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Bachelors Degree Programme in Psychology




Discipline of Psychology School of Social Sciences Indira Gandhi National Open University Maidan Garhi, New Delhi- 110068

Preparation Team
Dr. Swati Patra, Reader Dr. Suhas Shetgovekar, Reader Dr. Monika Mishra, Asstt. Professor Dr. Smita Gupta, Asstt. Professor Dr. Bhagwanti Jadwanti, Asstt. Professor

Programme Coordinator
Prof. Vimala Veeraraghavan Emeritus Professor, Psychology School of Social Sciences Indira Gandhi National Open University New Delhi

Print Production
Mr. Manjit Singh Section Officer (Pub.), SOSS, IGNOU, New Delhi January, 2012 Indira Gandhi National Open University, 2012 ISBN-978-81-266All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the Indira Gandhi National Open University. Further information about the School of Social Sciences and the Indira Gandhi National Open University courses may be obtained from the Universitys office at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi-110068. Printed and published on behalf of the Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, by Director, School of Social Sciences. Laser typeset by Mctronics Printographics, 27/3 Ward No. 1, Opp. Mother Dairy, Mehrauli, New Delhi-30 Printed by :

Sr. No. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 Details Introduction to Practicum in Psychology Practicum in BA Second Year BPCL 007 and BPCL 008 Procedure to be Followed by Academic Counsellor for BPCL 007 Procedure to be Followed by Academic Counsellor for BPCL 008 Format for Practicum Evaluation A Brief Guide to Practicals under BPCL 007 A Brief Guide to Practicals under BPCL 008 Conduction of Term End Examination in BPCL 007, BPCL 008 Suggested Readings Appendix- Certificate Appendix- Certificate Page No. 5 6 6 7 8 10 10 31 48 49 50 51

Bachelors Degree Programme in Psychology




Discipline of Psychology School of Social Sciences Indira Gandhi National Open University Maidan Garhi, New Delhi- 110068


Psychology is a science of human behaviour. It aims at understanding various phenomena of human mind and behaviour. The purpose of understanding is description, explanation, prediction and control of behaviour and the application of various techniques for the betterment of life. But how these goals are achieved? These goals are achieved through scientific research as a first step and then the research results are applied in real life settings. Psychologists have developed certain methods and procedures over the years to understand behaviour. These methods are studied in the branches of psychology especially devoted to the experiments, methods and research in psychology. The first such branch is Psychometrics which literally means measurement of psyche or psychological measurement. It includes everything related to the measurement of psychological constructs. The more specific branches are Experimental Psychology and Psychological Testing. Experimental psychology, as the name suggests, is focused more on experimentation in psychology. Psychological testing is more focused on psychological tests developed to study various mental abilities, personality, and other behaviours. Psychological tests provide us scientifically designed instruments for psychological experimentation and measurement. The branches of psychology related to research in psychology are Research Method and Statistics which deal with various methods and statistical analysis required in the research on human subjects. Psychology at graduate and post graduate levels requires learners to learn how to conduct practicals. Practicals consist of psychological experiments and tests that are to be carried out in controlled condition in a laboratory set up. The experimenter/administrator has to follow a standard procedure for administration, scoring and interpretation of the results/findings. Experiments in psychology make use of different instruments/apparatus to study different cognitive aspects such as sensation, perception, attention, memory, learning etc. They mainly focus on studying the cause and effect relationship between independent and dependent variables. Psychological tests on the other hand are administered in order to find out the cognitive, affective and behavioural functioning of the subjects. Psychological tests can be used in different settings like schools, hospitals, organisations and welfare organisations. They can also be used for research purpose. The psychological tests are of many kinds. Some are mainly to find out the level of cognitive functioning, such as intelligence, memory, thinking, problem solving, etc. Certain other tests find out the emotional disturbances and intra psychic conflicts in an individual. Apart from this, tests may be observational, where the individuals behaviours are observed in different situations and under varying conditions. Tests also vary in terms of the mode of administration. Some tests are paper-pencil based tests, which require the subject to read the items and respond with alternative answers. Other tests are projective tests, where certain semi-structured or unstructured material (verbal, pictorial, or any other) is shown to the subject and the subject has to respond by telling a story based on the picture or respond by telling what they perceive. All these responses are scored and interpreted. A good psychological test is always a standardized test, which means the test follows a uniform and systematic procedure of administration and scoring. It also has a manual in which the reliability, validity and the norms are provided.

BPCL-007 and BPCL-008 are practical courses in the second year of BDP-BA programme in psychology. Since, practical work is an essential component of psychology course, learners are required to carry out certain activities (testing and experimentation) in the psychology laboratory.



BPCL 007 Practicum in Psychology Testing Principles of psychological testing (principles related to the administration of the test, scoring of the test and interpretation of the test), principles related to report writing. Principles related to the administration of psychological test, e.g. being qualified and trained Counselling and clinical assessment (interview) Intelligence test (SPM) Passi test of Creativity Eysenck Personality Inventory Assessment of people with disability (Style of Learning and Thinking) BPCL 008 Practicum in Experimental Psychology Psychophysics Experiments Memory Experiments (STM/LTM) Reaction Time Experiments Signal Detection Experiments Transfer of Learning Experiments Figure Ground Experiments Muller Lyer Illusion Experiment


1) Go though the manual of the test thoroughly. 2) Explain the test in detail to the learners in the class. 3) Introduce the test in terms of: History of the Test Author Development of the test 6

Features of the test (e.g. no. of items, dimensions, reliability, validity) Administration Scoring Interpretation 4) After the introduction of the test, demonstrate to the learners how to administer the test. 5) The demonstration of administration will include the following: a) Preparation for the test, for instance, keeping the test material (test booklet, answer sheet, stopwatch) ready. b) Establishing rapport with the subject, making the subject feel comfortable c) Explaining the test (procedure, time limit, precautions) d) Taking informed consent for undergoing the test and informing the subject that the test findings will remain confidential. e) Taking permission to record the session, wherever applicable. f) Reading the instructions for test administration from the manual and showing it to learners as to from where they have to read the instructions.

g) Clearing all doubts in the mind of the subject about the test administration. h) The subject takes the test. i) Taking the answer sheet from the subject after completion of the test. .

6) Explain the scoring procedure (as given in the manual) to the learners. 7) Explain how to interpret the data. 8) Ask learners to administer the test on each other in pairs and monitor the same. 9) The learners will now administer, score and interpret 10) The learners will have to write a report of the test in the practicum note book which will be evaluated by the academic counsellors.


1) Select any experiment from experimental psychology book based on the topic suggested above. You may refer to some of the reference books given as follows: Experimental Psychology by L. Postman & J. P. Egan Experiments in Psychology by S. M. Mohsin Experimental Psychology with Advanced Experiments (2Vols.) by M. Rajamanickam 2) Explain the experiment in detail to the learners 7

3) Introduce the experiment in terms of: Historical background Hypothesis/es Independent and dependent variables Control and experimental conditions Administration Scoring 4) After the introduction of the experiment, demonstrate to the learners how to conduct the experiment. 5) The demonstration will include the following: Preparation for the experiment, for instance, keeping the material (instrument/apparatus, stimulus words/list, stopwatch) ready. Establishing rapport with the subject, making the subject feel comfortable Explaining the experiment (procedure, time limit, precautions) Taking informed consent for undergoing the experiment and informing the subject that the experiment findings will remain confidential. Taking permission to record the session, wherever applicable. Explaining the instructions to the learners. Clearing all doubts in the mind of the subject about the experiment. The experiment is conducted on the subject. 6) Explain the scoring procedure to the learners. 7) Explain how to discuss the data. 8) Ask learners to conduct the experiment on each other in pairs and monitor the same. 9) The learners will now conduct the experiment and do the scoring. 10) The learners will have to write a report of the experiment in the practicum note book which will be evaluated by the academic counsellors.


The academic counsellor introduces the following format to the learners which they have to follow while preparing their practicum notebook. Title: This heading will contain the title or name of the practical e.g.: 16 PF/Span of attention. 8

Aims/Objectives: This will basically consist of the main objectives or purpose of the practical. For example, if they are performing a test on 16 PF then the basic objective of the test will be: To assess the personality of the subject using 16 PF. Hypothesis (written in case of experiments only): A tentative statement about the cause and effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables is provided. Introduction: Here, the historical background of the test/experiment is mentioned. The concept is defined and discussed. For example, in case of 16 PF, the historical background of 16 PF is described. The concept of personality is defined and the theories related to it are discussed. Description of the Test/Experiment: Under this, the details with regard to the test/ experiments are mentioned, like author of the test, basic purpose of the test, no. of items, dimensions/factors, time limit, reliability, validity, scoring. Materials Required: The materials required for the administration of the test/experiment are mentioned. For example, in case of 16 PF, the test booklet, answer sheet, scoring key, pencil, eraser. Subjects Profile: This will contain of all the detailed information about the subject, like, name of the subject (optional), age, gender, educational qualification and occupation. Procedure and administration: The following sub headings are included here: Preparation: The material required for conduction of the test/experiment, like, test booklet, apparatus or instrument, answer sheet, stopwatch are kept ready. Rapport: The learner has to mention that rapport was created with the subject and that the subject was well informed about the details of the test/experiment. Instructions: Instruction as give in the test manual/experiment are included here. Precautions: Precautions, if any, to be considered while administration of the test/experiment are mentioned under this sub heading. Introspective Report: After completion of the test/experiment by the subject, an introspective report is to be taken of the subject, that is, the subjects feeling and constraints faced by him/ her while undergoing the test/experiment is mentioned under this sub heading in first person. Scoring and Interpretation: After the subject completes the test, the answer sheet is to be scored with the help of the scoring key and the data is to be interpreted with the help of the norms given in the manual. The scores can then be mentioned and interpreted under this heading. For experiments, the findings are to be analysed and mentioned here. Discussion: Here, the subject has to discuss the result based on the interpretation. It may be further analysed in the light of the introspective report. In case of experiments, the results may be supported by existing studies conducted in the field. Conclusion: Under this heading, the learner has to conclude the findings of the test/ experiment. References: The books, websites and the manual referred to by the learner are to be mentioned in American Psychological Association (APA) format. NOTE: Separate Practicum Notebook has to be prepared for BPCL-007 and BPCL-008 9

Total marks for BPCL-007 is 100 and for BPCL-008 is also 100. The learner will be separately evaluated for both BPCL-007 and BPCL-008. Actual Conduction of practicals and reporting it in the practical note book in the prescribed format (internal assessment) carries 50% weightage. The Term End Practical Examination including Viva Voce (External Assessment) carries 50% Weightage. Total marks for practical examination will be 100 marks (Internal 50 marks and External 50 marks). INTERNAL Attendance Conduction Interpretation Practical notebook TOTAL WEIGHTAGE MARKS EXTERNAL WEIGHTAGE MARKS 10% 10% 10% 20% 50% 10 10 10 20 50 TOTAL 50% 50 Conduction Answer sheet Viva Voce 10% 20% 20% 10 20 20


Principles of psychological testing We all are familiar with the term testing. We grow up taking various tests at our school, tests for our physical fitness and tests for our selection in sport teams and tests for recruitment etc. You must have also attempted tests in some magazine or newspaper which rates you on friendship scale how friendly you are to others or an interest test what do you want to do in leisure time or what do you want to be in life, or how active you are in taking initiatives etc. the list can go on. One very common example of test is appearing for examination in school. This type of test is called achievement test. In achievement test previous learning or what has been learnt is measured. This is only one type of various tests under the umbrella of testing. But if you think about psychological testing, your mind will take you to the topics like intelligence, personality, attitude, creativity, learning, and memory etc. Here, we will briefly explain what a psychological test is and its types; and then we will discuss principles related to administration, scoring, interpretation and report writing. Psychological test In general terms test is any procedure used to measure a factor or assess some ability. Included in this are intelligence test, which yields IQ (Intelligence Quotient) measures, aptitude test, which measure potential in some area, various personality tests which assess aspects of personality style, belief systems and attitudes. More specifically, a psychological test can be defined as a standardized instrument designed to measure objectively one or more aspects of a total personality by means of samples of verbal or nonverbal responses, or by means of other behaviours (Freeman 1965: 46). 10

Thus, a psychological test Is a standardized instrument Objectivity is one of the characteristics of a standardized instrument. Measures one or many psychological attributes- mental ability, personality, interest, attitude, aptitude, etc. Measurement is done through verbal or non verbal responses. Sample of behaviour may be observed or studied through psychological tests. The test results are given in terms of scores or categories. A brief overview of the early developments in testing: Scholars date the history of testing back to 2200 B.C. with the examination of Chinese officials to determine their fitness for office. This rudimentary type of testing was refined during Han Dynasty around 202 B.C. - 200 A.D. Five topics were tested: civil law, military affairs, agriculture, revenue and geography. The system of Chinese examination took its final shape in 1370 when proficiency in the Confucian classics was emphasized. But the established system was abolished in 1906. Psychological testing is believed to have started with the work of Francis Galton on individual differences. The concept of individual differences is a basic concept underlying psychological testing. Francis Galton (1822-1911) was the first scientist to undertake systematic and statistical investigation of individual differences. He demonstrated that individual differences exist in human sensory and motor functioning, such as reaction time, visual acuity and physical strength. James McKeen Cattell extended Galton's work. Cattell also coined the term mental test in 1890. Before Galton, there were other important works in the history of psychology, but difference in human abilities was not focused upon until the work of Galton. Weber (1795-1878) experimented on weight discrimination, vision, hearing and the two point-point threshold. Fechner (1801-07) contributed significantly in the understanding of relation of mental processes to physical phenomena (for example, how the change in the intensity of sound will affect the auditory perception). Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) who is credited with the establishment of the first psychological laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany, was working on the measurement of mental processes years before. In 1862 he experimented with thought meter to measure the speed of thought. Thus, psychological testing developed from two lines of enquiry: One based on the measurement of individual differences by Darwin, Galton and Cattell The other based on the work of the German psychophysicists Herbart, Weber, Fechner and Wundt. Modern psychological tests were constructed in response to the needs of classifying the mentally and emotionally handicapped. The Seguin Form Board Test (1866) was developed by O. Edward Seguin (1812-1880) to educate and evaluate the mentally disabled. An important breakthrough in the creation of modern tests came at the turn of the twentieth century with the publication of intelligence test by Alfred Binet and T. Simon in 1905. (We will discuss it more in detail under 11

intelligence tests.) With the time more developments were seen in the field of testing with a range of testing devices like personality tests, performance tests, aptitude tests, interest inventories, educational achievement and multifactor tests etc. Learners are suggested to read more on the development of psychological testinghow it was started, what were the landmarks in the history of psychological testing. Here we are giving a brief overview of the early developments: Table 1: A Summary of Early Landmarks in the History of Testing 2200 B.C. A.D. 1862 1884 1890 1905 1914 1916 1917 1917 1920 1921 1927 1939 1942 1949 Chinese begin civil service examination Wilhelm Wundt uses a calibrated pendulum to measure the speed of thought Francis Galton administers the first test battery to thousands of citizens at the International Health Exhibit James Mckeen Cattell uses the term mental test in announcing the agenda for his Galtonian test battery Binet and Simon constructed the first intelligence test Stern introduces the concept of IQ or intelligence quotient- the mental age divided by chronological age Lewis Terman revises the Binet-Simon scales, publishes the Stanford-Binet. Revisions appear in 1937, 1960, and 1986. Robert Yerkes spearheads the development of the Army Alpha and Beta examinations used for testing World War I recruits Robert Woodworth develops the Personal Data Sheet, the first personality test Rorschach Inkblot test published Psychological Corporation- the first major test publisher-founded by Cattell, Thorndike and Woodworth The first edition of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank published Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale published. Revisions published in 1955, 1981 and 1997. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory published Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children published. Revisions published in 1974, 1991

Taken and slightly modified from: Psychological Testing by R J Gregory 2004: 51 Types of Tests Tests can be categorized on the basis of administration, the behaviour they measure, mode of response and on the basis of the structure of the test. On the basis of test administration, there are 12

two types of tests: Individual tests and Group tests. The tests which can be given to one person at a time are known as individual tests. Group tests can be administered to more than one person at a time by a single examiner. If we categorize tests according to the type they measure, these tests are put under a broad category: ability tests. Ability test measure skills in terms of speed, accuracy or both. For example, in the test of mathematical ability, the more problems you solve accurately within the time limit, the more will be your score. Ability is a broad term which encompasses aptitude tests, intelligence tests and achievement tests. Achievement tests measure previous learning, like how much has been learnt in English in one year by six grade learners can be measured by term end examination. Aptitude tests measure potential for acquiring a specific skill, for example how much can be learnt by a person in music if s/he is given specific training is the person's musical aptitude. Intelligence tests measure a persons general potential to solve problems, to adapt to changing circumstances and to benefit from experience. All the above three types of tests are inter related; sometimes these tests are included under the tests of human ability. Personality tests measure traits, temperaments and dispositions. Personality tests can be categorized on the basis of the structure of the test. Whether the test is clearly structured like a questionnaire or it is semi-structured or uses unstructured stimulus. Unstructured or semistructured tests are commonly known as projective tests. The test stimulus in projective tests is ambiguous, like ink-blots in Rorschach inkblot test. We will discuss some tests in later sections. It should be clear to you by now, that psychological tests are mainly used to assess individual differences in various human abilities and personality. The most common uses of tests are classification, diagnosis and treatment planning, selfknowledge, program evaluation and research. Basic Principles of Psychological Testing By principles of psychological testing we mean the basic concepts and fundamental ideas that underlie all psychological tests. Reliability, validity, test administration and standardization are some of the fundamental concepts, that we will discuss here. a) Reliability Reliability is consistency. The reliability of a test is its ability to yield consistent results. A good test should be reliable that is, it should give similar results whenever a person takes it. It should give similar results even if different persons administer and score it. Reliability is not an all or none matter, it is a matter of degree. In more technical terms, reliability refers to the degree to which test scores are free of measurement errors (Kaplan and Saccuzzo 2009: 22). The British Psychological Society Steering Committee on Test Standards says that reliability is a reflection of how accurate or precise a test score is (1999: 4). Measures of reliability are usually based on correlation coefficients. A correlation coefficient ranges from +1.0 to -1.0. It is the measure of the strength of association or similarity between two sets of scores obtained by the same person or group. In psychological tests, perfect reliability does not exist usually. There are several different ways of assessing reliability: item-total correlations, test-retest reliability, split half reliability, factor and principal component analysis and inter-rater reliability. The choice of method depends on the needs of the investigator. 13

In test-retest reliability method, the same test is administered twice to the same group and coefficient correlation is calculated for the scores on both the test. Alternate forms reliability is estimated with the help of alternate form of the same test. The investigators sometimes develop alternate form of the test which has same content and covers the same range and level of difficulty. Both forms of the test are administered on the same group and the test scores are correlated to find out the reliability of the test. It is also called equivalent or parallel forms reliability. Split half reliability is estimated by correlating the scores obtained from equivalent halves of a test administered once to a representative group. In the item total correlations the investigator calculates the correlation between scores on each item of the test and the total score on the test. Inter-rater reliability is calculated when the measured behaviour is rated by observers. Ratings of different observers are correlated to measure the correlation coefficient. The table (1.2) gives a brief overview of the methods of reliability Table 2: Methods of estimating reliability Method Test-Retest Alternate forms (immediate) Alternate Forms (delayed) Split Half Item total Interscorer
Source: Robert J Gregory (2004: 111)

No. of Forms 1 2 2 1 1 1

No. of Sessions 2 1 2 1 1 1

Sources of error variance Changes over time Item sampling Item sampling Changes over time Item sampling Nature of split Item sampling Test heterogeneity Scorer differences

There are different statistical methods used to assess reliability: Cronbachs alpha, KuderRichardson (KR-20), Pearson correlation and Guttmans coefficient and factor analysis. Readers can read more about reliability and validity on gravetterwallnau5e/index.html) What should be the accepted level of test reliability or when do we say that the particular test should be used as it has good reliability index? There is no such fixed criterion for a good psychological test. Some authors suggest that reliability should be at least .95. But in the words of Guilford and Fruchter (1978), There has been some consensus that to be a very accurate measure of individual differences in some characteristics, the reliability should be above .90. The truth is, however, that many standard tests with reliabilities as low as .70 prove to be very useful. And tests with reliabilities lower than that can be useful in research. b) Validity A valid test is one that measures what it is supposed to measure. A test is valid to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful and useful. (Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 1999). 14

The first essential quality of a valid test is that it should be highly reliable. If a test yields inconsistent results, (i.e. it is not reliable) it can not be correlated with any criterion (some behaviour or personal accomplishment etc.). But high reliability does not guarantee high validity of the test. The relation between reliability and validity can be discussed with the following example: Sir Francis Galtons sensory and motor measures could never have been valid if they had not been reliable..Yet even though some of Galtons measures turned out to be very reliable, later evidence showed that they were not valid measures of intelligence. The measures yielded similar scores time after time, but those scores were poorly correlated with validity criteria such as school grades and teacher ratings of intelligence. (Morgan, King et al 1997: 520). There are several different types of validity. One or more methods can be selected depending on the needs of the measure. Different ways of measuring validity have been grouped into three categories: Content validity, Criterion-related validity, Construct validity. Content validity is an estimate of validity of a testing instrument based on a detailed examination of the contents of the test items; contents here means the actual constituent material of the test item (Reber and Reber 2001: 781). Content validity depends on the judgment of experts on the relevance of the items used in the instrument. Criterion related validity is assessed by determining the relationship between test scores and some independent criterion. Gregory has included two different approaches under criterion related validity- concurrent validity and predictive validity (2004: 124): In concurrent validity, the criterion measures are obtained at approximately the same time as the test scores. For example, the current psychiatric diagnosis of a patient would be an appropriate measure to provide validation evidence for a paper-and-pencil psychodiagnostic test. In predictive validity, the criterion measures are obtained in future, usually months or years after the test scores are obtained. For example, a college entrance exam that is accurate in predicting the subsequent grade point average of examinees would possess criterion related validity. Construct validity is a set of procedures for evaluating the validity of a testing instrument based on the determination of the degree to which the test items capture the hypothetical quality or trait (i.e. the construct) it was designed to measure. For example, if a test is supposed to provide a measure of intelligence one should ask: what traits or qualities (or constructs) actually characterize intelligence? Do the test items actually tap such constructs? (Reber and Reber 2001: 781). Face validity is dependent on whether the test looks valid to test users, examiners and examinees. Gregory comments that face validity is important for social acceptability of the test but is irrelevant for psychometric purposes. c) Norms Suppose someone gets 50 marks on an intelligence test. This score has no meaning in itself. In psychological testing the scores obtained first from a test are called raw scores. These scores are simply overall score of the performance on the test, like the number of problems solved in an intelligence test. These initial scores are converted to some form of standard scores based on a norm group. A norm group consists of a sample of examinees who are representatives of the population for whom the test is intended (Gregory 2004: 81). For example, if a test is designed to study the value system of twelfth graders, the test will be given to large number of such age group (rural- urban, rich middle class poor etc.) to determine the distribution of raw scores. 15

On the basis of collection of scores, the test developer will provide derived scores. These scores are known as norms. Norms can be in the form of percentiles ranks, stanines, stens, age norm, grade norms or standard scores. A percentile expresses the percentage of scores in a sample that fall below it. A score at 50th percentile indicates that 50% of the scores fall below it. Percentile should not be confused with percent correct. Percentile is a comparative score. It tells where your scores places you in particular sample (norm group) whereas percent tells the number of questions answered correctly. 50% expresses how much was attempted correctly on an intelligence test and this 50 percent can be placed at the percentile of 50, 90, or 80 depending on the performance of the sample. Percentile 1 is the lowest rank and 100 percentile is the highest rank. Standard score is any derived score based on standard deviation. It is more commonly known as z-score. It expresses the distance from mean in standard deviation units. T-score is a variant of standard score. It was suggested by McCall (1922). In case of standard score, the value of mean is taken zero whereas in a T-score the value of mean is 50 and standard deviation of 10. Stanine (or standard nine) scale was developed by the United States Air Force during World War II. In stanine scale all raw scores are converted to single digit system ranging from 1 to 9. Sten scale (standard ten) was proposed by Canfield (1951). It is a ten unit scale with 5 units above and 5 units below the mean. Age norms express the level of performance with reference to age. Grade norms express the level of performance with reference to grade level. There are many such norms developed for different tests, as mental age and I.Q. Learners will know more about them while using various tests with different norms. Test Administration and Scoring Test administration can be either individual or group. The administration of a test should be according to a uniform and specified set of instructions. This is the first principle of test administration. A test is considered standardized if the procedures for administering it are uniform from one examiner and setting to another (Gregory 2004: 54). If a test is not administered according to the specified set of instructions, there will be no uniformity in the administration of the test. The result of such a test will not be reliable. Test administration should follow the guidelines given in the manual. Some important points that the investigator should know before administering a test are given below: Every psychological testing procedure, as we already said, has a purpose and rationale. Before using a test, tester should see whether the test fulfills the purpose at hand. The question that one needs to ask is, why do I use this test, what is the purpose of using this test? If all the questions are satisfactorily answered, then one should proceed and use the particular test. But if the use of the test is not rationalized on any ground - purpose, population, or context of using the test - the test should not be used. Before using a test, examiner must be familiar with the materials, instructions and the procedure to be followed in the test. An examiner should be sensitive to disabilities in the examinees. Disabilities related to hearing, vision, speech or motor control may affect test performance. In case of unrecognized disabilities, serious errors of interpretation may occur.


Examiners should allot proper time for the entire testing process: setup, reading instructions and actual test taking by the examinees. Allowing too much time for a test is equally erroneous as allowing less time. Instructions should be read out in a clear and loud voice. Examiners must stop to answer the questions if the instructions are not clear to examinees. The physical conditions (testing room) should be suitable for the test. The conditions such as illumination, temperature and humidity should be taken into consideration before the test. The testing environment should be pleasant, quiet and well illuminated with proper writing desk (in case of a test where answer sheet is required to be filled up). Establishing rapport is the first thing that examiners are advised to do when giving a test to an individual or a group. Rapport is a comfortable, relaxed, unconstrained, mutually accepting interaction between persons (Reber and Reber 2001: 597), especially between an examinee and an examiner. It is essential requirement to motivate examinees to cooperate during testing. It is more important in individual testing and particularly when examinees are children. Failure in establishing rapport may cause anxiety, hostility, and uncooperative behaviour in examinees. The scoring of the test should follow the pattern as specified in the test manual. If scoring is not numerical, the method of interpretation should also follow the guidelines as given in the test manual. Thus, a psychological test is a standardized instrument in the sense that it provides well defined procedure and instructions, the items used in the test are reliable and valid and the test depicts scores in terms of standardized scores. At present, when we have access to computer assisted test administration and scoring, the accuracy and precision in administration will require proper training and practice of the examiner both on technical and human grounds. Report Writing After administration of a psychological test, the findings are to be presented in the form of a report. Report should be written clearly. The report should be properly divided into sections and subsections and the findings should be tabulated wherever required. The report should be written in passive voice. For example, instead of writing I gave the test booklet to the examinee, one should write, the test booklet was given to the examinee. The report should be written in a standard format. Being Qualified and Trained in Psychological Testing There are two aspects of being trained in psychological testing: Having technical and theoretical knowledge of psychological testing and its applications Having skills necessary for the application of psychological testing, for example communication skills, being a good observer and empathetic listener, etc. The above aspects are briefly discussed as follows:


a) Technical and Theoretical Knowledge Some basic components of this knowledge are: i) Knowledge of test construction

ii) Efficiency in application iii) Knowledge and efficiency in scoring and interpretation i) Knowledge of test construction

Today testing is required in every field: schools, industries, selection agencies, hospitals, special education centers, rehabilitation centers and various other organisations. A psychologist may face the task of choosing a test from the available tests or developing a test as the situation demands. In both the situations knowledge of test construction is mandatory. If one needs to select a test, one should have the knowledge of basics of test construction. How the test is developed? Whether it has proper norms or it is standardized, what is the method of scoring, etc. All this information requires technical knowledge about the test construction process. Otherwise, decision of choosing will be fraught with biased assumptions. The theoretical knowledge pertains not only to the selection of test, but also to the construction of tests. One might face such a situation when no test is available, or the available test is outdated, or not suitable culturally. Suppose you are required to make an index of happiness of people in your country or your state or city. How to prepare such an index? You come to know that one such procedure is available in some other country. But the definition of happiness may differ from one country to the other. At one place, it may be family which is primary source of happiness to persons, but at the other, it may be secure future and material prosperity. Thus, one might decide to prepare a questionnaire to study the level of happiness. ii) Efficiency in application Which measure one should choose if one is find out whether a child has learning disability or not. One might need a range of procedures paper pencil test (test of learning and intelligence), observations, interviews with the child, parents and teachers. Which test one should choose verbal or non-verbal, some qualitative approach or quantitative or both, whether the test is fit for the cultural background. These decisions need not only theoretical knowledge but insight on the part of the investigator which comes with knowledge, practice and experience. iii) Efficiency in Scoring and Interpretation Scoring procedures in testing are developed through rigorous statistical procedures. While using psychological tests, one is required to have sound knowledge of statistical principles applied in psychological testing. How the reliability and the validity of the test has been calculated? How the norms of the test have been developed? Knowledge of these technical aspects helps both in construction, selection, revision and adaptation of a test. Interpretation is an essential aspect after scoring which also involves explaining the significance of the scores. What does it mean for a person who gets IQ score of 94? To fulfill all these purposes, an appropriate explanation is an essential requirement from the part of the investigator. b) Developing Skills The work of a psychologist is more like an artist. S/he needs to observe, listen, feel and then say something as less as possible. Observation here is not only a method used to study a specific 18

problem. It should be developed as a habit. How to see things: people talking to each other in buses, trains, or offices; youngsters chatting outside a mall, people writing their views in newspapers and magazines, people behaving with each other- in families, in offices, in traffic, nothing should go unnoticed. It need not be a deliberate exercise once it is developed as a habit. A psychologist should be a good writer, said a wise man. Yes, whatever you observe pen it down. Psychology is a science in the methods it uses, but it is essentially an art in its application. This art will develop gradually when you observe and contemplate and develop the habit of writing things systematically. After observation, another important skill is communication skills. Psychologists working as therapists, counsellors, trainers or psychometricians require communication with others. Communication is a chain of events from the speaker to the Listener. The chain of events involves Production (Encoding) Transmission Reception (Decoding)

Thus, communication involves other mind, a message (information) a code (language) and a channel (written-visual, spoken-auditory) through which information is transmitted. A psychologist should learn to be a good listener before learning to be a good speaker. S/he should learn where and when to speak and where not to. Being just a listener is not sufficient; a psychologist should be an empathetic listener. S/he should feel what others are feeling. Psychologists should be sensitive to the cultural differences. Various behaviours have their roots in the cultural milieu of a person. The way people talk, greet, their eating habits and sometimes their sensitivity to their surroundings is affected by the environment they live in. If a psychologist is not sensitive to the cultural and environmental factors, there will be no meaning of the inferences drawn from observations and testing, and ultimately will be harmful for the individuals and society at large. Knowledge of ethical principles during testing is also expected from a trained psychologist. Ethical guidelines for testing issued from time to time are called ethical principles and code of conduct. Psychologist should comply with these principles to avoid any mistake in research and testing. In general, we can phrase principles of ethical treatment as, 1) Right to safety 2) Right to respectful treatment 3) Right to confidentiality 4) Right to be informed technically called informed consent an examinee should be informed about the nature of the test, risk involved, purpose, and use of information of the test beforehand and only if s/he agrees the examiner should proceed with testing. Examinee should also get informed about the results of the study and use of the test findings. All the above rights of examinees should be respected during testing and research. In a nutshell, a psychologist should take responsibility of working with humans or animals very honestly that will serve the purpose well for both the examiner and the examinee. We will discuss specific test in detail, in separate sections below. As already said, you will learn more as you apply these test in the field. 19

Counselling and Clinical Assessment (Interview) Interview is a very basic and widely used method in research on humans. Interview resembles a test. Like any psychological or educational test, interview is a method for gathering data or information about an individual. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo 2009: 167). There are many similarities between a test and an interview: Both the procedures are methods for gathering data The findings of interview and test are used to make prediction about individuals Like psychometric tests, interviews are also evaluated in terms of reliability and validity. Interviews, like tests, can be structured, semi structured or unstructured. There are many types of interview procedures. The choice of a particular procedure depends on the aims of the interview. We can say interview is a directed conversation. It involves mutual interaction between participants (here interviewer and interviewee). Given below are some principles of effective interviewing: The interviewer must be warm, open, concerned and involved. Interviewer should avoid judgmental or evaluative statements about the interviewee. The terms like good, bad, excellent, terrible etc., should be avoided. Probing statements should also be avoided. Why questions are most common probing statements. The interviewee may feel pressurized to give some information that s/he is not willing to and it may stop him/her to provide further information. But, in case of children and mentally retarded persons, such probes are sometimes required to proceed further. Thus, probing questions should be asked very carefully where and when required or may be asked by paraphrasing the question. Rather than putting the question, Why did you yell at him? it can be asked as Tell me more about what happened or What led to the situation? Flexibility is an important principle of effective interviewing. Interviewer should keep the interaction flowing during the interview. Given below are some responses to keep the interaction flowing: Table 3: Responses to keep the interaction Flowing Responses Transitional Phrase Verbatim Playback Paraphrasing and Playback Summarizing Clarification response Empathy and understanding
Source: Kaplan & Saccuzzo 2009: 172

Definition/Example Yes, I see, Go on Repeats interviewees exact words Repeats interviewees exact response using different words Puts together the meaning of several responses Clarifies the interviewees response Communicates understanding


Interviewing is an important method in clinical psychiatry, and even in general medicine and nursing. It is an essential testing tool in various branches of psychology-clinical, counseling and school psychology, etc. Types of Interview Interviews can be directive or nondirective. In a directive interview, the interviewer directs and controls the course of interview. It is highly structured. The interviewer may bring printed questions with him/her and reads from it. The questions and other procedures are standardized in a directive interview. In a nondirective interview, the course of interview is depended on the interviewee. In such interviews, interviewer rarely asks any question. There are other types of interviews: Selection interview, evaluation interview, clinical interviews and counseling interviews. Interviews can be taken individually or in a group (e.g. family interview). Here, we will briefly discuss clinical and counseling interviews. 1) Clinical Interview Interviews usually serve two purposes in psychology: they are conducted to gather information and secondly, they serve therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in clinical psychology. Structured clinical interviews in clinical psychology/psychiatry follow a standard pattern of presenting questions, scoring and interpretations. There are structured/semi structured interviews meant for specific mental disorders or for general diagnosis of mental disorders. For diagnostic and information gathering purposes Case History Interview and Mental Status Examination (MSE) are used in clinical practice. Case history is actually a biological sketch of a person. Case history includes details of personal life (asking name, date of birth/age, education and marital status), work history, medical history and family history. One should also take the details like habits, hobbies, religious beliefs and achievements (if any). Life style information like daily routine, exercise patterns, smoking behaviour and use of alcohol will also be useful. MSE is more specific procedure used in the diagnosis of various psychiatric disorders. This procedure will be explained in more detail in the course on psychopathology. For our present purpose, learners can follow a general process of interview. They can also choose case history interview as an activity for this course. A general diagnostic interview proceeds in the following stages: Taking personal information: It includes taking details like name, address, place of birth, marital status, education; Details of family: fathers and mothers name, their occupation, siblings, and others in the family, is anyone in the family has/had some or similar problems etc.. Work history: present occupation, previous work, etc.. Medical history: if s/he had ever taken psychiatric treatment earlier, when the problems first started, what were the main problems, the problems were treated well or not. More information can be collected on habits, life style, etc to complete the bio-sketch of the person. After taking information, second stage will be more focused on diagnosis. For diagnosis one needs to know the problems and related factors. Sometimes patients may not be willing to impart the information related to the problems they are facing. The interviewer should be very careful not to force for any answer. Rapport building is important from this point of view. Sometimes two or more days are given to clinical interview so that the patient becomes familiar with the interviewer and readily trusts him and gives information about his present problems and stressors. During interview, interviewer should carefully notice the emotional expressions and body language of the interviewee. 21

The interviewer also asks questions about the patients behaviour and his/her problems to the parents/spouse/guardian and confirms information provided by the patient. The interviewer gives his observations about the problems of the interviewee and suggests action to be taken hereafter. The next step can also be a planned procedure of psychotherapy of which psychotherapeutic interview will be a part. If the interview is to be recorded or written, interviewer must seek permission for the same from the person interviewed. For good interviewing, interviewer should practice on the format of questions and probable answers before going into the field. Practice and experience in interviewing is the best teacher. Learners can practice some interviews in general and record them. They can analyse these recorded interviews themselves or give it to some expert for analysis and improvement. Some points of analysis will be clarity of voice, clarity of what is being asked (whether properly communicated or not), flow of the interview, whether all the aspects are carefully noticed (answers, emotional expressions and body language), whether the questions are relevant for the purpose; attitude and behaviour of the interviewer himself/herself etc. 2) Counselling Interview The pattern of counselling interview depends on the purpose of the interview like career counselling, couple counselling, therapeutic counselling, family counselling etc. The first step in counselling interview also is gathering information. Here we take an example of career counselling. (Learners are advised to read various models of counseling interviews given in the paper: The career counselling interview by Jennifer M. Kidd at One of the approaches of counselling interview is FIRST APPROACH (Bedford 1982). It suggests that the following dimensions on which the information gathered during the interview can be analysed. The FIRST framework Dimension Focus Information Realism Scope Tactics
Source: Bedford (1982a)

Question How far has the young person narrowed down options? How well-informed is the young person about the career options s/he has in mind? How realistic is the young person (both in relation to own abilities and the constraints of the market)? How aware is the young person of the range of options available? To what extent has the young person worked out the practical steps necessary to achieve his/her career objective?

Interviewer should write down the probable questions and practice them at home before going into the field. For the present course work, any one interview type can be chosen and a report of the interview can be submitted like other practicals. The report should include the details of actual interview taken and the observations and suggestions of the interviewer. 22

Intelligence Test (SPM) In our day to day life we often say, she is very intelligent, or he is a brilliant learner. We make judgments about others mental ability by their behaviours and specific achievements. Do you think one can measure how much intelligent a person is? This is exactly what psychologists started with; and endeavoured to develop some scientific procedures to tell about the how and what type of mental ability a person possesses. But measuring something which cant be directly seen, as with all psychological attributes, is really a very difficult task. And in case of intelligence, the task was more challenging. Since measuring something requires a simple answer to what is being measured. The interesting thing about intelligence is that every test developed to measure it defined it in its own way. What is Intelligence? Wechsler has defined intelligence as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment. Alfred Binet, the father of modern intelligence test, believed that intelligent behaviour would be manifested in such mental abilities as reasoning, imagination, insight, judgement and adaptability. Some psychologists held the view that all the cognitive abilities (such as abstraction, learning and dealing with novelty) are the manifestation of a single underlying factor, called General factor or g factor and Specific abilities such as artistic ability, linguistic ability, mathematical or spatial ability constitute specific factor or s factor. Thus, we may define intelligence as The ability to behave adaptively The ability to function successfully within a particular environment Ability to learn new things quickly, to solve different kinds of problems Moreover, it is said that intelligence is what the intelligence test measure, Intelligence is, conceptually, what it has always been, the ability to profit from experience-and pragmatically, what it has become-that which the intelligence tests measure (Reber & Reber 2001: 361). Origin and early developments The first attempt to develop tests of intellectual ability was made more than century ago by Sir Francis Galton, a naturalist and a mathematician, in 1884. James Mckeen Cattell (1860-1944) has also made significant contributions to the measurement of individual differences. But the mental testing movement began with the development of the first intelligence test by Alfred Binet and Thophile Simon in 1905. The French government commissioned Binet to discover an objective method of assessing intellectual level of French school children. The major concern was to identify children who were unable to profit from public school education. The task for Binet and Simon was, to devise a scale that would select retarded children indicate the nature of special instruction that could benefit those children to improve the diagnosis of severely retarded institutionalized children, though it was the secondary objective 23

Binet assumed that intelligence should be measured by tasks that required reasoning and problem solving abilities. Binet published the first test in 1905 in collaboration with Simon, and revised it in 1908 and again in 1911. The test was constructed with items of common information, word definitions, reasoning items, and ingenuity. The measure of intelligence was mental age (MA). Binet and Simon assumed that intelligence grows with the childs chronological age (actual age). Thus, the child who passes all the items at the 7 year level is mentally 7 years of age irrespective of his or her chronological age (actual age) or we can say the child is able to do the test items that 50 to 75% of 7 year old children can pass. In Binets views, a slow or dull child is like a normal child whose mental growth is retarded. The slow child would perform on the level that is below his actual age whereas the bright child can perform up to the level of the children above his/her chronological or actual age. The items in the Binets scale were arranged in increasing difficulty. The higher a child could go on the scale in answering the item, the higher his/her mental age will be. In 1916, Lewis Terman, published the Stanford revision of Binet test, that is known as the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (SBIS). Terman adapted the test items developed by Binet for American school children. SBIS was revised in 1937, 1960, 1972 and in 1986. Binets concept of MA was retained in SBIS. But Terman used intelligence quotient as an index of intelligence. The term IQ, from the German Intelligenz Quotient was suggested by the German psychologist William Stern (1912). Intelligence quotient (IQ) expresses the relation of mental age (MA) to the real age (chronological age-CA):
IQ = MA 100 CA

IQ is calculated by dividing a childs mental age in months by his CA. An average child of 7 years whose MA is also 7 years, his IQ will be
84 = 1.00 . The number 100 is used as a multiplier 84

to eliminate the decimals. So the IQ of this child will be 100. IQ in intelligence tests now is no longer calculated using this equation. Tables are used to convert raw scores on the test into standard scores, which express the IQ. 1986 version of the test uses percentiles to express the level of intelligence in a particular group. The 1986 revision of the Stanford-Binet is grouped into four broad areas: verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and STM. Terman chose the following category ranges for score levels on that test with standard deviation 16. Table 4: Termans Stanford-Binet Fourth Revision classification IQ Range (Deviation IQ) 164 and over 148 - 164 132 - 148 113 - 132 84 - 113 68 - 84 52 - 68 Below 52 24 Intelligence Classification Genius or near genius Very superior intelligence Superior intelligence Above average intelligence Normal or average intelligence Dullness Borderline deficiency Definite feeble-mindedness

The above scores are obtained by converting raw scores into standard scores. Raw scores are converted by the tables which contain age appropriate standardized scores given in the manual. It was felt that Stanford Binet test depended heavily on linguistic ability. In 1939, David Wechsler developed a new test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). WAIS comprises of a verbal scale and a performance scale. These two yield a separate IQ and a full IQ. Later, similar test was used by Wechsler for children Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-WISC (1958). The verbal scale in WAIS consists of information comprehension, arithmetic similarities, digit span, vocabulary and letter number sequencing. The performance scale consists of digit symbol, picture completion, block design, picture arrangement, matrix reasoning, object assembly and symbol search. Both the Stanford and Wechsler scales show good reliability and validity and are widely used tests to measure intelligence. Wechsler proposed different category ranges with a standard deviation of 15 by which I Q scores could be explained. Table 5: Wechslers Classification IQ Range (Deviation IQ) 145 and over 130 - 145 115 - 130 85 - 115 70 - 85 60 - 75 60 and below Intelligence Classification Very superior Superior Above average Average Below average Borderline Defective

All the above tests were individual tests of intelligence, i.e. these tests can be administered on one person at a time. The wider social settings sought after the need for such test that can be given to a large number of persons at a time. Group ability tests were devised for such purpose. Group ability tests can be administered to a large number of people by a single examiner and are usually pencil and paper test. Individual test focuses on global ability, their major purpose being to assess a general trait. The focus of the group tests is to predict academic or occupational performance. Group test of intelligence are more often used for initial screening in schools and in industries. These tests may be followed by individual testing if more information is required. Individual tests are preferred by psychologists in clinics, hospitals and other settings where a clinical diagnosis is required. Apart from the individual and group test, another major division is verbal and non-verbal tests. As the name implies, verbal tests can be used with literate persons while non-verbal tests are preferred for illiterate adults, children and those handicapped in some respect (like blind, partially sighted). Sometimes non-verbal test can be used for literate population also if the situation demands. Paper pencil tests and performance tests are one more variant of intelligence test. Performance tests require some sort of activity, like arranging the blocks, completing a picture with the given cards and choosing a correct matched card for a particular picture or symbol. At present, many IQ tests have been developed to suit the cultural milieu of an individual. There are also culture fair tests that are applicable to all the persons irrespective of their culture. 25

Now, we will give a brief introduction to the intelligence test that is prescribed for this course work. Raven's Progressive Matrices The Raven Progressive Matrices test (1936, Revised 1956) was developed in England by JCRaven to measure a persons ability to form perceptual relations. It was widely used in the British armed forces during World War II. It is a non-verbal culture fair scale designed to evaluate the subjects ability to apprehend relationships between geometric figures and designs, and to perceive the structure of the design in order to select the appropriate part for completion of each pattern and system of relations. Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPM) aims to measure eductive component of g as defined by Spearmans theory of cognitive ability. Eductive is derived from the Latin root educere, which means to draw out. Eductive ability is the ability to forge new insights, the ability to discern meaning in confusion, the ability to perceive and the ability to identify relationships (Raven et al 2003). In each test item, the subject is asked to identify the missing item that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 4x4, 3x3, or 2x2 matrix, which gave the test its name. The problems require analytic and integrating operations of the kind called insight through visual survey. The test is available in three forms: Standard Progressive Matrices, Colour Progressive Matrices and Advanced Progressive Matrices. Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM): SPM was developed for use in homes, schools and workplaces as well as in laboratories. The test can be administered to all age groups. The test consists of five sets (A, B, C, D and E) of 12 problems each (e.g., A1 through A12). These sets contain diagrammatic puzzles exhibiting serial change in two dimensions simultaneously: pattern and shape. Each puzzle has a part missing, which the person taking the test has to find among the options provided. Thus, total 60 problems become increasingly difficult. In each set the first problem is easiest. All items are presented in black ink on a white background. The five sets provide five opportunities to grasp the method of thought required to solve the problems and five progressive assessments of a persons capacity for intellectual activity. One of the puzzles from SPM is shown below:

Fig.1: A Puzzle from Ravens SPM. Subject has to find the missing part from the options given below the main figure.


One point is given for each correct answer. If the person taking the test has given more than one answer to a question, it will be treated as incorrect. The raw score obtained in the test is converted to a percentile rank by using appropriate norms. Then persons intelligence is classified in the following categories as per their percentiles: Table 6: Description of Percentiles on SPM GRADE I GRADE II GRADE III GRADE IV GRADE V INTELLECTUALLY SUPERIOR SCORE AT OR ABOVE 95TH PERCENTILE ABOVE THE AVERAGE AT OR ABOVE 75 TH PERCENTILE. II+ IF ABOVE 90 AVERAGE-25TH-75 PERCENTILES. III+ IF ABOVE 50, III- IF BELOW 50 BELOW AVERAGE, AT OR BELOW 25 TH PERCENTILE. IV- IF 10 OR BELOW 10 INTELLECTUALLY IMPAIRED, AT OR BELOW 5TH PERCENTILE

Passi Test of Creativity Creativity has been defined as a process, a personal characteristic and a behavioural product. As a process, creativity is divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is defined as the kind that goes off in different directions. It leads to a diversity of answers, where more than one answer may be acceptable (Guilford 1959). Creativity is distinguished by novelty and originality. 1960s and 1970s saw a growing interest in the assessment of creativity as intelligence tests were insufficient to test the ability in all the dimensions and educators felt a need to devise testing procedures to measure creativity. From the personal trait perspective, creativity depends on temperament, motivation, and character of the individual. For example, it says that creative persons are argumentative, assertive, hurried, insightful, rebellious, spontaneous and versatile (Harrington 1979). This viewpoint suggests that creative persons are distinguished by interests, attitudes and motivations, not by intellectual ability alone. But personality traits never provide any help in distinguishing talented students. Sternberg (2002: 376) writes, I believe that, although creative people differ in an astonishing number of ways, there is, in fact, one key attribute that they all possess.this attribute is the decision to be creative. People who create, decide that they will forge their own path and follow it, for better or for worse. This path is a difficult one because people who defy convention often are not rewarded. The perspective of behavioural product defines creativity in terms of product. Products can be ideas, inventions, writings, artistic outputs etc. These products must meet certain criteria to be called creative. Jackson and Messick (1968) enumerate following criteria for a product to be called creative: Novelty Appropriateness 27

Transcendence of constraints Coalescence of meaning the full significance of a creative product may not to recognized at first. It might be given importance only after some time. What is the importance of creativity in education? It was felt that creativity should be fostered through formal education. If a scientist does not think on problems in creative manner, innovations would be impossible. It was assumed that creative processes can be learned, taught and transferred like other cognitive processes. In this reference, the relation of creativity to intelligence came up, as talented students are distinguished on the basis of their intellectual ability. Many studies were conducted to find out the relation of both (Getzels & Jackson 1962, Wallach & Kogan 1965), which claimed that intelligence and creativity are distinct abilities. But it was also found that highly creative persons score high on intelligence test also. Creativity tests work on the concept of divergent thinking. That is, it is assumed that a variety of answers can be given to a specific problem, like what would be the consequences if clouds had strings hanging down from them? What would be the consequences if the oceans rose by 10 feet? (Consequences Test, Guilford & Hoepfner 1971) and the number of answers given for a problem provide an index of creativity. Tests of creativity have been developed by Guilford (1950), Mednick (The Remote Association Test, 1962), Wallach & Kogan (1965), Torrence (Torrence Test of Creative Thinking, 1966) among others. These tests were questioned for their validity whether these questionnaires are tests of creativity or something else. Some other tests were based on some activities like interpreting ink-blots, creating mosaics from coloured designs, completing drawings, etc. (Frank Barron 1958). One recent test developed by Maker (1996), is based on process oriented test of creativity DISCOVER. In this test, elementary school children are given some problems with blocks, puzzle books, etc. Maker claims that process oriented test can express what Gardner (1992) refers to as first order knowledge, which involves the creation and understanding of stories, music, drawings, constructions, and explanations. The procedures like DISCOVER are more preferred because of their less dependence on academic learning and a wide range of activities included in testing. There are many tests developed in India to measure creativity. M. Roychoudhary was the first in India to develop a test based on tests developed in other countries to measure creativity. Prof C. R. Paramesh (1972) adapted the test developed by Wallach and Kogan to Indian conditions. Tests developed by K. N. Sharma (Divergent Production Aptitude Test, 1987), B. K. Passi (Test of Creativity, 1972), Baquar Mehndi (Test of Creativity, the test is developed in verbal and nonverbal forms 1973), M. V. Kundle (1979), and S. K. Majumdar (1983) and Prof. Rajamanickams Mental Imagery Questionnaire are some well known tests for studying and measuring creativity. There are some tests like Test of scientific creativity (Sharma and Shukla 1985) and Language Creaivity test (S. P. Malhotra and Sucheta Kumari 1989) developed to study creativity in specific areas. In the next section, we will briefly discuss Passi test of creativity that is prescribed for this course work. Passi Test of Creativity was designed and standardized in 1972. The test is available in Hindi and English. There are six subtests included in this test: i) The seeing problem test

ii) The unusual uses test iii) The consequences test 28

iv) The test of inquisitiveness v) The square puzzle test vi) The block test of creativity The test yields scores for flexibility, for perceiving problems, for originality, for firmness, etc. The test is technically a sound measure as it has high validity and reliability. Eysenck Personality Inventory Personality refers to organized, consistent and general pattern of behaviour of a person across situations which help understand his/her behaviour as an individual. There are a number of theories that explain and describe the concept of personality. There are two main trends in the area of personality assessment: use of unstructured projective techniques (for example, Rorschach test) and structured approaches such as self-report inventories and behaviour ratings. Personality inventories are questionnaires that assess personality. Personality inventories are questionnaires on which individuals report their reactions or feelings in certain situations. Responses to subsets of items are summed to yield scores on separate scales or factors within the inventory (Hilgard and Atkinson 2003: 459). Several personality inventories are based on preexisting theories. Some examples of theory guided inventories are Edward Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), Personality Research Form (PRF) (both based on Murrays need press theory of personality) and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (based on Carl Jungs theory of personality types). Apart from theory based inventories, factor-analytic approaches contribute in developing theories based on the initial test findings. With factor analysis, psychologists identify personality dimensions that can define personality. Cattell has identified 16 personality factors using factor analysis. Hans Eysenck (1953) arrived at two personality factors: introversion extraversion and emotional instability stability (neuroticism). The third dimension added later is A Psychoticism. The three dimensions are defined below: (Hilgard & Atkinson 2003: 454) Introversion-extroversion refers to the degree to which a persons basic orientation is turned inward toward the self or toward the external world. Neuroticism (stability-instability) is a dimension of emotionality, with moody, anxious, temperamental and maladjusted individuals at neurotic or unstable end, and calm, well adjusted individuals at the other. Psychoticism is characterized by solitary, troublesome, cruel, lacking in feeling of sympathy, hostile to others. The person is sensitive seeker. He likes unusual and strange things. The three dimensions are studied as Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E) and Neuroticism (N) by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R), which is the final revision of Eysencks personality inventory in 1975. EPI was designed as a measure of introversion-extroversion by Eysenck in 1957 and revised many times. The 1975 revised edition was designed by H J Eysenck and S B G Eysenck. The questionnaire consists of ninety questions. These questions are carefully selected out of many items after factor analysis. The EPQ consists of four scales three scales for the


dimensions of personality and the fourth is Lie Scale (L). Lie scale assesses the validity of an examinees responses. The statements on EPQ can be answered as yes or no. It is designed for persons aged 16 and older. EPQ with 81 questions is also available which can be used for children aged 7 to 15. EPQ can be used both as an individual test and as a group test. Some statements from EPQ are: Do you often break rules? Would you worry if you were in debt? Do you like to meet new people? Are your feelings easily hurt? The EPQ is a highly reliable (test-retest correlations .78 (P), .89 (E), .86 (N), and .84 (L)) and valid questionnaire (internal consistency were in the .70(S) for P and .80(S) for the other three scales) for personality assessment. A major focus of research with the EPQ has been extraversion and introversion. After the examinee completes the test, the scores on each scale are tabulated and interpretation for each scale is described with reference to the explanation provided by Eysenck. Assessment of People with Disability ( Style of Learning and Thinking) Style of learning and thinking (SOLAT) tool constructed by D. Venkataraman (1994) is based on the assumption that people differ in their style of learning and thinking due to cerebral dominance. Styles depend upon cerebral dominance of an individual in relating and processing different modes of information in his own style of learning and thinking (Venkataraman 1990). Learning strategies and information processing of individuals depend on the preference of the brain area. Cerebral dominance refers to the dominance of one cerebral hemisphere (right or left) over the other in the control of various functions like language, perception, thinking, motor activities and affective behaviours. The test measures hemispheric dominance for learning style and thinking style. It contains 50 items. These items are written by specialists working in various areas related to brain and behaviour, like, psychology, neuropsychology, anatomy and education. These 50 items finally have 100 statements out of which half are related to right hemisphere preference and half to left hemisphere preference. There are five dimensions each for thinking style and learning style measurement. For Learning style, the tool measures verbal, content preference, class preference, learning preference and interest dimensions. For each dimension there are 5 items in the test. For thinking style measurement, the dimensions are logical/fractional, divergent/convergent, creative, problem solving, imagination. For these also, there are five items in the tool for each dimension. Scoring of SOLAT tool is quite simple. Each item in the tool has two statements; the first statement is related to the right hemispheric function and the second to the left hemispheric function. If the person has put tick mark [ ] in a, it is to be counted as R and all the R scores are then written in the column given for R scores in the test sheet. All the b scores are added and written in the column for L scores. If tick mark [ ] has been put for both a and b, these items are counted as I (integrated) scores and written in the column W score. W stands for whole brained. Raw scores are converted into sten scores and final analysis is presented on the basis of these standard scores. The style or cerebral dominance is measured on the basis of highest score in three categories. 30


Experimental Psychology-Background The first psychology laboratory was established in 1879 by Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig. In a way, experimental psychology as a formal discipline may be said to be more than hundred and thirty years old. Over the years, experimental psychology has expanded to a large extent. Psychologists have been able to develop precise methods, techniques and procedures of observation and analysis. With the help of experiments, psychologists have also successfully investigated complex behaviour of both human and animals, predict behaviour with a good deal of accuracy, and have been able to improve behaviour in real life situations. Experimental psychology had its roots in philosophy and subsequently emerged as an independent discipline. Growth of Experimental Psychology has been possible not because psychologists themselves made all the contributions but also because of their ability to assimilate and adapt the findings of other sciences like physiology, chemistry, astronomy, sociology, etc. Among the philosophical writings which gave a prominent place for matters of psychological interest were those of Descartes, Leibnitz, and the British Associationists. These writers gave importance to issues like acquisition and growth of knowledge, memory, etc. which were directly related to an understanding of human behaviour. Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Brown, gave the earliest scientific principles of psychology, known as the Laws of Association, which were derived through intellectual analysis and not experimentation. The mid 19th century witnessed significant developments in the field of biology and physics. The most important was the theory of organic evolution, propounded by Charles Darwin. Since, early psychologists had a close association with religion, theology, and philosophy, Darwin's theory gave a new outlook of establishing psychology as an independent experimental science. This paved the way to take help from developments in other areas like physiology, neurology, medicine, etc. in explaining behaviour. Attempts were made to design and carry out experiments on human behaviour. In the meantime, the physicist-physiologist Helmholtz made an attempt to study the speed of reaction in frogs. Helmholtz demonstrated that the speed of nerve conduction in a frog could be measured. This gave way to study the speed of reactions in human beings. Significant contributions was made by Donders, a Dutch physiologist. This was the starting point of now famous reactiontime experiments. The next important development came from the work of E.H.Weber, a German physiologist, who experimented on sensation. Weber attempted to study the quantitative relationship between changes in physical conditions and accompanying psychological changes. Weber, called this area of experimentation as psychophysics. Weber's work was further developed by G.T. Fechner, a German physicist. The work of Weber and Fechner resulted in the formulation of WeberFechner law, the first quantitative law in psychology. The problem of individual differences was addressed by Galton, who was mainly interested in studying and analyzing differences in human behaviour. The most important aspect studied was imagery. Galton devised a test to study the differences among people in imagery. All these developments were taking place in Europe and this further helped in the establishment of the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig (by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879). After this, various 31

other laboratories were established in places like Vienna, Berlin,Wurzberg, etc. These laboratories were carried out experiments on laws of association, reaction-time, imagery, and sensation. Another important development in experimentation was by Herman Ebbinghaus, regarding the processes of memory (retention of knowledge) and forgetting (loss in knowledge). This brought higher mental processes into the domain of experimental psychology. In United States, attempt to develop experimental psychology was made by E.L. Thorndike. Thorndike had come out with his experiments on learning process and the unique feature in his experiments was the use of animal subjects. He was of the view that animal behaviour would provide very useful clues to study human behaviour. Thorndikes experiments on trial and error learning with cats as subjects and the puzzle box as the apparatus were significant and provided the foundation for modern experimental psychology. Thorndikes work resulted in the first set of empirically derived quantitative laws in the area of learning. The introduction of animals in the laboratory helped in the development of experimental psychology, since, animal experiments provided more accurate observation, as well as, greater manipulation of experimental conditions to ensure better control. Yet another major development was by Russian physiologists, Bechterev and Pavlov. Bechterevs objective reflex and Pavlovs conditioned reflex threw significant light on the origin of behaviour. Experimental psychologists soon realised the significance of social factors, and the result was the development of experimental social psychology. Early contributions were made by Allport, Newcomb, Lippitt, Asch, Sherrif, Murphy, Lewin, and others. Today, experimental social psychology has become an independent branch of study all together. Social psychologists have planned and carried out experiments that have helped us to understand the behaviour of human beings in different kinds of social situations. Such understanding has found application in industry, hospitals, schools and other situations where people are found to interact. Thus, it may be concluded that experimental psychology gradually expanded to areas of learning and social behaviour. Over the years, experimental psychology also included the study of abnormal behaviour, and this resulted in the emergence of experimental clinical psychology to be an important field of application and inquiry. Experimental psychology has developed techniques of behaviour therapy and behaviour modification which may be applied in hospitals, clinics, correctional homes, prisons, etc. The findings of experimental psychologists are applied in factories, offices, hospitals, schools, etc. There is probably no area where experimental psychology cannot make its contributions. Its area of scope and application is much wider than those of most other sciences. Psychophysics Experiments Psychophysics means the relationship of the sensation (psychological effect) to the physical stimulus. The field of psychophysics was founded by Gustav Theodore Fechner in 1860, with the publication of his book Elemente der Psychophysik.The important problem of psychophysics, as seen by Fechner, was to discover the psychophysical function- the relationship between the physical intensity of a stimulus and its perceived intensity. Though, Fechner did not measure sensation(perceived intensity) directly. Instead, he used an indirect method of measuring the ability of the subject to discriminate between two physical intensities a way of constructing such 32

function. The psychophysical function was discovered by indirect scaling to be the logarithmic function, and this function, called Fechners Law, has been the subject of intense debate among psychophysicists ever since. Psychophysical methods developed as ways of understanding sensory experience. Whatever we know about the world comes to us through our senses. The limitations of our sense organs limit what we can know of the world directly, and bias our view of the world. Accordingly, the study of sensory limits is extremely important. Although we are limited to sensing only certain ranges of physical energies, the variety and form of sensory experience is significant. The psychophysical methods were developed for the general purpose of investigating the laws relating to sensory experience to properties of the initiating stimulus. Although a number of different psychophysical methods were developed, three methods, explored in detail by Fechner, gained particular prominence. These three classical methods are the method of limits, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of average error- exist in one form or other to this day. One important feature of these classical methods is that they call upon the subject to make the simplest possible judgement: to detect the presence or absence of a sensation or to decide whether two equal sensations are equal in magnitude or different. These discriminations are among the most reliable judgement of which organisms are capable. Experiments in discrimination study the questionwhat is the minimal difference in physical energies required to discriminate between two stimuli? Sensitivity is measured by threshold (latin form-LIMEN) the absolute threshold for detection, and the difference threshold or just-noticeable-difference.Threshold experiments in psychophysics are primarily concerned with detection and discrimination. Experiments in detection study the question what is the minimal amount of physical energy required to detect a stimulus? Experiments in discrimination study the question what is the minimal difference in physical energies required to discriminate between two stimuli? Concepts used in Psychophysics We define threshold (limen) of an observer as that stimulus intensity which is detected 50% of the time, in detection experiments or difference between two stimuli which is detected either 50% or 75% of the time (depending on the number of response categories) in discrimination experiments. The threshold in psychophysical measurement is divided into absolute threshold and difference threshold. Absolute threshold or stimulus threshold (abbreviated as RL, from its German equivalent Reiz Limen) refers to that minimal stimulus value which produces a response 50% of time. A physical stimulus value which is below that minimal value fails to elicit a response. Thus, RL defines the minimum limit for responding to stimulation. RL for a single physical stimulus is not the same for different individuals. It varies from individual to individual and from one situation to the other. Hence, some people may perceive a stimulus at a low value while others may perceive the same stimulus at a higher value. Statistically, RL may be computed by taking the mean of RL taken over several trials by the same subject for the same stimulus. Difference threshold or differential threshold (abbreviated as DL from its German equivalent Differenz Limen) is the difference between two stimuli, which can be perceived 50% of the time. DL defines individual capacity to respond to difference in sensitivity. For calculating DL, two stimuli are presented to the subject. One of them has a constant value throughout the experiment, (known as SS) and the second stimulus is varied throughout the experiment (known as SV). Suppose the experimenter takes an SS of 100gm weight and starts presenting SV at a very low value, say 20gm. He may then go on increasing the weight of SV by a small value, say


at the rate of 5 gm per trial, until it becomes indistinguishable from SS. This is called lower difference threshold. Now, the experimenter may start presenting the SV at a much higher value, say, 150 gm, and then go on decreasing SV by a very small value, say by 5gm, until it can be no longer be distinguished from SS. This is known as upper difference threshold. The upper and lower thresholds represent the upper and lower limits of the interval of uncertainity or IU respectively. The IU is the range where the responses of the subjects are uncertain. The DL is half the difference between the upper and lower threshold, that is DL= Upper threshold-Lower threshold/2 or IU/2. The DL, like the RL, is taken over several trials by the same subject for the same physical stimulus is not identical in different situations. Just Noticeable Difference (j.n.d.) and Just Not Noticeable Difference (j.n.n.d): The difference between two stimuli which is just barely perceptible 50% of the time in a series of trials is known as j.n.d. or just noticeable difference. A stimulus must be increased or decreased by one order that the change is perceived. On the other hand, the difference between two stimuli which is just not perceptible in a series of trials is known as j.n.n.d. or just not noticeable difference. For example, in an experiment variable stimulus(SV) is set equal to standard stimulus(SS) and then the value of SV is increased or decreased till such time the subject notices a difference between the SV and SS, we will have j.n.d. On the other hand, if the value of SV is perceptibly greater or lesser than the SS and then the value of SV is increased or decreased till such time the subject fails to notice a difference between SV and SS, then we will have j.n.n.d. Point of Subjective Equality(P.S.E): Suppose, we ask a subject to compare two objects(appearing similarly) for their weights, it is likely that the subject considers two weights of different values as equal, especially, if the difference between two weights is less than the D.L. for weights for that subject. That means, two weights of different values (physically or objectively unequal) were treated as equal by the subject. That is for that particular subject these two unequal weights are phenomenally or psychologically or subjectively equal. Thus, point of subjective equality for experimental purposes as in the case of other limens, is defined as the stimulus value with which a given stimulus intensity(standard stimulus) is equated for about 50% of the times. The difference between the standard stimulus and the P.S.E. value arises out of errors of observation. If the P.S.E. is higher than the standard stimulus value, then the error is in the direction of overestimation and if the P.S.E. is less than the standard stimulus then the error is in the direction of underestimation. Errors of Observation The commonly occurring errors in psychophysical experiments are explained below: Space Error: The error caused by the spatial positions of the standard and variable stimuli because of unequal sensitivity of the two eyes is known as the space error. Thus, space error is defined as a tendency to deviate in one direction or the other because of the bias induced by the spatial position of the stimuli in relation to the subject. Space error is equal to the half of difference between the mean error committed when the standard stimulus is presented towards right and left. Thus, Es = MR-ML/2; Es = Space error MR = Mean error when the standard stimulus is kept towards right ML = Mean error when the standard stimulus is kept towards left 34

Movement Error: If the variable at the beginning is longer than the standard, then, in adjusting it, the subjects eyes move inward, while, a shorter variable involves outward movement. It has been found that outward movements are more strenuous than the inward movements resulting in an overestimation of the variable and an overestimation of the standard. The opposite is the case with inward movement. Movement error is estimated as half of the difference between the mean error committed when the variable stimulus length is increased (outward movement trials) and decreased(inward movement trials). Thus, Em = MO-MI/2; Em = Movement Error MO = Mean error of outward trials MI = Mean error of inward trials Error of Anticipation or Expectation: In any psychophysical experiment, where the variable stimulus is changed continuously and in the same direction, it is quite possible that a subject expects a particular experience to occur and this fact may make him report the particular experience before it actually occurs. This error, committed by the subject, is known as error of anticipation. In the ascending trials, this may lead to an underestimation of the absolute limen and differential limen, and in the descending trials, an overestimation of the absolute limen and differential limen. Error of Habituation: Here, the effect is the opposite of the error of anticipation. Since, in any particular series (ascending or descending), the subject has to report the same experience before there is a change of experience, he may form a habit of giving the same response. For example, in an ascending series of an experiment, on determination of two-point threshold, he may form a habit of giving a one-point response even when experience has changed. This leads to the overestimation of the limen. Similarly, in a descending series in the experiment, he may form a habit of giving two-point response even when experience has changed. This leads to the overestimation of the limen. Time Order Error: In certain psychophysical experiments, the variable and standard stimuli are presented in succession rather than simultaneously. Under such conditions, where the variable and standard stimuli are presented in succession, the subject is likely to commit time-order error. This time-order error can be positive or negative. In the case of negative time-order error, the second of the observed stimuli tends to be overestimated. The reverse is true in case of positive time-order error. This error is usually controlled by presenting the SS first and then the VS on half the number of trials and in the remaining half of the trials the two stimuli are presented in the reverse order, i.e., VS followed by SS. In both the conditions the subject compares the VS with SS and gives his judgement regarding the VS in relation to SS. Stimulus Error Suppose, a subject knows that an arrow headed line appears to be shorter than the feather headed line, even when these two lines are of equal length and such a subject is asked to estimate the lengths of lines in a Muller-Lyer illusion experiment, there is a possibility of the subject committing less error or error in opposite direction when compared to a nave subject. It is reasonable to assume that this subject would have committed more error, had he not known the fact that the arrow headed line looks shorter than the feather headed line. Psychophysical Methods Now, let us discuss some common psychophysical methods, viz., method of limits, method of constant stimuli, and method of average error. 35

1) Method of Limits This method is also known as method of minimal changes, method of serial exploration, and the method of just noticeable difference. This method is used for two purposes, one is to determine the absolute limen and the other is to determine the difference limen. The assumption in this method is that the human observer can identify a just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) when s/he observes one such thing. In other words, approaching in gradual steps a particular experience of a subject from a point of no experience and approaching the absence of the same experience from a point of definite experience. These two are called ascending and descending series. For, example, in the experiment on two-point threshold, if the experimenter starts with a distance between the two-points which is perceived as one and increase the distance in small steps until the subject reports an experience of two-point stimulation, it will be an ascending series. On the other hand, if the experimenter starts with a definite two- point sensation and gradually reduce the distance between the two- points until the subject reports one-point stimulation then this will be descending series. Experiment 1: Estimation of Absolute Limen (AL) by the Method of Limits Problem: To estimate the two-point threshold in the forearm area of the subject with the help of method of limits. Material Required: A compass aesthesiometer (an instrument that consists of two-points the distance between which can be adjusted by means of a screw arrangement. There is a scale arrangement by which the distance between the two can be measured. When the two-points are kept very and the subject is touched with both the points, he experiences only one point not two. But, if the distance between the two-points is increased to a minimum degree, he experiences two stimulations. All distances beyond this, produce two sensations), blindfold, paper, pencil. Procedure: The subject is blindfolded throughout the experiment. This experiment is also done in two series, ascending and descending. In the ascending series, the experimenter starts with the two points of the aesthesiometer so that the subject reports that only one point is being touched. Then the distance is gradually increased in steps by one millimeter until on three consecutive steps the subject reports two sensations. The threshold is given by the reading on the scale corresponding to the first of these three two responses. Carry out 20 trials in ascending series and 20 in descending series, alternatively. In the descending series the experimenter starts with the two points wide apart and the subject reports that he feels two stimulations. The distance is gradually increased in steps of one millimetre until the subject reports on three consecutive steps, an experience of one stimulation only. The threshold value corresponds to the first of these three one responses. The following instructions are to be given to the subject, This is a simple experiment on testing your sensitivity. Sometimes, I will touch your forearm with one-point and on some occasions with two points. You will have to report whether your forearm is touched by one-point or twopoints. Whenever you feel that your forearm is touched by one-point, you report one, and whenever you feel that your forearm is touched by two-points, you report two. Results: Tabulation of results. Locate the point of change of experience in each trial from one-point to two-point or viceversa in the ascending and descending series respectively. 36

Calculate the average thresholds for all trials (40). This gives the AL for two-point sensation. Calculate the average for ascending and descending series separately. From these averages, errors of anticipation and habituation can be determined as follows: If the value of AL under ascending series is more than the value under the descending series than this might have resulted because of the error of habituation and if the value of AL under ascending series is less than the value under descending series, then it is due to error of anticipation. The actual magnitude of the error of anticipation or habituation can be determined by calculating the difference between the AL under only one of the series, either ascending or descending. Note: 1) With the help of a few preliminary trials, the lower limit (below which the subject reports only one point) and the upper limit (above which the subject always reports two points) of the ascending and descending series are to be determined. This is necessary to avoid undue lengths of each series. 2) To avoid response set on the part of the subject, the starting point of each trial should be varied randomly. 2) Method of Constant Stimuli This method is also known as method of Right and Wrong Cases or Method of Frequency. This method is suited to the determination of both AL and DL. The fundamental difference between the method of constant stimuli and the method of limits is that the stimuli which the subject judges are presented, not in serial order, but in a random or quasi-random manner. Such a procedure eliminates the errors of habituation and anticipation, i.e., the series-direction variable, the absence of which represents one of the major advantages of the method of constant stimuli. The possible errors occur are time error and the errors caused by fatigue on the part of the subject and also on the part of the experimenter. However, these two errors can be easily controlled. The time error can be controlled by presenting the SS and SV in one order on half of the trials and in the reverse order on the remaining trials. The fatigue can be controlled by introducing optimum rest pauses whenever needed during experiment. The method is as follows: The experimenter selects certain fixed values of variable stimulus in such a manner that half of them are greater than the SS value and the remaining half less than the SS value. Each SV is presented in succession to SS a large number of times, by the experimenter. However, SV is presented in a prearranged random order by the experimenter. On each trial, the subject has to report whether the SV is greater than or lesser than the SS when a two-category judgement is employed, and the third category of judgement doubtful when three-category judgement is employed. Experiment 2: Estimation of DL by the Method of Constant Stimulus Differences Problem: To estimate the DL for lifted weights by the Method of Constant Stimulus Differences. Material Required: A box of weights, blindfold, paper and pencil. Procedure: The experimenter selects a suitable standard, say 100 gms.(SS). He also selects six SV, three of them lighter than the SS and the other three being heavier than the SS. The subject is blindfolded and given the following instructions, This is an experiment on your ability to judge weights. On each trial, I will place before you two weights one of which is SS and the other one will be a SV. I will place the SS first, on your palm, followed by the other weight, and 37

you should tell me whether the second weight is lighter, doubtful or heavier than the first one. This procedure will be repeated a number of times, and each time, two weights will be placed on the palm in quick succession. You will have to tell me whether the second is lighter, doubtful, or heavier than the first one. The experimenter then presents all the pairs according to a preplanned schedule. A second series of the experiment is done with the SV being placed first followed by the SS. Before starting this series, the subject is instructed to reverse his direction of comparison,i.e., to compare the first stimulus with the second and report whether the first one is lighter, doubtful, heavier than the second. This procedure is significant to overcome the possible effects of time order error. Results: Two measures of the DL, one based on the lighter judgements and the other based on heavier judgements from each condition of the experiment. Calculate the average DL by averaging the DLi and DLh for each series. Compare the average DLs of the standard first and standard second series. 3) Method of Average Error This method is also known as the method of adjustment, the method of reproduction and the method of equivalent stimuli. This method is used successfully in the measurement of geometric illusions. The distinguishing feature of this method is that the terminal judgement obtained from the subject is always one of equality. The subject is presented with a SS and a SV, and the latter is adjusted until the subject judges that SS and SV are equal. The adjustments may be done by the experimenter, as well as the subject. In a typical experiment, the value of SV is always too higher or too lower than the SS, such that the subject perceives the difference between the SV and SS. The subject/experimenter then decreases or increases the value of SV continuously in the same direction till such time he perceives the SV as equivalent to SS. This marks the end of one trial. At the end of each trial, the error or difference is noted down and the experiment is repeated a number of times. Thus, the method of average error is primarily concerned with matching of two stimuli and working out the difference between the SS and the SV which may be stated as the error which results from the matching. In the present experiment, the experimenter determines the extent of illusion using the method of average error. Our perceptions are not only influenced by the properties of the stimuli but other factors like, past experience, mental set, etc. Because of this we tend to perceive stimuli wrongly. The Muller-Lyer illusion is used to illustrate the method.

Fig. 2: Arrow head and Feather head line


In the Muller-Lyer illusion, there are two horizontal lines, one is SS, with arrow heads and the other is SV with feather heads. Both lines are equal in length. But the line with feather heads will be perceived by the subject to be longer than the arrow heads line. The subject adjusts SV till he perceives the two lines to be equal. The experimenter may find out how close the subject comes to match the two lines from the scale fixed behind the illusion board. The direction to the subject for adjustment should be varied. In half of the trials the SV should be set with a value considerably longer than the standard and in half of the trials it should be set considerably shorter than the SS. There are two conditions followed in all trials. They are: (1) space condition (right and left; R and L) and (2) movement condition(outward and inward; O and I).Consequently, there are four combinations as RO, RI, LO, and LI. When these four conditions are counterbalanced, we have the sequences as RO, LI, LO, RI, LI, RO, RI, and LO. For each sequence there are 10 trials and a total of 80 trials. There are four ascending and four descending series. Experiment 3: Determination of equal stimuli by the Method of Average Error Problem: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the extent of visual illusion in the Muller-Lyer illusion apparatus by using the method of average error. Material Required: Muller-Lyer illusion apparatus, paper and pencil. Procedure: The experimenter in advance should prepare observation table in record book for noting down the judgements.The table should have two space and two movement conditions with the sequence of RO, LI, LO, RI, LI, RO, RI, and LO. The experimenter should give the following instructions: Look at this board, there are two lines. These two lines as you see are unequal in size. I will keep the length of this line as constant and go on varying the length of variable line in small units, either increasing or decreasing. At every step you should tell me whether SV is equal to SS or not. When you feel they are equal, I will stop. Result: In all, there are 4 ascending series (RO, LO, RO, LO) and 4 descending series (RI, LI, RI, LI). Thus, we have eight conditions. The means for R and L spaces and means for O and I movements have to be worked out. The main aim of this experiment is to determine the discrepancy between the SS (arrow heads) line and the average of the subjects judgements(Mj). This is the extent of illusion. This is the main constant error(Ec) of the experiment. The formula to find out space error is : Mr-Ml/2 ; Mr = Mean of the right space Ml = Mean of the left space The formula to find out the movement error: Mo-Mi/2; Mo = Mean of outward movement Mi = Mean of inward movement The formula to find out constant error is : Mj-SS= Ec Mj = Mean of all judgements SS = Standard stimulus Ec = Constant error 39

Discussion: Discuss the results obtained in Muller-Lyer illusion experiment. State the extent of illusion whether it is due to to overestimation or underestimation. State whether the result is in accordance to the assumption of the experiment. The SS line should be underestimated in comparison with the SV. Compare the space and movement error and state which is greater and why. Is the constant greater than the space and movement error, if so, why? Any variation in the subjects judgement in the ascending series from the descending series has also to be explained. Memory Experiments (STM/LTM) Short Term Memory (STM) is a working memory that serves as a transfer station between both input from our outside environment and output from our inner environment. For eg., we remember a telephone number we have looked up long enough to dial it. It has been identified with primary memory of William James (1890), who defined primary memory as the contents of the consciousness and the psychological present. STM differs from long term memory (LTM) in three ways. First, items initially stored there are fragile and easily forgotten. Second, relatively few items(three to seven) can be stored there, so STM is of limited capacity. And third, the coding format of items stored in STM seems to be predominantly acoustic or articulatory in nature. In contrast, LTM retention is more permanent, has an apparently unlimited capacity, and stores items in a primarily semantic format. In order to trace out the time course of forgetting from STM, it is necessary to prevent rehearsal. This is because rehearsal is generally held to be the primary vehicle for maintaining information in STM and transferring information to LTM. STM is of limited capacity, and has been variously estimated as seven+ two, when its capacity is measured by memory span experiments (Miller, 1956), and as few as four to five items when its capacity is measured by the number of letters we can report from a brief visual exposure (Sperling, 1960). Unless the new material is simple, we need rehearsal to keep in STM. In rehearsal the information or task is practiced in one way or the other, overtly or covertly. The event is simply repeated several times. The aim here is merely to keep the material available until it can be used, or until it can be stored in some integrated manner. The importance of rehearsal was demonstrated when experimental subjects were unable to remember a single nonsense syllable for just a few seconds. The experimenter presented them with a three letter syllable followed by a number. Each subject observed the word visually, and then to prevent rehearsal, was required to count backward by 3 or 4 from a randomly selected three digit number. When the subject was asked the syllable three seconds later, it was repeated correctly only about half the time. With successively more counting, recall continued to decline, and after 18 seconds, less than ten percent of the syllables were recalled (Peterson & Peterson, 1959). Experiment: Paired-Associate Learning: Immediate memory span(non-sense syllable) Problem: To measure the immediate memory span for an individual using the method of pairedassociate learning for non-sense syllable. Material: A list of non-sense syllables not less than 10 (in a pair, there should be two non-sense syllables, the first is the stimulus and the second is the response), memory drum, stop watch.


Procedure: The experimenter should have made all the preparations before hand. The pairs of non-sense syllables should be neatly typed or written with sufficient space between the two, so that it is legible to the subject. The list should be pasted in the rotating drum having full visibility of the two syllables in the window. The drum should be adjusted in such a way that the pair of non-sense syllables should be exposed only for two seconds. After the preparations, the following instructions have to be given to the subject: Please look at the small window of the drum (showing it). You will see two non-sense syllables together in a line with a hyphen between them. The first word is the stimulus and the second is the response. I will present them in pairs only for a period of two seconds. I will show you ten such pairs. You will have to observe each pair carefully and learn to associate with them. After presenting all ten pairs of these non-sense syllables, I will stop it for a few seconds. Then I will show you only the first syllable of the pair. Then your task is to produce the corresponding response syllable of that particular stimulus. As soon as you see the first stimulus or the first syllable of the pair, you at once call the response syllable within two seconds before the appearance of the second stimulus. If you have any doubt, you may ask me. The experimenter at once should start the memory drum to move step by step for two seconds exposing a pair of syllables at every step. When all the ten pairs are presented, the experimenter should stop for a period of six seconds and then start presenting the stimulus of each pair alone. The subject at once should recall the response for the stimulus. After presenting all the ten stimulus syllables alone, the experimenter should take the introspective report from the subject and send the subject. If the experimenter has asked the subject to write down the responses on paper, then he should collect the paper from the subject. Results: The experimenter will analyse the responses and find out correctly associated response syllables The results may be presented in a tabular form as shown below: Sl. No. (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Paired-associate and the stimuli (2) XEW-MNK CIL-GOF LHE-KAM ZSW-XPJ FXC-BKE QJY-LIX MEG-HGI DUV-BXT SEK-WKl JOX-UTR Stimulus Syllable (3) XEW CIL LHE ZSW FXC QJY MEG DUV SEK JOX Response syllable by the subject (4) Result (5)

Number of correct associations-Memory span:


The number of correct stimulus-response associations may be taken as the immediate memory span Collect group data and present in a tabular form as given below: Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean Calculate mean immediate memory span for the group for non-sense syllables in the method of paired-associate learning. Discussion: Discuss what is your subjects immediate memory span? What is the group mean? Are there any personal characteristics that influence memory span? Discuss your results with reference to earlier studies. Reaction Time Experiments The problem of reaction time was one of the earliest to be studied in experimental psychology. Helmholtz, Galton, Donders were the first to do experiments on reaction time. The original experiments were simple and attempted to study the time taken by the person to notice a single stimulus and produce an appropriate response. Later experiments starting with the work of Donders, tried to study reaction time in more complicated situations. The minimum time between the presentation of a stimulus and the subjects response to it is known as reaction time. It is one of the oldest dependent variable in experimental psychology. There are various specialized types of reaction time. The minimum lag between a single simple stimulus (e.g. a light or tone) and the subjects making of a single simple response (e.g. pressing a button or releasing a switch) is known as simple reaction time. Any reaction time when two (or more) stimuli and two (or more) responses are employed is known as complex reaction time. In some situations, there may be several stimuli but a person may have to respond to only one of them, i.e. he has to discriminate one stimulus from the others and respond. This is called discriminatory reaction time. Where a subject has to respond whenever anyone of a number of stimuli occur, but has to make completely different responses depending on the particular stimulus. This involves not only a discrimination of the stimulus but also a choice of a response. This is called choice reaction time. This takes the longest time. Immediate Memory Span Remarks


Experiment 4: Estimation of Simple Reaction Time and Disjunctive Reaction Time Problem: To determine the difference between simple, disjunctive and choice reaction time of the subject for visual stimuli. Material Required: Reaction time apparatus (it consists of a wooden board with a screen in the middle. On the subjects side, there are two lights, red and green, and two press keys. Each one of the keys is connected to one of the lights. If the key is pressed while the light is on, the circuit will automatically break and the light will go off. On the experimenters side, there are a series of keys which serve to switch on the two lights on the subjects side. With the help of these keys, the experimenter can switch on and off the lights), paper and pencil. Procedure: For recording simple reaction time, the following instructions are to be given to the subject, This is an experiment on reaction time. We are interested in measuring the speed with which you can react to the appearance of the light. You have got a red light here. As soon as you see the red light, press the key on your left side as quickly as you can. The experimenter may give a couple of trials for demonstration. Then the experimenter may start with the experiment. He presses the key for the red light and as soon as the subject presses the key, he notes the time recorded in the chronoscope. Sometimes, the subject may withdraw his finger from the response key before the stimulus is presented. In such cases his error is pointed out to him and he is cautioned to respond only after seeing the light. Before switching on the light, each time a ready signal is given, light is presented for 2 seconds. 20 trials may be given to the subject. The average reaction time is calculated. For the measurement of disjunctive reaction time, both the green and red light stimuli are used and the following instructions are given to the subject, In this part of the experiment, we will continue to measure speed with which you react to the appearance of the light. This time, however, we will sometimes present green light and sometimes red light. Place your right hand index finger on the key. Your job is to react to green light only and not to red light. After this 40 trials are taken, 20 each for red and green light. Wrong responses, i.e., response to red light are not counted. For the choice reaction time, both the green and red stimuli are used and the following instructions are given to the subject, In this part of the experiment, we will continue to measure speed with which you react to the appearance of the light. But this time we will present sometimes green light and sometimes red light. Place your right hand index finger on the right hand-side key and left hand index finger on the left hand-side key. Your job is to react to green light with your right hand index finger and red light with your left hand index finger only by releasing the key. The experimenter then presents the red and green lights in a prearranged random order. 40 trials are taken, 20 each for red and green light. Wrong responses are not counted as trial. Results: Tabulation of data for simple, disjunctive and choice reaction time. Calculate the mean of simple, disjunctive and choice reaction time. Discussion: Discuss the simple and disjunctive reaction time of the subject. Whether the simple reaction time is more or less than dijunctive reaction time? Is choice reaction reaction longest for the subject and why? 43

Signal Detection Experiments The theory of signal detection was developed by mathematicians and engineers in the 1950s. It deals with the detection of signals as the name suggests. It is used to analyse data where the task can be categorized as ambiguous stimuli that is generated either by a known process, that is, signal or as obtained by chance, that is noise. It can be used to quantify the ability to discern between signal and noise. There are various determinants to detect a signal, and its threshold levels. Experience, expectations, physiological state and other factors can have an effect on whether a signal is detected and on the threshold levels. In a signal detection experiment, the subject has to detect a signal, which is presented to him/ her, along some sensory continuum. The possible four types of response in signal detection, based on presence or absence of detection and subjects response, are Hit, Miss, False alarm and Correct Rejection. This is explained as follows: SUBJECTS RESPONSE YES SIGNAL PRESENT SIGNAL ABSENT Hit False Alarm NO Miss Correct Rejection

Signal detection theory can be applied to a wide range of areas from memory, perception, psychophysics to medical diagnostics and statistical decision. Note: Any experiment based on signal detection theory may be conducted. Transfer of Learning Experiments Learning is one of the most important areas in the field of modern experimental psychology. Learning is more or less permanent modification of an individuals behaviour which results from previous activity, special training, or observation. Initially, scientific interest in understanding learning process is said to have begun with the work of Thorndike, Pavlov, Bechterev, Watson, and others. In the early stages, most of the experimental work on learning was done on animals. Even today, large amount of experimentation is being done on animals. The findings of these animal experiments have been helpful in working out experimental designs and hypotheses for experimentation on human beings. According to Thorndike, all learning takes place by the method of trial and error. He formulated three laws related to this law of exercise, law of recency, and law of effect. According to Pavlov and other behaviouristic psychologists, all learning takes place due to conditioning formulation of stimulus-response associations between various stimuli and responses. More complex learning results from discrimination and generalisation. Hull and Skinner gave importance to certain other factors like, drive, reward, etc. in explaining learning processes. Gestalt psychologists did not agree with these approaches and stressed on what they call as insight. Many psychologists believe that learning cannot be explained on the basis of any single theory. Experiments on learning have included different aspects of learning process, like, different types of learning, role of motivation, role of individual differences, role of reward and punishment, transfer of training, etc. The experiment described below is related to transfer of learning. 44

Transfer of learning or training This concept refers to the transfer of learned skills from one situation to another. Transfer of training tends to be associated with motor acts and overtly displayed skills. Since everything cannot be learned at once, transfer of training is regarded as the most significant practical issue in education. Transfer can be of two types. When learning in one instance facilitates learning in another, we speak of positive transfer. It occurs when a Bengali-speaking person more easily masters Oriya, and when a skilled lawn tennis player readily learns squash. In other instances, there may be negative transfer or habit interference, in which earlier learning interferes with later learning. E.g. Spanish accent can result in distinct negative transfer for French pronunciation, for the vowels are pronounced differently. Sometimes, practicing one task makes no difference in performing another, and then the transfer is negligible. This is known as zero transfer. The basic factor determining the amount and type of transfer is the degree of similarity between the two learning situations and the responses involved. When the stimulus conditions are similar and similar responses are required, high positive transfer results. When the conditions are similar, but different responses are required, high negative transfer occurs. And when the stimulus conditions are quite different, it is unlikely that any significant transfer will occur. The scientific study of transfer of training began with the question of bilateral transfer. Weber noted that some children trained to write with right hand were able to produce very good mirrorwriting with left hand, without any training.This carrying over of an act learned by one hand to the performance done by the other hand is called bilateral transfer. Experiment 5: Transfer of learning Problem: To demonstrate the phenomenon of bilateral transfer. Material Required: Mirror-drawing apparatus, stylus, stop watch, paper and pencil. Procedure: The following instructions are to be given to the subject, Look at this mirror, you will see a star image. The star image is a reflection of a pattern grooved on the wooden board and hidden by the screen. Take the stylus in your left hand(the experimenter will give the stylus to the subject and helps him to position it at the end of the nearest projection). Now you will have to look into the mirror image and trace the star pattern with the stylus. Be careful about the stylus not touching the edges of the groove. If you touch, it will be counted as an error. Try to do as speedily as possible. After the subject traces the path once with the left hand, he is asked to trace the path again. Time taken and the number of errors committed are noted down. In the same way, now the subject is asked to trace the star pattern with his right hand for 10 trials. In each of these trials, the number of errors committed and the amount of time taken in seconds to complete the pattern are noted down. Again the subject is asked to perform the same task in the same manner with his left hand jow, and the errors committed and time taken in seconds are noted down. Result: Tabulation of data: performance index (time taken and no. of errors) for first trial with left hand, followed by trials with right hand (10 trials), and lastly, the second trial with left hand. Calculate the percentage gain in time (if any), for second trial with left hand. Calculate the percentage reduction in the number of errors (if any), for second trial with left hand. 45

Discussion: Compare the time taken in seconds and errors committed in the first trial with left hand with that of the second trial with left hand (after training with right hand for ten trials). Find out whether there is any transfer of trining in the second trial with left hand and also if it is positive, negative or zero transfer. Figure Ground Experiments The most fundamental process in form perception is the recognition of a figure on a background. We see the objects and forms of everyday experience as standing out from a background. Pictures hang on a wall, words are seen on a page, and the melody stands out from the repetitive chords in the musical background. The picture, words, and melody are perceived as figure, while the wall, page and chords are the ground. The ability to distinguish an object from its general background is basic to all form perception. Figure-ground discrimination is so basic that it is usually considered the starting point in organized perceptual experience (Haber & Hershenson, 1980). The Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin (1915,1921) was first to systematically investigate this phenomenon. He found that it was possible to see any well-marked area of a visual-field as the figure, leaving the rest as the ground. In some instances the figure and the ground may fluctuate. The importance of figure-ground relationship lies in the fact that this early work by Rubin was the starting point from which the Gestalt psychologists began investigating what they called 'the organization principles of perception. Figure-ground: A term used to describe the perceptual relationship between an object of focus (figure) and the rest of the perceptual field (ground). The figure generally has form or structure and appears to be in front of the ground. The ground is seen as generally homogenous and as extending behind the figure. The relationship in many instances can be reversed by focusing on or attending to the ground rather than the figure. The best way to conceptualize the notion of figure-ground relationship is to appreciate that the CONTOUR or boundary that separates the figure from the background physically belongs to both of them but perceptually belongs to the figure. Thus, the figure is given form and shape and background is left unshaped and lacking in form. Reversible Figure Most important in understanding perceptual processes are instances with the reversible figure-ground relationship. Our perception can be influenced by set (refer to figures below). The viewer may be led into readiness to perceive the stimulus pattern in a certain way. The figure below can be influenced by your expectation to perceive a young woman or an elderly grandmother.


There are a few instances in which we can intentionally reverse figure-ground relationship. The stimulus pattern can be viewed in two ways, and after a few moments it even alternates automatically from one to another. The figure becomes the background, and the ground becomes the figure (figure given below)

These unintentional shifts increase as the viewing time is lengthened, an outcome that has been interpreted as stimulus satiation in the central nervous system. With prolonged observation, the neural mechanisms become progressively more fatigued, and shifts take place more frequently. Human beings confined to an unchanging environment seek sensory variation which is perhaps imposed upon us in these automatic shifts. Note: Any experiment based on figure-ground principle, may be conducted. Muller Lyer Illusion Experiment In the Muller-Lyer illusion there are two horizontal lines, one is SS, with arrow heads and the other is SV with feather heads. Both lines are equal in length. But the line with feather heads will be perceived by the subject to be longer than the arrow heads line. The subject adjusts SV till he perceives the two lines to be equal. The experimenter may find out how close the subject comes to match the two lines from the scale fixed behind the illusion board. The direction to the subject for adjustment should be varied. In half of the trials the SV should be set with a value considerably longer than the standard and in half of the trials it should be set considerably shorter than the SS. There are two conditions followed in all trials. They are: (1) space condition (right and left; R and L) and (2) movement condition (outward and inward; O and I). Consequently, there are four combinations as RO, RI, LO, and LI. When these four conditions are counterbalanced, we have the sequences as RO, LI, LO, RI, LI, RO, RI and LO. For each sequence there are 10 trials and a total of 80 trials. There are four ascending and four descending series.

Fig. 3: Arrow head and Feather head line


Experiment: Determination of equal stimuli by the Method of Average Error Problem: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the extent of visual illusion in the Muller-Lyer illusion apparatus by using the method of average error. Material Required: Muller-Lyer illusion apparatus, paper and pencil. Procedure: The experimenter in advance should prepare observation table in record book for noting down the judgements.The table should have two space and two movement conditions with the sequence of RO, LI, LO, RI, LI, RO, RI, and LO. The experimenter should give the following instructions: Look at this board, there are two lines. These two lines as you see are unequal in size. I will keep the length of this line as constant and go on varying the length of variable line in small units, either increasing or decreasing. At every step you should tell me whether SV is equal to SS or not. When you feel they are equal, I will stop. Result: In all, there are 4 ascending series (RO, LO, RO, LO) and 4 descending series (RI, LI, RI, LI). Thus, we have eight conditions. The means for R and L spaces and means for O and I movements have to be worked out. The main aim of this experiment is to determine the discrepancy between the SS (arrow heads) line and the average of the subjects judgements (Mj). This is the extent of illusion. This is the main constant error (Ec) of the experiment. The formula to find out space error is : Mr-Ml/2; Mr = Mean of the right space Ml = Mean of the left space The formula to find out the movement error: Mo-Mi/2; Mo = Mean of outward movement Mi = Mean of inward movement The formula to find out constant error is : Mj-SS= Ec Mj = Mean of all judgements SS = Standard stimulus Ec = Constant error Discussion: Discuss the results obtained in Muller-Lyer illusion experiment. State the extent of illusion whether it is due to overestimation or underestimation. State whether the result is in accordance to the assumption of the experiment. The SS line should be underestimated in comparison with the SV. Compare the space and movement error and state which is greater and why. Is the constant greater than the space and movement error, if so, why? Any variation in the subjects judgement in the ascending series from the descending series has also to be explained.



TEE will be held separately for BPCL 007 and BPCL 008. The duration will be three hours for each examination. The examination has to be conducted in the respective study centers by the 48

Regional Centres. During the examination, the learner will conduct the practical and submit the answer sheet. The practical may be allotted to the learner by the way of lot system. Chits with names of various practicals may be prepared beforehand and the learner may be asked to pick one at the time of the examination. S/he may then collect the test/experiment material and start conducting the practical. S/he will have to bring one subject along with her/him. Once the learner finishes conducting the practical, s/he will have to report the findings in the answer sheet. The answer sheet is then to be submitted to the internal examiner. This will be followed by the viva voce. The learner has to bring her/his practicum notebook at the time of examination. Viva-voce will be conducted by both the internal examiner and the external examiner. The answer sheets will be corrected by the external examiner.


Banister, P., Burman, E., Parker, I., Taylor, M. & Tindall, C. (1994) Qualitative Methods in Psychology: A Research Guide. Buckingham-Philadelphia: Open University Press. Bedford, T. (1982) Vocational Guidance Interviews: A Survey by Careers Service Inspectorate, London: Careers Service Branch, Department of Employment. DAmato, M.R. Experimental Psychology: Methodology Psychophysics and Learning. New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw Hill (1985). Freeman, Frank S. (1965) Theory and Practice of Psychological Testing. 3rd Edition. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. Fernald, L.D. & Fernald, P.S. Munns Introduction to Psychology. Delhi: AITBS Publishers and Distributors (2007). Gregory, RJ (2004). Psychological Testing: History, Principals and Applications. Pearson Hilgard & Atkinson (2003) Introduction to Psychology. 14th Edition. Thomson Wadsworth Kapaln, RM & Saccuzzo, DP (2009). Psychological Testing and Assessment. Cengage Learning: Indian Edition 2011. Parameshwaran, E.G. & Ravichandra, K. Experimental Psychology. A Laboratory Manual. Seema Publications, Delhi (1983). Postman, L. & Egan, J.P. Experimental Psychology: An Introduction. Indian Edn., Ludhiana, Kalyani Publishers (1982). Rajamanickam, M. (2005) Experimental Psychology, Vol. I & II. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. Rao, S. Narayan (1999) Educational Psychology. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Reber, A S & Reber, E. (2001). The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, 3rd Edition. London: Penguin Books. Venkatraman, D. (1994). Style of Learning & Thinking: Administrators Manual. New Delhi: PSY-COM Services. 49





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