of the bridge, for commencing launching of girders. 3. The two outer girders, of the first span of bridge can be lead by moving the girders on a temporary rail track up to the launching truss (behind abutment) and then through the help of launching truss, they can be moved further into the first span location , since the launching truss is already in position over the first and second span. 4. The first span girders (2 Nos) are lead into the span with the help of launching truss lowered on to the bed block and temporarily placed and secured properly. The launching truss can now move towards to occupy span numbers 2 and 3. 5. The girders already placed in span 1 can now be moved laterally to a desired location for providing a temporary track over these girders, for leading girders to further spans which are moved by trolleys running on temporary track over these girders.

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Fig8.8(a)-Erection of girders using launching trusses

Fig 8.8(b)-Erection of girders using launching trusses 6. The two outer girders of the second span can now be brought over the temporary track laid over the girders of the first span already erected. The girders are carried further into the second span with the help of launching truss for leading and lowering of the girders in the second span. 7. Now the launching truss can be moved further into 3 rd and 4th spans, this sequence can continue until two girders in all spans are erected. 8. The central girder of each of the spans is now brought with the help of trolley running over the temporary track, and lowered into the span. 9. After all three girders of each span are brought into the span, they are side shifted to their final positions and then the in-situ portion of the diaphragms shall be concreted in the first stage. The deck slab shall be concreted in the second stage to complete the structural work of superstructure. 10. The PSC girder shall be lifted only at the end diaphragm locations and from no other intermediate locations.
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Conclusion: The project created awareness about the construction process of precasting of concrete elements, prestressing techniques and launching of the pre cast girders in their respective positions. The design methodologies adopted in actual field and the importance of detailed drawings are understood. The difficulties in the actual construction of well foundations are studied.

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Photo gallery

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References 1. IRC: 78-2000, Standard specifications and Code of practice for road bridges. Section-VII, Foundation and Substructure (Second Revision),The India Road Congress, Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi- 110 011. 2.IS-456:2000- Plain and Reinforces Concrete Code of Practice (Fourth Revision) Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi110 002. 3.Concrete Bridge Code- IRS Code of Practice Plain, Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete for General Bridge Construction, RDSO, Lucknow-226 011. 4. IRS Code of Practice for the design of Sub-structures and Foundations of Bridges, RDSO, Lucknow- 226011. 5. Design of bridges by N.Krishna Raju. 6. Bridge Engineering by Ponnuswamy.

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