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DRUG STUDY Generic Name: Paracetamol Route of Administration: PO contains 120 mg Paracetamol.

Drug Classification Mode Mechanism of action Paracetamol reduces the synthesis of prostaglandins which are responsible for the mediation of pain and fever Brand Name: Biogesic, Crocin, Dafalgan, Dapa, Dolo, Datril, Dosage/Available Stock: 500 mg Paracetamol while 5 milliliters syrup

Indications & Contraindications INDICATIONS:

Adverse Reaction

Nursing Consideration - Check that the patient is not taking any other medication containing paracetamol. - For children who may refuse medicine off a spoon try using a medicine syringe to squirt liquid slowly into the side of the child's mouth or use soluble paracetamol mixed with a drink. - Some children may be happy to take one

Health Teaching

Analgesic

Headache Fever Muscle aches Arthritis Backache Toothaches Colds

CONTRAINDICATIONS: hypersensitivity to paracetamol

nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite; dark urine, claycolored stools; or jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

- If symptoms persist for more than three days, patients should consult the prescribing practitioner. - Patients should be cautioned not to take any other products containing paracetamol and they should read the label of all other medication carefully to ensure that it does not contain paracetamol. - Make sure patients are aware they must not exceed the recommended dose. - Immediate medical advice should be sought in the event of

paracetamol product but dislike the taste of another. - There are no known harmful effects when used during pregnancy. - Small amounts may pass into breast milk. However, there are no known harmful effects when used by breastfeeding mothers. - Alcohol increases the risk of liver damage that can occur if an overdose of paracetamol is taken. The hazards of paracetamol overdose are greater in persistent heavy drinkers and in people with

an overdose, even if patients feel well, because of the risk of delayed, serious liver damage. - Paracetamol for children comes in different strengths. Parents should take care they give their child the correct dose. - Paracetamol can be taken on an empty stomach. - Do not drink excessive quantities of alcohol while taking paracetamol. - Keep all paracetamol well out of the reach of children. Nurses should refer to manufacturer's summary of product characteristics and to appropriate local guidelines

alcoholic liver disease. - Evaluate therapeutic response.

DRUG STUDY Generic Name: ORESOL Route of Administration: PO Drug Classification Mode Mechanism of action Oresol may act as an irritant to gastric vagal receptors, and recruit efferent parasympathetic reflexes that cause glandular exocytosis of a less viscous mucus mixture. Cough may be provoked. This combination may flush tenacious, congealed mucopurulent material from obstructed small airways and lead to a temporary improvement in dyspnea or the work of breathing. Brand Name: TUSSI-ORGANIDIN Dosage/Available Stock: 50-100 ml/ 500 ml/day Indications & Contraindications INDICATIONS: Used to assist the expectoration of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients. The use of dextromethorphancontaining products are contraindicated in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Adverse Reaction Nursing Consideration Health Teaching

DRUG STUDY Generic Name: Probiotics Route of Administration: PO Drug Classification Mode Mechanism of action Sufficient clinical trials have been conducted to enable metaanalyses to be conducted for several clinical conditions. Evidence exists to support the use of probiotics in bacterial vaginosis, diarrhea (acute infectious, antibioticassociated, and persistent), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, and ventilatorassociated Brand Name: Gastro Flora Probiotics Dosage/Available Stock: Indications & Contraindications INDICATIONS: Promotion of general wellness and normal intestine functions. CONTRAINDICATIONS: The use of probiotics is not advised in patients at risk of opportunistic infections and in those with badly damaged GI tracts. Adverse Reaction Nursing Consideration Check for signs of hypersensitivity Health Teaching

Supplements and Adjuvant Therapy

Probiotics are considered relatively safe. There are isolated reports linking probiotics to adverse reactions.

pneumonia. Metaanalyses have shown no effect of probiotics in Crohn disease, eczema, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, or in patients in intensive care.

DRUG STUDY Generic Name: Vitamin A Route of Administration: PO Drug Classification Mode Mechanism of action Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Brand Name: Aquasol A Dosage/Available Stock: 400 micrograms per day (mcg/day) Indications & Contraindications INDICATIONS: Vitamin A injection is effective for the treatment of vitamin A deficiency. Adverse Reaction Nursing Consideration Teach the family about the Vitamin A toxicity Caution pregnant patient about the taking of vitamin A Health Teaching

fat-soluble vitamin.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: In Pregnancy: Safety of amounts exceeding 6,000 Units of vitamin A daily during pregnancy has not been established at this Vitamin A time. The use of vitamin A in promotes good excess of the vision, especially in recommended low light. It may dietary allowance also be needed for may cause fetal harm when reproduction and

If you don't get enough vitamin A, you are more likely to get infectious diseases and vision problems. If you get too much vitamin A, you can become sick. Large doses of vitamin A can also cause birth defects. Acute vitamin A poisoning usually occurs when an adult takes several hundred thousand IUs of vitamin A.

Teach patient that over consumption of vitamin A can cause nausea, irritability and blurred vision. Teach patient that Vitamin A must be avoided from direct sunlight exposure

Instruct patient/family that if there is a sign of over dosage of vitamin A, it must be reported immediately to the physician.

breast-feeding.

administered to a pregnant woman. Animal reproduction studies have shown fetal abnormalities associated with over-dosage in several species. Malformations of the central nervous system, the eye, the palate, and the urogenital tract are recorded. Vitamin A in excess of the recommended dietary allowance is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If vitamin A is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking vitamin A, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Symptoms of chronic vitamin A poisoning may occur in adults who regularly take more than 25,000 IU a day. Babies and children are more sensitive to vitamin A, and can become sick after taking smaller doses of vitamin A or vitamin A-containing products such as retinol (found in skin creams)

DRUG STUDY Generic Name: Zinc Syrup Route of Administration: PO Drug Classification Mode Mechanism of action Zinc has been used as a treatment for the common cold and for enhanced wound healing, but evidence to support these indications is limited. Zinc also has applications in pneumonia, diarrhea, male fertility, and Alzheimer disease. Brand Name: Actate de Zinc, Acexamate de Zinc Dosage/Available Stock: Indications & Contraindications INDICATIONS: Supplement to correct Zn deficiency eg malabsorption syndromes & in conditions w/ increased body losses. Adverse Reaction Nursing Consideration
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Health Teaching

Mineral

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Allergy to any component of EZinc.

The most common adverse reactions of oral zinc are nausea, bad taste, diarrhea, vomiting, mouth irritation, and, rarely, mouth sores. Nasal and throat irritation may occur with the zinc spray. There have been case reports of apparent zincinduced copper deficiency, immune system dysfunction, and myeloneuropathy. An increase in genitourinary symptoms and prostate cancer has

Do not give injection undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein. Add to TPN solution.

If doses greater than 100 mg per day are taken chronically, it can result in anemia, immune insufficiency, heart proble ms, and copper d eficiency. High doses of zinc can also cause a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL), or good, cholesterol.

been related to zinc supplementation

DRUG STUDY Generic Name: Ampicillin Brand Name: Biogesic, Crocin, Dafalgan, Dapa, Dolo, Datril, Route of Administration: PO Dosage/Available Stock: powder for oral suspension 125 mg/5 mL, 250 mg/5 mL; powder for injection 250, 500 mg, 1, 2 g Drug Classification Mode Mechanism of action Bactericidal action against sensitive organisms; inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall, causing cell death.. Indications & Contraindications INDICATIONS: For treatment of infection (Respiratory, GI, UTI and meningitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, enterococci, Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, nonpenicillinaseproducing N. gononhoeae, H. influenzae, staphylococci, streptococci including streptoc Adverse Reaction Nursing Consideration Assessment History: Allergies to penicillins , cephalosp orins, or other allergens; renal disorders; lactation Physical : Culture infected area; skin color, lesion; R, adventitious sounds; bowel sounds; CBC, liver and renal Health Teaching

Antibiotic

upset stomach diarrhea vomiting mild skin rash

y y y

CONTRAINDICATIONS: A history of a

Take this drug aroundthe-clock. Take the full course of therapy; do not stop taking the drug if you feel better. Take the oral drug on an empty stomach, 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals; the oral solution is stable for 7 days at room temperature or 14 days refrigerated. This antibiotic is specific to your

previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication. Ampicillin is also contraindicated in infections caused by penicillinaseproducing organisms.

function tests, serum electrolytes, hematocrit, urinalysis Interventions Culture infected area before treatment; r eculture are a if response is not as expected. Check IV site carefully for signs of thrombosis or drug reaction. Do not give IM injections in the same site; atrophy can occur. Monitor injection

problem and should not be used to selftreat other infections. You may experience these side effects: Nausea, vomiting, GI upset (eat frequent small meals), diarrhea. Report pain or discomfort at sites, unusual bleeding or bruising, mouth sores, rash, hives, fever, itching, severe diarrhea, difficulty breathing.

sites. Administ er oral drug on an empty stomach, 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals with a full glass of water; do not give with fruit juice or soft drinks.