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You need to: Discuss how the time and place research is conducted in affects the level of conformity.

. Evaluate Asch and Clark in terms of ethical issues and validity. Outline different explanations for conformity including normative and informational influence.
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Explain why Perrin and Spencer called Aschs study a child of its time, referring to their own evidence. How is conformity affected by culture?

Explain why Clarks study would be approved by an ethics committee today, but Aschs and Zimbardos wouldnt. How can you argue that Clarks study is both more and less valid than Aschs?

Write a sentence about each of the following:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Unanimity of majority Size of majority Presence of ally Ambiguity of situation Consistency of minority Flexibility of minority Defectors from the majority Quality of information from the minority
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Deutsch and Gerard (1955) Two processes involved


Normative Influence

Informational Influence Which is more important? What might this depend on?

But why do people continue to conform even when they arent in the group? Sense of belonging also appears to be important.
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Hogg and Abrahams (1988) Even when people are randomly allocated to a group, they immediately feel positive towards ingroup members, discriminate against the outgroup and exaggerate differences between them (meta-contrast principle). This instinctive sense of belonging to the group can explain high levels of private conformity when the majority is made up of in-group members.

Latane and Wolf (1981) Explain majority and minority influence in terms of three factors:
Strength: importance, power or status of the

influencing person or people. Immediacy: psychological, physical or social distance. Number: the size of a minority or majority.

Jimmy has always been a supporter of the Liberal Democrat party, and rates Nick Clegg as a politician. However his circle of immediate friends are always talking about how the coalition government has let down young people. Jimmy doesnt tell them about his political views. Later, when it comes to the next general election, he votes Labour. How would each of the three theories explain the social influence on Jimmy?