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By Brendan Burr

Investigate Two Port Networks

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................2

TASK 1................................................................................6

1.1 Find the characteristic impedance of the following pad

sections :-...........................................................................6

(a) T Pad.............................................................................6

Solution:-.........................................................................................6

(b) PI Pad...........................................................................7

Solution:-.........................................................................................7

1.2 In the following symmetrical pad determine the

following parameters :-.......................................................8

(a) Short circuit resistance Rsc............................................8

Solution:-.........................................................................................8

(b) Open circuit resistance Rdc............................................8

Solution:-.........................................................................................8

(c) Characteristic Impedance ...............................................9

Solution:-.........................................................................................9

(d) Attenuation in dB...........................................................9

Solution:-.........................................................................................9

1.3 Find the power ratios in dBs and Nepers for the

following power ratios :-....................................................10

(a) ..................................................................................10

Solution:-.......................................................................................10

(b) ...................................................................................10

Solution:-.......................................................................................10

1.4 Find the current ratios in dBs and Nepers for the

following current ratios:-...................................................11

(a) ...................................................................................11

Solution:-.......................................................................................11

(b) ...................................................................................11

Solution:-.......................................................................................11

1.5 Find the voltage ratios in dBs and Nepers for the

following voltage ratios:-...................................................12

2

Investigate Two Port Networks

(a) ...................................................................................12

Solution:-.......................................................................................12

(b) ...................................................................................12

Solution:-.......................................................................................12

1.6 The power output of an attenuator is 100 mW . If the

attenuation is 20 dBs determine the input power in Watts.. 13

Solution:-.......................................................................................13

Check:-...........................................................................................13

1.7 The following T attenuator pad feeds a matched load.

Determine the following parameters:-................................14

(a) The characteristic resistance .......................................14

Solution:-.......................................................................................14

(b) The insertion loss in dBs..............................................15

Solution:-.......................................................................................15

1.8 A symmetrical attenuator pad has a series arm

resistance of 800 and shunt arms each of 250 . .............16

(a) Draw a well labelled circuit diagram of the attenuator

connected to the load........................................................16

Solution:-.......................................................................................16

(b) Determine the characteristic impedance when feeding a

matched load....................................................................16

Solution:-.......................................................................................16

(c) Determine the insertion loss in Nepers when feeding a

matched load....................................................................17

Solution:-.......................................................................................17

1.9 Three identical symmetrical two port networks are

connected in cascade. The total attenuation is 6.098 Nepers

and the total phase shift is 24. Determine the following

parameters for each two port network:-.............................18

(a) Attenuation coefficient in nepers..................................18

Solution:-.......................................................................................18

Check:-...........................................................................................18

(b) Phase shift coefficient in radians..................................19

Solution:-.......................................................................................19

(c) Propagation coefficient.................................................19

Solution:-.......................................................................................19

(d) Total attenuation in dBs..............................................19

Solution:-.......................................................................................19

3

Investigate Two Port Networks

following :-........................................................................20

(a) The number of dBs = 1 Neper.......................................20

Solution:-.......................................................................................20

(b) The number of Nepers = 1 dB.......................................20

Solution:-.......................................................................................20

TASK 2..............................................................................21

2.1 Design a T pad attenuator to provide 18 dB voltage

attenuation per section and is to match a 1.5k load. ........21

(a) Determine the values of R1 and R2................................21

Solution:-.......................................................................................21

(b) Draw the circuit diagram..............................................21

Solution:-.......................................................................................21

2.2 Design a pad attenuator to provide 15 dB attenuation

per section and a characteristic impedance of 600. ..........22

(a) Determine the values of R1 and R2. .............................22

Solution:-.......................................................................................22

(b) Draw the circuit diagram..............................................22

Solution:-.......................................................................................22

2.3. Test the two designs in 2.1 and 2.2 using the Croc Clips

or Multisim S/W simulation................................................23

Solution:-.......................................................................................23

2.4. Record the following voltage and current measurements

using meters:-...................................................................23

(a) ................................................................................23

Solution:-.......................................................................................23

(b) ................................................................................23

Solution:-.......................................................................................23

(c) ................................................................................23

Solution:-.......................................................................................23

(d) ..................................................................................23

Solution:-.......................................................................................23

2.5. From these results determine the following

measurements :-...............................................................24

Solution:-.......................................................................................24

4

Investigate Two Port Networks

Solution:-.......................................................................................24

2.6. Compare your results against the theoretical calculations

and explain any differences...............................................24

Solution:-.......................................................................................24

EVALUATION.....................................................................25

CONCLUSION.....................................................................25

Books...............................................................................26

Catalogues........................................................................26

Websites...........................................................................26

Investigate Two Port Networks

Task 1

1.1

(a)

T Pad

Solution:2

RO = R1 + 2 R1 R2

RO = 10 2 + 2 10 15

RO = 100 + 300

RO = 400

RO =20

Investigate Two Port Networks

(b)

PI Pad

Solution:2

RO =

R1 R2

R1 + ( 2 R2 )

RO =

15 10 2

15 + ( 2 10 )

RO =

15 100

15 + 20

RO =

1500

35

RO =6.55

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.2

(a)

Solution:RSC =

R1 R2

R1 + R2

RSC =

1000 500

1000 + 500

RSC =333 .3

(b)

Solution:R DC =

R2 ( R1 + R2 )

R1 + R2 + R2

R DC =

500 + 500 + 1000

R DC =375

Investigate Two Port Networks

(c)

Characteristic Impedance RO .

RO = 375 333.3

RO = 353.5533906

RO =354

(d)

Attenuation in dB.

Solution:N=

RO + R2

R2 RO

N=

353.5533906 + 1000

1000 353.5533906

N = 5.828427125

Attenuation = 20 LOG ( 5.83)

Attenuation = 15.31102741

A

tte

n

u

a

tio

n =

1

5 .3d

B 's

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.3

(a)

Find the power ratios in dBs and Nepers for the following power

ratios :P out

1

=

P in

2

(LOSS)

1

Nepers LN ( 0.5) = 0.35 Np ' s

2

(b)

P out

=1

P in

1

Nepers LN (1) = 0 Np ' s

2

10

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.4

Find the current ratios in dBs and Nepers for the following current ratios:-

(a)

I out

1

=

I in

4

Solution:1

Decibels 20 LOG = 12dB ' s

4

(LOSS)

1

Nepers LN = 1.4 Np ' s

4

(b)

I out

= 10

I in

(GAIN)

11

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.5

(a)

Find the voltage ratios in dBs and Nepers for the following voltage

ratios:V out

1

=

V in

8

Solution:1

Decibels 20 LOG = 18dB ' s

8

(LOSS)

1

Nepers LN = 2 Np ' s

8

(b)

V out

= 100

V in

(GAIN)

12

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.6

dBs determine the input power in Watts.

Solution: 100 10 3

20 = 10 LOG

P

IN

100 10 3

20

= LOG

10

PIN

10

100 10 3

=

PIN

PIN =

100 10 3

10 2

PIN = 10

PIN =10 W

Check:100 10 3

10 LOG

10

= 20

13

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.7

following parameters:-

(a)

Solution:ROC = R1 + R2

ROC = 300

RSC = R1 +

R1 R2

R1 + R2

RSC = 200 +

200 100

200 + 100

RSC = 266.7

RO = RSC ROC

RO = 300 266.7

RO =282 .84

14

Investigate Two Port Networks

(b)

Solution:20 LOG ( N ) dB

N=

RO + R1

RO R1

N=

282.84 + 200

282.84 200

N = 5.828427125

20 LOG ( 5.828427125 ) = 15.31102741

L

o

s

s

=

1

5 .3

1 d

B 's

15

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.8

shunt arms each of 250 .

(a)

load.

Solution:-

(b)

Solution:RO =

ROC RSC

RO = ROC RSC

ROC =

R2 ( R1 + R2 )

R2 + R1 + R2

ROC =

250 + 800 + 250

RSC =

R1 R2

R1 + R2

RSC =

800 250

800 + 250

RO = 201.92 190.48

RO =196 .11

16

Investigate Two Port Networks

(c)

Solution:Insertion Loss = 1 LN ( N )

N=

RO + R2

If R2 > RO (Which it does)

R2 RO

N=

196.11 + 250

250 196.11

N =

8.2

7

8

Insertion

Loss

2 Np ' s

17

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.9

The total attenuation is 6.098 Nepers and the total phase shift is 24.

Determine the following parameters for each two port network:-

(a)

LN ( N ) = 6.098

N = e6.098

N =

4

4

4

.9

6

6

9

4

5

7

444.9669457 = e3

LN ( 444.9669457 ) = 3

LN ( 444.9669457 )

=

3

= 2.0326666666 7

=2.03

Nepers

Check:Attenuation Coefficient =

444.9669457

7.634417685 = e

= LN ( 7.634417685 )

= 2.0326666666 7

=2.03

Nepers

18

Investigate Two Port Networks

(b)

Solution:24O = 3

24

3

= 8O

=

(c)

45

Radians

Propagation coefficient

Solution: =+j

= 2.033 + j

45

Rectangular Form

OR

Polar Form

e =

7.634

8O

(d)

Solution:6.098 = LN ( N )

e6.098 = N

dB ' s = 52.96655501

53 dB ' s

19

Investigate Two Port Networks

1.10 Using the results obtained in 1.9 above determine the following :(a)

So:

1Np =

20 LOG ( 444.9669457 )

LN ( 444.9669457 )

1Np = 8.685889638

1N

p

(b)

=

8.686

dB ' s

So:

1dB =

LN ( 444.9669457 )

20 LOG ( 444.9669457 )

1dB = 0.1151292546

1dB

=

0.115

N

p 's

20

Investigate Two Port Networks

Task 2

2.1

section and is to match a 1.5k load.

(a)

18

= LOG ( N )

20

18

10 20 = N

N =

7. 9

4

3

2

8

2

3

4

7

R ( N 1)

R1 = O

N +1

1500 ( 7.943282347 1)

R1 =

7.943282347 + 1

R1 =1164

(b)

.55

R2 =

RO ( 2 N )

N 2 1

R2 =

1500 ( 2 7.943282347)

7.9432823472 1

R2 =371 .79

Solution:-

21

Investigate Two Port Networks

2.2

characteristic impedance of 600.

(a)

15

= LOG ( N )

20

10

15

20

=N

N =

5. 6

2

3

4

1

3

2

5

2

R N 2 1

R1 = O

2N

600 5.623413252 2 1

R1 =

2 5.623413252

R1 =1633

(b)

.68

R2 =

RO ( N + 1)

N 1

R2 =

600 ( 5.623413252+ 1)

5.623413252 1

R 2 =859 .55

Solution:-

22

Investigate Two Port Networks

2.3. Test the two designs in 2.1 and 2.2 using the Croc Clips or Multisim S/W

simulation.

Solution:-

2.1

T Pad

Table

AC

2.2

Pi Pad

Table

AC

DC

DC

Vin

Iin

Rin

Vout

Iout

Rout

-Av

4.05 V

8.09 V

10 V

7V

5V

9.51 V

10 V

7V

2.71 mA

5.43 mA

6.71 mA

4.7 mA

8.33 mA

15.9 mA

16.7 mA

11.7 mA

1,495

1,490

1,490

1,489

600

598

599

598

498 mV

997 mV

1.23 V

862 mV

889 mV

1.69 V

1.78 V

1.24 V

332 uA

664 uA

821 uA

575 uA

1.48 mA

2.82 mA

2.96 mA

2.07 mA

1,500

1,502

1,498

1,499

601

599

601

599

18.20 dBs

18.19 dBs

18.20 dBs

18.19 dBs

15.00 dBs

15.00 dBs

14.99 dBs

15.03 dBs

2.4. Record the following voltage and current measurements using meters:(a)

Vin

(b)

I in

(c)

Vout

(d)

I out

23

Investigate Two Port Networks

Characteristic Resistance

(b)

Attenuation in dBs

2.6. Compare your results against the theoretical calculations and explain any

differences.

Solution:For Task 2.1, I was aiming to receive 18dBs of Attenuation. From the

measured results it was actually calculated at 18.20 and 18.19 dBs.

The difference was caused by the lack of decimal places that could be

used for the resistor values in the T Pad circuit. I had calculated the

resistor values to up to seven decimal places, but could only input one

at most, I would expect this to be the cause of the final Attenuation

amount to being different from that required.

For Task 2.1, I did actually work out the Characteristic Resistance with

the values of resistor that could be used, and it came to 1491.146874

Ohms, which is very close to the 1500 Ohms it was designed for.

For Task 2.2, I also worked out the Characteristic Resistance with the

resistor values used in the simulation, and it came to 600.0053605

Ohms, which is extremely close to the 600 Ohms it was designed for.

This closer Characteristic Resistance resulted in getting results which

were much closer to the 15dBs required, and in two instances out of

four the simulation showed exactly 15dBs of Attenuation.

I am putting the difference in Actual to Real Attenuation in the

limitations of the software as further theoretical calculation shows that

the full calculated resistor values would provide the required

Characteristic Resistance.

24

Investigate Two Port Networks

Evaluation

I found Task 1.1 relatively simple, as it was simply a case of inputting values

of resistors into a predetermined equation. This was the same in both parts of

the Task 1.1a and 1.1b.

Task 1.2 went into more depth about the circuit and asked to determine

multiple parameters. It took slightly longer to complete than Task 1.1,

however it had similar principles as far as inputting values into an equation

goes.

Tasks 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 involved working out two different values, one in

Decibels and one in Nepers. The Power Ratios have a different formula to

that of Voltage and Current. Power is precisely half the Log and Natural Log

of that used when determining the Voltage and Current, this was something I

had to look out for to prevent an error in my workings.

For Task 1.6 I had to use Transposition of Formulae methods, to be able get

the answer for the input Power. I managed to do this relatively easily as

transposition is something we use every week at college.

Task 1.7 was also a case of inputting known values into an equation and

getting an output which then gets fed into another equation to get the answer.

I fortunately didnt struggle on this Task.

In Task 1.8 it began to get more difficult. I had to determine the Open Circuit

Resistance and the Closed Circuit Resistance and then take the Square Root

of the Product of these two results.

I found Task 1.9 a little bit difficult as I had to manipulate the example to be

able to understand which equations I needed to use. Once I had done this

though I could get an answer which I was able to check, using a different

equation. Then using my value for N, which was 444, I could determine the

number of Decibels to a Neper and visa-versa.

Overall I found Task 1, relatively straight forward as the majority of the Task

was deciding which equations were necessary to answer the question.

For Task 2 I had to design and test an Attenuator circuit which provides an 18

dB and 15 dB Attenuation.

I had to work out the resistance values for R1 and R2, and then create a

circuit simulation in CrocTech which demonstrated the attenuations. For Task

2.1 I received an attenuation of 18.20 dBs which wasnt quite the 18 dBs

required. The most likely cause of this discrepancy was probably the lack of

accuracy in the resistors which could only be entered to one decimal place at

maximum. All of the other results look relatively accurate.

Conclusion

To conclude the assignment, I felt that it went well. The examples provided

from class definitely helped in working out the assignment questions. They

clearly showed which values from corresponding circuits were required to be

entered in the equations.

I felt my work has been to a high standard and I have managed to keep

putting in a large amount of effort outside of work hours to ensure the

assignments are complete in time. I will continue to try hard in this unit and

others throughout the last month of the academic year, and hope it is to a high

enough standard to receive the grades I am hoping for.

25

Investigate Two Port Networks

Bibliography

Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and

websites I was able to complete this assignment:

Books

BTEC National Engineering (Mike Tooley & Lloyd Dingle)

ISBN: 978-0-7506-8521-4

Success in Electronics (Tom Duncan & John Murray)

ISBN: 0-7195-4015-1

Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird)

ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7

Catalogues

N/A

Websites

N/A

26

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