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An instrument that measures angular speed, as that of a rotating shaft. The measurement may be in revolutions over an independently measured time interval, as in a revolution counter, or it may be directly in revolutions per minute. The instrument may also indicate the average speed over a time interval or the instantaneous speed. RPM Counters are used for direct measurement of angular speed and as elements of control systems to furnish a signal as a function of angular speed.


Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, r/min, or rmin1) is a measure of the frequency of a rotation. It annotates the number of full rotations completed in one minute around a fixed axis. It is used as a measure of rotational speed of a mechanical component. Standards organizations generally recommend the symbol r/min, which is more consistent with the general use of unit symbols.

2.1 International System of Units

According to the International System of Units (SI), rpm is not a unit. This is because Revolutions is a semantic annotation rather than a unit. The annotation is instead done in the subscript of the formula sign if needed. Because of the measured physical quantity, the formula sign has to be f for (rotational) frequency and or for angular velocity. The corresponding basic SI unit is s1 or Hz. When measuring angular speed, rads1 can also be used as unit.

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051

Even though angular velocity, angular frequency and hertz all have the dimensions of 1/s, angular velocity and angular frequency are not expressed in hertz, but rather in an appropriate angular unit such as radians per second. Thus a disc rotating at 60 revolutions per minute (rpm) is said to be rotating at either 2 rad/s or 1 Hz, where the former measures the angular velocity and latter reflects the number of complete revolutions per second. The conversion between a frequency f measured in hertz and an angular velocity measured in radians per second are: =2**f and f=/(2*) rpm to Hz 2400*2*3.14=15072 rad/min 15072/60=251.2 rad/s (1800*2*3.14)/60=188.4 rad/s (3300*2*3.14)/60=345.4 rad/s

Counting the revolutions per minute (RPM) of motors determining the motor speed is essential in the field of industrial automation. It is useful especially for closed-loop control systems where proper action can be taken in case the actual RPM deviates from the set RPM. This project is based on micro-controller AT89C4051 that measures and shows on an LCD the RPM of a running motor. Using a proper transducer, first the rotations of the motor are converted into pulses. The generated pulses are counted by the micro controller for a fixed time (say, one second). The count is multiplied by a factor to get the exact RPM and then displayed; if time is one second, the factor is 60.

Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of the RPM counter based on AT89C4051 microcontroller that generates pulses for every rotation of the motor, counts them and shows on the LCD. On a fixed base, there is a laser source on one side and the combination of a light-dependent resistor (LDR), pulse generator, microcontroller and LCD on the other side. Both the | RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051 2

arrangements are housed in separate wooden cabinets such that the laser beam falls directly on the LDR. The motor is placed on top of the laser source. A slotted wheel is attached to the motor shaft. The wheel is so bit that it can interrupt the laser beam falling on the LDR. As the motor rotates, the slotted wheel also rotates. The laser beam falls on the LDR whenever the slot aligns with the laser beam and LDR, producing one pulse. Thus the rotations of the motor are converted into pulses that can be counted by the program in the microcontroller. Pulses are counted for one second. The pulse count is multiplied by 60 (because 1 RPM = 60 RPS) and finally shown on the LCD.

Fig. 2 shows the circuit of the RPM meter. It comprises microcontroller AT89C4051, timer NE555, LCD module (16x2 line) and a few discrete components. Timer NE555 is configured as a mono-stable multi-vibrator whose time period depends upon the combination of resistor R1 and capacitor C1. Trigger pin 2 of NE555 is pulled high via resistor R2. The LDR is connected along with resistor R2 to pin 2 of NE555 such that when the laser light falls on the LDR, pin 2 goes low to trigger NE555. The output form pin 3 of NE555 is inverted by transistor T1 and fed to port pins P3.3 and P3.4 of the micro controller. LED2 is connected to port pin P3.0 (pin 2) of the microcontroller. Data pins D0 through D7 of the LCD are connected to port pins P1.0 through P1.7 of the microcontroller, respectively. Control pins E, RS and R/W of the LCD | RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051 3

are connected to port pins P3.2, P3.5 and P3.7, respectively. A 12MHz crystal connected between pins 4 and 5 of the microcontroller, along with two 22pF capacitors C4 and C5, generates the basic clock frequency. Power-on reset is derived with the combination of resistor R7 and capacitor C6. Switch S2 is used for manual reset.

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051

1. As the motor starts rotating, the laser light falls on the LDR when the slot aligns with the laser beam and LDR. 2. Every time the motor completes one rotation, the mono-stable (NE555) triggers to generate one pulse, which is indicated by LED1. So LED1 blinks at the rate of motor speed. 3. As the first pulse arrives, it generates an interrupt for the microcontroller and immediately the microcontroller starts counting the pulses. This is indicated by LED2. The LCD shows the message "Counting RPM. 4. The microcontroller counts the pulses for a period of one second. Thereafter, LED2 shows the message "Counting finished....." and goes off. The microcontroller stores the count and multiplies it by 60 to give the final RPM count. 5. The count is in hex format, so you have to convert it into decimal first. As the LCD accepts only ASCII values, the decimal values are converted into ASCII and shown on the LCD one by one. 6. Now if you press RST switch, the process repeats.

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051

Figure 3 Breadboard Testing

Figure 4 Continuity Testing

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051

Figure 5 Connections on PCB

The software for the RPM counter is written in 'C' language and compiled using Keil Vision3 compiler. The generated 'hex' file is burn into the microcontroller using a suitable programmer. The various functions are detailed below: 1. Main function initializes the timer, LCD, ports, etc. displays the message "RPM counter", clears the timer content and enables the external interrupt. It remains in the loop till 'rpm flag' (flag) is not set. When the RPM counting completes, it displays the RPM value if it is within the range. 2. Int1 is an interrupt based function that is called automatically when there is a negative edge on external interrupt 1 pin (P3.3). As soon as the first negative edge arrives, the counter starts counting the external pulses for one second. After one second, the content of TL0 is compared with A6h (166d). For any number greater than 166, multiplication with 60 will yield a number that is longer than four digits, which is out of the display range. This means RPM of max. 9960 (166x60) can be displayed. Otherwise, the LCD will show the message "RPM Out of Range". | RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051 7


Display function performs three tasks one by one : (i) (ii) Converts hex number in TL0 into decimal and multiplies it by 60 Converts the final decimal number into equivalent ASCII characters one by one (iii) Displays all the ASCII characters one by one on the LCD.


Write cmd function sends command byte to the LCD. It takes one argument byte and sends sit to P1.


Write data function sends the data byte to be displayed on the LCD. It also takes one argument byte and sends it to port P1.


Write str function writes the entire string (message) on the LCD. It takes the pointer as an argument that points the address of the first character of the string. Then through the pointer, it sends all the characters one by one to P1.


Busy function checks the status of the busy flag of the LCD. if the flag is set, that means the LCD is not ready and the program remains within the loop. When the flag is reset, the LCD is ready and the program comes out of the loop.


Delay function generates a fixed delay of one second using timer 0. The basic delay is of 50 milliseconds, which is rotated in the loop for 20 times to generate total delay of 20x50 ms = 1000 ms = 1 second.

6.1. PCB Designing & CAD

Although the circuit is tested on general purpose PCB but due to the complexity of the connections make it very difficult to understand. So that with the help of CAD it is done for much simple & easier. In this project double side printed PCB is used means that printing is done on both side of the PCB.

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051

7. Program of RPM Counter

#include<reg51.h> #include<string.h> sbit rs = P3^5; sbit en = P3^2; sbit rw = P3^7; sbit b = P1^7; sbit led = P3^0; unsigned int flag=0; void delay() { int k; TL1 = 0xAF; TH1 = 0x3C; TR1 = 1; for(k=0;k<20;k++) { while(TF1==0); TF1 = 0; TL1 = 0xAF; TH1 = 0x3C; } TR1 = 0; } void busy() { en = 0; P1 = 0xFF; rs = 0; rw = 1; while(b==1) { en=0; en=1; } en=0; } void writecmd(unsigned char a) { busy(); rs = 0; rw = 0; // rs pin of LCD // en pin of LCD // rw pin of LCD // busy flag // led indication // rpm flag // 1 sec delay

// load value 15535=3CAF

// check busy flag

// send command byte to LCD

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051

P1 = a; en = 1; en = 0; } void writedata(unsigned char b) // send data byte to LCD { busy(); rs = 1; rw = 0; P1 = b; en = 1; en = 0; } void writestr(unsigned char *s) // write string / message to LCD { unsigned char l,i; l = strlen(s); for(i=0;i<l;i++) { writedata(*s); s++; } } void int1(void) interrupt 2 // external interrupt 1 function { EA=0; // first disable interrupts led=0; // give indication writecmd(0x01); writestr("counting RPM...."); // display message TR0=1; // start timer 0 delay(); // give 1 sec delay TR0=0; // stop timer writecmd(0x80); writestr("counting finish "); // display message led=1; if(TL0>0xA6) { // if value more then 166 writecmd(0xC0); writestr("RPM out of range");// send message } else flag=1; // if not then set the flag } void display() { // convert hex to desimal and // decimal to ascii

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051


unsigned int tmp1,tmp2,t,t1,i,j; unsigned char asci[4]; tmp1 = (TL0 & 0x0F); TL0 tmp2 = TL0 >> 4; TL0 tmp2 = tmp2*16; nibble with 16 t = tmp1+tmp2; t=t*60; 60 i=3; if(t>=1000) digits { while(t>10) { t1=t%10; asci[i]=t1+0x30; t=t/10; i--; } asci[0]=t+0x30; } else { while(t>10) { t1=t%10; asci[i]=t1+0x30; t=t/10; i--; } asci[1]=t+0x30; asci[0]=0x30; } writecmd(0xC0); writestr("currentRPM:"); for(j=0;j<4;j++) writedata(asci[j]); } void main() { TMOD=0x15; and timer 1 in 16 bit counter P1 = 0x00;

// get lower nibble of // get upper nibble of // multiply upper // get decimal number // multiply it with

// if more then 4

// convert them one by one // into ASCII

// otherwise convert

// last three digits

// and put first digit as 0

// display current RPM and // all four digits one by one

// timer 0 in 16 bit counter // P1 as output port

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051


rs=0; pins en=0; rw=0; writecmd(0x3C); writecmd(0x0E); writecmd(0x82); writestr("RPM Counter"); TH0=0x00; TL0=0x00; IE=0x84;

// clear all LCD control

// initialize LCD

// initially display message // clear T0 // enable external interrupt

1 while(flag==0); // remain within loop till rpm flag is clear display(); // when flag is set display current RPM value while(1); // continuous loop }


i) For Schematic circuit design Dip trace Schematic ii) Circuit Testing

Circuit Wizard iii) For PCB design

Dip trace PCB design

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051



Top Current Mirror

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Bottom Current Mirror

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051


Top Current Contrast

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051




1. RPM Counter definition: McGraw-Hill Science & Technology Encyclopaedia 2. Revolution Per Minute: 3. AT89C4051 Datasheet 4. NE555 Timer IC 5. Resistance Colour Coding:

| RPM Counter Using Microcontroller AT89C4051