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complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).

domain in which research findings have implications for important social issues


a theory of what is going on in the readers eyes and mind during reading and comprehending (or miscomprehending) a text
try to explain and predict reading behaviour bases on which reading instructions are built


also known as part-to-whole model

mechanical decoding of forms

holds the view that reading is a process of building symbols into words, words into sentences and sentences into the overall meaning.


emphasizes the written or printed text says reading is driven by a process that results in meaning (or, in other words, reading is driven by text), and proceeds from part to whole. In the beginning stages it gives little emphasis to the influences of the reader's world knowledge, contextual information, and other higher-order processing strategies.

Leonard Bloomfield

The first task of reading is learning the code or the alphabetic principle by which written marks...conventionally represent...phonemes. The meaning of the text is expected to come naturally as the code is broken based on the reader's prior knowledge of words, their meanings, and the syntactical patterns of his/her language. Writing is merely a device for recording speech.

Emerald Dechant
The hierarchical organization of the written text is important in reading. Phonological awareness occurs in a sequence or along a continuum PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS LEVEL:

Awareness of Gross Differences -Recognizing that words

represent a sound unit-word awareness.

Awareness of Rhyme-Hearing and recognizing rhymes. Segmentation of Words into Syllables-Detecting that words
are made up of different part-syllables.


Awareness of Initial Consonant Segments -Generating a word
that has a given sound at the beginning, middle, or end. Alliteration - Identifying words that have a given sound. Awareness/Segmentation of Onset and Rime -Identifying words that have a given sound.

Phonemic Segmentation - isolating sounds at the beginning of a word or in an entire word. Sometimes the task requires hearing and counting; other time it requires producing the actual sound. Blending of Phonemes and Syllables -Putting sounds together to form a word. Phonemic Manipulation - substituting, adding, or deleting sounds to create new words.

Charles Fries Learning to transfer auditory signs to a set of visual signs is need in reading. Responding automatically to the visual patterns is essential to reading.

T. McCormick:

Positive recognition o every word through phonemic encoding results from processing letter by letter visual analysis. Lexical, syntactic and semantic rules are applied to the phonemic output which itself has been decoded from print. (McCormick, T. 1988) Reading is a strictly serial process: letter-by-letter visual analysis, leading to positive recognition of every word through phonemic encoding. (McCormick, T. 1988)

Philip B Gough
Developing a considerable range of habitual responses to a specific set of patterns suggest ability to learn to read.


A widely accepted instructional program that incorporates bottom-up principle is the phonic approach to reading. Finding or underlining examples of tenses or grammar structures. Scanning a text for specific information. Making a timeline of the events in the text Finding synonyms or definitions of words in bold.

Bottom-up advocates believe the reader needs to:

Identify letter features Link these features to recognize letters Combine letters to recognize spelling patterns Link spelling patterns to recognize words, and Then proceed to sentence, paragraph and text-level processing.


The idea of linear processing Underestimated the contribution of the reader Failed to recognize that students utilize their expectations about the text based on their knowledge of language and how it works Failure to include previous experience and knowledge into processing