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dEI;wVj dh vk/kkjHkwr lajpuk dEI;wVj kCn dEI;wV ls cuk gS] ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS dsYdwysV x.

kuk djuk A blfy, dEI;wVj ,d x.kd fMokbl dks nkkZrk gS tksfd vadh; x.kuk dks cgqr rst xfr ls laikfnr djrk gSA vko;drk gh vkfodkj dh tuuh gSA dEI;wVlZZ ds fy, ;g lgh dgk x;k gSA fd dEI;wVj ,d og fMokbl gS] tks lgh vkSj rst xfr ls ogh x.kuk djrk gSA tksfd ,d O;fDr pkgrk gSA dEI;wVj dk bfrgkl ekuo thou ds izkjfEHd dky esa gekjs iwoZtks dk dHkh Hkh bl izdkj dh x.kukvksa dh vko;drk eglwl ugh gqbZ] ijUrq ckn esa ekuo us lkekftd lewgksa dk fuekZ.k djuk vkjEHk dj fn;kA blh ds lkFk mls x.kuk dh vko;drk eglwl gksuh yxhA bl ;qx dh igyh x.kuk iz.kkyh dks **ckVZj iz.kkyh** dgk tkrk FkkA blesa ,d oLrq dh rqyuk mlh lerqY; nwljh oLrq ls dh tkrh FkhA x.kuk djus dk ;g ,d vklku rjhdk FkkA blds ckn tSls&tSls ekuo lekt fodflr gksrk x;k] bldh vko;drk, c<rh pyh xbZ A /khj&/khjs maxyh ij vkSj mlds ckn mlds fodflr :Ik esa vckdl uke dsa ;U= ij x.kuk,sa djuk vkjEHk djuk izkjEHk dj fn;kA ;g nqfu;k dk izFke dsYdwysVj FkkA vkfodkj yxkrkj izkjEHk jgsaaA lu~ 1642 bZ0 esa Qzkal ds ;qok oSKkfud Cyst ikWLdy us ,d esdsfudy dsYdwysfVax ekkuh dk vkfodkj fd;k ,ao lu~ 1673 bZ0 esa teZu xf.krK xzkWV QkzbM fofy;e us bl ekhu esa lq/kkj dj bls tksM] ckdh ] xq.kk] Hkkx ds vykok xf.kr dh tfVy la[;kvksa ds oxZewy fudkyus ds fy, mi;kssxh cuk fn;kA lu~ 1801 bZ0 esa iap dkMZ dh [kkst dh xbZ bl dkMZ esa ,d v{kj dks iznfkZr djus ds fy, gksYl iap fd;s tkrs FksA mu gksYl dh x.kukk ds vk/kkkj ij v{kjksa dk okil i< fy;k tkrk Fkk] ftldsa fy, ,d vU; ekhu Fkh] ftls ge dEI;wVj dk izkjfEHkd ;qx dgk tk ldrk gSA lu~ 1924 bZ0 esa ,d dEI;qfVax VscwysfVax fjdkWfMx dEiuh cukbZ xbZ A ;g dEiuh **bUVjuskuy fctusl ekhu
RED CROSS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Page 1

dkWiksZjsku** vFkkZr~ vkbZ ch ,e ds uke ls tkuh tkrh gSA dEI;wVj D;k gS \ ge dEI;wVj dh ifjHkkkk bl izdkj ys ldrs gSA fd ;g ekhu tks fd buiqV dsa :Ik esa MkVk Lohdkj djrh gks] LVksj vkSj fu;af=r djrh gks vkSj var esa vkmViqV dsa :Ik esa ifj.kke nsrh gS] ml ekhu dks dEI;wVj dgrsa gSA vkSj computer is an Electronic machine which convert the data, process the data and give us full information of Data.
1. Full Form of Computer? C= Common O= Operate M= Machine P= Particular U= Used in T= Trade E= Education R= Research

2. Principle of Computer:-

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT
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RED CROSS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

ALU

INPUT

CPU

OUT PUT

MU

Input device: ftl device esa data in fad;k tkrk gS mls input device dgrs

gSA tSls Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Joystics.


Output device : ftl device ds }kjk data out fad;k tkrk gSA tSls Moniter, Printer, Specker etc.

TYPES OF COMPUTERS Computers are classified into different categories depending upon their speed and processing capabilities. ANALOG COMPUTERS:

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Analog computers work on continuous data, measured along a continuous scale generally used in processes like temperature measurements etc.

DIGITAL COMPUTERS: These computers work on discrete data. The value of a digital variable can be found out by counting. Numbers of pages in a book are discrete or digital. Digital computers are again divided into Micro, Mini, Mainframe and Super Computers. HYBRID COMPUTERS: Hybrid computers are combination o fboth digital and Analog Computers. MICRO COMPOUTERS: Micro computers are small in size with tremendous processing speed. Micro computers are popularly known as Personal Computers. MINI COMPUTERS: This machine has another advantage over the PC-AT (PCs with advance technology); here we have hundreds of dumb terminals attached to the same CPU. Processing speed is also many times faster than Micro Computers. Example : IBM 9375.

MAINFRAME COMPUTERS: A computer system which is mainly used for handling the bulk size of data and information is known as a Mainframe Computers. These type of computers are used in organizations like banks, insurance companies, big
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industries, hospitals, railway etc. they are also used in such environments where a large number of users need to share a common computing facility, such as in research groups, educations, engineering firms etc, IBM 370, CYBER 170 is Mainframe Computers. SUPER COMPUTERS: These computer systems are characterized by their very high processing speeds. They are generally used for complex scientific applications with multiprocessing and parallel processing. Huge amount of calculations ad large volume of data can be processed only in Super Computers with fast speed and large memories. PARAM 10000 is super Computer. GERNERATIONS OF COMPUTERS: Five types of generations.
1.

First Generations: (1942-1955) The first generation computers used vacuum tubes and they could only solve one problem at a time.

2.

Second Generations: (1955-1964) Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generations of computer.

3.

Third Generations: (1964-1975) Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips (ICIntegrated Circuit ) .

4.

Fourth Generations: (1975-1989) The fourth generation of computers. As thousands of integrated circuits were built into a single silicon chip.

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5. Fifth Generations: 1989-till date Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development.

ASSEMBLING OF COMPUTER: Computer esa yxusa okys lHkh device dks lqpk: :Ik ls tksMdj ,d Complete Computer RkS;kj djuk

gh Assembling of Computer dgykrk gSA

PARTS OF COMPUTER: Two Types of Parts: 1. Compulsory 2. Optional COMPULSORY PARTS


1. Cabinet with SMPS 2. Mother Board 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. Hard disk 6. CD Drive 7. Cable 8. Monitor 9. Key Board 10. Mouse

OPTIONAL PARTS 1. UPS 2. Printer 3. Scanner 4. Pen Drive 5. Speaker 6. Cards 7. Floppy Drive 8. Zip Drive 9. Web Cam 10. Digital Cam
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RED CROSS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

DETAIL OF ALL PARTS Cabinet with SMPS Computer ds vUnj yxus okys lHkh device dks ,d Box esa set

djusa ds fy, ftl Device dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS og gSA

Cabinet dgykrk

SMPS:- Switched Mode Power Supply Computer esa yxus okys lHkh device dks Power Supply nsus ds fy, ftl electronics device dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA og SMPS dgykrk gSA bls power devider ;k Heart of Computer Hkh dgk tkrk gSA TYPE OF SMPS 1. AT (Advance Technology) 6+6 = 12 pin 2. ATX (Advance Technology Extended ) 20pins 3. ATX P4 (Advance Technology Extended Pentium 4) 20+4 = 24 pins 4. BTX (Balance Technology Extended ) 20+4+4 = 28 pins 5. WTX (Work Station Technology Extended ) 20+4+6 = 30pins Note : SMPS dks check djus ds fy, Black wire dks short djus ij 20 pins connector esa green vkSj

SMPS fan on gks x;kA rks SMPS lgh

gSA vU;Fkk [kjkc gSA

MOTHER BOARD :

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;g ,d input and output device gksrk gSA dEi;wVj esa yxus okys lHkh
device dks main base iznku djus ds fy, ftl electronics device dk iz;ksx fd;k

tkrk gSA og Mother Board dgykrk gSA bl ij fdlh Hkh device dks connect djus ds fy, vyx vyx Port, connector and slot fn;s tkrs gSA

TYPES OF MOTHER BOARD ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGY :XT (EXTENDED TECHNOLOGY) bl izdkj ds mother board esa keyboard dks

NksMdj dksbZ Hkh on board Connector ugh gksrk gSA vkSj blesa Bios dk use ugh fd;k x;k gSA bl ij fdlh Hkh device dks connect djus ds fy,

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card ;k cable dk iz;ksx fd;k tkr gSA blds vUrxrZ (P1, P2 AND OLD TYPE P3 MOTHER BOARD) gSA AT (ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY) bl izdkj ds connector and board ik, tkrs gSA vkSj blesa Mother board esa lHkh Bios dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk

gSA bldsa (New Type P3 and P4 Mother board) vkrs gSA


TYPE OF MOTHER BOARD :1. ORIGINAL 2. CHIPSET ORIGINAL : bl izdkj dsa Mother board esa Mother board and CPU ,d gh

dEiuh dsa gksrs gSA


As: INTEL COMPANY dj Mother board and Intel CPU, bl izdkj ds

Mother board dh data transfer speed fast gksrh gSA CHIPSET : bl izdkj ds Mother Board esa Mother Board and CPU vyx vyx Company ds gksrs gSA As: - Intel company dk Mother Board and AMD Mother Board dh Data Transfer Speed de

company dk CPU bl izdkj ds

gksrh gSA
TYPES OF MOTHER BOARD ACCORDING TO CPU:-

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Four Types: P1, P2, P3, P4

Full form of P= Pentiuem IDENTIFICATION OF MOTHER BOARD 1. CPU Socket : Mother Board dh PCB (Printed Crcuit Board ) esa ftl txg

ij CPU (Processer) yxk;k trk gSA mls CPU Socket dgrs gSA
P1:- Socket No. 1 to 7 P2:- Slot Type CPU (242 Pin) Kalamath Slot P3:- PGA/Socket 370 P4:- PGA- 423/478 LPGA- 771/775

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2. Clock Speed: it is a internally CPU Data Transfer speed. P1P2P3P460mhz 266mhz 500mhz 1.4ghz - 233mhz - 450mhz - 1.3mhz - 3.0 ghz

3. FSB (Front Side Bus) it is a maternally Mother Board Data Transfer Speed P1 P2 P3 P4 60MHZ 66MHZ 100MHZ 400MHZ 66MHZ 100MHZ 133MHZ 800/2000MHZ

4. RAM P1 P2 P3 P4 D, SD RAM D, SD RAM SD RAM DDR RAM

How may types of slts? TWO TYPES 1. Input slot 2. Memory slot

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SMPS P1 P2 P3 P4 - AT/ATX - AT/ATX - ATX -ATX P4, BTX, WTX

CPU (CONTROL PROCESSING UNIT) Computer esa data dh controlling and processing djus ds fy, ftl device dk

iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA mls CPU dgrs gSA bls

Processor and Heart of

Computer

Hkh

dgk

tkrk

gSA

CPU cukus oky dEiuh;ka Intel AMD IBM Celeron Pentiuem ATOM Products of Intel Company

Pentiuem P1, P2, P3, P4,


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Dual core Core 3 due Quad core Core i3 Core i5 Core i7 CPU NO COUNT 933 Clock speed / 256 / / FSB 128 / 175V

/Cache Memory L1/L2

/ Core voit

Note : CPU dks check djus ds fy,

Mother ls CPU fan dks Dis Connect

djsxsa vkSj fQj system esa supply nsaA ;fn bl condition esa CPU
Heat gks jgk gS rks CPU lgh gS vU;Fkk [kjkc gSA RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY )

;g ,d

primary storage device gSA ftldsa }kjk dEi;wVj esa

data dks

temprory :Ik ls store fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn system esa Ram ugh yxh gS ;k Ram [kjkc gks tkrh gS rks system esa display ugh vk,sxkA vkSj system

ls continue beep dh beep dh vkokt vk,xhA


TYPE OF RAM 1. S Ram (Static Ram ) ;g Ram cache memory ds :i esa Mother Board ij fix

gksrh gSA
2.
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SD

3. D Ram (Dynamic Ram ) Two type of D Ram 1. 30 pin NO Cut 2. 70 pin 1 cut

DDR 1

DDR 2

DDR 3

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USE FOR SIMM SLOT 3. SD Ram (Syncronise Dynamic) 168pin (Double cut) and use in 4. RD (Ram Bus Dynamic) 184 pin (one cut ) and use in Rimm Slot Dimm Slot

;g Ram P4 (850) Mother board ij yxrh FkhA


5.DDR Ram (Double Data Rate Ram) Type of DDR Ram DDR1 184pin 1cut Use for DIMM Slot HDD (Hard Disk Drive ) ;g ,d permanents Storage Device gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk DDR2 240pin 1 cut DD2 240pin 1 cut

dEi;wVj esa lkjk data parmnent dks :Ik ls Save fd;k tkrk gSA lcls igys

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IBM Company us

HDD dk fuekZ.k fd;k ftldh capacity 10mb and size 5

gksrh Fkh mlds ckn tSls tSls Technology esa ifjorZu gksrk x;kA blds space dks upgrade and size dks downgrade fd;k tkrk gSA
TYPES OF HDD ACCORDING TO SIZE 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1/8

TYPES OF HDD ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGY 1. JDE, NORMAL, ATA, PATA: - bl izdkj dh HDD ds fy, 40 pin datacable connector, 4 in power supply connector and 8-10 pin jumper setting pin dk iz;ksx

fd;k tkrk gSA


2. SATA (SERIAL ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY ATTACHMENTS) bl izdkj

dh HDD ds fy,

5 pin power supply connector and 7 pin connector cable

connector dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 3. SCSI (SMALL COMPUTER SYSTEM INTERFACE) Two Types : 1. Wide = 50pin 2. Narrow = 68pin

bl izdkj dh HDD dk iz;ksx Laptop, Note Book and Server esa fd;k tkrk gSA

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4- USB (UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS) ;g ,d external HDD gksrh gSA ftldk


use USB Port ij fd;k tkrk gSA blds fy, USB Data Cable dk iz;ksx fd;k

tkrk Gsa IDE


HDD PLATTER SPEED Normal = 5700 RPM (Round Per Minute) Baracuda = 7200 RPM (Round Per Minute) Chitta = 10000 RPM (Round Per Minute) ATA = (Advance Technology Attetchment ) PATA = Parallal Advance Technology Attetchment )

SATA HDD

CD/DVD DRIVE

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;g ,d secondary (Permanent) storage device gSA bls Optical device Hkh dgk tkrk gSA blds }kjk CD/DVD ds data dks Read/Write fd;k tkrk gSA

DVD R/W

USB DVD R/W

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LAPTOP DVD

1. CD ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) : blds }kjk flQZ CD ds data

dks Read or write fd;k tkrk gSA


2. CD.Writer bldsa }kjk CD dsa DATA dks Read or Write fd;k tkrk

gSA
3. DVD Rom/Combo Drive : blds }kjk CD ds data dks read /write & DVD

dks read djrk gSA


4. DVD Writer: blds }kjk CD Read /write and DVD Read /Writer dh tkrh

gSA

5. CABLE :

nks device dks connect djus ds fy, ftl media dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA og cable dgykrh gSA bls Interfacing Hkh dgk tkrk Gsa

Sata Data

IDE to Sata Convert Connector

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1. Internal Cable 40pin IDE Cable 34 Pin FDD Cable 7 pin SATA Cable 2. External Cable: 1. Power Cable 2. 15 pin VGA Cable 3.6 pin PS2 Cable 3. Converter Cable : 1.Printer Cable 2.Scanner Cable 3.Mobile Data Cable MONITOR :-

IDE Data Cable

Power Cable

;g ,d out put device gSA ftlds }kjk display ij soft copy ds :Ik esa data dks
out fd;k tkr gSA

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TYPE OF MONITOR ACCORDING TO COLOUR 1. B/W MONITOR 2. COLOUR MONITOR TYPE OF MONITOR ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGY: 1. MDA (Mono display Adaptor) bl izdkj ds monitor esa Text Working gksrh

Fkh vkSj blds fy, 9 pin ds connector dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
2. CGA (Colour Graphic Adaptor ) bl izdkj ds Monitor esa Graphic Working

gksrh FkhA vkSj blds fy, 9pin ds connector dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
3. Dual Monitor (MDA+CGA) : ;g monitor MDA and CGA nksuks dks

feykdj cuk;k x;k gSA blds }kjk Text and Graphic nksuks working dh tkrh Fkh vksj blesa 9 pin ds connector dk iz;ksx fd;k x;kA
4. VGA (Video Graphic Adaptor) (CRT-cathode Ray Tube) bl izdkj ds Monitor

esa RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Colour esa Picuture izkIr gksrh gSA vksj blds fy, 15pin VGA Connector dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
5. TFT (Thin Film Transistor ) bl izdkj ds monitor dh cukoV Thin Film Transistor ls feydj cuh gqbZ gSA vkSj bldsa fy, Connector dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA 6. LED (Light Emitting Diode) bl izdkj ds monitor dh cukoV Light Emitting Diode ls feydj cuh gqbZ gSA blds fy, 15 pin VGA Connector dk 15pin VGA

iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA


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7. LCD (Liqued crystal display) bls izdkj dsa Monitor dh cukoV Liquid crystal Display ls feydj cuh gqbZ gS bldsa fy, 15 Pin VGA Connector

dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

KEY BOARD

;g ,d input device gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk computer esa text working dh tkrh gSA Keyboard dsa }kjk Matrix ds vk/kkj ij working dh tkrh gSA

TYPEMulti Media Key OF KEYBOARD

Board ACCORDING TECHNOLOGY


1. Normal Key Board

bl

izdkj ds Key Board esa 101, 103, 105, 107 keys gksrh gSA
2. Multimedia Key Board : bl izdkj dsa Key Board esa keys gksrh gSA 3. Wireless Keyboard : bl izdkj dk Key Board Normal & Mulitmedia gksrk 111, 121, 122, 124

gsA
TYPE OF KEYBOARD ACCORDING TO MTERFACR
1. 5 pin at Pin Connector 2. 9 pin Serial Port

3. 6 pin PS2 Connector 4. 4 Pin USB Port


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Normal Key Board


MOUSE

;g ,d Input device gksrk gSA ftldsa }kjk computer esa Graphic Working gksrh gSA lcls igys 1984 esa Apple machantos Company das }kjk Mouse dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k FkkA
TYPE OF MOUSE ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGY 1. Mechanical Mouse 2. Op to mechanical Mouse 3. Optical Mouse

MECHANICAL MOUSE : bl izdkj ds mouse esa left & Right button ds lkFk cursor dks ?kwekus ds fy, ball dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

MECHANICAL

OPTO MECHANICAL MOUSE: bl izdkj ds mouse esa Left and Right button ds

lkFk lkFk scroll fn;k tkrk gSA vksj cursor dks ?kwekus ds fy, Ball dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

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OPTICAL MOUSE: bl izdkj ds Mouse es Left and right button dsa lkFk lkFk scroll fn;k x;k gS vkSj cursor dks ?kwekus ds fy, laser light dk iz;ksx

OPTICAL

fd;k x;k gSA

TYPE OF MOUSE ACCORDING TO MTERFACE 1. 9pin serial prot 2. 6 in PS2 port 3. 4pin USB Port 4. Wire less mouse OPTIONAL PARTS UPS (Un interrupted Power supply) AC supply cut gksus ds ckn system dks continue supply nsus ds fy, ftl

Electronics Device dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS og UPS dgykrk gSA

;k

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Electronics device dks Power Problum ls cpkus ds fy, ftl electronic device dk

iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS og UPS dgykrk gSA


TYPE OF UPS 1. On line Ups 2. Off line Ups 3. Line Intractive Ups

2. PRINTER : ;g ,d output device gksrk gSaA ftlds }kjk hard copy ds :Ik

esa Paper ij print out fd;k tkrk gSa

TYPE OF PRINTER DMP (DOT MATRIC PRINTER)

bl izdkj ds printer esa printing ds fy, ribbn catratage dk iz;ksx fd;k tkr gSA vkSj blds }jk dot ds :Ik esa printing izkIr dh tkrh gSA rFkk bldh xfr dks CPS (Character per Second ) esa ekih tkrh gSA

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DOT MARTIX PRINTER


INKJET PRINTER:

bl izdkj ds Printer esa Printing ds fy, ink catradge dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj bldh xfr dks PPM (Page Per Minute ) esa ekih tkrh gSA

INK JET PRINTER


LASER PRINTER ( LIGHT AMPLIFICATION SEMULATED EMISSION

READIATION)

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bl izdkj ds printer esa Tonner Catradge dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vksj bldh SPEED PM esa ekih tkrh gSA

LEASER PRINTER

SCANNER

;g ,d input device gksrh gSA ftlds }kjk fdlh Hkh data, photo or
Signature dks scan fd;k tkrk gSA

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SCANNER

TYPE OF SCANNER 1. Hend Held Scanner 2. Sit Bad Scanner 3. Drum Scanner 4. Flat Bad Scanner

SPEAKER

bldk iz;ksx computer ij vkokt lquus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSa A ;g ekdsZV esa vyx vyx okV esa miYc/k gSA tSls : 250w, 300w, 500w, 1000w, 1200w, 1500w, 2000w, 4000w.

CARDS
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bldk iz;ksx dEi;wVj esa on board connector [kjkc gksus ij ;k dqN


extra facility add djus dss fy, fd;k tkrk gSA TYPES OF CARDS 1. Sound Card 2. Display Card 3. Lan Card 4. Modem Card 5. TV Tunnor Card 6. Etc. Note fdlh Hkh internal card dk iz;ksx slot ij fd;k tkrk gSA ;g vyx

LAN CARD

MODEM

vyx bit esa gksrs gSA tSls 16bit, 32bit, 64bit,

TV TUNER
FLOPPY

SOUND

bldk iz;ksx Data dks store djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS ysfdu bldk
space de 1.44mb gksus ds dkj.k /khjs /khjs out of market gks jgh gSA

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ZIP DRIVE

bldk iz;ksx data dks store djus ds fy, fd;k trk Fk bldk space Hkh de gksus ds dj.k ;s Hkh out of market gks jgs gSA

WEB CAM

bldk iz;ksx security dsa fy, ;k chatting ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

DIGITAL CAM

bldk iz;ksx QksVks ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS blesa mobile dh rjg


memory chip dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

PRACTICAL OF ASSEMBLING

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Lkcls igys cabinet with SMPS ysa mlds ckn

mother board ij CPU

yxk dj ml ij QSu yxk,axssA Ram Slot ij Ram yxk,A blds ckn cabinet ij
mother board dks set djsA mother board set gksus ds ckn HDD and CD/DVD Writer dks cabinet esa set djsA fQj HDD and CD/DVD ds vuqlkj port ij

yxk,A bldsa ckn SMPS ls LkHkh device (Mother board, HDD, CD/DVD) ds
supply nsA

tSls 20, 24, 24+4 pin mother board ij yxk,xsaA 4-4 pin connector HDD or CD/DVD esa yxk,xsA fQj front Pannal Setting djsxssaA tSls powar switch on /off
Restart, Power Led, or Hard Disk Led yxk,xsA INSTALLATION Computer assemble djus ds ckn mls working condition esa ykus ds fy,

tks process dh tkrh gSA ;k tks OS (operating system ) install fd;s tkrs gSA og installation dgykrh gSA
STEPS OF INSTALLATION 1. OS (Window) installation : As Win98, Win XP, Win 7 2. Driver installation: VGA Driver, Sound, Lan, Printer, 3. Software Installation: Office, Nero, Kundli, Photoshope, Antivirous, Media Player etc. 4. Data Recovery 5. Ghost made 6. Trouble Shouting

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OS (operating system ) ;g ,d system software gksrk gSA ftlds }kjk hardware and user nksuks ds chp communication LFkkfir fd;k tkrk gSA OS (Win 98, 2000, Me, Nt. XP, Vista, Win 7 etc.)

BOOTING : The process by which the system files are successfully loaded from secondary memory (hard disk) to main memory (Ram) is known as booting.

HARDWARE REQUREMENT FOR INSTALLATIN OF WINDOWS: 1. A Pentuem 233 megohertz (MHZ) or rquivalent CPU 2. Minuem 64 megabytes (MB) of Ram. 3. Minimum 1.5 GB of hard disk space 4. A video display adaptor as a monitor with video Graphics Adaptor (VGA) 5. A CD Rom, Key Board, Mouse. FILE SYSTEM SUPPORTED BY WINDOW XP: Window XP professional supports NTFS as well as Fat or Fat 32 file system. NFTS means new Technology file system whereas fat stands for ile allocation table. FEACTURE OF NTFS ARE: 1. File level and folder level security
2. Disk compression

3. Disk quotas 4. File encryption


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FEATURES OF FAT OR FAT 32 ARE 1. Dual boot configuration support 2. No file level security. HOW TO INSTALL WINDOWS XP PROFESSIONAL Step 1: Change the boot sequence to CD Drive Step 2: Insert your window CD in CD/DVD or Combo Drive. Step 3: Restart the machine Step 4: Press any key when it is asking to boot from CD Step 5: Press Enter Key to continue Step 6: Create partition according to our requirement Step 7: Select the Drive in which you want to install windows Xp Step 8: Select the Format Type (Fat 32 or NTFS Full or Quickly) Step 9: Enter the product key after formatting Step 10: Set the date, time, and country Step 11: Reboot the computer after installation

INSTALLATION THROUGH WINDOWS: Step 1-5: lcls igys cmos setup esa first boot device CD Rom and Second Boot Device HDD djsA fQj Win XP, CD, CD Rom esa insert djsA vkSj system restart djsA

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OR System dks on djdsa win XP, dh CD, CD Rom esa insert djsA fQj keyboard

esa up down keys continue press djsA ,slk djus ij system cd ls boot gks tk,xkA bldsa ckn () bl izdkj ls 5dot iwjs gksus ls igys keyboard ls dksbZ
key press djsxsaA ;fn ;gkW ij ;s 5dot iwjs gks tkrs gSA rks system HDD ls Boot gksxkA vksj 5dot iwjs gksus ij igys dksbZ key press

dj nsxsA rks system CD ls Boot gks tk,xk vksj ,d Blue Colour dh screen
monitor dh display ij izkIr gksxh ftlesa window dh file copy gksuk kq:

gks tk,xkA
Enter f8 I Agree

Continue Step 6: Show the HDD space/partition: ;gk ij viuh bPNkuqlkj partition create dj

ldrs gSA bldsa fy,


D C = = Delete (partition delete djus ds fy,) Create Pratition (Partition cukus ds fy, )

blds ckn ftl parttion eas windows djuh gSS mls updown (Aero keys ls select djds enter djsxsaA fQj partition dks fat/NTFS (quick) ls formet djsA

(Enter)

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bldsa ckn setup is copying files start gkstk,xh A file copy gksus ds ckn system restart gksxkAPress any key to boot from cd .. ;gka ij 5 (.) dot iwjs gksus pkfg, gkMZfMLd ls Boot gksus ds fy,A ;gka ij dqN Hkh press ugh djsaA blds ckn 39 minute dk window Setup start gksxkA open Chart Regional and Language option

next

Presonalize your Software Name Orgnization Product Key YVGKQ B7QYX WWPBR M7T2R PB8BM

XYZ
NEXT

Next Computer name and Administrator Passoward Computer Name

XYZ XYZ

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Administrator Password Confirm password ;gkW ij password nsuk pkgs rks ns ldrs gSA ugh nsuk pkgs rks next ij Enter gksxkA Date and Time Setting :- Date and Time Time Zone blesa [GMT +5:30 Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi] slectdjdsa enter djsA

Netwark Setting

Next

Next

bldsa ckn processing gksdj 39 minute dk setup Complete gksdj system restart gksxkA

Display Setting Monitor Setting

Ok Ok

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Welcome to Microsoft windows Next Help Protect your PC blesa not right now Ikj check mark yxkdj next djsaA Do You use a user name and Password to connect to the Internet ? ;gk ij skip djsA Ready to Register with Microsoft blesa no, not at this time dks select djs vkSj next djsA who will use this computer Your Name : ` Finish bldsa ckn window complete install gks tk,xhA Window install djus ds ckn desktop ij icone ykukA Step 1: lcls igys desktop ij right click djus ds ckn properties ij tk,saA Desktop Customize Desktop My Documents My Network Place

XYZ `

;gkW ij dksbZ uke nsdj next djsA

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My Computer

Internet Explorer

bu lHkh ij Check mark yxkdj ok fQj apply and ok djsA

Step 2: lcls igys taskbar ij right click djsaA fQj Properties esa tkdj start Menu bl ij mark yxkdj apply or Ok djsaA

DRIVERS Computer ls fdlh Hkh Hardware device dks connect djus ds fy, tks programe install fd;s tkrs gSA os driver dgykrs gSA

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tSlas &

internet ds afy, Display das fy,

Lan Card Drivers VGA/Display Drivers

Speaker dsa fy, Sound / Audio Driver Printer dsa fy, Printe Drivers etc.

fdlh Hkh driver dks Mkyus ds fy, vyx vyx rjhds gksrs gSA 1. Copy Method 2. Setup Method 3. MF method Setup method ds a}kjk driver install djuk fdlh Hkh driver dks Mkyus ls igys Mother board (Driver CD) dks cd/DVD esa insert djsA Lan Card Driver : Open the CD Colum Select Mother board Select Driver (Lan Card) Example RTL 8101 (and double click) Setup file Next Next

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Finish djsa vksSj driver install gkstk,xkA SOUND DRIVER INSTALLATION : lcls igys mother board (Driver) CD, cd/dvd rom esa insert djsA blds ckn system esa yxk gqvk Mother Board C.D lsa select djsA fQj sound or Audio folder select djsaA vkSj enter djsaA blds ckn tSls ALC driver Mkyuk gS rks ALC select djsA bldas ckn realtak alc-375 ( tSls ;g driver install djuk gSA ) fQj Enter Hardware Install esa continue anyway bldsa ckn yes, I want to restart my computer now dks select djsA and finish djssA blds ackn system restart gksxkA

VGA (Display )Driver Installation : Select mother board in CD Example : VGA ;fn intal mother board gSa rks Select Intel Option bldas ckn tks mother board system esa yxk gS mldks select djs tSls 945G Win 2k_XP1417 (double Click) Next Next Yes
RED CROSS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Page 40

bldas ckn Yes, I want to restart my computer now dks select djs vkSj afinish dj nsA vkSj blds ckn system Restart gks tk,xkA Note : System esa Driver Install gS ;k ugh ;g pSd djukA Right click on my computer (lcls igys my computer ij right click djsA bldsa ckn mange esa tk,sxsaA fQj device manger ij click djsaA ;gkW click djusa ij lHkh device ds uke fn[kkbZ nssxsaA ;fn bu ukeksa ij yellow colour dk Question mark (?) vk jgk gSA bldk vFkZ gS fd ogh driver install ugh gSA vkSj ;fn fdlh uke ij red Cross (X) dk symbol vk jgk gSA rks bldk vFkZ gS fd driver rks install ij og bls support ugh dj jgkA lgh ls install ugh gqvk gSA ml condition esa nqljk ;k nqckjk ls install djsaA fdlh driver or Software dks remove djuk %& lcls igys my computer open djsaA fQj contrl Panel esatkdj Add or Remove programs dks open djsA bldsa ckn ftl Hkh driver or Software dks remove djuk gSA mldks select djsaA mlds ckn mlds lkeus remove dk option vk,xk ml ij click djsaA fQj next next djdsa mls remove dj nsxsaA

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SOFTWARE Software is the program that enables a computer to perform a specific task as opposed to the Physical components of the system Types of Software: 1. System Software: System Software enables others software to Run Properly. By interfacing with Hardware and other software it is a set of program designed to control the operation and extend the processing capability of a computer system. For Example : Window XP, Win-7, Unix and Linux etc.

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2. Application Software : Application Software enables a user to preform a task, it is a group of programs which solves a specific problem or specific type of job. For Example : Microsoft Office. 3. Fire ware/utility Software: it is a basic control program which resides in the computer mother board to control Hardware.

Office 2007 Installation lcls igys office 2007 Cd , CD/DVD rom esa insert djsa A bldsa ckn my computer open djsA fQj CD/DVD open djsaA

Example : CD icon is drive (F:) CD open djus ds ckn mlesa select setup show gksxkA ml ij double click djdsa run djsaA Setup run gksus ds ckn product key dk option vk,sxkA mlesa product key type djsaA

Note: Product key CD esa gh feysxh tgkW ls geusa setup run fd;k gSA ogh ij key 2007 dsa uke ls file feysxhAmls [kksydj ogkW ij
RED CROSS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Page 43

fy[kh gqbZ key dks select and copy djsaA vkSj fQj setup file eas paste djsaA Product Key: GB82P-M6KY6-3RWMF-6VKH9-YY6HW bldsa ckn continue ij click djsaA fQj I accept the Terms of the

Agreement ij click djsA vkSj bldsa ckn Install Now ij click djsaA bldsa Ikpkr Microsoft office 2007 install gksuk vkjEHk gks tk,xkA blds ckn close dk option vk,xkA ml ij click djsa vkSj office 2007 install gkstk,xkA

DATA RECOVERY Delete or format gq, Data dks recover djus ds fy, ftl Utility Program dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA og data recovery dgykrk gSA Install of Data Recovery software: lcls igysa data recovery dh cd, Cd/dvd rom esaMkysxsA fQj my computer open djsA

CD Colon open Data Recovery open Recovery software open Easy recovery Pro V6.3 Open
RED CROSS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Page 44

bl ij click djus ds Ikpkr data recovery software install gksxkA bldsa ckn ok djsaA

DELET/FORMAT DATA dks recover djuk Data recovery Software install djus ds ckn Desktop ij izkIr Icon dks open djsaA easy recovery open select data recovery. Noter: ;fn delete data recover djuk gS rks delete recovery dks

select djsA vksj ;fn format data dks recover djuk gS rks format recovery dks select djsaA Delete &Format nksuks dh recovery djus ds fy, raw recovery dks select djsA Select Delete Recovery Ok bldsa ckn ftl drive ls data delete gqvk gS mldks select djsaA (as D:Drive dk data delete gqvkgS) bldsa ckn complete scan ij check mark djdsa next ij click djs afQj my drive dks select djds next fQj browse esa tkdj desktop select djsA ok ij click djsaA Next fQj browse esa tkdj nqckjk ls desktop select djs fQj ok-ok and done djsaA vkSj desktop ij delete/format data recover gks tk,xkA

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TROUBLESHOOTING System esa izkIr faults dks Bhd djuk gh Troubleshooting dgykrh gSA Types of Troubleshooting 1. Software Troubleshooting 2. Hardware Troubleshooting.

1. Software Troubleshooting : System dks kq: djus ij monitor dh display ij dksbZ Hkh error izkIr gks jgk gS rks og software Troubleshooting dgykrh gSA As:1. Error Loading OS 2. OS is not found 3. NTLDR is Missing 4. Disk Boot Failure Etc. 2. Hardware Troubleshooting System dks kq: djus ij system on ugh gks jgk ;k system on gks jgk gS ij display izkIr ugh gks jgk gS rks system dks fuEu izdkj ls pSd djsA

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1. Monitor Testing : Monitor dks pSd djus ds fy, lcls igys monitor esa supply nssssxasA blds ckn mother board ij yxk VGA Connector ls Monitor cable dks Disconnect djus ij dksbZ error vk jgk gS rks monitor ok gSA As: 1. Signal not found 2. VGA Cable is Disconnect 3. Cable not Connect 4. RGB signal not found bl izdkj ls dksbZ error vk jgk gS rks problem cabinet dsa internly yxs fdlh fgLls es agSA bldsa fy, lcls igys SMPS pSd djsaA

2. SMPS Testing SMPS dks pSd djus ds fy, 20 pins connector esa gjh o dkyh rkj dks vkil esa feykus vFkkZr kkVZ djus ij SMPS dk fan on gks tk,xkAbldk vFkZ gS fd vkidh SMPS ok gSA

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NOTE : SMPS on gksus ij Hkh dbZ ckj SMPS ls display ugh gksrh gS bls check djus ds fy, 20 pin connector esa ;fn gjh vkSj cSaxuh rkj ds vkil es feyku vFkkZr kkVZ djus ij SMPS fan on gks tkrk gS rks SMPS ls display izkIr gks jgk gSA ;fn SMPS ok gS rks blds ckn Ram check djsaA

2. Ram Testing Ram dks Check djus ds fy, ;fn system ls continue beep dh vkokt vk jgh gS rks Ram ;k Ram Slot esa [kjkch gSA blds fy, Ram or Ram Slot dks vPNh rjg ls lkQ djs ;fn fQj Hkh display ugh vk jgk gS rks nwljh ram yxkdj ns[skA nqljh ram yxkus ij display izkIr gks jgk gS rks Ram [kjkc gSA ;fn nqljh Ram ls display izkIr ugh gks jgk gS rks [kjkch Ram eas ugh gS fdlh nwljs ikVZ esa gSA 3. CPU Testing : CPU dks pSd djus ds djus ds fy, lcls igys CPU fan dks disconnect djsA fQj system esa supply nsA supply nsus ij CPU over heat gks jgk gS rks CPU ok gSA rks bldk vFkZ gS fd [kjkch Mother Board es agSA Mother board es aD;k fnDdr gSa blds fy, ge fpiysoy esa [kjkch <w<sxsaA

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Note: dqN Mother board esa CMOS Battery Down gksus ij display izkIr ugh gksrk gSA bldsa fy, bls cnyuk vko;d gSA

INTERNET The internet is a global collection of people. Who are linked trough computer cable and telephone lines making communication possible with each other in acommon language for specific purpose. However, the rigid technological definition of internet is that it is global collection of inter connected network by definition, a Network allow computer user to share computer equipment, programs, messages and information available at one site.

lkEkkU; :Ik ls bUVj usV dks ge rhu izdkj ls ifjHkkfkr dj ldrsa gSA 1. Ckgqr ls usVodZ dk ,d usVodZ 2. lqpuk dk ,d fokky ek/;e 3. Xykscy&dE;wfuVh

bUVjusV dk iz;ksx D;ks fd;k tkrk gS \


1.

nwljks ds lkFk lapkj cukus ds fy, aA(Communicating with others)

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2.

Lwkpukvks dk vknku iznku djus ds fy,A(Accessing information)

3.

bUQkesZku dks fMLkIys djukA(Displaying information)

Different Aspects of the Internet (bUVjusV dk fofHkUu iz;ksx)


1.

www (oYMZ ckbM osc)

2. FTP (file transfer protocol)


3. 4.

E.mail (bZesay) Chat (okrkZyki)

REQUIREMENTS FOR INTERNET (bUVjusV ds fy, vko;dkrk,s) 1. Computer 2. Modem 3. Telephone line 4. Internet connection 5. Internet software WEB DIRECTRY (osc MkW;jsDVh)

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fofHkUu dk;kZs esa iz;ksx esa vkus okyh osclkbZV~l ds uke bl izdkj gSA

FASHION RELATED WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

www.ftv.com www.iycos.com www.artbook.com www.fashion.iafrica.com www.guess.com www.fitnyc.suny.edu.com

T.V. RELATED WEB SITES 1. www.zeenext.com 2. www.svt.se.com 3. www.p anasonic.com 4. www.toshiba.com

FOREST RELATED WEB SITES


1.

www.forestsforever.org

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2. 3. 4.

www.canadian_forests.com www.for.gov.be.co www.uf.a.u_tokyo.ac.jp

ANIMALS RELATED WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

www.discovery.com www.snap_shot.com www.way.net www.4animals.com www.si.edu www.fund.org

RELIGIOUS RELATED WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

www.hanuman.com www.saibabaofshirdi.net www.balaji.com www.mahadev.org www.indanet.com/ganesh

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T;ksfrk ls lEcfU/kr osclkbZV~l


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

www.jadoo.com www.indiaplaza.com/india www.indopak.com www.nyposton.ine.com www.decanherold.com

BIRDS RELATED WEB SITE


1. 2. 3.

www.animalden.co/birds www.birder.com www.nashville_business.com

FILMS RELATED WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

www.indiamasala.com www.freeindia.com www.medhuri.com www.filmindia.com www.filmfare.com

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6. 7.

www.indiafilm.net/star/mahima www.freespeech.org

MULTIMEDIA WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

www.audiofind.com www.orchid.com www.peme.com www.brainplay.com www.misinc.net.

GAMES RELATED WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4.

www.games.netscape.com www.uproar.com www.gamespot.com www.kidsnetgames.minigco.com

SOME IMPORTANT WEB SITES


1. 2. 3. 4.

www.rediffmail.com www.yahoo.com www.newage.com www.primenet.com

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

www.mascar.com www.fastball.com www.nba.com www.meadev.govt.in www.jagran.com www.indiabookfare.com

HOW TO CREAT A GMAIL ACCOUNT

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ID cukus ds fy, lcls igys Internet, opera, Mozilla Firefox or google cromo dks kq: djsaA Note: opera, Mozilla Firefox and google cromeo bu lHkh software dks vyx & vyx install djuk iMrk gSA fQj address bar ij www.gmail.com type djsaA Enter djs ;k Gmail type djdsa Control keys dsa lkFk enter djsaA fQj ID cukus ds fy, create Account ij click djsa A

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HOW TO OPEN YOUR ID viuh ID cukus ds ckn mls bl izdkj ls [kksysxsaA fQj address bar ij www.gmail.com type djsaA Enter djs ;k Gmail type djdsa Control keys dsa lkFk enter djsaA fQj login or Sign in ij click djsA

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Note: Mail check djus ds fy, inbox esa tk,xsA

Inbo x

Mail Sent djus ds fy, compose mail ij click djsaA

Sent mail

Address bar as: sudeshkumar2008@rediffmail.com Subject bar Type your matter

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