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Internal Guide:
Mr.MD.AQEEL AHMED Asst..professor



1.0 Introduction 2.0 History of Radars 3.0 Description 4.0 Construction 5.0 Features 6.0 Advantages 7.0 Applications Conclusion References


The first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects

first established principles regarding frequency and power level for the first primitive radar units

RAPID capable of detecting an aircraft within 3 km of a receiver.

The British were the first to fully exploit radar as a defense against aircraft attack.

the US Army and US Navy were working on radars with the same principle
The war precipitated research to find better resolution, more portability and more features for radar.

What is NanoTechnology?
Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology It will not only influence technological development in the near future, but will also have economic, social and ecological implications. will also have economic, social and ecological implications.

Nanotechnology deals with the science and technology at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers (1 Billion Nanometers = 1 Meter), although 100 nanometers presently is the practically attainable dimension for textile products an applications Conventional methods used to impart different properties to Fabrics often do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their functions after Laundering or wearing.

Nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics, because nano-particles have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy


The Israel-based YnetNews is Reporting that an Israeli company called Nanoflight It has successfully run a test on dummy missiles . that were painted with the nano-enabled coating and have shown that radar could not pick them up as missiles.

The nanocoating achieves its radar trickery by absorbing the radio waves emitted by the radar and scattering them as heat energy enough so that when the radar gets the bounced back signal it is not regular enough to indicate an object.
A spokesman for Nanoflight, Eli Shaldag, is quoted in the article indicating that the company is in the second stage of its development process after which they will be able to produce the coating in larger quantities.

Nanomaterial use in construction, in coatings, in site remediation, and on invisible planes Certain nanomaterials can improve the strength of concrete, serve as selfcleaning and self-sanitizing coatings

These paving slabs are coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Titanium dioxide is a photo catalyst; it uses sunlight to accelerate a naturally occurring An Israeli company has developed a paint for airplanes that can make them invisible to radar. From Dexter Johnsons July 14, 2010 posting on Nanoclast,

Air Force Research Laboratory

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is the Air Forces only organization wholly dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of war fighting technologies for our air, space and cyberspace forces. AFRL traces its roots back to the vision of early airpower leaders who understood science as thekey to air supremacy. The passionate commitment of our people to realize this vision has helped create the world's best air, space and cyberspace force.

AFRLs mission is leading the discovery, development and integration of affordable war fighting technologies for Americas aerospace forces. It is a full-spectrum laboratory, responsible for conceiving, planning and executing the Air Forces science and technology program. AFRL leads a worldwide government, industry and academia partnership in the discovery, development and delivery of a wide range of revolutionary technologies. The laboratory provides leading-edge war fighting capabilities keeping our air, space and cyberspace forces the worlds best.

Personnel and Resources

The lab employs approximately 5,400 government people, including about 1,300 military and 4,100 civilian personnel. It is responsible for the Air Forces science and technology budget of nearly $2 billion including basic research, applied research, advanced technology development and an additional $1.7 billion fromAFRL customers.

AFRL accomplishes its mission through nine technology directorates located across the United States, through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and with the support of a central staff. The directorates are: Air Vehicles Directorate, Directed Energy Directorate, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Information Directorate, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Munitions Directorate, Propulsion Directorate, Sensors Directorate, and Space Vehicles Directorate.

Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and their compounds exhibit extraordinary electrical properties for organic materials. Have a huge potential in electrical and electronic applications such as photovoltaics, sensors, semiconductor devices, displays, conductors, smart textiles and energy conversion devices (e.g., fuel cells, harvesters and batteries). Applications of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for electronics applications Depending on their chemical structure, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used as an alternative to organic or inorganic semiconductors as well as conductors, but the cost is currently the greatest restraint. However, that has the ability to rapidly fall as new, cheaper mass production processes are established, which we cover in this report. In electronics, other than electromagnetic shielding, one of the first large applications for CNTs will be conductors. In addition to their high conductance, they can be transparent, flexible and even stretchable. Here, applications are for displays, replacing ITO; touch screens, photovoltaics and display bus bars and beyond.

In addition, interest is high as CNTs have demonstrated mobilities which are magnitudes higher than silicon, meaning that fast switching transistors can be fabricated. In addition, CNTs can be solution processed, i.e. printed. In other words, CNTs will be able to provide high performing devices which can ultimately be made in low cost manufacturing processes such as printing, over large areas.

Challenges are material purity, device fabrication, and the need for other device
materials such as suitable dielectrics. However, the opportunity is large, given the high performance, flexibility, transparency and printability. Companies that IDTechEx surveyed report growth rates as high as 300% over the next five years. New developments regarding the production of pure CNTs and the separation of conducting and semiconducting carbon nanotubes are given in this updated report. Graphene, a cheap organic material, is being enhanced by companies that are increasing its conductivity, to be used in some applications as a significantly cheaper printed conductor compared to silver ink.


This technology used in Pakistani Defense Force Attack to Enemy Shelters Its Israel Based Project Second Stage of Under Research Process


A long-range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein Atoll. Radar is an object-detection system that uses electromagnetic waves specifically radio waves - to identify the range, altitude, direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft, ships, spacecraft, mountain ranges, radio and TV towers, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish, or antenna, transmits pulses of radio waves or microwaves which bounce off any object in their path. The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter.

The object returns a tiny part of the wave's energy to a dish or antenna which is usually located at the same site as the transmitter. the U.S. Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging.The term radar Radar was originally called by the term RDF (Range and Direction Finding) in the United Kingdom the same acronym as the one for Radio Direction Finding in order to conceal its ranging capability from unwanted listeners, such as foreign secret agents. The uses of radar include air traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems; nautical radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anticollision systems, ocean-surveillance systems, outer-space surveillance Other systems similar to radar have been used in other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as "lidar", which uses visible light from lasers, rather than radio waves.


Pulse radar Sonar radar

One way to measure the distance to an object is to transmit a short pulse of radio signal
(electromagnetic radiation), and measure the time it takes for the reflection to return. The distance is one-half the product of the round trip time (because the signal has to travel to the target and then back to the receiver) and the speed of the signal. Since radio waves travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles per second or 300,000,000 meters per second), accurate distance measurement requires high-performance electronics. In most cases, the receiver does not detect the return while the signal is being transmitted. Through the use of a device called a duplexer, the radar switches between transmitting and receiving at a predetermined rate. The minimum range is calculated by measuring the length of the pulse multiplied by the speed of light, divided by two. In order to detect closer targets one must use a shorter pulse length. A similar effect imposes a maximum range as well. If the return from the target comes in when the next pulse is being sent out, once again the receiver cannot tell the difference. In order to maximize range, longer times between pulses should be used, referred to as a pulse repetition time (PRT), or its reciprocal, pulse repetition frequency (PRF). These two effects tend to be at odds with each other, and it is not easy to combine both good short range and good long range in a single radar. This is because the short pulses needed for a good minimum range broadcast have less total energy, making the returns much smaller and the target harder to detect. This could be offset by using more pulses, but this would shorten the maximum range again.

So each radar uses a particular type of signal.

Long-range radars tend to use long pulses with long delays between them, and short range radars use smaller pulses with less time between them.
This pattern of pulses and pauses is known as the pulse repetition frequency (or PRF), and is one of the main ways to characterize a radar. As electronics have improved many radars now can change their PRF thereby changing their range. The newest radars fire 2 pulses during one cell, one for short range 10 km / 6 miles and a separate signal for longer ranges 100 km /60 miles.

The distance resolution and the characteristics of the received signal as compared to noise depends heavily on the shape of the pulse. The pulse is often modulated to achieve better performance using a technique known as pulse compression. Distance may also be measured as a function of time. The radar mile is the amount of time it takes for a radar pulse to travel one nautical mile, reflect off a target, and return to the radar antenna. Since a nautical mile is defined as exactly 1,852 meters, then dividing this distance by the speed of light (exactly 299,792,458 meters per second), and then multiplying the result by 2 (round trip = twice the distance), yields a result of approximately 12.36 microseconds in duration.

It can detect invisible objects
Detection range up to 96 m

User-changeable scanning range

Continuous scanning (hands free detection) Displays the closest object/avatar first in the list

Radar display direction of object relative to you (i.e., angle and distance from you) Printout detected object coordinates (i.e., world coordinate location) Wear as HUD, so no one knows you are wearing your radar HUD is clickable to give you the menu to change settings

Free updates automatically

Note: It will not detect inactive scripted objects, stationary objects or avatars.

Use the New all-in-one object/avatar scanner to detect all types of objects and avatar: see Allin-one Object Detector Scanner Radar

To detect objects, just walk around, and the objects will appear in the Radar HUD as you walk close to them. The closest object is listed first in the list. Great to identify scripted objects that could cause lag too. Scanning distance ranges from 1 to 96 m radius (in all x-y-z directions) selected from a menu (see picture). To locate objects: Once you identified the object within the scanning distance, you can use the in-world crosshiar tool to locate the actual object visually: Pull down "View" menu, select "Beacons", then select "Scripted Objects." Note that the object may be behind you, below you or above you (because it scans objects in all directions front, back, left, right, up and down within the scanning radius). So look around. To see transparent objects, use the in-world tool: Pull down "View menu, select "Hightlight Transparent. Most objects are multi-prim object linking multiple objects as one object. So the location of these linked objects is at the center of the root prim object. You may need to increase the scanning distance to encompass the object.

ND-Active Script Object Finder Scanner Detector Radar

Active Script/Moving Object finder locator scanner detector radar. Use it to find your lost objects, even invisible or underground objects. It displays on-screen the scanned objects continuously. Just wear the radar, and your object locations will show up on your screen instantly! Just walk around, and your object will appear in the on-screen display. It lists the closest object first in ascending order of distance. It gives you option to print out the entire list on Chat (with a click) to see the precise location of the object. Detects: Active or moving objects (active scripts or moving objects)


Radar components A radars components are:

A transmitter that generates the radio signal with an oscillator such as a klystron or a magnetron and controls its duration by a modulator.
A waveguide that links the transmitter and the antenna. A duplexer that serves as a switch between the antenna and the transmitter or the receiver for the signal when the antenna is used in both situations. A receiver. Knowing the shape of the desired received signal (a pulse), an optimal receiver can be designed using a matched filter. An electronic section that controls all those devices and the antenna to perform the radar scan ordered by a software.

Radar frequency bands

Band name

Frequency range
330 MHz < 300 MHz 30330 MHz 10100 m 1 m+ 0.96 m

Wavelength range


coastal radar systems, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) radars; 'high frequency' 'P' for 'previous', applied retrospectively to early radar systems Very long range, ground penetrating; 'very high frequency' Very long range (e.g. ballistic missile early warning), ground penetrating, foliage penetrating; 'ultra high frequency' Long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long' Moderate range surveillance, Terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for 'short' Satellite transponders; a compromise (hence 'C') between X and S bands; weather; long range tracking


3001000 MHz 0.31 m 12 GHz 24 GHz 48 GHz 1530 cm 7.515 cm 3.757.5 cm

812 GHz

2.53.75 cm

Missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz 25 MHz is used for airport radar; short range tracking. Named X band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.


1218 GHz

1.672.5 cm


1824 GHz

from German kurz, meaning 'short'; limited use due to absorption by water vapour, so Ku and Ka were used 1.111.67 cm instead for surveillance. K-band is used for detecting clouds by meteorologists, and by police for detecting speeding motorists. K-band radar guns operate at 24.150 0.100 GHz.


Electromagnetic waves reflect (scatter) from any large change in the dielectric constant or diamagnetic constants.
This means that a solid object in air or a vacuum, or other significant change in atomic density between the object and what is surrounding it, will usually scatter radar (radio) waves. . This is the radio equivalent of painting something a dark color so that it cannot be seen through normal means (see stealth technology). Radar waves scatter in a variety of ways depending on the size (wavelength) of the radio wave and the shape of the target.. If the wavelength is much shorter than the target's size, the wave will bounce off in a way similar to the way light is reflected by a mirror . If the wavelength is much longer than the size of the target, the target may not be visible due to poor reflection. Low Frequency radar technology is dependent on resonances for detection, but not identification of targets. . Early radars used very long wavelengths that were larger than the targets and received a vague signal Short radio waves reflect from curves and corners, in a way similar to glint from a rounded piece of glass. The most reflective targets for short wavelengths have 90 angles between the reflective surfaces.

These precautions do not completely eliminate reflection because of diffraction, especially at longer wavelengths. Half wavelength long wires or strips of conducting material, such as chaff, are very reflective but do not direct the scattered energy back toward the source. The extent to which an object reflects or scatters radio waves is called its radar cross section corner reflectors are commonly used as radar reflectors to make otherwise difficult-to-detect objects easier to detect, and are often found on boats in order to improve their detection in a rescue situation and to reduce collisions.

corner reflectors are commonly used as radar reflectors to make otherwise difficult-to-detect objects easier to detect, and are often found on boats in order to improve their detection in a rescue situation and to reduce collisions. For similar reasons, objects attempting to avoid detection will angle their surfaces in a way to eliminate inside corners and avoid surfaces and edges perpendicular to likely detection directions, which leads to "odd" looking stealth aircraft.



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Cost will be reduced Easily attack to terrorists places Increased safety and mobility Reduced emissions and noise of aircraft

Aerospace And Security Applications Transportation Applications Military Applications Science Applications

Nano paints enabled coating makes aircraft invisible Radar cant detect aircraft In future there is a scope to attack terrorists shelters Reduced emissions and noise of aircraft Increased safety and mobility of aircraft in future

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