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Introduction to Robotics
Why Build Robots?
KEYSTONE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY natural test bed for new ideas available at low cost with power of computer used in Apollo rocket that was sent to moon Opportunity to discover the technologies the world will be using tomorrow. ROBOTICS AS A GATEWAY TO A CAREER involves dozens of interconnected sciences and

disciplines mechanical design and construction, computer programming, psychology, behavioral studies, ecology and the environment, biology, space, micro- miniaturization, underwater research, electronics, and much more.

ROBOTICS TO THE RESCUE venture where people cant, or dont want to, go. bomb- sning robot Robots can act as nurses and doctors, develop interpersonal skills. MOST OF ALL, ROBOTICS IS FUN! Challenge yourself to a new project, and enjoy a hobby shared by many others worldwide.

Share your designs on a blog or forum. Enter a competition to see whose robot is fastest or strongest. Post a video of your robot on YouTube, and show it o.

The Building- Block Approach


Robots are made of many individual parts that act as

modules or subsystems.

Construct individual components, then combine them

to make a nished, fully functional machine as you experiment with new robot designs. upon it.

To save time and money, its not unusual to reuse parts Experiment with each part, altering it and improving

Lower Costs, Better Bots


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Simpler- ready- made sensors, specialty electronics, and prefab parts More powerful-Inexpensive microcontrollers add horsepower and functionality you just need a

PC

Skills You Need


ELECTRONICS BACKGROUND

PROGRAMMING BACKGROUND
Modern robots use a computer or microcontroller Like all computers, the ones for robot control need to be programmed.

MECHANICAL BACKGROUND

tips on what tools to use and the best materials for constructing your robot bodies. THE WORKSHOP APTITUDE
should be comfortable working with your hands.

TWO VERY IMPORTANT SKILLS


Be patient! Be willing to learn new things!

Do It Yourself, Kits, or Ready- Made?


Whether you choose to buy a robot in ready- made or kit form, or build your own from the

ground up, be sure to match your skills to the project.

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Thinking Like a Robot Builder, Explore!!!

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Anatomy of a Robot
Stationary versus Mobile Robots
When we think of robots most of us envision a machine that walks around on legs Stationary bots:the most common robots stay put and manipulate
assist in making cars, appliances,

even other robots!

Mobile bots : Mobile robots move, typically using wheels or tracks

but also legs and other forms of propulsion.

Autonomous versus
A self- contained

Teleoperated Robots

Tethered versus Self- Contained Robots


robot has its own power system, brain,wheels (or legs or tracks), and manipulating devices such as claws or hands

So, Whats a Robot, Anyway?


A self- contained automaton that takes care of itself, perhaps even programming its own

brain and learning from its surroundings and environment.


Or it could be a small motorized cart operated by a strict set of predetermined instructions

that repeats the same task over and over again until its batteries wear out.

Or it could be a radio- controlled arm that you operate manually from a control panel.

The Body of the Robot


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its body holds all its vital parts.

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ROBOT SIZE, SHAPE, AND STYLE


The overall shape of the robot is generally dictated by the internal components that make up the machine

Turtle or Desktop Rover Walking Arms and Grippers Android and Humanoid

Wood. Plastic. Foamboard. Aluminum Tin, iron, and brass. Steel.

FLESH AND BONE AND WOOD, PLASTIC, OR METAL

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Locomotion Systems
WHEELS

Turtle- sized robots usually have small wheels, less than 2 or 3 in diameter. Medium- size rovertype robots use wheels with diameters up to 7 or 8.

TRACKS

It possible to mow through all sorts of obstacles, even on slippery surfaces like snow, wet concrete, or a clean kitchen oor.
LEGS

Legs allow a robot to navigate where wheels or tracks cant. Plus they look cool. This design uses four motors and six legs. It walks by moving its legs in specic patterns.
Two- legged (bipedal) Four- legged robots (quadrupeds) six legs (called hexapods)

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Power Systems
TYPES OF BATTERIES

Batteries generate voltage and come in two distinct categories: rechargeable and non-rechargeable.
Non-rechargeable batteries include the standard zinc and alkaline cells you buy at the

supermarket, but only the alkaline kind is truly useful in robotics.

Rechargeable batteries include nickel- cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), sealed

lead- acid cells, and special rechargeable alkaline.


OTHER POWER SOURCES
Solar- powered robots can tap their motive energy directly from the cells, or the cells can charge

up a battery over time

Hydraulic power uses oil or uid pressure to move linkages. Youve seen hydraulic power at

work if youve ever watched a bulldozer move dirt from pile to pile.

Similarly, pneumatic power uses air pressure to move linkages. Pneumatic systems are cleaner

than hydraulic systems, but, all things considered, they arent as powerful.

Sensing Devices
Sensors let your robot experience the world around it. Humans may perceive their environment using eyesight and hearing, but most robots use simpler technologies like ultrasonic and infrared distance measuring or light, sound, and touch. The sensors are integrated and processed by a control circuit, which then performs some action based on the sensory input.
TOUCH LIGHT AND SOUND SMELL AND TASTE Ultrasound, infrared light TILT, MOTION, AND POSITION

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Output Devices
Motors LEDs Sound

Robots are made for the drudgery of everyday work. In Czech, Slovak,and Polish languages, the word robota (from which robot is derived) means work.

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CONTROLLING DIRECTION USING SWITCHES

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