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professi

of"i;.'I'll1
'U'.l,IIi,

nowrad
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of difkr'enlt: 'ty'pes, of' ~yllabfus, frolD w,hicb ,9 choice 'w,iH be made f(H7' it s,pet,~fic ,SJJtiUlatio,rl" So :h,,gweY1e,r d l'"e,rse OUf' t~a,cbing c)Q~n~xtsl' CiUE courses 'wiU be' based
on
,(JlU~~1 0;['

,a,oombiD3'tW,On. of~ these

principles ,of ()rgaIBJizHtion. A~,th'ougb s,y~Ja,""

,restricted tethe pmi(:,ILda:r s~itl!la,tion, \1ib~cb ,they have been drawn 'D,p. There:~OJl' fOI'e'~one of' 'due simplest '\V,a:y! of ~,ulve'yi:JJlgthe ty~'pes,of iyUa,ibns ,a:v,a.ila,ble is to 'e:xam1Jme dJ~ contents pages of published English. language' t.el,c'bing 't-ext'i:J,OO:k-s:" beca use they' I'l!vctd, the 'Illoder:i'fing pfiD£~~,plt's; nd assn m.,ptlans on ",;h:iih ,(hie a j;ii'~iIf'Q, have based ,tr'~,~~'r 'itD~Ur~Ii':I'f1I~ A',".' ~I, one and 'B. same '~w--,~m" '''''hap t-e]]~ U~ some ... Rl.I:IJ~:& Il~ ~,IIJ ~ J _~_ _ _ thmg 'both about the approach and the' dlesJgn adopted, d:u~:s:ib.rin;glng '~"~_, ter
''Ui~ ... ~,L~1b -.. ,,' Jh ~ l La-,,~ . d i3.!\.io. l~ug ~~I:J ltd l IL VJI1Lt~; A~

buses, ,typicaUy are 'wIitlten and published d.ocnUnJflllts" their' c:ircl1da,tj,on is o:&en,

t"ih"

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I"

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plrjil:l(:i:pl:~eand P!lllctJice in a direcrly observable '~\r,a.y ~

ci,p,I!e5i ,of sy~labus ,org~izatiO,B by examining th~, t}Pe~~ OO([11ents, 'of page most (Jinen found Ia the (naJ.'~erials use, because these' disfl:nc:do:n;swin be the f.oundation 'W'f :fol our disc~l!ls~i,o:D, t;desi.gn,and procedure' in the remainder of' ilie book, of
_.. _~ " _ ,_, = _ ,
~"C".. _ _, , ,,_ '" .. , _, _ .. , ~

book abo'lll;ts,lla,bDis design as such, ~nd it 'wiU not be ,neoessa,[),' or a p'prop1r,rua,'lie. to aJ1ld.y5~ each. ,syllabus '~,pe in depth here, :Re.teren,ces to more dertai1€d discussion are' :gi,vC'n the lend o:f:the chapter, ;a:nd.the next chapters ,tyiU at examine the' Diaj'Ot ;s,tteasof',cur~renltdebate, Let: us :s:im.ply tEY' to :ildmd~,.'the ke~1' rinp
;1,
,= _ " = ,_~.. __ _ " "__ , , __ _ , _'" __

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oursebookts) that you use most fr~Quent!y. W'i'rh 'iohic], 0" CUr samples '·n figure .2 does the table: o~ contents in ·our 0" n [11 ter'ial compare [nos! c1ostly?
ook at the

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m. 1, '}",Nmjtj~ ~.';( e;v1:'.j,>f"' 'f~~li.'I' ~~b' sh 'I,- nuu~ v~ teachi T1:g, 'W'~ E~.~'FI,~11· 1a ~D~-§D~' 1~.€1i; vIr !ilI,I'lLmIlJIY~ oraam t'7'~ +; on =V v ~ ~y nored tha,t these ,syUa,bus 'V,pes form an, essential compenent of the frame'wurk within w:hic;h 0: 'ject~ve.s:are :specified. and the details of' laltllIJ1,p' teach ... ,
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as. we' have seen" according 'to'certain ,principles, and, wi.d! various possibilities for combinanon. It ,j;~; the purpose a,f' 'the ,pres.ent ch,apt« to take :1, closer ,~,oo:k, the approach 'to s,yllabus and mater,a:~' ials design that has had fh,e ,~Natesit signiflcance wo,rld,wi,d,e' for the current practice ,of EDgUsh ~ar~gm.lge' teaching, This approach is most !JJ:S'~l.aUY' called "communicatiee', and ,altbou:;h other' ,~!a:be~;s! articularly ~functio,nalbnotional', p are sometimes taken as, syno,o.yms, ~,commumcative~ will 'be used here as the
cover tierm,

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It is impo nan.t: for the alms o,f' 'rhis 'book


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skilt$l" as wel, as the methodo,~,ogy' [of tb,e [C[~U~tU:OO,ln,.,III otbre'Ir' words, a number of aS5 um,p,tjig,ns, are :now an e:xp,IDic],t or' implicit, part of the evervdav11" ~rolessioJlalIives o.f teachers in ,m,an,v .1:" s 11 carts of the world, 'Wi:e shall firs,r. V\CrY bcf.,ieil,y snnrey 'tile recenr .hist,o,ry ,of E'n;glis,h lan.luag~' teach ..
I

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l~g~ em:ph,a;sizing, the 'period when dissa tis:fi\ctlon. b~p[), ro lOi!''voiG~d. wl~h what: was then 'the dominant approach '~O ,5yUabu:s: and matuiaJ~, design, We' shall then see how the gradual adoption of ,9 commun K:aJ:lti,ve approach expressed i:uelfi:n, the claim:s. made f,fj,r ,tile' ,a,'pp,fo,pri~,cy of language 'r.emebifllg materials .. The main section of this [chapter 'win pick. out the key' implications Oof the concept 10':[' teaehing purposes, and we shaJJ end, 'with ;~n. attempr to' lev,ab.u~i'te its potential a,drv'~'"'ttl"ges and d~sa,d:v,a:ntm~,es", The: :fo[,~j,t)iw,lng,chapter win contain a :5el[~ivte d.i;KUfSiSi[OD ot' develcpments .in syUa,'bus and. materiels design. in the'

'post-communicative

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.chniqttC'S:: hmlt:ating" ptfYCifl lln8 'hU~fropri-(lns m,d ]n,t\e:rmlpti~1 ',oliu.1ty'i' bd~I~t11 ,oth~r pK'Ifie :25 'i~
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hink of some more exa m pres 0 f fllJ fictions in ' n,g~ h ~ and th e grammaris ical structures related to rhem, You could also rhin k about (Omp~l rable
pattern sin yt)lJT cn,\/]l dl ngua-'gle ~ How do ):j!lour,~.a~hjngmaterials handle
• 'II

rhe relationship between ,r;rJamm r


,I;

and communicative funcriarn? For instance iJJ;B unction' taught together with several grammatical forms, at just one'? llre,rnariveLy, is a _'h.uu::tion~ j !L1Sfused ~ an ,e'X~lJ1Jrp~ewhere the mail] fucu' is on l[ea,G;hj[l~grarnrnarj

,l:.pl:icati'Ofi ,3'

practice 'tabs place with 'v~rf U.t~r]e reference eo ;everyday ,r,e:ldi'ty"'w1hfr,~learn~rs


log;" Eq,uaJ1.y,; it uDfortl!lJn!arce:~.y is ji'll1s,;£ possj,'lble: for a Us,t of' language as,
rehearse patterns sjmpl,~'Y'in, order to get them Fight
Fa the'l" than to

It: is possible for

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teachers '00' 'idlink: of' classroom si:m;afom; where ,glammtllr'

express mean:fLmC;th~)05,

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:27 A, ,concept o:f' commJJllnlca.tion does not have to be based on sentence-level criteria, 'and it can allc::r~v'bl:nguage' to be d~s-c,rm,'bed" and [aI'H;gua,:gle learning 'to take place, over lOmj8~D'PE s tretehes In. 'n(fmci'n~e it... can b a.luile 'w,hlo,~e C)OIl'Ver81:~ Jt!"" ·~Jt!"'"~· ,(.-.·····1·-·\- :-... [.~:<...... '-";",;' .' 'm Of 'b nons, 0,[ ,pa:ragra"p,_.~S:~, ev:en Longer texts, . recent years, a nnmeer 0 f' ca,~
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t;g~rie8 fDf' describing ia:n_guai:ge: have been developed t:bii).t are' not based IO:~, sentence-level critena, bu,t on the broader notien o:t'"diisco-mse'\ There is ,aJ, large and a-Iil"nW~-'~"Ra backerc Iiteran .-,- on. ',dJ:',-,;--_",-e,,-~~-,~,,<;',~;~':e--,Jj ,.c Uell.~_lJ6(l .·]ltilti ·. ;;~gJ:'Oll~,dJ,.g ·L!;..:ra,ll.ur-e ~c--._ J}s,~Ol!lr;Sie a,n31,I,y:SU~, allu a ..JC!o;''i,;'~- ..J ,expl_30_ati.on -of these (~9i~egofie~ outside' 'the scope and intention of 'dU8 book .. is, , Essentiallv, [1,. :,:'h: nodon p1!iv,~e O.';QriL,f;"!; ~;;;; .. - - - - - .___. ILll!l1r- oessibilitv v~ ~~iifliiw~n(]r ho :w):·' ,1I~'€LDit"IQ~'~ parts Mlv _ U!IJC[~~
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-'h,-~;L, ",-, -, ---;-,-,,,,.. , il...... a text ~~~~~r a coaversaaon or any 8~ eren 0,f-: 1-ianguage ,-" - --, E~,~E~mol\£:' -d,' I.IJIJ,''If'1·il,'·.-,~ ale ms le. ·.Y' :e."' ith _,j,c_'" .. ~ :may be, c e:xali],pe, b cross-reterencing wui .. pt."l1noun. 'use' or oenmte ,a,rtl,C~Ie:S; ,~. ~OJt ".:It. ,;
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by' semantic links across irems (J,t' voca!b~la;ry,;, by' markers ,of Iogi,caJ.develop-

menr If~h,owewli~" ~tbieteIorrfl", ~,SO~I, beea use" and "


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versation (dl,e "short ,a:ns;\v.ers," o-f coursebook p,ra,ctJee}; and b~y :subsm:j,tution (£ ~;[h.i:s m,w' ."is the other ODe';~,·Thi Si i's L:~s,uaUwreferred to as the ~ _ _ is ---[/, book- vours~ ... -~ -,' I .. ..[ .- . 'ii 11' concept - of 'cohesion'. ~ 'whe;[,ebv' relationships • - between ., dlHe[,ent elements- -- in ,n -- - ,I --"'" - _. --- ., - - J I" - ,- , -, -, ,~, -'\ -, !. ,',,' -.' 'text (written Of s,po:l\cen.) are made explicit, ,Ab~e-r..Iu1!:ti:vely~,a, '~m'l~]~') this ~n:s~ ~fi may be' described in terms of its, inte ,-- and its, ,tbem,a:tj,c coherence, in, ~simple :tt:ru.on
l •. .,... --

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terms; whether' it "makes sense or not, I't' is,importanr '~O note t-hat'a stret-cb ol :la:mguA3i:ge:may be' ",tolle]fen~ even :ii it contains :00 f[X,PI,I.ic.i.1l: markers 'of (lo,:h,egion;, 311l1d ,coD'v,e.rsely' rna,,,. be ~,co-besh~,e~ 'bu,t make no sense, Readers: 'w,ito 'Msb 'to :fo.uo~l'these ideaS! :fl-'~'~'~r :"'1' e' 't'~.'~!-I:r'=:d,,'I '~'O;; the 'wrr-lI"!l.~'::,fr: ,H-- ~~'~··,d)-~I,v , ]Ljl'"...,,> '~'--'d-~ r;m.san _ _ _~, _ ___ ___ !ll,ll, !}._U~ ~.l,~I' ~. . = e __ III 0 ~ 3.ilLJJlI, .. a au,.
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rovid. .~ ~ ,~.s ,~I.~rSO",rOV,I,:,eu, in Nil.l~'I'n'-I'\liD--' (;,- ~9·~.9·.-'": ,iil)-'I ,r-"","I~-,M.:-' 'il'iii'IF~·;I;~ and O("~'ir!;h'il\"""~n~' 1('101':O:~)'1 have devoted a 7' ~ ~~'. ~,~::II1~ \~JIL~'l LI ,m.~\. "U' , ,~:~,~~, .. 'I ,. ,:C. 'lb.".... .' l' a,:ppnca,t~on;s; 'I.~ ~ Wh,o,w,e b L tlO S,,-.oWlng ,~lnw noaons or di ;I.:ouk h- ., 'L, '~JSC"OUIse' nave praenca
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FimaU"U', the - term ..'comm -,"It'li~i,c.;iiJ'I"~ :i~ili~JI:~ 'b,~'Q\S'1j1Iu sed in relat .. v,~'1 Li'i~ to teachinz 'm'li_ I' _ !t:l"",~ ,....... MO' distlnclt itb-ou,gh related ways; and this apparent ambiguity has iso,m,etimes, 'b~m, ,I, source -"of confusion, ~"lfint]u,. as we have seen &,om , a_ number ,cd' the - - --.- " ,,----" " '" - I ,",'" ,"" , . ,n ., _,' _ u '_r _' __,_,e iim,p'~icat~ons, outlined in tllis, ,Secti04~ the concept can refer to a view 01' the' ·'!P.·r n,a,~''il'if~: 1~I:'iID'lu rh'~I'~' ~'Ij'1i;I--:-',___..,u~..... 10:£ -~~e' .•~P~'- lead ,ji_ng~.' '''''£'& the nrocedures __ y,~''"'' r Q,!Il., l..'~'~"~ 'b-Ph!fj'R1 d-I'ii!hiii'~I~'~",,"_JI 1'!!!.i!Ira func:dg,nar~',aOa1'0818, of , ~an~ua~,£','In other '-"words -~' la-na~-~;a'~~: seenn to- ,~_a,_e If]) er '_, J.' ,0-· ,c"- ~, '.'--. bU-_~-1 is .. - h~lv ~:"i-_-Ib~'-,
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wil~h patterns, of l:n.tem"c,rj,(l'Fl as WtU as, Un,guisd,c: c)o'n,Uft,t:~ M.JO'IIOW' (19,8:1) mal<e8 ,s :simple and. useful d:itsti~fl,ctia([lI, betw,een the ~wb.ai~"'", Cio:o-t-ents of' a, laQIUla,ge' " h- ,[W,ow' '11. ·':b ik • n~k d programme' _, a.n d- ,t'··,e' ili'5L ~ .....'t_: e w~ys, Ul W~dCl:[I, t!ria't' eOfn'tell:~,m~&;,t 'b, 1De .,ea_[.Df,-1 ,Iud taugbt" 'This, 'b~'hlvjour.~d, '~how'!! ould, oolver' the kinds, 0'£' a,cavities 'we' ,eU,F,' w

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out and the ta~b, 'we perf()IIO, su"ch as, 'writio,g a ],ette!Ji'~ Of' an essayiP or- talkiD\g:tu ,3 :frlend::;,at a, meetiD,g~ £'0 a :s:tta:nge~and so on., We shall. :~ ill 'the next t\VO parts ter,ms o:f,the ,fr,amew-ork of 5kl1~sa,nd. activities, that we: usc ,£Of ~anl1lale pr,l,rcti"c,e, ,

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WbeD you have decided nfh~ch he d~ng'" ; au would in Iud lex. lude lis'[ ,3 fevv items un er each category, and sketch nut scme ideas for how YOLI [night relate th.enl '[0 each other, or example. you Ilrtighr ·d~ !idl: to select FlllDCUO[l ~ Gramma C," Ski It V eabu larv, Y'Oi'U nlw,~ht then ln lude .,



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IGiving adv ice (fuln{t~on') Moda I ve rb s (gra rnmar ) Conversarion f ski]]) Topic f'e s (education, 'he::dt'b, i.e., vocabulary]

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,4 and ih ,applrnab~U1tfo 'teS)Chii:n:g,. t '\'('in~_51" J. (:'9'916 )1:: A jlp;ameU1ork (0'" T~.s'.-"BtqSM',L~'~"fliftl'.' 1 CODta:ins; dJe:imti!llDS, discu sl$ion. i()Jf' 'fr1rl'bltCw.n,·[es; nd ~ a procedures, and. :manry pra,ctica~ exam~~.~s,. r," If.' _' l~'
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m'F'a ,pa:rtB;IW3J[ course atter a PJl~:~Jmjllary' II!V,;).lUl.Ull'bou" 'l,.:J,:Mc uJ!l'lt~:m3!:re success, 0[' f8jJme may onlly 'be:determined. alte'l' a certain amo;p:o:t o:f clas:sro"olm,
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evaluates materials in your educatlonal system; i.e., whar is the role 0 pu bji hed materials and there fore rhe role of eVlaj,u3,dom: 0'0 teachers do it 'by fhem~elve" ]JDin,; r \\fj,th other rea, hef's./stl1,den'rs?). or does the Ministry of Education " boo, e 0 write the materials for you.? .,_ You Knight also like to think about he crire ia yon used ro-selec [he ELT materials jlOU are u ling at the moment, Or if y,Ol1J did not select the materials think ab'ou[ the criteria you 'would! use, Discuss ),"our aus ~iVe'f with a colleague if at all possible", --,id you. sele ~tthe sa me criteria? N'O'lIC' down ]I O'lU' an swers beta LJ ~e we sh,aj! refer to r11em 3 gain a t the: end o f th i chapter 0 see b,'QW [3£ the criteria yuu: mention overlap \\v"ith. ours.
'I

I[I chapter 1 'W~' looked at the educational framework in \vhich. we all work, Wi" h reference [,0. [h.i, " T-'Ou L11 ighl [ike trJ think 31001'1'[ ",ho actuaUy

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Dur:i'llg this external e"l3iJ,IiI,a:b,lo.n stage we have examined the claims made :for the' m,a,ter~al~ 'the auth,{lr/publisber' ,vi.th. respect to the inrendedl a"udim,ce by

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of' learnees :",[1. mind, we C~U], ar.riive at a de-ti~\i.o:D as, to ,the 11la.ter,ials:~' a,p,p'J!t)'jp'liacy fUf' adoption/selectiou purposes, If' our evab~Uil:Ei,(Xn sho~rs, the matermL dl!led illS,pe.cti,on ,tlh~Ien ia 1s to'_1.1b POteD;tlia J!I a,pprolplfiate and ' wOln'_.,Jo.l :1,m-l~)re ,',et-aJ :-~_, e I'., d ,., .... ,L ,. d '·1 d ,. we can ,to,DOtll,Ue 'wi·'to, our ,1.oterrna:J.] or ,WO,[,e:1 eUUJlei ev,a Juanon, 'Tt: noe, fh we ,D' aen ,Call]'~~1dt"'al'! tb~ 8tl1JI'j,e and start to evalu.ate other materials if 'W,f so 'w'ish . as -,D.'~ _ .. ,.. .. __. . ... _ ..
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an in... depth iDvleSfil~l'tioD in.to 'the' mat~rials," The essenti aJ, jj_~S,1lle at tb~,,stain: is ,fell."us to aiiiD!ly~ethe e~ll,1 '®a 'w,hich the aforementioned :fact:o,n, in, ehe external

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rhsr, ,h,Qiw,ev,e-E: careful rhe desJllo ,of the materials :90d the evaluation ..peocess, iL ·"Irill L t. '111 '11.• Ib ., _ , some caanges Wl~!~.nave to ·IJC'ma d- at IO,IDe JJeve~.n most teac;u'~mg contexts, ABA Le i G", ''\\7bj't,e, ( .. 99:8·~73) points OIDt" 'p''llJ,bUs:bed ma teriaJs Q':f' any' kind bave [0 cater fOf' a ve'ln:~wide f,~n~e of' p:oS'sibl~: U5eFS., whic:h means lillat· dl,e:v' C:a;M,O~ address ., d'I ~,Vl: '~II d f' d ,. auy' W,-_·' .'(1.UIlJ], student or' gron.p 0<- students d"' d' f\"~Ad aptauon, th tree: I ~ ~J,enjI.' ,I S ,PfiOC~~ subsequent 'tOI;, and dJe,peOJde.nt 0'0" adopdoe, :f'UrtJl,eFmOj(1e~ whereas adoption .is concerned. 'wilth who,~,e'C01lJl'~~U~;'bOO:~Sll' adap ta don. concerns the parts tha:t make up' 'mat: whele, impo perspective on '~V,aIUllJ~~OD -, thO'ugc-~ o:~f'- coarse ~IO-:.,t·... t':n,-;I;1I; only 'O"":D"'~' $'-' . A-,0---: :,~F,!inl,t': ~ L lL_, d '" ,-~.d'i ~" ,I '11._ f-' ,- :18 to see ,it as a. managemeo't' issue WI~f:re:o'ye 0 ucanonat ::ec1sl.0n.... ,ma~e~r:s ·101'=

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11 ., :L J 'to d"' . 'II a 1~.oCBl,t.i}~lDre~Otlr~es, Ill, this sense, teachers 'd' nOI'[ .... 0-:'f" .. " b'· (.0 ~,l\1Va,'YS,~ta,'Vil~: 'I:rect involve•. ~ m.em:£: ,tbey :mtl'Y'well ""~:dlueDce -decisiolls, about w'ho~e'textbooks only it' 'rhe-y are f' '!IE:' ·~,L part 10f a ",' I'mstry' 0:' w,ucat.I,OO,t-eam eoncerneed' 'Wltl~,tr~au~l1g 'Wfl'tU:lg materor: Mi· j:als~,,for ,exam.p·~0',~ IOrr1],ers:J.perhaps, m,iIY 'be ill'vi:ted to mal~]~' SDlle81ti,oos amd
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comments as, part 0,( a corporate process of materiel s selection, but even thc-,ll ,:t.. c: d .,., ~' .., ,. r ae cl ~l tne ]jli!'U)~, ~ .,~ttiSljJ_IOrll. un ,II. 'L. ta k ar a maJlal,ge.tl,3L, P(),Ul:t ID__:___n sc lOfllJ hi ee eeu n'1e'rarm.y .~.'Il.. ~ A far more 'wides'i"lead, and dec;eSlS9.ry ~ ,aotivity among .achers is therefore t'ha:ic
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b U ~ 'ii1roc'¢SS ,o~·C~w:iian;~tn;~ £",~ ,. diusti '~, o f. a daerati la,pctatIJorn,}"ec.a,llse t' :IC' smaller-scale r t'\ii D OF ,aJJ jusnng me va.d,OU8 part]: of a coursebook is, as, we shall see, more ,closely' related 'to' ,h.le '~: I: d 'h ~II "'IL, d.' fO·.'1k 'III :r1!'all:ty oJ.:-:_earl,~'ng Wlt~:, '~eamlers :mmtF.IJC: ymaID1C.. enviJ:ro:o'went or'_' 'tnt! ciasseeom, This said, let us remind ~'UlFSe'h1'es, 10£ ,anot'h,er In,3JOI" and persuasive reason .for '. h '~'. " lev,a 'UatH:~S:tma h I~" ,even. 1'[1 a Ic,ootext 'W,- ere teac 1 _OO,KS aers h ~a'v'e:~Uj;~,e , ~_j" umtt say to J ,.
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,. ~ .. ~:L " ,ex,erclae can help US:d'eveli~p:lomgcru'ts mto di£ter,eo'lt' 'v.ilewl of ~amgnage and learning and ineo 'the' principles materials de8ltp1~ ~uldis somethin;g: we do ,aJgainst the ba,ckgr'Ol!lod ofa :kn ,edi~eof <DUet' learners and of the: demands and potential ,of. our 'tea-ctdngsima.noo .. I't is dif6~ .J d,. ,. ,aJl' daetati e 'k 'i! " ,~ 1 cuit to see' h ,.Cl'W' u:~ uepen;"eul :acti'v.u~1 aaaptanon can moe' p~are'W,':[Jl'OO'iI:' tms kind of undersrsnding ...... how can we cllaJug'le someth~:mgunless 'W'e' are clear
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L., ,. ~ I!.. '" :li a,bout 'W'l1Lat it ,IS w1e are c~:~a:n;gu1;l:f 'With this wider pe'Erspecti'Yle in :mi:nd" andas a s:tatting :poin:t :fo(" ~hinklng about the plroce~s;s;of' ,9J,daJ"pta:tion~1 it will be usefUJ, 't-o extend a little die criteria put' ,f,or,-"vaEd], ,chapter' ,4, under the headio.gs of ;',e;X:[e[ua.li. and '~Ente'rll!al ', EnelDaJ in t: ' ., 'il.. 'I!.. ... t, '1! " ,...II... b .' t., ane moee !8J,~£,~' d' ,.,._..,,~t:: ractors C011l,pi1"Jse VOttu 'W1,e OWTt ,CJ1UIlD, mallie: ~ xou.t matenats
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~Ul.tly',£0,[ the present chapter, the c J:ract-er,istKS, 'of,p.Qul"ticulat tea,chin,S;8j,Wa,tJOJilSI~ Internal factors are OOfiK;e.[:nOO 'witb ('un.temt;, or,ga'lni.z3,t-ioll and consistency, Th.ul:
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the' pri me example of' W[,['bllg and therefore one of rbe :fi~stt'binp, :1, ,studeo't is, asked to do is, to read, In 'CbU~S[OODl terms, one' IOf' 'tile reasons for this is, :pa:r-tl,y'
practicale iit' [S of!,cn 'mougb,t '00, 'be' easier to supply' m,writtea '~e~t '001 'be::r.ead,'than, a, spoken 'ODeto be: nndentoQd ..

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and forma I)I' be o]d,et,s;,,~"e3'Hets",ad.ve.rt~selm"eJ1t8, labels on jars, tins and packets, ,m!aga:zioes" the tele phone dkecll:'Oi.rY';' train timeta ··':~Ies,~; so on .. Nunan I[ - 9 99)1 ;3JDd, ,
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and dcsc1ri,pcin:lJs,lO We shall look ,3,'[' 'the ,WI,:[p,licaJ'botlls; of this, later in the chapter, :RjveTS:and Tempexl,ey (197'8:,: ,] 17) li,sit' the' £o,~lorwi'nB,eE3l:mp-,es of some Otf the

reasons that ,~ students, ,mar,' need or


'.

wanl!

ee :read:::

to obtain ,[llfor,ma,'t.ioa £0,[ some purpose or' because


some 'r,opic '[0 ol~l'r:ai1J. m;SK!lJlCb!()U on btJw' Ufe
EO

Wit

are'

CIllE,i.QiU;S,

abour

perform some task

'£0,( 'OUf

'wt'rrllt or daily'

Copy t igh red

m aterl al

_.l,radtJimt:

Sh~

,5(1 -~

'Wm-htll h~l i~"1.I'~ mal allD,h~ il~H too ~. «IS b@l[ u~, h~\ - ~ W~ €WI p:~~Ii'~~:r so11]iil. . ~[ ~Jr[b1l mp~lUi.DI1" H't' has abo ,i"VC'n, ij]i m'sslill;[1 . itl! !It~lJhnll.'a~ia her D rMm,le. M'D,IIUl"€,1" tQ ordinary~' ople, . ,~f ~))' • '''1 thln GM, hilS Jl \te'ry uQd 'JQ m©. R'~¥ - I am ,II d]5!!1l$1e:t as _. ~n~ 5phiMIit 1 righ~ fUf ma: ffiI@i'ilUft 1 tn n l g itt III b 11ilS' wUh i~lhl!f l~~opl~, Rur:. c:r cou~~ ~njoy '-~~Jr.'!lH tDnr" li M

-ow hr ~m OD~ ,e· Ie' \V ~mnJ' rot' Irasrlf.ll~ll't'dl [0 ~r~Hdl ol dnd, ~lmLfdv: b'~ -~'d,a J~;I' n~n ~r\~hD m obli"iQuslli~' !&r!digll'! red b . iIIi! lhl 5ec'5~ hi "fhcotl an: 'Illft:ald W her InIil1tSl!:MHL 5 is e1:

Vet'lKW[J I.lf ~1iiI

de_lirl ~ and p1mmt~ wJ I J1 non'" of Lh '" hlstorians, 'ff Wir=weJ$

C,Olm p. re:trien:s ion

e h~~lk
'tljj',
!

:IVitha'i do t'lltese 81111ml'!!!ufS :i~, ~e~e'lti.eler ~ r ~6 22 ,20 95%, 50 1.200

:! A fe'
a b c d e

hn~'

,p '~!DI1~[(f~L~'b'It;' 'b~il. iI

r-

tfj,ood

, 1'11~

rusb

m .aVIfH, (0 linn rsr;rnd- hsv n~v~r t\l'all~~_ anYit.bfng ~Is~ I


iii.
~D

-0,

nU~jl~§'f.''bl£ll:

~h

0'[ ~tlitWlend i

or k

nrt~iI rnmn>iSrrc

II!!I1::wrlt1il]~ ba rh lind
mil

~:

'liy1\h
~~

b
,I

si]:.!:nl

iPm~r,a 1 ~ W!l P.e<o],le md tAis,.hilrd

progfinnnnr~ ol!i ~e~~;ru;~ oil. j 'Sist;e co'Wemdy b l,l,'~hilg(he ~lOtrrey ~he has earned
.m.p:r,~~e ~jle IJnQnas;~~ry.

C'onc~l'lbe r"lse (illes. SJ$lter Wendy :spends it to.t of t ime alene, ',.'lte ~nve]!5 [0' J rl ea pi~als n U' over the ~ild. Her l.el~yi:s ~on PJ:i0ll"iUJil HIles are POPUhlJilibecause she im~Ls ir;~mo i:I [I bi~'t!OriH:fl5 ~ltticl iO~I!:rrvi~w:s tlu::m_ us She bel r~ ~It t ,God wmI.'lS Ihe to Itad llIis dl'uJJbl~~if~ Sile doesiJi'l'[~Dj~ being 'a lome. im. her, ea _1:1 anry mGn!, Shie o:niy ~b 'plain food wm.!!;] she doesI'l,"t dnn aJoobol. SOIX @f b~t' teeth am miss:l'ng. SIH~~rnc w,u:chil1;g hil.'(~j;f 00] ici'Cvi~io!l_ T~~ otJrmr ,GlUtS M the mo:w;a81~ .BJlwar~'s wH~ch h~~'
to

lh~' fbl ~O"wiD:g ~tYt~m~lS

true' (" lor fa] se ("~

&:5

,rum ii, ib11~hJll WIIPJ1Y ~ rn an.' Si!il'~1Ii ~ml}' bj~~ 1(1 God and n'b ma~~d~;'rd Ql'ily !,\If hu- I,n'~0 ~Md r~1 3:nJ wlne, Sh~ llG:lik~ tit; Il hi' \Iilll ~cnng Oi~~ m~n",(.' be~ins II! , fUld win~' al1d' nl'un~d1ng w;he; "r 'lilI!! 'fle 15[ciJlIlde:r Iil:;U'i1iiY~ rOil 'iller (Dr '. \iill b~· s ' she flO :~1itk ~H~~lh.~~, ~¥C'fl. ~hf;' is n~'t J~(lg),lt: d] by he ...

Langluage, 'wade
ru

CQmp;I~l\e'th~ :imJ~~M~wru(]) Sl
I (~)_~ SW
:1
III;:''1illi'
I~ .~

rl~

Whe:m ,m Cb)1

WafS'

i::de:en" OOodllil~,

-~-~--~-.
':Ji

,t~

~~IIDd.~

p.

~ nJI.l] h 1""11· ~~ e-vif~DI1_ "J ,('['MOll[ III r fu W'alq eli ml re~1 It1liiU I l~Qk 56 sLIly -

r~n;y,yeil~ ~I'O'!

~;l1tB~,iS, 'meadJ

dome
15.

t~ll~vl~l~n,I TidJmto~ IJ~41!;k.. ' '~u [~, "Iln.a:nlk 'G~t1l }Y~ d.on:'l hil1ltt:' a
,~it

n an
'[

lml Nc,rl~,~t .__ ~~m~ ..mim~ '1E.l~Ull~~tt,H"~. '~n~ nu~~'I: ;~cltru;amIJ' the mDD3s'1C1ry' but i:i1lJ 'the~ ~n
GWUlI'U:IR

t • ~.e'Yblon

J'm

u in ," 1. '" but


J
.m ~~
~lfW[

'lLrtr

mOJl'i.1:!ii'fieI1r.. ~!i.j6'

111£' fit'5i1 '!S~',r~~ ~ suttlM;s· - t 'l'h]s' Iic!'-.SUll'!.:d ilUt en nCJiie',3JS~ .fnF' the 'ji,~md S!edc~. TI,I' m nit ~ Jj;~nB ~:s"d Ul p ro:vid'l! [111~ '5h~-wN lI' . m:, 'fn. the' ~1I1,e
I' .. I

rII IInMlJ~nant".
S:~:n~;r Wendy

iI~ ~ on

I~' an..1~r'ira'U)j ,~- _._n' ~I,rrtrlm I


d . ~oo ler

~~

my ~lml: ~'t:ru

SUIPJ:lfIi:S·

I am :1

eel

I,b~·

~alllJ"

~~

__

. ,~,

8W'
'w

Wdoni~l:Mallly know. ~,"w DOll :Si~f;lew~-y 1~h~lf~~ , poplJllilnr" I feel, ,that: ~[IG[ik so ~il~\f~ :~~H,~ : 'b~,~

:~~p~~~!fld. i:[ fllllnn,J'


,W

tQI

'~wlru a

mDniil:s;[eJf~

i!II!!'

f~)
'III ,I!I

~ __
,(1'- Q , "

-----

'sm, iold [[[UIlII!


!!i!i1! _ _

S:w ''Y/,I'm

O-,f!' OO!!IH_-_e, ~ I!.iJ..Q. "Ii"ibe lii"f'"UI-, ,~l'f€l::oo'airliiJ' iI·~I,." ,~IIL_ ,ill : : l!f . -,:1:iliii Ile-~l:.i.~g ,~u~~ ~"fi,nJ~r ~ffioys, ,~.lif~ ,o:r 'luu:n"J U@-W ;iUlLtW t~oo.;, ~'hl~ :gGoor~od ~~d, dri:mk;~ bi11l.~u. k~'owi, Pm, ~3!Pplut: 0:0, 'OOJ IOWlEt iim, my Wim¥iltD"
'!:IIi;,I' __
1

iW
SW

n .~ I rC.'i'BIilI lllil.';U,P ],~."


II;.

"kl' IL"!!I~

~ ~

d-' ,.'iJ:CIii"

'~j'~

'II ,II

IlCH}

~ NI,iC!J,I!, '-1OiU,
"'::..!II·

'II ,IJ

-' ni!1!\!~W' ~_I!-Q. '1~ ~


-, - -~ -Ii,

? "r [

1 [8)1-I'm llI£il'lg m l I~0 bell'


I~

he monas~L'f. ,,~ m~ tl!U;W o

:!;hQW(:f 'mams
.2

aUie'

bciflJg buil L ih[ti[' , ~d,

is'n''~'it?

'T,,1',4· Li~'l~rm DJnd. !~heck. :yoma:r an~~rs.

ll)li5CU5SiO,irnl "fork in group&. loo at [be ,Iisl in ,::)1."n;:~ 2. of ~h~Preread~ng mask., Vllhiclia 0' lh~rn. ,".m lm~nl to _lrrt,p.~ "~y?

SO~'t~tl:; L. a.nd J" SOQ.llii'l P1P 2C~llmom. ,New He,<JtVu':l E;~,I;is.fJ Cfllf1;ie: 1'l~1W1"redi(JteStUUllts'" ,BJai{)k'~ OIUorth O'xfo~d. 'l1r.j~ersily :P\ress~, 1.9'9"" @ O'ttorrd 'U'D~V'er$Wty ~'ress, 1996 ~Rf!~.rQduc~cl by p€:mli~,.Lion ,olf Q,xforo Univ,cfsiQt 'Press., ,
l"

1,17

'What ,do, reads",' ,antJ li;'fe,n~ing·have in: oo,mll~'on"


''tW,'iti!!'' 1f,.'~I;;;~~ ~ 'W "'" ,1lJa '"

,misleading and incorrecn 'dtiSi is now weU recognised


listen_ins,. Like the reader,

seen ,t·.'h; 'M~,~ t·l'1't,"JI1'·:"".~~'iijii;o\"ii,]'1J.I~,~b",,,,"~~~'ng"~ !.IQl,W",'"-!_~, :t':":f' reading "'''''''''''i!I~ .... mil!;. .JJ. au ~ v=
I,~, = ~~ ~!.i.~V',!l,~~ A,
,!!;;.~

='"'''', _,

i!"1l1L'l',
~i1!I

,antici,patin" checking, int-eIptering, int-etaw..E:g and o(rGan'izing~ 'It is, \V!Q,rth quat... , .in,g: V'andefg;rift (1'9:99:: 16,8) in fuU to reinforce this po,i!:-m,t:
:L:~$1iening ,compltehens;~on is au.ytru:ng bUJ~ a, pausii"v,E' !~r'ct.i;yi,tf''" :I,t iB, I, o()m,p:~e'x,,acd.ve process 10 w'h:kh 'dl~'llist.e:n(:irw'u:st distI',WtTa:linart,~betwe~n sounds, tmder:S!t3'od '''IIO(,a~ , buJa:f,' :3'nd :stmcJtuf,er., i,ll,t'er~elt stress and. ~;rn;t.oDilu:ion,:lienl~1D 'wha:t: 'was la;d~elf.ed. in ~~
,;!!j

the :~mtenelris involved, for instance, ill. iJUJesmn§,

a ii::'P":~'!Ii!'.~:~v,e" :rn,t;I: both . lit';'t~~'ll'~ _ ~KW,~ __ ~ as being eq,li,a]~y 10 for'


,g. , "';;;'!';;;'!'~.._

~ ~_~1'" ,~ yJ[

'fr"h~a ~~,v~, u.D~ _


~'~~"1

1\..."1,

o'3l.~'

ul~ A,

~~~~i"i1t~F _~lIIJ~ .Ir"~~I~

Trlf
~i~

iio~'~('h:ji~, the I'FrnTifi'e,..;aI~,'~'~, W·· U~ .'.li,'f:' r:l~ IdFiL'tP'Ir.' ,i,";~"",:i;oi"1i"" ~,~, 1~!If'~ Mt!JL-l~~._ U=JaJ~~~~!O _!!r.iFi' I~~~~" _g=I~~-"= ~Y~'!.~U
"" ~ ~~
~I~

cm,mra:~ {.]on'textof 'rile U!Re(!~n~e,., Co-oldi.na,tLnl: a:l~this ,wn,vo:~vei , great deal of a


-enta ;:jpi""'i'~~il[f'-~:- '~-~~Il!!r.-'~-~. _ ""* o fe' 'it(L'e~' w~~ ~;iJ'" ~;:..a;.III'.n,;tIi'.,. UL."~ i'll-,,;:;,, l~, m·- 'I' A~Lt~ _
!w\'I.J~~ I till. ._
.
'_'

:iiI

lliln.

~:Ii!\r.olt_j ~

'1_ J:r;i':....:;;n'~'n!g" L- ~'Lt~l~:JIjIIl'


.'_'

is hard. _: 'W~ ~~lt1;;li"k'" [~II;~aJ1 ..


!Y'~J

,," •

,Rt,CiQgnitj;'on

Heaeina
_ :1IIi.~

Seeing

The clearest

of' distinguishing between ~]sten]mgand reading is '~O,think of the --- .. -. medium itse'l f and, the.. nature' ,of the,." language u:se-d 'The next leba triter 'will he ---,.""", . ,._ ,,_, . L,."c.' '0'-' '--r'·, . i_"
'W3]r
",dO, ... "",',

.....a'biUfTV "'·0.·.···· __ ..-~,,,, ~L·mLd @lrs~'?::nd:;,: _. - __ - ";.:J.... !1lI


I!l;iA ~~ -.

concerned in, detail widl features of the: spoken J:anglJlage~bo:t:we can introduce some of' them here beta US.e 'they 3;'[feC:it the' listener's ,..... es,pociiall:y the learner's and

Copy rig hted m ateri a!

11

Il'II'\J!

r a rea _I~

U'l'

en led

he

'p"')- ,-, ,.~ ~ __ • J _.l •

rtanet 'Eart -;~. E- .-'

A,
1

Traffi,c
'T[BIi~'~OOl1'pstiO'~, m :~OWQIlg~ ,d.p,,mao PDIlIu:Ei;D11l~ Mfi~~ ~ll(JBt:'possU11'e soll,llIi1liOUi to iii' pmbl91,.,'Which d.D! :ro~ 'mji~I'-'.;-re pmd so.b;\ldgl1is:~Mamk " I ,M ,0,1 'f 'CCl1'WllUl, A.,

I'

leu

Iu:.uiii:;

.''.
desire to' do so'metltiinl~
=~ ~~ .~ . ~ ~

,AI a, skin thar l_na.b1e8 uS: mo produce u:t~er.,llnrees~,when pn:IJJ:I'neMy commuaj!ca;rivie~ s,peakiqg is desii;l}e... ,i-flld ,pmpose\i;;d~d,voo, ]0, o~he!' words we ,gen,uineJ,y 'w,ant' '150COO1mU'Dla:te sometbiDg; tn achi,eVf' a particular end, Th'is ma,:,' im,vOr],v~

,e.xpr;essirc: ideas
=III~~1 -

u}epOb,m:bnu' aucUOf soivmo-' 1. a }particular ~,t1u~blem~lr elit:a,b:i:iJihin:rr and maJotaJin .., 1!tI 10 ~~ . ~ ~ _. V' " - ~ ~ -"~ o _" ~ ~ ~~- ~~ ~~ ~ inl social, ~ela:do,lt~b'~ps 'fl'iend8Idpl~,To, ac:hlev'e these ~,pedm,gpnrposes '\Jl{!' and

I:no opiuj,o\~s;, ,CIKptfessilml ,8, WUO.IQ,r a

need 'IjO :arCb:V:9I'te a I31ll\g'C' of' ,a,.p,p,rOPfiiat~' ,exp,~es8i,o,ns,.

: i 'r the dirfere rt kinds oj: things you have talked a oour in the last ew day bott, i I "ngl]s}r and in your ~~~ L I' n

A_skj;ng ,AskiDg

:fo(f aSSiJJtiulce'
f-Qll

,~ialk'~mgu, aplpO(m,tMe:mt by' '1!e['epbone' a :Discussi-ng aDd ne;lo:tilarrir1(g: ,arfAQgcmJents, TalkJilllg s-ociaJl1",to' ,2 Vll.r,iety lof :poop,~e SOlning ou't arraDgr=mfmt~, fo[' ,I, it'S!" 110'be servicedl "T- aese are ]ltlL~U::a, :£" ,it ,.-, ~;e'vO~- .,JI__ rtli\80(D_S, toe ~_aDjlllJ_ag:c'~ 'we Ire bOr,iu.g to' make our mf
h.,

and ,a,.Qvwe ,in ,8, Ihop d:i:r-eorjons, :m ,2 ,difle,tra:u' '[OC::Wll

WJti:iY

it.'~

peo'p'le' :I)]jay
hel

f-'·' dI "'O'li',~'i'mli'il. i9iiE\""',C}:"'lI': l' t-'~~!FIi1 it C\;JlIi,~_mi _i~iC' . ~.ilI' ..~ I·~'" speakiin,g sikins; wiU " :1 I hl:r,ge :Plll't in 'this O'V'eEI:L1 'C{)r]Dpete~nCf'" a~dlfjill.h,we ~bOtddlpo,mt ()IlLl[ 91i:'ir:h~ stage that in, 'the eaxi:, ',ea;['lli of (lo.~:n'~llu;Dica:ri'vte lal:n;gus\g,e It_eaob~flI; ';,commJUfJjIDafit,e:~ '~S, jnrl~uplre:t~d. 'by am.a,.large as ora~;production witb the c l-.:.1.-,<, 'L ·d' ,:uwe¥et, HI I 1 '!l}u;~~ mree ''""I'I,-''~'-r-_S ,~aggIUIsomeW,I]la,1IO,ne h- ,~Ui·~ ~H:-C',n,i ',.- " -, :": .. f,"",oeO[, J1ea£s ,,..Jl... . ~ll mere
'C~" :"mlill~II(J!, :1:.. I:. l~ _. -t.::~~----

l,eUDLefS,
f~_! _-~-~

,eo1mm,umicad,v,t1'l.y oompetJ6nt in
.a,

wlSll\
&··r' "

,. Ii

to

S,PMllt

1,- "

:Ul

,an,

as, a --

--~~'~

,0,""' y~

-~~-~

't"Ji'F1f!ltttl:II~~'_ ~~-~~~~,

__

~~~

_-r@!

'I'I~ IL'U

,~rrl;,~ii1f!11'l1Hj11.~ a~!.'J.IU::!L.~'

,.. h- rOIL fLl~

!ir

...,l!i1;,iiil!i_'

"••

i. --,:--,'" .,

.. '~""jo

I-.,",

,iiIiI;

"

-,

,.

Laii.'!:1, ~u 111!.~~

been ".., -~,rrt;d.·""i~"":1lf + p, 1


!!.~U, __ ~U",",

';t;iif" :~;ll,=,,;!!~£o 11;1"""" & ~-~U"~~

'I:l-;F;!; '~:~'II,?"i'"'~~,IIl~ lJigJiQA!,L¥-,"",.,

:1l::,'~:llII'~:-~'fil'llP' ;;"r,.,......'~,tjI·IIl.:r;O

;i,Iil'~ ,0\'!lI ~~ ~

,!t.",iIl,~!!;;._'~!11I1

n:i'iit'!iIif'l~Iil':e

.d·· ]J~"~:4'"II'I)liIf'
._...

llt~

""d,'~

j,Z'jIi

~!!!.~

ma:Dy'Wa:ys eo ,dissooa:oo' fwm, ,ist,enXJg~Nunan, ,(19,89) points oot bow' :me~ef.' 101o(fai~, comma nica:[io,[s ba we' developed what he I1t!DllI ~,c-onveFsatj.on~d, lis!tenilll ,s.kiUs~,.,"W:e :saw' i'D ,the :_381 c:ba,pur h,ow Ros,'£ r(J1l990~ dev,el,o,ped 'the ,idea lof ;'eo,i:or. ~.-.1..~ -,-.-':-,--.--.-,--:-:!I' -;h:-- -,--'IL, ,-1,'11,::'.. ,- -.'-_--(-, .~.-'!I~-:.~-- ---~ l,a,uor~.tJfv'e' ,w];~te[UDg ,w. 1e'.re:Vlme- JWfte\Il.e[ can-~ ;I,~:SOsnape ,-Jl .... 'OJl-lcou[~e' WW,tn•• me .;ll~~:-~ --~... -,-.-_~-'iL the :ipeakl~'~ These 'Win, :ski 11 o,:frten ,enjoy :il1 de~pelldeDq' in tha,'[ speak-~Ilg gODly 'v·err rue~yca:rd,ed, eur in .,orlatiolll;, i,t, is, ,g~l1lf!EIUy a:n. ,mtm~,fi""e:skiU un~ess, 1:0, d;·, II 'P,((f.i§~~D·· beine ~~:'~:i!i"?!;"''II'':-T-::i1.·~;"" ;;A,'fl] ~;D'w:u!JJI4I~,~,1U,, __ ~"'" _:_'Y!',:I!.,~ll ,;_ "'~'IlO" _1 , ... E~~~, v!f,~~, dev;ei,op,ed in more feOf!Dt' EFl '~a,ChiQig mS'ttf-cibds", As, 'Widdo\Vlmt1l (19",R:,~ 5:8) ",ommeDts,~:'iW:h.a,t is,said is, dependent on ~ll,lu]d}er~:tlndhlg of what else has been
'~~c;"~I I

Ii i:Ii"Ii'!'ii'Ii'i!'.j:!i;ii"li"-C,p .• :~ u

iIi"jIi,jor.t'ii;

;t!\o!!i''':\rP,''ioii'ii

~I""UJl.J!,

,~~ .lII~,

~IL

. ~',v-''f'''''''U"",

'H,n, .. ,1IL1II1~~~i~..r\llAII,

J! .. !!.'~JL'~~,,,"~.l""'iIIJ&

iI',\Qi"~,.,..i')~,AtiA

,;;~ ;i'"!i.~,:,"-,., JL'IiI!'

sald :i:o, tb,e u.lfter,3ctton)', and. it J.fBj ,tj}is recl1procal ,exeIUt:n:l£ ,pattern which becomBS im'oort1uit for leamers to: be lexJnosed 't'\1) an d 'to 'in([l.,ctme' at 'V,ul'OtlS :St3J'~S of tbej":r , ,r',-' "__ r . ... _. . _. ...... fo.~eJ;lm la:DlUalle c-ar-eer. , ,~. ,'II ,~., 1'", ;L_, There :I'~ cleI,J'~Y' an IQiVerISJ,p :nl, me mteracnon 'f·hat ra~'fS,,Place L lJiet'\Vll!;e,lil rne
,_,1

I. ' ..~

.,

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:It:'" - _,....

..

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... 'II,~ . 1,,11,:.--,- -d-·speaIS;.Cf:uSiDC'Jler ~UI'l th·,-,-· f' ,. ,- --"- .. -., -I"· - ..: de -. :l.>. . i; w:r,~tfl.,[,ea,',llel'" I!ior

~,"" IUllC'

'U;BI<':=;;--.-'

d~i~ner

11 .,~

,t'll.., - ---k'·- .~r lUI, ..,.,-- :~'-'.j;(n--1~iO,[n~,~:rpFelt :Sp~I__- . _ne


-0

Copy rig hted m ateri a!

,~IJ\e(J,J\lng'rdu.s

e ..' ··.L,~' ...

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Look back ,~I"glinat your personal US~ o:t 'writing activities, ,MOI£ teachers, for ,elJnlmp'~f', 'w:ri.t~:comments on, student work as ,3, regular part of th,elr jobs, 'You
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\vritblg is also somenmes dEffi,C'u].t to' read,

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the supermarket, 'W1iite'n~, seems, do a great number it things, before ,tbey end up' 'wim :&nal 'vieRilon~ 'the ,jifi__nJslled producf.~~For ]nSmD~e, ,they' jot' down ideas,
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,cllange words, rephrase bits, 'D1UJ/v,e KCti,QD;S a.r-ouDd" review' parts, of' wharf. they' have \vri:n1!:n" cross ,thi:ngs out, check dlrgWI'h, the' final ven:ioll" 'Vft\ite' tidy notes, wr:ite' ,OIl odd. pioc-=e~~ paper ;S1Sthoughts ocenr to tbem, ,\vri't-e mfecdy '0£ :i]100 a. trPJ~~wfiiteI' or a 'woEd processor if 'they' are lU_Lky,eaol;lgbro :il:ave oae, look :at the 'blank p,ap £o.r ,a, =ong, time, change' pens, ,~~'f:r- aek '~O :s,omething; ,they b
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expected to mm, m ,~ p~r,fect_:y polished piece of ~rg'rk,,,Even if ~;cc.uli'ac,'s, 30 important and ,I'egi'lim'i are requ:krement" it is on1.y' ilcni,eved ,ll,ber a" ra ther Wltldy ;arlld, s,ttllm,'b]:ing set ef PC(U;OO'lJlfec!" and ehe nature of the process it:Slelf needs to be ;aC:kno\\f"J!edged. .. 'We fSih;a:n. etum 'to this, p'O,iut from a dif~t[en:1taagle when look:ing at a ttirnlle.s tO, the r This ~';m18ui'~h' m.ust 'be: :part:icola:rly severe if' students
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(taken alomlp;iide .¢'COD1lDuni,cating'~ and "'cEaftjD;g;')'~, She S-ll,g;ests, the ,£olla'rivm;g. as, a.Rpiusen:mti.on of the slta,ges of' writing (;~dap~ed f~oln Hedge, 19'88: 2..1 l:

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Arndt (199' ,:),~. are c-Eitica:1 ,of' t[aditio.D~d,~ instimdonaJ ,~ ap:p'ma"cll,e$ 00, 'They' .. 'w:f'itimg that FnereJ,y- ,~eit1JOf-ce t~e ,1,lea.r,ning: f the language i,tselfjli requjri'~g lSW" o
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As MiO(fE'OW 1(: 19:8:I:~'I,ll sra't-es: Jill, ,h~lS,:s;u:,o,nd pr,blc-ipie :i~cadve'lnethodolo~\~ [~\J'


,the' classeoom.
'One __(Ilf' ~ t~,e ~.~-~~ :S:~J,,;t:'_;;~"",'~I;:in''L I~(M;:[ !!ti~~tl~~~~~- l~~~~~~ '~;ojj'hi~_[~ ~~ ~~L_ d . -'.11.- .-,., . -11-. ,,_,L_.,,_ ,·I!1','eI:OP:IDg iP1I1'eDC,men(Ul", . D, 'O~Jie;r.
.-·1 .... ]'.

101f' 'CQ!L1m~tn],-

,-.,'.- _. e~asuy 1i.."" ,aDa,_j"s~, ,U1liOO'GUm"" '" !iIi~ u:e - ,,-[ ~ _"",A "~,,--.-~~ ,puneJlJt :tesutu.res 'wi'dlOllt ~lrj hJatt1,n~: be~D,!:deatroYled ill lPr.oca$~I:t is 01' ,COlu':se
WOJf _ s, U: aU1DOit
-''' -

~i;' ~~-~~~~~~~!Itr.-ftJ"M'J~l_IIlJJ ~I r~ipft:if'Iii'i'~i'i:imi_~r"""!ii,i;ii;f',,iij:ii ;~i 'fr"'I,.'!""I,+" ~~ fIlrll-m~

d- ...,

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II~

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~

li U.

d,. -,1i)!'I-n'ill~m-~ :-,ijfO 'L'rll


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Imir. !mliLImtU

~ll'i','7~,

,pDs5:~lblle ~d~nj'd~fY' 'to 'Yl1:f~OUS


'W~I~I'~'~I",",

for.mn__jJJ'I: feamees of' tile: 'wa,y ~aJllltH1)le ,IS,'lJ$d 'CoQm.niun ..'


'iii!: iii 'Ii" 'i'"R., & Dl~~ ~~]~.

me

~""'nI'i'-~';~,.fJ;~'f 'Q.IW 0']1,=·41

,jj;~"''''',,,,, ~fJIl~'

""r,1I'1iiiI I~Q=lrlil

'i~ i.._;o;, ";+~il,JI:iiDd'· ij'n _J ~'I'r':~d·CIUI"'ilI]' ~V' ~1~~Yi~l'V.~_ ~.IIJ,liU~i:*·I~.~_'~Qi_.W,,1-·!]

,~~'..,rl 'iiion ih ~,~~J.t!l!-=i~J~ll~~,

li..a-'fl,Ji:i:ii!i! to:iL.'D~~1 ,~l' ~~lU~~ ~Jr(t~:!J.!~

elements :~n,m@,IDarlon is :00 uuUc;a,dOJl ,of ,aIbUitv' to t~m_m:'~lmc-a'iie., , ',l

r~1,ted skills .fof 'te~.lcher-8to 'Ibr-a:ios,tolfm wid),

Lubldska and Manh,e'\VS, (19'9'7 ~ "16:)1,p,r,uvide Sf,'en s:[-at~m,em,u, r;eJa,timg


ot&,€f'

'[,0

illlte,g"

':veac-b,u.s:~

~l 1'1\D!;~la.tiing :sklUs m~o.,lv,e~, 'llJ:smg some or all of' :Lj'~renil~~, S,pe.~~g, Reading
,2 AU four- skins mU~Slt''be pra,c'tiS'sd. :1:1[1, e:very lesso,n,~ 3, As nM:eniing ul!d, s,:peakJing m;a,t[[(;aJ]y go tD3!1Ehet;'1 :~:t is a1l\va,y:; desaa,ble

Ind, ·Wrido,; to practice t'e'xddi,oo!u:r-seJ~

,Dew' ,DU1:te,ri all

(v[octtbula:EJ'~1 Ju"():u:uDci'al,twlonl,

g-f,a,mJna,f')

'tiC)

itltt,pat~ these 'tWit) rs:kU[8i ,4 The, sequence b=JJr~,pealk-l\ead;-\y :~teis the mO~1:~"pp(fo,piEiatefor :":u:cegr,a:ted skilllswork,
[u:t1:viri,es in, m:ljegr,amd sldJ Is ,1~S!S10nSlO ,6 If' \ve 'w,ant £:0 develo,p s:pecific: subskills (readi·1Jl1 fo,r gis,t, :gJt!lie~8lD,B: 'unk_nawn w,ords etc.], it is :D,eceHIil"Yto' focus on iodh:idwaJ skills in some l,es:S1QIU~ 7 ,i-n1t,e,.,3'md skiUs; may 'be ,fine with a small gftlUp ,of' ;ad.ult~" bUDt it is, difficult '~O do wi:dt ,bl.rll~ cla~ and in ~.0ssons~utmc 001'" 1S' minutes,
1

5'

QO(EDlll,QI1

to,pi,c~ :slJ,J,ch, ho,llidaJ"s o-r' pets, is a dsviice !mkblg the IePA-f,aJ:r:e as

:~:tis 'Obvious that tea,cl1,ers m'a:y have ve:ry' differ-elll:£ ideas [ie,lu,diin,g; ~:n,tegm'fed, skill~ (lite',ehis~u~,oom, there are :no ,c:near' b']_I'ck, ,and '~hl're ;iUS"re[;s 'tiO tliCi8e ill Ind star-enle:n,t-S. ]'E could :bc~gtled ,tha:£much 'wil depend on. 'the iCQDte~" H:owever",
tbcy do
'.. ~--... th-~
t..

ILlUl(Ll_ll\

li..~n~'~' .---',",,,,,,,, -~ 11",ji.':!! -~-;-:i ,ai,l!l.J!J!U,II!" ,O:..!DII.-S,


Of'

b -,'IU~~ :in ~ ,~tti'-'-'~ ~-iC;b-e.'-~9 ~:.: .:.:e ",~'-::::L,~m ._,--,_, ,,,,,,,_--.I11~""'a._- _1-_1_, '1'0 rc~."oect"~ 010 nn 'wbat tbe, 'would, like '~O do in, the f'ultLlfe',~
,!!!.~.~"

'filIiut1l,:

_:,~,n_-:_

w'Il,.,~t-·-

._maL.,

,112
' __ it-

,SjtUIJ,tilJIIS ~UJ'rI8,d
._ _.""_" _.. " [" _ lr ~l""_ " .\ J

,,~",,"

,s'1I1'.' I:.t.g· 'MlioR


l __ _
u "_:"""~ _ "_".

Let us n,QW'examine some :s:i:tu;aL,tJ',ous ll:t require an iDte,pario,n -of.' ,a:t least d &1ngn.agesld~~sin. Qfdm' fo:£' the task to be c~m,plemd ~[I,ctt.:i£fully ~
5, 'YOU

'HYiOl

are re ding,

nere down the diLlere,rn Jangu~~,g~ Wrc.ill&ihv~lved

at each

stage .. ....

Copy rig hted m ateri a!

179
U,NIT J

.ioe·
-

_.

-----

---_ .. _ ----

11

LOO,k ~t ehe ~~~'~, j~~ ~k~w ,aod C:bo~~~' ,a~ the one d'J!3}1, ,~~ I!tYOulllCJ ,rrii1~!:ii, :Irnke ~,O do, ~nd tfrje IO~ ~!Ii!!!(u,YOYi'~lJW ~cas~ :Iru~~(~ cllo.
J'IIUlI!g

2 a

Wh['Ch of d)e :rO:I~o'~in~.~Bl!a:I~resG' )UQ thhlk, d ~t~' :in'l(p-or-ta.H~, in ~I~ :s't'~w,a;rd!~t~\V~m~8:'

;air

~,ood ~ook;s

:~Il:t~ll~geriL'Cc

j~!D"nlaruist
::ii'UlP' !f!i~i;s' ~l'il~, :man~ga-''of :a, f\OOtbaJJl ~m,

~.~'u)wwn§e'i,te!~~d s ~a'I1.IVlase.S
g~,~~g~1Iit 'hry.,!i!~~~.I, fijj~~s!S,
'.OfJ111an,

poli,~midrnk cook
~a!r
Q'I""",

,~t~'.hnic~j ,bi'Owledl~ of ,ae.ropbjjlfl~ ~

:!J.i~;':S,l~~;S~I!'I~\B'rde§

mrt~;(:]u~in~~.
~f"""""~''''':

,:s-:~n, ,~~~hes . ~~e ~bm~,y :swi.m Itt!t


:p:n.tiii!l!iIlC~

,.Ji~",,,,~'!.j']iiIjjl

f8nn~m"'

kngwin:g h~

, III' " III..mit1.;~eo

~,kn~ded~~

air First Aid

IlO look. :I{"I)f;r. bamD

,c:oml\~~U'~n, 1W'iI1~u ~:fi~ ~~cmiul1en't o,Ecer ,Q;'l ~r~hl A.~~il~'k;, ,an ,~:irUJ1e,ybich ""Jaime.Sl '~~Kll.Frs,frr@m wncloJrl ~o A~i~~. Wl~ll,~ ~he mob,re~~~Nm-~ii!t5'?

I..iii ...i~. tt;ll:clilt ~ is;

".,

~ '~, -'b.

fllW ll:l, tht: ehaet 'bitlo1."J.

'liuhd111
"iI"L.,

I, ,l'le

'n"

'-',," ,nJ~n.u1! ~ ,- .:fQIlJI aD~ ,m~ II.,

G'lltl~1 'Ihti! JOb

'W~r:kilil:H~b!Fi,

f:nlrHncl_ Diibble M~~~, SooIall LLfe and Famlly Life' :U,>e'ulibPNb~lIu],

Copy rig hted m ateri al

to~ertlif5
Cc€lri!

IfIl b'y

5 D ~:5lgl~l\i'5'OC~B'ltsLlt)d ts B N Q~'l'~ "'il213Y-?


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I ""'-:-I.~.

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