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Investigate Two Port Networks

Electrical and Electronic Principles


By Brendan Burr

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................2
TASK 1................................................................................6
1.1 Find the characteristic impedance of the following pad
sections :-...........................................................................6
(a) T Pad.............................................................................6
Solution:-.........................................................................................6
(b) PI Pad...........................................................................7
Solution:-.........................................................................................7
1.2 In the following symmetrical pad determine the
following parameters :-.......................................................8
(a) Short circuit resistance Rsc............................................8
Solution:-.........................................................................................8
(b) Open circuit resistance Rdc............................................8
Solution:-.........................................................................................8
(c) Characteristic Impedance ...............................................9
Solution:-.........................................................................................9
(d) Attenuation in dB...........................................................9
Solution:-.........................................................................................9
1.3 Find the power ratios in dBs and Nepers for the
following power ratios :-....................................................10
(a) ..................................................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
(b) ...................................................................................10
Solution:-.......................................................................................10
1.4 Find the current ratios in dBs and Nepers for the
following current ratios:-...................................................11
(a) ...................................................................................11
Solution:-.......................................................................................11
(b) ...................................................................................11
Solution:-.......................................................................................11
1.5 Find the voltage ratios in dBs and Nepers for the
following voltage ratios:-...................................................12
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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(a) ...................................................................................12
Solution:-.......................................................................................12
(b) ...................................................................................12
Solution:-.......................................................................................12
1.6 The power output of an attenuator is 100 mW . If the
attenuation is 20 dBs determine the input power in Watts.. 13
Solution:-.......................................................................................13
Check:-...........................................................................................13
1.7 The following T attenuator pad feeds a matched load.
Determine the following parameters:-................................14
(a) The characteristic resistance .......................................14
Solution:-.......................................................................................14
(b) The insertion loss in dBs..............................................15
Solution:-.......................................................................................15
1.8 A symmetrical attenuator pad has a series arm
resistance of 800 and shunt arms each of 250 . .............16
(a) Draw a well labelled circuit diagram of the attenuator
connected to the load........................................................16
Solution:-.......................................................................................16
(b) Determine the characteristic impedance when feeding a
matched load....................................................................16
Solution:-.......................................................................................16
(c) Determine the insertion loss in Nepers when feeding a
matched load....................................................................17
Solution:-.......................................................................................17
1.9 Three identical symmetrical two port networks are
connected in cascade. The total attenuation is 6.098 Nepers
and the total phase shift is 24. Determine the following
parameters for each two port network:-.............................18
(a) Attenuation coefficient in nepers..................................18
Solution:-.......................................................................................18
Check:-...........................................................................................18
(b) Phase shift coefficient in radians..................................19
Solution:-.......................................................................................19
(c) Propagation coefficient.................................................19
Solution:-.......................................................................................19
(d) Total attenuation in dBs..............................................19
Solution:-.......................................................................................19
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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.10 Using the results obtained in 1.9 above determine the


following :-........................................................................20
(a) The number of dBs = 1 Neper.......................................20
Solution:-.......................................................................................20
(b) The number of Nepers = 1 dB.......................................20
Solution:-.......................................................................................20
TASK 2..............................................................................21
2.1 Design a T pad attenuator to provide 18 dB voltage
attenuation per section and is to match a 1.5k load. ........21
(a) Determine the values of R1 and R2................................21
Solution:-.......................................................................................21
(b) Draw the circuit diagram..............................................21
Solution:-.......................................................................................21
2.2 Design a pad attenuator to provide 15 dB attenuation
per section and a characteristic impedance of 600. ..........22
(a) Determine the values of R1 and R2. .............................22
Solution:-.......................................................................................22
(b) Draw the circuit diagram..............................................22
Solution:-.......................................................................................22
2.3. Test the two designs in 2.1 and 2.2 using the Croc Clips
or Multisim S/W simulation................................................23
Solution:-.......................................................................................23
2.4. Record the following voltage and current measurements
using meters:-...................................................................23
(a) ................................................................................23
Solution:-.......................................................................................23
(b) ................................................................................23
Solution:-.......................................................................................23
(c) ................................................................................23
Solution:-.......................................................................................23
(d) ..................................................................................23
Solution:-.......................................................................................23
2.5. From these results determine the following
measurements :-...............................................................24
Solution:-.......................................................................................24
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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(b) Attenuation in dBs.....................................................24


Solution:-.......................................................................................24
2.6. Compare your results against the theoretical calculations
and explain any differences...............................................24
Solution:-.......................................................................................24
EVALUATION.....................................................................25
CONCLUSION.....................................................................25
Books...............................................................................26
Catalogues........................................................................26
Websites...........................................................................26

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

Task 1
1.1

Find the characteristic impedance Z 0 of the following pad sections :-

(a)

T Pad

Solution:2

RO = R1 + 2 R1 R2
RO = 10 2 + 2 10 15
RO = 100 + 300
RO = 400
RO =20

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(b)

PI Pad

Solution:2

RO =

R1 R2
R1 + ( 2 R2 )

RO =

15 10 2
15 + ( 2 10 )

RO =

15 100
15 + 20

RO =

1500
35

RO =6.55

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.2

In the following symmetrical pad determine the following parameters :-

(a)

Short circuit resistance Rsc.

Solution:RSC =

R1 R2
R1 + R2

RSC =

1000 500
1000 + 500

RSC =333 .3

(b)

Open circuit resistance Rdc.

Solution:R DC =

R2 ( R1 + R2 )
R1 + R2 + R2

R DC =

500 ( 500 + 1000 )


500 + 500 + 1000

R DC =375

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(c)

Characteristic Impedance RO .

Solution:RO = ROC RSC


RO = 375 333.3
RO = 353.5533906
RO =354

(d)

Attenuation in dB.

Solution:N=

RO + R2
R2 RO

N=

353.5533906 + 1000
1000 353.5533906

N = 5.828427125
Attenuation = 20 LOG ( 5.83)
Attenuation = 15.31102741
A
tte
n
u
a
tio

n =
1
5 .3d
B 's

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.3

(a)

Find the power ratios in dBs and Nepers for the following power
ratios :P out
1
=
P in
2

Solution:Decibels 10 LOG ( 0.5) = 3dB ' s

(LOSS)

1
Nepers LN ( 0.5) = 0.35 Np ' s
2

(b)

P out
=1
P in

Solution:Decibels 10 LOG (1) = 0dB ' s

(UNITY GAIN BUFFER)

1
Nepers LN (1) = 0 Np ' s
2

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.4

Find the current ratios in dBs and Nepers for the following current ratios:-

(a)

I out
1
=
I in
4

Solution:1
Decibels 20 LOG = 12dB ' s
4

(LOSS)
1
Nepers LN = 1.4 Np ' s
4

(b)

I out
= 10
I in

Solution:Decibels 20 LOG (10 ) = 20 dB ' s

(GAIN)

Nepers LN (10 ) = 2.3 Np ' s

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.5

(a)

Find the voltage ratios in dBs and Nepers for the following voltage
ratios:V out
1
=
V in
8

Solution:1
Decibels 20 LOG = 18dB ' s
8

(LOSS)
1
Nepers LN = 2 Np ' s
8

(b)

V out
= 100
V in

Solution:Decibels 20 LOG (100 ) = 40 dB ' s

(GAIN)

Nepers LN (100 ) = 4.6 Np ' s

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.6

The power output of an attenuator is 100 mW . If the attenuation is 20


dBs determine the input power in Watts.

Solution: 100 10 3

20 = 10 LOG
P
IN

100 10 3
20

= LOG
10
PIN

10

100 10 3
=
PIN

PIN =

100 10 3
10 2

PIN = 10
PIN =10 W

Check:100 10 3
10 LOG

10

= 20

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.7

The following T attenuator pad feeds a matched load. Determine the


following parameters:-

(a)

The characteristic resistance R0

Solution:ROC = R1 + R2
ROC = 300
RSC = R1 +

R1 R2
R1 + R2

RSC = 200 +

200 100
200 + 100

RSC = 266.7
RO = RSC ROC
RO = 300 266.7
RO =282 .84

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(b)

The insertion loss in dBs.

Solution:20 LOG ( N ) dB
N=

RO + R1
RO R1

N=

282.84 + 200
282.84 200

N = 5.828427125
20 LOG ( 5.828427125 ) = 15.31102741
L
o
s
s

=
1
5 .3
1 d
B 's

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.8

A symmetrical attenuator pad has a series arm resistance of 800 and


shunt arms each of 250 .

(a)

Draw a well labelled circuit diagram of the attenuator connected to the


load.

Solution:-

(b)

Determine the characteristic impedance when feeding a matched load.

Solution:RO =

ROC RSC

RO = ROC RSC
ROC =

R2 ( R1 + R2 )
R2 + R1 + R2

ROC =

250( 800 + 250 )


250 + 800 + 250

ROC =201 .92

RSC =

R1 R2
R1 + R2

RSC =

800 250
800 + 250

RSC =190 .48

RO = 201.92 190.48
RO =196 .11

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(c)

Determine the insertion loss in Nepers when feeding a matched load.

Solution:Insertion Loss = 1 LN ( N )
N=

RO + R2
If R2 > RO (Which it does)
R2 RO

N=

196.11 + 250
250 196.11

N =
8.2
7
8

1 LN ( 8.278 ) Np ' s = 2.113620626 Np ' s


Insertion

Loss

2 Np ' s

(to the nearest whole number)

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.9

Three identical symmetrical two port networks are connected in cascade.


The total attenuation is 6.098 Nepers and the total phase shift is 24.
Determine the following parameters for each two port network:-

(a)

Attenuation coefficient in nepers

Solution:Total Attenuation = 6.098 Nps


LN ( N ) = 6.098
N = e6.098
N =
4
4
4

.9
6
6
9
4
5
7

444.9669457 = e3
LN ( 444.9669457 ) = 3
LN ( 444.9669457 )
=
3

= 2.0326666666 7
=2.03

Nepers

Check:Attenuation Coefficient =

444.9669457

7.634417685 = e

= LN ( 7.634417685 )
= 2.0326666666 7
=2.03

Nepers

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

(b)

Phase shift coefficient in radians

Solution:24O = 3

24
3

= 8O
=

(c)

45

Radians

Propagation coefficient

Solution: =+j

= 2.033 + j

45

Rectangular Form

OR
Polar Form

e =
7.634
8O

(d)

Total attenuation in dBs

Solution:6.098 = LN ( N )
e6.098 = N

dB ' s = 20 LOG e6.098

dB ' s = 52.96655501
53 dB ' s

(to the nearest whole number)


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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

1.10 Using the results obtained in 1.9 above determine the following :(a)

The number of dBs = 1 Neper.

Solution:6.098 Nepers = 52.96655501dB' s


So:
1Np =

20 LOG ( 444.9669457 )
LN ( 444.9669457 )

1Np = 8.685889638
1N
p

(b)

=
8.686

dB ' s

The number of Nepers = 1 dB.

Solution:6.098 Nepers = 52.96655501dB' s


So:
1dB =

LN ( 444.9669457 )
20 LOG ( 444.9669457 )

1dB = 0.1151292546
1dB

=
0.115

N
p 's

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

Task 2
2.1

Design a T pad attenuator to provide 18 dB voltage attenuation per


section and is to match a 1.5k load.

(a)

Determine the values of R1 and R2.

Solution:20 LOG ( N ) = 18dB' s


18
= LOG ( N )
20
18

10 20 = N
N =
7. 9
4
3
2
8
2
3
4
7

R ( N 1)
R1 = O
N +1
1500 ( 7.943282347 1)
R1 =
7.943282347 + 1
R1 =1164

(b)

.55

R2 =

RO ( 2 N )
N 2 1

R2 =

1500 ( 2 7.943282347)
7.9432823472 1

R2 =371 .79

Draw the circuit diagram.

Solution:-

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

2.2

Design a pad attenuator to provide 15 dB attenuation per section and a


characteristic impedance of 600.

(a)

Determine the values of R1 and R2.

Solution:20 LOG ( N ) = 15dB' s


15
= LOG ( N )
20

10

15
20

=N

N =
5. 6
2
3
4
1
3
2
5
2

R N 2 1
R1 = O
2N
600 5.623413252 2 1
R1 =
2 5.623413252

R1 =1633

(b)

.68

R2 =

RO ( N + 1)
N 1

R2 =

600 ( 5.623413252+ 1)
5.623413252 1

R 2 =859 .55

Draw the circuit diagram.

Solution:-

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

2.3. Test the two designs in 2.1 and 2.2 using the Croc Clips or Multisim S/W
simulation.
Solution:-

2.1
T Pad
Table

AC

2.2
Pi Pad
Table

AC

DC

DC

Vin

Iin

Rin

Vout

Iout

Rout

-Av

4.05 V
8.09 V
10 V
7V
5V
9.51 V
10 V
7V

2.71 mA
5.43 mA
6.71 mA
4.7 mA
8.33 mA
15.9 mA
16.7 mA
11.7 mA

1,495
1,490
1,490
1,489
600
598
599
598

498 mV
997 mV
1.23 V
862 mV
889 mV
1.69 V
1.78 V
1.24 V

332 uA
664 uA
821 uA
575 uA
1.48 mA
2.82 mA
2.96 mA
2.07 mA

1,500
1,502
1,498
1,499
601
599
601
599

18.20 dBs
18.19 dBs
18.20 dBs
18.19 dBs
15.00 dBs
15.00 dBs
14.99 dBs
15.03 dBs

2.4. Record the following voltage and current measurements using meters:(a)

Vin

Solution:See 2.3 Table (Under Heading Vin).


(b)

I in

Solution:See 2.3 Table (Under Heading Iin)


(c)

Vout

Solution:See 2.3 Table (Under Heading Vout)


(d)

I out

Solution:See 2.3 Table (Under Heading Iout)

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

2.5. From these results determine the following measurements :(a)

Characteristic Resistance

Solution:See 2.3 Table (Under Heading Rout)


(b)

Attenuation in dBs

Solution:See 2.3 Table (Under Heading Av)

2.6. Compare your results against the theoretical calculations and explain any
differences.
Solution:For Task 2.1, I was aiming to receive 18dBs of Attenuation. From the
measured results it was actually calculated at 18.20 and 18.19 dBs.
The difference was caused by the lack of decimal places that could be
used for the resistor values in the T Pad circuit. I had calculated the
resistor values to up to seven decimal places, but could only input one
at most, I would expect this to be the cause of the final Attenuation
amount to being different from that required.
For Task 2.1, I did actually work out the Characteristic Resistance with
the values of resistor that could be used, and it came to 1491.146874
Ohms, which is very close to the 1500 Ohms it was designed for.
For Task 2.2, I also worked out the Characteristic Resistance with the
resistor values used in the simulation, and it came to 600.0053605
Ohms, which is extremely close to the 600 Ohms it was designed for.
This closer Characteristic Resistance resulted in getting results which
were much closer to the 15dBs required, and in two instances out of
four the simulation showed exactly 15dBs of Attenuation.
I am putting the difference in Actual to Real Attenuation in the
limitations of the software as further theoretical calculation shows that
the full calculated resistor values would provide the required
Characteristic Resistance.

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

Evaluation
I found Task 1.1 relatively simple, as it was simply a case of inputting values
of resistors into a predetermined equation. This was the same in both parts of
the Task 1.1a and 1.1b.
Task 1.2 went into more depth about the circuit and asked to determine
multiple parameters. It took slightly longer to complete than Task 1.1,
however it had similar principles as far as inputting values into an equation
goes.
Tasks 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 involved working out two different values, one in
Decibels and one in Nepers. The Power Ratios have a different formula to
that of Voltage and Current. Power is precisely half the Log and Natural Log
of that used when determining the Voltage and Current, this was something I
had to look out for to prevent an error in my workings.
For Task 1.6 I had to use Transposition of Formulae methods, to be able get
the answer for the input Power. I managed to do this relatively easily as
transposition is something we use every week at college.
Task 1.7 was also a case of inputting known values into an equation and
getting an output which then gets fed into another equation to get the answer.
I fortunately didnt struggle on this Task.
In Task 1.8 it began to get more difficult. I had to determine the Open Circuit
Resistance and the Closed Circuit Resistance and then take the Square Root
of the Product of these two results.
I found Task 1.9 a little bit difficult as I had to manipulate the example to be
able to understand which equations I needed to use. Once I had done this
though I could get an answer which I was able to check, using a different
equation. Then using my value for N, which was 444, I could determine the
number of Decibels to a Neper and visa-versa.
Overall I found Task 1, relatively straight forward as the majority of the Task
was deciding which equations were necessary to answer the question.
For Task 2 I had to design and test an Attenuator circuit which provides an 18
dB and 15 dB Attenuation.
I had to work out the resistance values for R1 and R2, and then create a
circuit simulation in CrocTech which demonstrated the attenuations. For Task
2.1 I received an attenuation of 18.20 dBs which wasnt quite the 18 dBs
required. The most likely cause of this discrepancy was probably the lack of
accuracy in the resistors which could only be entered to one decimal place at
maximum. All of the other results look relatively accurate.

Conclusion
To conclude the assignment, I felt that it went well. The examples provided
from class definitely helped in working out the assignment questions. They
clearly showed which values from corresponding circuits were required to be
entered in the equations.
I felt my work has been to a high standard and I have managed to keep
putting in a large amount of effort outside of work hours to ensure the
assignments are complete in time. I will continue to try hard in this unit and
others throughout the last month of the academic year, and hope it is to a high
enough standard to receive the grades I am hoping for.

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Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics


Investigate Two Port Networks

Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and
websites I was able to complete this assignment:
Books
BTEC National Engineering (Mike Tooley & Lloyd Dingle)
ISBN: 978-0-7506-8521-4
Success in Electronics (Tom Duncan & John Murray)
ISBN: 0-7195-4015-1
Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird)
ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7
Catalogues
N/A
Websites
N/A

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