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Master the proportions, poses, bones and muscles of animais

Creature drawing skills

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How to draw and connect the simple shapes that make up the human body

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Learn practical drawing skills and technicjues from professional artists

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W e lc o m e ...
Ify o u re reading this, the chances are yo ure an aspiringartist on a journey o f self-improvement. W hether you're at college, hoping to become a professional artist or just w ant to create art for yourself, yo u ve come to the right place. The follow ing pages in this special edition o f Im agineFX are filled to bursting point w ith the best anatom y advice around. Every page is packed w ith easy to follow, step-by-step guidance on how to create better hum an and creature figures, w ritten and illustrated by professional artists. Essentially, its years o f attending art college distilled into one magazine. The accom panying disc provides you w ith an opportunity to get closer to the annotated sketches, watch videos o f anatom y drawing in action, and see high-resolution digital art files to help you learn how to take your sketches into digital art software. For those o f you w ho are new to the world o f Im agineFX, turn to page 97 to see just a fraction o f the digital art workshops that we feature every m onth in Im agineFX. Also, make sure you check out page 115 for a sneak preview o f what's com ing up in our FIow T o D raw And Paint series. W e're sure yo u 'll love them ali. Ify o u have any questions, please get in touch w ith me at the em ail address below.


Claire Howlett, Editor

From the makers o f

W e're th e o n ly m ag azin e d ed icated to fa n ta sy an d sci-fi art. O u r aim is to help a rtists to im p ro ve b o th th e ir trad itio n al an d d ig ita l a rt sk ills. V isit w w w .iin a g in e fx .c o m to fin d ou t m ore!

Subscribe to Im agineFX today and save m oney o ff every issue! S <

U S an d C an ad ian readers: please turn to page 96



The finest artists in the world offer you the best guidance and to share their techniques and inspiration in our figure-drawing workshops

Practical advice from head to toe...


Human anatomy
16 Basic form s
Improve the way you draw figures with easy ways to establish the underlying structure of the body

22 The torso
W ith the figure framework in place, it's time to set your focus on the core of the human bc 3ody

28 The legs


Masteryour depiction of the limbs that support the body and drive it forward into action

34 T h e fe e t
Discover how to use form to create solid-looking feet - and why you shouldn't draw too much detail

38 The shoulders
Dont allow the complex interaction of muscles here distract you from the guiding principies of anatomy

44 Th eforearm s
It may seem like a simple area of the body, but the forearm is more sophisticated than you suspect

50 T h ehand s
Many artists fear this part of the body, but applv the principies here and you'11 see now easy it can be

54 The head
Discover how to break the skull and facial features into simple forms to get the proportions spot-on


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6 A rt sp ectacular!
A feast of great figurebased images - and the artists behind them


Presents Anatomy

Volume 1
Sketches and videos to help you learn... Turn to page 114 for more

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Animal anatomy
Your complete to creatures...

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60 Basic form s
Begin your exploration of creature anatomy by seeing the shapes beneath the skin and fur Find out how the core of the animal body operates and how you can use it to bring life to your animal art

... 66 The torso

72 The hind legs

Explore the rear-wheel drive of animais, and how this part of the body can propel your art forward

78 The forelegs
Use your observation, skills and knowledge to build the pillars of balance and grip in animais

84 The neck and head

4 Discover what part of the animal body tells you about the creature and the traits ali animais share

90 A nim al faces
Find out what animal faces have in common with human faces, and the crucial ways in which they differ

Help and advice from figure artists

98 Creature features
Combine human and animal anatomy to create a fine-art portrait of a monster with Justin Gerard

Digital art skills Artist Q&A

Real-world issues solved
108 Q uick guides
Our artist panei helps you: Paint realistic hands Draw a screaming face Avoid static figures Master heroic proportions Draw realistic eyes Give characters mass and weight Draw expressions that show the right emotions Pose figures in motion Shade faces better

102 Top ten fan tasy poses

Whether you're drawing a hero or a villain, we've got the gestures and silhouettes to help you out

104 Strik e a pose

Warren Louw explains how to fill vour characters with energy by earning the art of posing


Presents Anatomy


Paul Bonner

LOCATION: Denmark W E B : EM A IL: bonner a M ED IA USED : W atercolour

Most of what I do stems from a childhood passion for fairytales, myths and legends, says Paul. "They sparked a myriad images and incessant scribbling, trying to draw my own versions. Since then, with the help of brushes and tubes of watercolours, Paul has been continuing along that same path. Always knowing what I wanted to do made it an easy path to follow, he says. Paul has made a successful career for himself thats at least partially a result of his stubborn self-direction. Apart from the need to try and empty a cluttered imagination, Paul's driving force is the basic thrill of creating something out of nothing. Obviously this nothing is not absolute: " lt s made up of a myriad influences that seep in over the years. Books, films, other artists, music and nature are allimportant ingredients. The challenge is to make something believable. I deal in myths and legends, says Paul, and if I can get people to suspend disbelief and accept the reality of what lm painting although they know otherwise... W ell, then, lm a happy guy.

DRAKAR OCH DEMONER 15x22in, watercolour on paper Paul revels in the chance to paint rocks, stones and water, and these guys in a boat were a great opportunity. This piece was painted for Riotminds.


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The Gallery

ELD O C H SO T 15x22in, watercolour on paper Dwarves, trolls, stones carved into figures or runes, says Paul of this piece for Swedish R PG makers Riotminds. That just about sums it ali up really. TRUDVANGS STIGAR 13x25in, watercolour on paper This dwarf is in a bit of trouble: hes been captured by some trolls. But this piece for Riotminds gave Paul a chance to paint one of his favourite things: Nature again... stones and roots.

CONFRONTATION 27x16in, watercolour on paper Paul admits that this piece, painted for miniatures company Rackham, was a nightmare to draw, given ali the figures. But it was fun trying to give so many individuais good reasons to be there.


Presents Anatomy

The Gallery
Tom Kidd
LOCATION: US W E B : EM A IL: tkidd asn et.n et M ED IA USED : Oil on panei

Tom realised he could draw when he was very young. Anything he set his mind to, he could copy - but he quickly realised that could be accomplished by robots or machines. To differentiate himself from the Xerox, Tom began making things up to draw, and so a career was born. TonVs role models as he grew as a person and an artist included Chesley Bonestell and Norman Rockwell. Taking on their influence, Tom began working towards the goal of becoming a fantasy illustrator. He won a scholarship to Syracuse University, but dropped out after tw o years and moved to New York, intent on making a career for himself. After a short while, he began to see success in his chosen path. Tom has worked for a number of publishers, Baen Books, Tor and Marvel among them. Hes won a W orld Fantasy Award (B e st Artist 2 004) and seven Chesley Awards. Hes also busy with a personal project, which he describes as my favourite and most time-consuming obsession." Called Gnemo: Airships, Adventure, Exploration, you can see lots of art for this project on TonVs website.


HERCULES VS THE HYDRA 16x20in, oil on panei Part of a m ythology series Tom painted. The other characters he painted are Odysseus, Theseus and Perseus.

PEINDEER EXPRESS 13x28in, oil on panei If you receive Christmas cards from Tom, youll already be familiar with this image. As I painted it, I came up with a childrens book idea to go with it," he says. Its an attem pt to rationally explain Santa Claus, but as the story goes on it, becomes quite convoluted and even less plausible.


Presents Anatomy

The Gallery

Duc Truong Huyen

LOCATION: Vietnam W E B : EM A IL: truong.huyenduc a S O F T W A R E U SED : Photoshop

Although Duc has studied at Ho Chi Minh Citys University of Architecture, he had never drawn anything seriously until senior year in high school, when he finally picked up a pencil in a bid to improve his chances of being accepted to study architecture. A t first, drawing was my hobby," says Duc. That was until I saw Ryan Church, Dylan Cole and Daniel Docius masterpieces. The result was profound and immediate. I was in awe, and decided to buy an Intuos 3. This decision has completely changed my life. Although hes self-taught, Duc says he's had some help along the way. Thanks to ImagineFX, DeviantART and CGTalk, I have many sources to study and improve my skills, not to mention my knowledge from architecture."

ENTRANCE OF COVERED lllustration for a personal project. Its about a girl who owns a fairy tale book, which is actually a gate to connect tw o worlds together."


ADERA Ali Duc wanted was a playful portrait with strong warm and cool colour values to present my character, the Seeker of Balance .


Presents Anatomy

The Gallery

Sophia Kolokouri
LOCATION: Luxembourg W E B : EM A IL: m ysideworlda S O F T W A R E USED : Photoshop

After studying animation and design at Gobelins in Paris, Sophia started working at W alt Disney films. In 2007, having worked as an animation producer and art director, Sophia returned to her personal work: "And l'm now working as a digital hand painter and designer. Sophia would like to combine her animation skills with a photo-realist aesthetic: This is something I wish to explore much more and push forward my technique. I am still learning." Sophia is keen to work with 3D software that gives photo-realistic results for humans, and theres a book of painted fairytales on the drawing board.

MOTHER NATURE lts a sad fact, says Sophia, that humanity is its own worst enemy. Humanity commits suicide by destroying its lungs, its health, its inheritance. Mother Nature is praying for us. She is praying for our sake, hoping one day we will finally succeed in living in harmony with our environment before its too late.

THE LADYBIRD "The challenge here, explains Sophia, was to find a balance between the bird and the human. So, keeping focused on the flamingo-inspired creature, I tried to bring a fantasy and romantic touch to the scene, while keep the pose elegant.


Presents Anatomy

The Gallery

W a lte r 0 Neal III


As a kid, W alter always had his nose in a comic book, immediately in love with anything that dealt with fantasy or the supernatural. Superheroes, vampires, aliens, demons: "Any subject that deals with beings endowed with fantastic abilities or dark powers, he laughs, and Pm sold! W hen it comes to his own work, he says its ali about the detail: "I try to pack as much as I possibly can into a piece. I want you to forget that youre looking at a painting. Crucial to that is the rendering: I shoot for a kind of stylised realism. O U SCRATCH 11x16in, acrylic on illustration board W alter was commissioned by the fantasy sculpting duo The Shiflett Brothers for this portrait of their OI Scratch character. Brandon and Jarrod Shiflett are such great guys, he says.

MEDUSAS DAUGHTER 11x16in. pencil and gouache on paper This shows Medusas Daughter (for Narrative Ink) making a futile attempt to tie down her wild hair using some makeshift straitjackets, says Walter.

f Shiflett Brothers Originais e


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Narrative Ink

The Gallery
t e Lucas Graciano
LOCATION: US W E B : EM AIL: lucasgraciano a M ED IA USED : Oil Lucas grew up with the works of great fantasy artists such as Frank Frazetta and Boris Vallejo. Straight from high school, he started his art career as a caricature artist at theme parks and special events. Later, having attended the W atts Atelier of the Arts in Southern Califrnia, he started work on storyboarding and concept design in the games industry. W orking mostly digitally at that time, Lucas wanted to attain the foundation skills that come with working in a traditional medium. He soon fell in love with the traditional process and has nearly completely switched over. Lucas continued his training at the Atelier and was soon asked to teach. After developing his skills further, he moved into fantasy illustration and began freelancing while he taught. He landed his first illustration job on the very first set of the W orld of W arcraft card game, and has since worked for companies such as Sony, Wizards of the Coast and W hite Wolf.

PSYCHOPOMP 16xl2in, oil on hardboard This piece was done for the book Drawing and Painting the Undead. As simple as it is, Lucas thinks it's one of his stronger pieces. Its strong graphic read helped it get on the cover of the UK version of the book.

2008 Sony Onlne Entertairvnent

VALEM AIDENS 20x24in, oil on hardboard I like doing work for Sony," says Lucas, because they give me a free reign. The only description on this assignment was six or seven female dryads guarding a tree. They will often hand me their low-res, in-game models as reference and say Make this look cool! I think thats the kind of thing almost every artist wants to hear!"


Presents Anatomy

2008 Quarto Publshing

The Gallery
Every issue of Im agineFX features a selection of fantastic artwork from talented artists - and you could join them. For a chance to see your artwork included in Im agineFX, send your work to us, along with an explanation of your techniques, the title of each piece, a photo of yourself and your contact details. You can email your work to fxpose oim . Bear in mind that attachments must be no more than 5MB in total, or we w ont receive them. You can also send images on CD or DVD to: FXPos Im agineFX 3 0 M onm outh St B ath, BA1 2BW UK W e prefer 300dpi T IF F or JP E G files if possible. All artwork is submitted on the basis granting Future Publishing a non-exclusive worldwide licence to publish, both in print and electronically.

W O RD OF PAIN 24x18in, oil on hardboard I like to keep my fantasy work more grounded, Lucas says. Pve never been a big fan of the bright flashy colours of magic, so I try and imply it in more subtle ways. KALADIM W IZA R D 12x16in. oil on hardboard Lucas is a huge Tolkien fan. Any chance I get to paint an epic battle scene with armoured dwarves, Pm very happy! Hes even got a small collection of armour that he slaps onto some willing friends for photo reference".


Presents Anatomy

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A complete workshop on bringing your body drawings to life

Human anatomy


Presents Anatomy

The more knowledge you have, the easier it w ill be to reach dear-cut solutions for any drawing you make &
Ron Lemen on drawing the body, page 16

Your hum an anatomy expert

Ron Lemen has worked in the entertainment and illustration industries for over 16 years. With his wife Vanessa, he runs the Studio 2nd Street art school and is in demand as an art instructor at drawing and painting classes across Califrnia.
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Explore the body in eight parts

Basic form s
Improve the way you draw figures with easy ways to establish the underlying structure of the body

22 The torso
W ith the figure framework in place, its time to set your focus on the core ofthe human body

28 The legs


Masteryour depiction of the limbs that support the body and drive it forward into action

34 T h e fe e t
KtofcgfU) Discover how to use form to create solid-looking feet - and why you shouldn't draw too much detail

38 The shoulders
Don't allow the complex interaction of muscles here distract vou from the guiding principies of anatomy

44 Th eforearm s
It may seem like a simple area of the body, but the forearm is more sophisticated than you suspect

50 T h eh an d s
Many artists fear this part of the body, but applv the principies here and you'11 see how easy it can be

54 The head
Discover how to break the skull and facial features into simple forms to get the proportions spot-on


Presents Anatomy


fy o u w a n t to illustrate stories o r b o o k covers, design con cep tu ally fo r gam es or d raw storyb oard s, it's v ita l to

There are several techn iq ues for d raw in g th e h u m an body, ali le ad in g to a sim ila r goal: a three-d im ension al, realistic figure. W hile it's not n ecessary to be an expert on an ato m y to produce illustrations, the m ore k n o w led g ey o u have, the easier it w ill be to solve p roblem s an d reach d ear-cu t solu tion s for a n y d raw in g y o u m ake.

W hat you lack in the fo u n d ation s o f y o u r k n ow led ge w ill sh o w up in y o u r w ork - in o th er w ords, th e lack o f u n d erstan d in g o f certain key p rincipies w ill be ali too apparent in yo u r fin ish ed piece. A n a rtists style can be reflective o f their lack o f u n d erstan d in g just as m uch as it can be a sh ow case for th e total sum o f their know ledge. A void that trap.

grasp th e fo u n d ation s o f representational art. W ith m ost stories y o u 'll co m e across in v o lv in g p eo p le, it s im p o rta n tto un derstan d h o w to d raw th e hu m an figure, bo th in a static p ose a n d in action.

Presents Anatomy

Basic forms

Ron Lem en
COUNTUY: US See more of RorTs work at his website

Figuring it out: tw o ways to draw

There are tw o distinct approaches to figure drawing: observational and formulaic. It pays to master both...
L e a r n in g to d ra w th e h u m a n fo rm c an b e a d a u n tin g p ro sp e c t fo r a n y fle d g lin g artis t. T h erefo re, it's im p o rta n t to k n o w w h a t m e th o d s a re a v a ila b le to y o u . T h e tw o a p p ro a c h e s to fig u r e d r a w in g th at I feel to b e d istin c t a re th e o b se rv a tio n a l ap p ro a c h a n d th e fo rm u la ic a p p ro a c h . O bservation al d raw in g h as its o rigin s in th e sight-size m eth od ology, w h ich trains the eye to v ie w a subject w ith accuracy, p lacin g the object an d th e d raw in g sid e by sid e fo rco m p ara tiv e an alysis. P lum b lines, leveis, a fix ed p o in t an d a m easu rin g line are used to help th e artist in un derstan d in g d im en sio n a l an d sp a tia l m easuring. O bservation al d raw in g is a com p lex process that requires a great d eal o f reference m aterial to acco m p an y the w ords to be fu lly explain ed . In th is part o f o u r an ato m y w orksh op , I'm g o in g to take a detailed look at tw o o f m y favoured m eth o d s o f fo rm u laic d raw in g. Form ulaic figure d raw in g uses abstract rh yth m s o r interlocking sh ap es - b asically design concepts - to b u ild on. O nce these fo rm u las are m em o rised b y d raw in g from life, y o u have a set o f to o ls to recall, e n a b lin g y o u to design from y o u r im agin atio n ify o u w is h . It's im p ortant to h ave a solid un d erstan d in g o f bo th ap p roach es if you tru ly w a n t to be free as an artist. O bservation al d raw in g sh arp en s the eye an d m in d to c ap tu rin g a liken ess w ith ou t using abstract concepts; fo rm u laic d raw in g gives y o u a set o f tools to develop bo th from life an d , m ore im portantly, from y o u r m in d s e y e .

On the disc
Find a video and sketches in the Drawing Intro folder inside Human Anatomy

Observational drawing in practice, using a pencil to measure the bodys dimensions.

Formulaic figure drawing systems involve using abstract rhythms or, as shown above. interlocking shapes. to construct the human body. Those shapes can then be built upon and fleshed out for a full human figure.


Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

Here's an illustrated guide to the Reilly method of drawing the human torso. Starting with the head, lines are systematically added to build a template that forms the basis of your figure

Once youve leamed the Reilly method, you can go on to create figures in a range of different poses. In this sketch of a kneeling woman, you can still see the construction lines. based on the sequence above.

Exploring the Reilly method for figures

In this drawing system, you build a framework of overlapping lines to create the basis of your figure
T h ere a re as m a n y w a ys to c o n stru c t a h u m a n fig u re a s th e re are a rtists, but tw o s y ste m s in p a r tic u la r fo rm th e b a sis o f m a n y a r tis ts ' w o r k in g p ractices. O v e r t h e p age, y o u 'll e x p lo re th e In d u stria l D esig n m e th o d ; b u t first, let's lo o k at th e R e illy m eth o d . Frank R eilly w a s an illustrator an d instructor in th e early- an d m id - 20 th century. H e created a system o fte a c h in g th a t enabled students to q u ic k ly an d ea sily digest th e p roblem s o f d raw in g an d pain tin g, g iv in g abstract concepts labels and d efm ab le schem atics, an d b u ild in g a n otew o rth y step-by-step cou rse o f action to create figure draw in gs. H is system A m erican art sch o o ls o f his day. H is figure d raw in g approach is a lin ear one, startin g w ith th e structure o f th e figure before ad van cin g 011 to the anatom y, then sh ad in g an d fin a lly detailin g. H is approach started w ith the core o f the figure: the torso. C ap tu rin g the action o f the p ose is probably th e m ost im p o rta m concern. T he action b egin s w ith th e head an d radiates through the spin e into the lim bs. T o start the draw in g, y o u need to m ak e six lin es: the head ; th e centre o f th e head and neck; th e sh o u ld e rlin e ; the spine; the lin e relating the shou ld ers to the base o f the p elvis; and, fin ally, the line sh o w in g the neck an d hip relationship. T h ese lines design an d d efin e the core o f the pose.

Frank Reilly's fgure drawing approach is a linear one, starting with the structure of the figure and advancing on to the anatomy
cam e from several sources, startin g w ith D ean C o rn w ell an d Frank B ra n gw yn , as w ell as G eo rge B rid gem an (on e o f Reilly's teachers) an d Frank V incent D u M o n d . Frank R eilly s system b ecam e a fash io n ab le m ethod in rnost o f the

Arm s and legs

O nce th e core o f th e p o se is established, the arm s an d legs are attached to com plete the action. T h is sim p le con stru ction creates the structure o f the pose. T he

Capturing the action of the characters pose should be foremost in your mind. The action begins with the head and radiates from there


Presents Anatomy

Basic forms
Once you've learned the Reilly method of creating e figure, you can move on to creating more flexible figures and poses from different angles. Here, I point out a few anatomical landmarks to help. On the disc are three videos, each on creating a figure from various viewpoints. A b stra ct 1. m p 4 deals with the front torso. A b s tra c t 2.m p4 the back. and A b s tra c t 3 .m p4 the side.

an ato m y is then depicted vvithin th e structure y o u V e created. M uscles are w o ven like a fabric to th e skeleton, connected to the b o n e s w ith ten d on s - rope-like attachm ents. T h e point w here the tendon attaches to the b o n e is d efin ed as th e in sertio n p oint. l h e fig u re abstraction heips place the m ajo r m uscle g rou p s into an organ ised an d flu id pattern, m ak in g it qu ite sim p le to invent com p lex, realisticlo o k in g figures. T h e h ead h as its o w n set o f abstractions that requires a w ork sh op o f its o w n to fu lly un derstan d. W e lo ok at tech n iq u es for d raw in g th e head on p age 54 .


Beyond Reilly
T h e fu n d am en tais o f th e R eilly m ethod are e a sy to grasp, but it's flexib le en ou gh to adapt as y o u r d raw in g sk ills develop. O nce y o u p rop erly u n derstan d the figure abstraction u n d e rp in n in g th e system , y o u 'll fin d that y o u '11 con stan tly ch an ge an d rearrange lin es to suit every p o se an d ev ery situation. T he stan dard set o f lin es y o u start w ith are c harts fo r learn in g - they're just o n e set o f p ossib ilities, a stock v o c ab u la ry
The bodys anatomy is designed into the structure you create, weavng in muscles and tendons and gradually building up details.
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Its important to practise as much as possible, so that you can perform with clarity
that w ill con stan tly flex, gro w an d reinvent itse lfw ith each new im a g e y o u create. I can n o t stress e n ou g h that th is is just a system to learn from . A li system s o f d raw in g are d esign ed for teaching an d sh ou ld be left b e h in d as so o n as they're m astered, like stabilisers 011 a bicycle. T o o m an y carefu lly fo llo w ed rules can lead to pictorial sterility. it's v e r y im p ortan t that yo u train an d practise as m uch as p ossib le u ntil th e ru les b ecom e backgrou n d noise, s o that w h en w e p erfo rm , w e can d o s o w ith total clarity an d fo cu s o n th e m ore im p ortan t asp ects o f m ak in g a picture - th e story content an d the p ictorial intent. Ify o u w an t to d o so m e ad d itional research on the R eilly m eth od , 1 recom m en d that y o u lo ok u p th e w ork o f A n d rew I.o om is, a fa m o u s m id- 20 th c e n tu ryA m eric a n illustrator w h o covers so m e o f these p rin cip ies in h is figure d raw in g m an u ais, an d offers a great m an y u sefu l tech n iq u es besides.
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The large dots in this sketch are anatomical landmarks. If you study your own body in the mirror. you'll see that these are the bones that show through the skin.

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Use the anatomical points along with the Abstract 2.mp4 video on the disc to create the perfect back view.

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As you construct your figure, try to use long, flowing lines so that the drawing starts to feel alive, even at this early stage. > (ku. T


Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

Exploring the Industrial Design drawina method

Use basic geometric shapes to make your figures feel solid and three-dimensional
H ere, I'm g o in g to lo o k at a sec o n d ab stra c t a p p ro a c h to fig u r e d ra w in g : th e In d u str ia l D e sig n m e th o d . Its o r ig in s a re a g e -o ld , b u t it w a s p erfecte d at th e A rt C e n te r o f P asa d e n a in th e 1950s. I fin d In dustrial D esign th e m ost practical tech n iq u e to u se w h en creating the figure for an y p u rpo se. It m akes it ea sy to control th e p o se an d ach ieve con vin cin g fo resh orten in g painlessly. First, y o u need to sort the head, neck an d shoulders. ITiese p rovid e a startin g p o in t to b u ild the figu re gesture from . V iew ed from th e front, th e head is an o v al shape, w h ile in p rofile o r sid e view , it's a bloated tria n g u la r fo rm . T he corn ers o f th e trian gle depict th e tilt o f th e head. T he p an ei b e lo w sh o w s so m e exam ples
Here the figure is rendered with hatch lines. creating an immediate illusion of form. The lines Crossing over the form are Crossing in the short stroke direction. This cartoon character is fully realised using the shape design approach from life drawing. The technique can be used for any figure.

o f cylin d er figures in gesture poses, w hich is w hat y o u have to fin d n exi. T h e gesture o f th e p ose is a flu id , flo w in g line: it s th e big sw eep in g m ovem en t th a ts m ade betw een th e u p p er an d th e low er h alves o f th e body.

It sh ou ld b e graceful, an d is id eally established in o n e o r tw o c u r v y lines. A dd to y o u r first line a secon d line, w hich describ es the w id th o f the p ose. T h is helps establish the o verall vo lu m e o f the figure - h e av y o r lean. T hese tw o lines should m irro rea ch other, m o v in g in relation sh ip to o n e another. Lin e three is the centre line o f th e pose, attached to the pit o fth e neck. W ith a centre lin e d raw n , y o u can n ow draw an ellip se o r o v a l. T h is d escribes the depth o f th e fo rm . T h e centre lin e gives you an o th er point y o u can n ow c o n v in cin gly attach th e oval to, tu rn in g y o u r three lines into an active cylin d rical form . C ylin d ers are easier to d raw th a n a cube


Usecylindrical forms to start every figure if you can. Cylinders are easy to draw and can easily be broken down into threedimensional forms. In extremely foreshortened poses, overlapping ovais representing the lengthier forms will work.

fo rm , as y o u need to k n o w perspective to m ake cubes look con vincin g. C ylinders, i f d raw n correctly in perspective, g ive the v iew er a strong sense o f position in space. T h e should ers are th e top p oint o f the cylin der, the p elvis its bottom . T he p elvis varies in sh ap e d ep en d in g on w hat character y o u re d raw in g. It can be d raw n as a soft, sphere-like sh ap e - th in k o f it as a m arsh m a llo w - o r c a n be m ore d efin ed . Y ou r su b jects g en d er d eterm in es the p elvis shape. l-em ale p elvises are m ore bello r skirt-shaped; m ale p elvises are m ore box-sh aped . T h e front o f the p elvis term in ates in a bullet-like shape. T h is is d raw n inside the b o d y c ylin d er shape,


Presents Anatomy

Basic forms

You can map shadows to the shapes you design on the scaffolding of the figure, with the patterns falling appropriately over the shapes youVe drawn rather than drawing exactly what you see. The illusion of the drawing can suffer if you stick too rigidly to what you see without really thinking about how the forms are functioning in 3D space.


Draw the ribcage as if looking up at it, with lines arching upward. Draw the pelvis with lines arching down. This keeps the forms tilted correctly to the viewer from straight-on.

crests, th e n avel an d th e arm pits. I f y o u r figures back is visible, th e scapulae, the d im p les o f th e sacrum , the ob liq u es an d th e base o f th e p elvis are also help fu l to u se as lan dm arks. If the figu re is tw istin g o r turnin g, y o u can ea sily depict th is m ovem ent in th e cylin d er b y p in ch in g on e side, o r b y creating an accordionlike relation sh ip betw een the ribcage an d p elvis m asses. T h e o b liq u es p la y a role in sh ap in g th e c y lin d e r th e y are the third b u lg e on the com pressed side o f th e cylin der. T h ese bulges are describ ed u sin g S -c u rv e d lines (see the p an ei to th e right), th e o n ly lin e typ e in d raw in g that can generate p erspective in its o w n w avin ess. T h e S -c u rv e starts against th e outside o f o n e shape, then sw in gs o ver an d com pletes its circuit be lo w o n th e next succeed ing shape. Each S-cu rve generates a m ore con vin cin g illu sio n o f overlap p in g form s. You sh ou ld sw itch often betw een gesture a n d stru cture to strik e a b alance
These drawings are fleshing out the dynamic movement in each pose. Using cylinders and dividing each segment of the cylinders into thirds. the scaffolding of the body is ready for muscles to be laid over them. The crosscontour lines help guide the muscles correctly around the form.

If a figure is twisting or turning, you can easily depict this movement in the cylinder by pinching one side 99
cutting in on either sid e to sh o w the hip bones, th e iliac crests. N o w d raw an e g g sh ap e to indicate the ribcage, attaching it to th e sh o u id er line an d o n ly breach in g th e cylin d er form if' th e b o d y is com pressed o r tw istin g. T he rest o f th e torso is bu ilt u p u sin g ellipses o r traversin g lin es across the centre line, to sq u are u p the tw o h a lv es o f th e torso an d pelvis. T h e im p ortan t lan d m ark s to indicate are th e nipples, th e tenth ribs, th e iliac o f form an d m ovem ent, h o p e fu lly in a s im ila r d y n a m ic to M ich elan gelo o r R u bens - but w ith a m od ern flair, like that o f C la ire W en d lin g o r B ru ce T im m . O nce th e structure is d efin ed , m ove into gesture again, d raw in g th e cylin ders o f the a rm s a n d th e legs. W hen y o u r lim b s are d raw n in, m ove b a c k into structure a n d d efin e th e m uscles, then gesture again to d escrib e the m ovem ent o f th e sh ad o w patterns over th e m uscles, then structure to tighten them up.


Presents Anatomy

he torso is th e core o f th e bo d y: i th e co m p lex centre fro m w h ich ali o u r d an g ly parts originate. O u r p hysical

head has m ore chance o f com p lem en tin g th e action o f the body. First, y o u need to fin d th e action o f the

d raw in g to a m ore correct scale th rou gh ou t th e pose. N ext, d raw a centre lin e th rou gh the m id d le o fth e torso. (Sim p ly put, th e centre lin e o f th e b ack is th e spine.) T he fron t o fth e b o d y is d ivid ed through the centre o f th e chest, o r th e sternum , and con tinues th rou gh the lin e that splits the ab d o m in al m uscles d ow n to th e pelvis. T h e centre lin e is v e ry im p ortan t to draw. It fin d s th e m id d le o f th e visible surface to m atch an d align th e fo rm s on either side o f it, an d it's a lso an an ch o r an d ap ex for m atch in g rh yth m ical lin es

action s also originate from th is core therefore, y o u typ ic ally start w ith the torso in figure d raw in g to w ork out the d yn am ics o f y o u r pose. T h e head is the ruler that y o u m easure th e b o d y from ; th e b o d y is th e p rim a ry essence o f th e pose. Both are im p ortant to d raw from the start, but the head can stiffen u p q u ic k ly w ith no reference to the body. Ify o u design th e b o d y first, the

Pon Lem en
COUNTRY: US See more of Ron's work at his website
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pose. T his step isc a lle d th egestu re. lls in g th e In dustrial D esign m ethod, as describ ed o n page 20, y o u can fin d this action in three lines: th e gesture, the w id th an d th e d epth. O nce the gesture or action o f the pose has been established, th e lim bs are then attached to com plem en t th e tw ist, turn o r sw ivel o f the torso. W ith the head attached, you can m easure o f f th e height an d vvidth o f the torso m ore appropriately, o r adjust the

On the disc
4 * ^ Find reference W sketches by Ron in the Torso folder inside Human Anatomy


Presents Anatomy

The torso
from eith er sid e o f th e body. N eglectin g to d raw th e centre line in y o u r s t r u a u r e is like forgetting to b rin g th e m an ager alon g to th e big gam e. If y o u d on 't u se boxes to d esign the p elvis an d th e ribcage, th e next step is to fin d the three-qu arter lin e o f th e figure, or w h ere th e fig u re tu rns from th e frontal p lanes to the side o f the body. In m an y poses, this lan d m ark can b e as im p ortan t a s th e centre line: its a m ajo r breakin g p oint in form , criticai to bo th the perspective a n d the align m en t o f th e lim b s from th e left side to th e right sid e o f th e figure. Uv ic v ; u a R
The pectoralis mfiscle sits on the upper half of the ribcage, and inserts onto the uppe? arm borte, or humerus, around the upper third division of its length. The muscle wraps undemeath the humerus towards the back of the arm, and is a f ive-sififed shape.



Torso muscles
T h e fro m o f the b o d y is m ad e up o f six m ajo r v isib le m uscle grou p s: th e p ectoralis m uscles, the ab d o m in al m uscles, th e o b liq u es, th e serratus m uscles, the trap eziu s m u scles an d the lattisim us m uscles, w h ich y o u can see i f th e arm s are lifted. U nfortunately, tw o o f these m uscle grou p s have m ultiple heads to them , but are w ell organised , so ren derin g them is just a m atter o f fin d in g the larger sh ap e that keeps the sm a ller on es organised an d harm on ised . The b o d y w edges d o w n from the acrom iu m processes - the b u m p s at the shou ld ers - an d tap ers to th e b ase o f the crotch. T he vvedge fo rm s th e true front p lan e o f th e b o d y ; th e m asses on eith er side o f th e w ed ge taper at a sh arp angle, an d becom e a part o f th e side p lanes o f the figure. T he w ed ge form p asses through
Its striations, or muscle fibre divisions, radiate in a fan-like shape, with the clavicular portion sitting on top of the mass. The female breast sits on top of the pectoralis. roughly between the seventh and eighth rib. It has a comma-like shape. tapering back under the arm toward the scapula.

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i is $ back ?the shoulders and bakTof the neck. The visible prfion orr either side of the neck creates %coathanger-l!fce rhythm. which goes from the acromium processes at the shoulders to above the seventh cervical vertebrae. along the clavicles and across the stemal notch. From threequarter view to profile, the trapezius muscle is a ramp. taking up about half the space of the top plane of the torso. The ramp varies in height depending uponathletic build.
The trapezius

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Imtn Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy
Neglecting to draw in the centre line is like forgetting to bring the manager along to the big game I f
Here are a few ways to start the torso. The first is angular, the second box-like, the third spherical. There is no right or wrong set of shapes. but there may be confusion in the structural design if there are too many shapes to start with. A more harmonious way is to maintain a shape design consistency throughout. These shapes are flexible. bending on the spinal axis.


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th e ob liq u es, o r w hat w e u su a lly call th e spare tyre m uscles. T hese m u scles are th e so ft m ass betw een th e ribcage an d th e p elvis. T h ey tap er in n arrow ly at th e ribcage an d w id en at the hips, resting atop th e iliac crest. T h is w ed ge can b e lin ked to th e tw o lin es that form the neck in a rhyth m ical relation sh ip that h elps keep th e o b liq u e m u scles from b e co m in g to o u n u su a l in their sh ap e d esign. T he o b liq u es form true sid e w a lls - p erp en d icu lar p lan es to the fron t a n d b ack p lanes o f th e b o d y - and blen d w ith the a n g u lar sides o f t h e ribcage. T h e torso is e x trem ely p liab le betw een th e ribcage an d pelvis. T he fu rth e ry o u vAM OMIOVi p ush th e rhythm b etw een these tw o shapes, th e m ore c o n v in cin g th e action design w ill feel. T he m uscles on th e front o f th e b o d y are v e ry p liab le an d can be stretched an d tw isted as m uch as needed to help en h an ce th e gesture o f th e pose. It's v e ry im p ortan t to start th e p o se w ith th e gesture first, to s eize th e m o m en t and th e action. T hen y o u can proceed to the structure o f th e pose, an d fin a lly th e design an d articulation o f t h e m uscle grou p s in th e body. If th e gesture is d yn am ic, th e m uscles m ust fo llo w that d yn am ic. D on't stiffen up C .-L the design at th is point in the d raw in g. Everyth in g is pliable, no m atter how geo m etrically you m ight d raw yo u r pictures, an d the sh ap es y o u design for the m u scles m ust not stiffen up in the d yn am ic gesture y o u V e created. M an y com ic b o o k im ages sh o w this latter trait, esp ecially com ics fro m th e 80 s an d 90 s. If you can fin d a few exam p les, they serve


Heres how to build up a complete figure, starting with the core. Use a rhythmical cylinder form to start the pose (A), then find the ribcage and pelvis forms within the rhythm lines; look for key bony points to keep the shapes squared up from top to bottom, and to find the compression between them. Then the perspective is designed (B ) with the three-quarter line drawn into the figure to help keep the muscle forms from drifting too close to the right arm The muscle rhythm lines are then added to fill out the anatomy structure (C). Ali this should be done lightly so it can be easily removed when the final rendering takesform. When everything is finished. most of the anatomy will not be visible (D), but the bumps and little dark markings drawn in the pose will have a more visual believability and more accurate design to them.


Presents Anatomy

The torso

3abdominal muscles each ftave a different type of contour. The top twp muscles are^ngular: the top heads predominantly face up over the ribcage and the second set of heads face downward. The middle heads face flat forward and the lower abs bulge at the top in a rounded taper towards the base of the pelvis. The muscles have this structural design to help when the body leans forward. The figure on the far right has been f -pr drawn using construction forms to keep ^ 1 the anatomy geometric, planar and simple. The right side is pinching or bending in; as a result, the shapes on the right profile ali take on a bulging appearance from compression. The left side of the figure is stretched out, and the shapes relate to this.

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Ali the abs stacked up on each other have a rhythmical relationship to one another. asall the head divisions can be connected together at a point to the side of the body. This relationship keeps ali the muscle heads organised in the architecture of the bones of the torso.

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The serratus muscles connect the scapula to the ribcage from beneath the scapula. The muscle heads originate along the inside edge of the scapulae on the back, closestto the spine, and terminate halfway along the first nine ribs. These muscles insert snugly into the obliques, and radiate in an arc on the side of the body, with aII the muscles fanning out from top to bottom.

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Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

The obliques are the big muscles that bend and rotate the torso of the body. The ftank portion of the muscle sits between the ribcage and pelvis on the sides of the body. The flank drapes over the iliac crest, giving the pelvis what looks like a downturn on the tops, rather than the upturn of the bones' design. They have three distinct visible planes from the side of the torso. The rest of the oblictue traveis up the ribcage and laces together with the serratus muscles. and blends to the abdominal appaneurosis.


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The drawing is never correct until the whoie has been established. This means that to understand the relationships of the parts, you must see them ali assembled together. Don't become criticai of one drawn line; try to draw the entire pose quickly, then assess as a whole what can be fixed or altered to create a stronger, more convincing pose.

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. as a g o o d lesson in w hat 1101 to d o A s alw ay s w ith an atom y, n o m atter

w h en an ato m y m eets gesture. h o w m uch y o u know , there's a lw ay s m ore to learn. Rem em ber: the key is to practise, practise an d practise som e m ore - an d to have fu n d oin g it. #

The muscles on the front of the body are very pliable and can be stretched and twisted as much as needed to help enhance the pose If


Presents Anatomy

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lniat>m Presents Anatomy


he legs p rovid e su pp ort fo r the b o d y an d p o w er m uch o f its m ovem ent. Like th e a rm , the leg has g roups o f m uscles that o p p o se o n e an oth er in their action . For exam ple, th e q u ad ricep s at th e fron t o f the b o d y are u sed to exten d th e leg, w ith the bicep fem oris, sem i m em b ran osis an d ten d on osis actin g as flexo rs. Both th e arm s and th e legs start w id e at th e torso and tap er to about h a lf that w id th at th e w rists an d ankles. T he biggest structural differen ce is th e o rganisation o f m uscles arou n d the kneecap, w h ich d iffers to the ridge o r rotator m uscles in th e elbow. Now, w ith o u t gettin g too caught u p in th e n am es, let's get d o w n to d isc u ssin g th e shap es a n d rh y th m s in a leg, breakin g the d raw in g d o w n into ea sy steps. Y ou sh ou ld start w ith a sim p le gesture: a lin e con n ected to th e h ip s w ill d o. T he hip s a i? th e pij[ot p o in t fo r th e legs, an d act

See more of Ron's work at his website

w w w .5 tu d io 2 n d s tre e t.c o m

On the disc
Find reference sketches by Ron in the Legs folder inside Human Anatomy

Master your depiction of the limbs that drive the rest of the body

as an axle. R em em ber that both sides o f th e hips are fu sed together, u n lik e the shoulders, w h ich float in d ep en d en tly o f each other. T he tilt o f the hips o p p o ses the an gle o f th e shoulders, m e a n in g that the action at th e top o f th e b o d y is counterb alanced b y th e p osition o f th e low er body, w h ich creates stability. T h e hip s can be d raw n as on e o f several d ifferent m asses, d ep en d in g on y o u r preferred d raw in g m ethod ology, but th ey a li serve th e sam e fun ction : v o lu m e an d con struction .

Leg bones and muscles

The p elvis is a n arrow sh ap e fu n n ellin g inw ard tow ards its base. T h e w id e p oint o f th e hips is created b y th e fem u r an d the hip m uscles, w h ich are m ostly responsible for c o n n ectin g th e leg to the body, an d fill in th e space betw een the p elvis an d femur. These h ip m uscles fla ir o u t in an A shape an d act in a bro ad ly sim ila r w a y to the


In a typical standing pose, unless the legs are spread. one foot always sits directly below the skull for balance at the two polar extremes of the body. Notice how the hips move to compensate for the tilt of the shoulders. If the legs are spread. they maintain an A-shape, distributing the weight of the figure evenly across the ground.

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Part The legs

Remember that both sides of the hips are fused together, unlike the shoulders, which float independently of each other
sh ou ld er m uscles, w h ic h w e lo ok at in m ore d etail on page 38 . M o v in g d o w n lh e legs, the fem urs both tap er inw ard, fo rm in g a sem i-V sh ap e betw een them . T he fig u re lo o k s knockkneed at th is stage, but thats n orm al until w e place m uscles over th e b o n es. In a stan d in g p osition , th e k nees are alm ost d irectly b e lo w the iliac crests o f th e pelvis. T h e th igh is d ivid ed into three m ajo r m asses: th e front m ass, w h ich consists m ostly o f th e q u ad ricep s an d sartoriu s m u scles; th e in s id e o f the th igh , o r adductor m u scles; an d the back o f the thigh, o r the bicep m ass. A li o f these m u scle grou p s start ou t large - th e m u scle h ead s account for abou t tw o third s o f th e length o f the leg an d tap er arou n d th e knee as th e m uscles term in ate in ten don s, ex p o sin g m ore b o n e th a n th e y cover. I

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Drawing ares between ali the joints and key features relates the left and right sides ofthe pose. Understanding figure proportions related to skull size can help you to interpret these ares with much greater clarity.


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For compressed or seated poses. I like to start the gesture ofthe pose by finding the big shapes - or, in this case. the shape - that both legs create together. This abstraction helps to strengthen the relationship between the limbs. as well as keeping the legs relating to each other dynamically and proportionately.

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Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy
S-curves are found alloverthe body, and the legs are no exception Here, the S-curve is found not only In large muscle rhythms. but also in the bones and their connections. The bones through the knee into the shln bone. and the smaller bones around the kneecap, hips and ankles exemplify this.

T h e k neecap itse lf is a sm a ll free-

flo atin g bo n e that hovers o v er th e head o f th e fem ur an d is attached to the le g b y ten don s co m in g from ab ove an d b e lo w the cap. T h e m ost p rom in en t o f these ten don s is th e large rope-like cord that exten ds <-V\^Vwv N iL a v jt f C 2 A T -S coN uecn oH s

b e lo w th e k n eecap to th e fo rw ard p rotuberance o f th e tibia, o r shin bone. T he k neecap or p atella is shap ed som ew h at lik e a pen tagon . W hen the k nee is bent, th e larger shape o f th e leg m ass betw een the fem ur an d th e shin - bo nes ech oes th e sh ap e o f the patella w ith a five-sided form . In this p osition , th e side w alls are m ore flat th a n angled. The low er leg is m ore

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When drawing the leg, keep in mind that the muscles spiral over the form in an S-like rhythm. This rhythm is universal throughout the body, but it*s particularty noticeable in the arm and leg muscles, so it's good to bear that in mind while drawing these areas. Rhythm keeps any form from getting too stiff in its design. One o f these S*curves is the sartorius muscle, which is attached to the iliac crest and spirals down and around the inner wall o f the leg. It acts as a major landmark, dividing muscle masses and surfaces like a fence between tw o gardens. The iliotibial band does the same thing on the outside o f the leg. These divisions are usually where the strongest shadow patterns are formed on the legs, regardless of how active the pose is.

trian gu la r than cylin d rical in its cross-section. T h e sh in b o n es form a



wedge, w ith the sh arp edge facing forw ard an d the w id e sid e as th e c a lf m uscles. T h e lo w er h a lf o f the leg is about tw o third s m uscle m ass, tap erin g to a block

form at th e an kles, w ith th e inside o f the an k le high er than the outside. T he

low er leg fo rm s a b o w lin g pin shape, sim ila r to the forearm , an d the foot fits *

Notice how the leg and the arm are similar to one another in their physical structure. The biggest differences between them are at the joints, but the majority of muscle masses resemble each other in their structure.

The arm and leg have quite similar proportions with regard to tendon mass versus muscle mass; even the upper and lower portions o f the limbs have similar divisions. The upper tw o thirds of each segment is muscle mass. the upper third usually contains the largest bulk of muscle and the lower third is mostly made up o f bone and tendon. The upper part of each segment is rounded like a cylinder. and the lower parts (wrists and ankles) terminate with a block form.

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The knee can be designed with three vertical planes and three horizontal planes, looking like the top of a diamond. Structuring the knee in this way makes it much easier to map the undulating furrows of the bones.


Presents Anatomy

The legs


Here you can see how the sartorius on the inside of the leg splits the barrei shape into tvvo parts, while the iliotibial band on the outside of the leg divides the front from the back. These two prominent separations are usually visible, so don't ignore them.

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Although the legs are independent limbs, the muscles of both share rhythms harmoniously. There are common rhythms that can be found easily, but look deeper - the more the two legs can be related, the more harmonious and fluid the entire pose feels.


As bony as it looks. the shin is surrounded with muscles. The outside surface has the most intricate complexity to it, with a repetitious. organised pattern of piston-shaped muscles.


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Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

Start the pose off with cylinders: theyre simple enough for anyone to draw. Once the cylinders are placed and youVe found their centres, divide them into planes. Beginning with simple surfaces is much easier than trying to start with the muscles. and the legs look more organised as a result

Stick to muscle groups rather than individual muscles. Only the muscles that are being used show more detail, expanding as their fibres bunch
* in n eatly at th e base o f the pin. W hen d ev elo p in g the legs, stick to the m u scle g roup s rather th an fo cu sin g in o n in d ivid u al m uscles. O n ly th e m uscles
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that are b ein g u sed shou ld sh o w m ore d etail, ex p a n d in g as th eir fibres bun ch together. If un u sed o r not fu lly taut, the m u scles blen d into th eir respective g roups or, i f really relaxed, back into th eir biggest basic shape. O n e im p ortan t point: rem em b erth at legs com e in pairs. Be sure to relate the tw o legs to each o th er throu gh out the early stages o f th e d raw in g, m ak in g sure that the action doesn't d estroy the p rop ortio ns an d

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b alan ce o f the pose. If the legs look o f f from

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each other, then the en tire p ose feels off. B alan ce starts from th e b ottom up, so i f you start the d raw in g w ith sim p le fo rm s an d so u n d placem ent, th e rest p ractically takes care o f itself. %
Using the simple rules of form and function, you should soon be able to work yourself up a pretty fine pair of legs. Just dont forget to take proportion and muscle use into account.

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Art^vork clockwise. from top left Elizabeth Le, L J Bamfcyth, Stephane Paitreau and Sacha Argel Dieoer.

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ets clear th e a ir ab o u l feet th e u g ly cou sins to th e hand s an d a part o f th e b o d y that j so m e point. F,ven ify o u intend to o n ly ever d raw characters w h o have sh oes on, y o u r d raw in gs w ill o n ly b e c o n v in cin g if yo u have a g o o d grasp o f h o w to structure th e feet inside the shoes. Storybo ard s, pin-ups, covers, character designs, m o v ie posters, com ic b o o k s ... ali o f these are instances w hen you m ight m a n y artists d read to draw. face it, they're not th e nicest th in g s to look at. But an y o n e w h o s seriou s about figure d raw in g is g oin g to have to tackle feet at sweetest feet.

See more of Rons work at his website

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Discover how to use form to create solid-looking feet - and why you shouldnt use too much detail when you draw them
w ant to d raw a full figure from head to toe. T h is m ean s that y o u have to put feet 011 the legs. A s p ain fu l as th is can b e to master, it is a m ust-do, m ust-learn situation. I lere are som e h elp fu l hin ts and solu tion s to tack lin g these little beauties, help ing y o u o n y o u r w ay to ach ievin g the

On the disc
Find reference sketches by Ron in the Feet foider inside Human Anatomy

T h e y re b o n y , th e y r e c o m p le x a n d , le ts


Presents Anatomy

The feet

Get a foothold: drawing perfect feet

Put feet into perspective and start with footprints as the foundation for the correct overall pose
Let's start b y lo o k in g a t s iz e . T h e ty p ic a l fo o t is b e tw een 10 an d 1 2 in ch es in le n g th . R o u g h ly s p e a k in g , th a t's a b o u t a s lo n g as th e e n tire s k u ll fro m to p to c h in . T h e fo o t's w id th is a b it le ss th a n h a lf th e w id th o f th e h e ad , o r a b o u t th e s a m e w id th as th e h a n d 's fo u r fin g e rs (e x c lu d in g th e th u m b ). Y o u can re a d ily se e th e se m e a su re s fo r y o u r s e lf w ith y o u r o w n h a n d a n d fo ot. To start a fu ll-figu re d raw in g o r even a three-qu arter d raw in g o f a figure, it w o u ld be w is e to begin w ith th e grou n d p lan e to w o rk out th e correct perspective in th e shot, relating th e fig u re to th e rest o f th e en viro n m en t so it feels tru ly p lanted in the w orld. ITie p erspective w ill h elp keep th e fo ot in correct scale to how y o u see th e action, to th e character's head, a n d to th e view er, as w ell as keeping it at th e correct skew - i f there is a n y - from cam era distortion . I b e g in b y d raw in g footprin ts o n th e flo o r (o rstep s, o rs lo p e ; w h e rev erth e foot is to b e located ). T h is can m ake it easier to d raw th e legs w ith th e right foreshortened lo ok to them an d w ith th e correct action to the pose. bare before coverin g it w ith a big sh o e d esign, so that th e foot relates back to the scale o f the rest o f the character. Toes are b u lb o u s at th e end, w h ich m ean s they're rou n d ed like a bu b ble, but sq u ish flat w h e n pressed again st a surface. W hen th is h app en s, th e toe m ass spreads out a bit fu rth e r th an the toe's actu al size, u su ally jo in in g toes w h ere th e y com e together. I f th is is the case, don't d raw lin es in b etw een each toe: th is h a s the v isu a l effect o f spreadin g B o o ts a n d sh oes u su ally cover th e feet, but I recom m en d that y o u start w ith the foot w ith ou t a cover over it, so th e re s a p roper scale o f fo ot size to th e figure before a n y d istortion created b y the sh oe design occurs. Feet are so m e tim es d raw n oversized for w eig h tin g o r stylistic reasons, but I w o u ld still d raw th e fo ot them apart from each other. U se sim p le ton es o r light gradation s to jo in th e m ass an d separate th e toes. T oes step d o w n w ard like stairs from the m etatarsal b o n e to th e toe's tip. T here are m a n y little co m p lex surfaces, from bo n e to p to knuckles and nails, that can be rendered o r shad ed to give th e feet m ore d im en sio n an d com plexity.

Begin with the ground plane to work out the correct perspective in the shot

Defining the toes

Be carefu l not to add too rnuch d etail to th e toes i f th e foot is sm a ll in the illustration: too m uch ren derin g in such concentrated spaces can force th e rest o f th e illustration tow ards a direction o f over-rendering. It can also p ush th e fo cu s to th e bottom o f th e picture in th e sam e w a y as un der-scalin g th e feet, u n less you catch the m istake early en ough . T he bottom o f th e fo o t h as an arch on the in sid e an d tw o separate p ad s that sq u ish to w h atever th e y press against, creating a straight line. T he toes bend about a th ird o f th e w a y back b eh in d the bali o f th e foot. W hen th e toes spread, the biggest sep aration occurs betw een th e big toe an d the secon d toe. T h e little toe is u su a lly d raw n as a b u lb o u s sh ap e. It ty p ic a lly flo ats a bit m ore o f f the
As the figures leg lifts. the toes on the ground spread out - one of the few times they can be drawn separated.

The footprint is as long as the entire skull from top to bottom - the same way the hand is the same length as the face from hairline to chin.

Drawing the footprint first helps you ground the foot to the surface its connected with.

The toes bend behnd the bali of the foot. not in front of it.


Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

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Draw the foot with straight lines along the surface its pressed against, rather than drawing


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Whether theyre drawn from head to toe or cropped, ali figures have a better chance of looking convincing if they are reiated to a ground piane. Everything in space is reiated to perspective: the figure is no exception. Once the ground plane is established, stamp out the footprints on it and draw ^ your figure to meet them, or draw up from them to complete the figure pose. This also applies to feet i W elevated from the ground plane. Determine where the figure is in

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terms of the ground plane to help elevate the foot correctly, in relationship to the surrounding space and to the viewer. Drawing from the footprint to the torso sometimes helps solve tough foreshortening problems.

Relating your figures to footprints drawn along a ground plane will help maintain a sense of perspective and make characters more believable.


Presents Anatomy

The feet
Like the foot itself. the toes are block-like. Start with simple shapes to achieve a sense of mass and dimensionality, then create more bulbous forms.


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Start without boots or shoes to get

a proper scale of foot size that relates to the rest of the character
grou n d w h e n th e fo ot is arch ed up, sh o w n th e con n ection from a front p erspective in these exam ples. T he a n k les con n ect th e feet to the legs. For easier an k le d raw in g, it helps to th in k o f them as a stirruplik e shape. T he in sid e an k leb o n e is m ore elevated th a n th e outside one. Feet have typ ically been th e b a n e o f m an y artists. So m e illustrators h id e them w ith sm oke, p ush them into silhouettes an d sh ad o w s o r even crop th e im age to avoid d raw in g them . But w h en an artist can d raw them correctly, h o w m uch character th e y ad d to th e im age! Tine h a n d s an d feet can say just as m uch as a co n v in cin g facial expression. Because o f th eir co m p lex ity an d gesture


but w ith th e t o e sstill m ak in g co n tact w ith th e g rou n d p lane. T h e big toe poin ts in tow ards the o th er fo u r toes, an d these toes ben d tow ards th e big toe. D on't forget that th e foot is a full sh ap e w ith s ix sides, like a block, w ith

The ankles can be thought of as a stirrup shape to help relate them to one another. The inside anklebone (maleolus) is higher in elevation than the outside ankle bone.

corresp on d in g sh ad in g planes. D raw throu gh th e form to generate a m ore so lid -lo o k in g an d d im en sio n a l form . W hen y o u 've perfected y o u r feet, yo u '11 w a n t to add them to th e rest o f the character. N o w 's th e tim e to c on sid er a n k les a n d legs. See in m y d iagram s a b o v e h o w l've d raw n the right fo ot and

Overlap the toes when the foot is not drawn straight on. This will avoid the 'clump of bananas look. and help the foot look less cartoony.

To achieve a more solid dimensional form. bear in mind that the foot is a full shape with six sides.

started to attach it to th e right leg. I've

o r action, feet u su ally becom e a secon d ary o r tertiary fo cu s in a figu re draw in g. It's a g o o d idea to tackle these d iffic u lt issues

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e a rly o n an d id eally m ake it secon d nature to d esign them con vin cin gly. Y ou w ould be su rp rised h o w m an y peop le w ill co m m en t o n h o w w ell feet are d raw n i f th ey really are; it's not ev ery d ay that you fin d an artist w ith a real u n d erstan d in g o f th e grou n d th ey stan d upon .



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Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy


1 o fa r w e've seen h o w to d efin e I th e a rm atu re o f th e figu re th e shoulder, o n e o f the m ore com plicated spots 011 the b o d y to draw. T he place to start is at the skeletal structure. U nd erstan d th e sh ap e o f th e scap ula an d an d its u n d e rly in g gesture, erus, esp ecially the edges o f the h um scap u la an d the e n d s o fth e h um erus. YVithout k n o w in g th e b o n es an d their o rterm in a te . Keep in m in d that the before startin g to flesh o u r figu re out w ith th e torso an d legs. We con tin u e o u r jo u rn e y w ith th e u p p er part o f th e arm s an d th e w a y th e y con n ect to the m uscles attach to th e bones.

DorVt allow the complex interaction of muscles in this area to distract you from anatom ys guiding principies
shapes, the m uscles have n ow here to start d iagram s I have d raw n are m ostly fleshed over, so th e p oin ts w here th e m uscles attach are covered - but the shap es are solid an d d irectio nal, because o f w here

Ron Lem en
COUNTRY: US See more of Ron's work at his website
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On the disc

Find sketches by Ron in Shoulders and Upper Arms inside Human Anatomy


Presents Anatomy

Pari Shoulders &upper arms

Learning the relationships between muscle and bone

Drawing the shoulders to complement the action of the upper arm muscles
D raw in g th is part o f th e b o d y begin s m uch lik e an y o th er part. First gesture in th e p ose, th en accent th e lin es y o u feel go o d ab ou t u sin g for th e fin a l p ose before startin g to d efin e th e b o d y m asses in m ore d etail. W hen d raw in g th e figure, a clear u n d erstan d in g not just o f th e m uscles, but w h at th e skeleton looks like beneath ali th e m uscle m asses is needed to d raw m uscles w ith an y b e lievab le v isu al action to them . W ithout th is u n d erstan d in g an d observatio n , th e m u scles can en d up d raw n as b u b ble sh ap es that are lifeless, w eigh tless o r com p etin g against the action y o u w ant to depict.

Shoulder structure
T h e sh o u ld er flo ats over th e ribcage, w ith o n ly the clavicle at th e sternum on the ribcage actin g as an an ch o r for th e entire arm . T h is m ean s that th e arm has a lot o f free m o tio n o ver th e ribcage. W hen d raw in g th e arm connected to the body, you need to first fin d the correct action o f th e sh ou ld er to avoid a stifflo o k in g d raw in g. F o rex am p le, ifth e arm is w in d in g up to th row a bali, the
This drawing is ali about the shoulders and the upper arms. Note how the shape and form of the forward-pointing left arm is entirely different to the right. Think about how the muscles and bones are moving and interacting with the skin and the light.

The shoulder tes quite a bit of movement around the ribcage. Here you can s e e w e e positions of the arm. The first is forward, moving the attachment of the deltoid forward and stretching the shoulder muscles. The second is in a reference position, by the side of the ribcage. More of the back of the arm and shoulder show when the arm is relaxed in this position. Meanwhile, for the third position, the shoulder is pitched back behind the body. The shoulder is now behind the ribcage, stretching the pectoralis muscles and serratus muscles.

Doirt memorise the muscle chart. Memorise the muscle insertions and connections to the bones
Here we see the shoulder from behind the ribcage. Line A of the first ribcage represents the rhomboid and trapezius muscles. bunched up between the spine and the spine of the scapula. Line B represents the crease under the scapula that follows the serratus muscles. Line C splits around halfway between the shoulder muscles perpendicularly.


Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

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Here are the two approaches previously described to start the figure drawing: the abstraction method. and the shape-finding or Industrial Design method. Both methods lead to very similar conclusions. Remember: the most important concept you can get from both is that it's only about starting the figure to get it set up for the finish. where the drawing really counts.

* *

sh ou ld er w ill b e tow ards th e back o f

th e ribcage. I f th e a rm has released the b a li in th e throw, th e sh ou ld er w ill be m ore forw ard o ver th e ribcage. I f the ha n d s are h eld h ig h ab ove th e head, the shou ld ers are clo ser to th e ears. Each set o f m u scles crosses o ver from o n e b o n e to an other. For exam ple, the sh o u ld er starts in th e torso, con n ects to th e c la v ic le a n d th e sca p u la , and term in ates at (or crosses over an d inserts onto) the u p p er arm bo ne, k n o w n m ore fo rm a lly as th e hum erus. T he m uscles o f th e upp er arm originate bo th on the h u m eru s an d on the scapula, an d term in ate on th e tw o forearm bones, k n ow n as th e u ln a an d the radius. T h e


When drawing the arm connected to the body, we need to first find the correct action of the shoulder in order to avoid a stiff looking drawing If
h a n d s an d feet are a few places on the b o d y w here the m uscles are referred to as intrinsic: th ey stay w ith in the b o n e m ass. O th erw ise, m uscles connect tw o or m ore different b o n e group s together. T he scap ula floats o ver the serratus m uscles, w h ich w e see as little b u m p m uscles on the ribcage u n d e r each arm , or th e 'superhero m uscles'. lh e sh ou ld er m uscles ali start o n th e spin e edge o f the
These lines represent the rhythm lines, or the abstraction lines that flow between the muscles once the architecture has been designed. These lines help harmonise the muscle forms to create a seamless rhythmical movement of muscles, bones and ligaments.

scapula, an d cross o ver to the top o r the up p er third o f the h um erus. These four m uscles help rotate the u p p er arm rotate out and in from o u r b o d y - w h en you hold both y o u r arm s out like a cross,


Presents Anatomy

Pari Shoulders &upper arms

Draw muscles with simple geometry to understand and memorise them, or to tum them into something that you can remember easily. Here are the four muscles inside the scapula. Each muscle is drawn individually to help you understand the shape. where it starts - or where it's connected - and where it goes to. This is important information to remember, because ali the lumps, bumps, dark spots and highlights you see on the back only show up when the arm is active.

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Human anatomy
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for e xam ple, o r w h en y o u put both h a n d s b e h in d y o u r back, as ifh a n d c u ffe d . T he deltoid covers p art o f these m uscles an d w rap s aro u n d the to p o f the a rm . It fu n c tio n s as a sw ivel m uscle, o r th e
Here, the arm is pulled behind the body. causing several creases to occur. These creases run perpendicular to the muscle striations of the muscle heads. The three creases here are along the base of the oblique; under the serratus muscles and through the lattisimus and the rhomboid; and under the scapulas base edge.

m u scle th at en ab les y o u to sw in g y o u r arm rou n d like a w h eel. T hen w e h ave the biceps an d triceps. T hese m u scles cross over to the forearm bo nes at the top third o f th e the h u m eru s. T he triceps e xten d o r straighten out th e arm ; the biceps fle x it o r d raw it into th e body. I urge caution in le arn in g an d d raw in g m u scled istrib u tio n . D o n t m e m o ris e a

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The muscles should be drawn only when active, not charted and shaded like a muscle diagram 99
m uscle chart. M em orise the m uscle insertion s an d con n ection s to the bones, o r w h ere th e m u scles originate from an d w h ere th ey en d on the skeleton. Learn th e ir fu n ctio n an d action an d grou p th em so y o u are not d raw in g ev ery m uscle. shoulder. T h ese m uscles in p articu lar sh ou ld be d raw n o n ly w h en active, not charted an d shaded like a m uscle d iagram : m ost h u m an s don't n o rm a lly look th is w ay, even w h en w ell d eveloped. B od y-bu ilders create a Livin g H um an A n ato m y C h art w ith their bodies, an d we sh ou ld th a n k them to so m e degree - but
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T he m uscle ch arts you see in an an ato m y b o o k are based 011 m ed ically ideal bodies. In reality, th e size an d scale o f each m uscle v a ry from person to p erso n, based on their p erso n al activity, diet an d oth er factors. T h e a n ato m y b o o k s start us at an ideal p oint o f reference.T o accom m od ate ali p ossib le b o d y typ es, y o u w ill have to v eer aw ay from these an d use y o u r eye an d g u id in g p rincipies instead. Art rules are a startin g p oint, o n ly m eant to

Shoulder structure's n ow have a look at the an ato m y o f th e upp er arm an d

keep in m in d that these m uscles are d evelop ed to th eir lim its, an d are not the sh ap es w e e asily id en tify w ith.


Presents Anatomy

Pari Shoulders &upper arms

Here we see the shoulders in two positions: forward and behind. The left image shows the vertical striations over the muscles where the skin should fold (line A over the shoulder blade, and line B where the rhomboid meets the shoulder blade). The right image shows the muscles from the scapula stretching with the action.

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Anatomy books and live models are very different to look at. Here are a few ponts to help make studying easier. First, anatomy books have no skin. A quarter-inch of volume, if not more, needs to be added to the muscle mass. Think of t as a blanket resting on the muscles. This brings up the second point: skin is a cover. When the arm is pulled behind the body, the skin creases vertically through the shoulder instead of following the muscles horizontally across the back. The muscle fibres go one way; the skin creases perpendicular to them. This occurs every where on the body. Finally, more important than memorising the muscles is knowing when to draw them. A chart shows you how the human machine works, but muscles are only clearly 1 . visible when active. At rest, the muscles blend into a more generic, simpler shape, similar to the visual metaphors youre using to decipher drawing the body.

be altered w ith care to en h an ce o u r in d ivid u al w ays o f w ork in g, w h ich are as u n iq u e as w e are to o n e another. By e x a m in in g not o n ly th e lim b, but each an d e v ery p art o f the lim b, y o u w ill have a better u n d erstan d in g o f w h at to d raw an d h o w to m ake th e actions look con vincin g. Stu d yin g the lim b s o n e section at a tim e m ak es learn in g an d m em o risin g the in form ation m uch easier to digest. A n ato m y is a large subject to tackle, but it

i This version of the shoulders shows the arms from in front and below the figure Note how the muscles of the deltoids. pectoralis. serratus and. eventually. the abs ; and obliques ali f low seamlessly together in their striations, and radiate from the j shoulders through to the pelvis on either side of the body. using the shoulder as the point of radiation. The deitoid muscles are draped over the amns, seen both from in front and behind. Think of the muscle draped like a towel over the shoulder.

needn't b e d ifficu lt on ce y o u con q uer the basics. B reak in g each lim b d o w n into section s not o n ly helps you tak e in the inform ation quicker, but also helps to isolate th e im p ortan ce o f each part o f the b o d y an d the im p ortan t in d ividual characteristics related to th o se regions. Practise 'til it hurts, then practise som e m ore. M ileage is th e k ey to artistic progress. linjoy!


Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy


It may seem like a simple area of the body, but the forearm is more sophisticated and elegant - than you suspect

See more of Ron s work at his website
w w w .s tu d io 2 n d s tre c t.c o m

n the p revious i section, I w em over th e actions o f th e u p p er arm ,

b o d y operates the next on e d o w n the chain. For exam ple, the m uscles o f the sh ou ld er fu n ction to lift th e arm , the biceps an d triceps operate the forearm , an d the forearm m uscles dictate the action s o f the hand . T h is ru le is im p ortant to rem em ber w h en draw in g: it h e lp sy o u to avoid stiffn ess in y o u r com p osition by m a k in g y o u th in k not so m uch o f in d ivid u al segm ents, but o f the action as a w hole. T his is s o m e th in g w e can th in k about an o th er tim e, but it's im p ortant to

startin g w ith the shou ld er blade. T h is tim e w e '11 tou ch on

th e rest o f th e arm , from the elb o w d o w n to th e w rist. B efore d iscu ssin g th e specific an atom y, how ever, I w an t to m ention so m e th in g about fu n ction . Each segm ent o f the

On the disc

Find reference sketches by Ron in the Forearms folder inside Human Anatomy


Presents Anatomy

The forearms

This diagram shows the way the muscles cross over the bones, or spiral from one side of the arm to the other. The muscles as a group are ali attached in roughly the same location. then spread across the wrist before terminating in the hand or at the f ingertips.

The muscles of the shoulder function to lift the arm; the biceps and triceps operate the forearm




The muscles on this cast are over-developed to emphasise their artistic shape and construction. The slightly rounder forms also lend themselves to more dynamic and fluid rhythm lines.

k n o w a n d con sider w hen le a rn in g h o w to dictate h u m an anatom y. A fu n ction u n iq u e to the arm is the w ork o f th e rotator m uscles, also k now n as th e ridge o r su pin ator m uscles. In o p p osition to th is g rou p o f m u scles is th e p ron ator teres - a m u scle that's on the inside o f th e arm b e lo w th e biceps. T h is grou p o f m u scles o ccupies th e u p p er third o f the forearm . T he supin ators originate ab out a th ird o f th e w a y d o w n th e JCEfcT
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Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

h u m eru s an d split th e b iceps and triceps. T hese m uscles rotate the h an d left an d right, an d flex o re x te n d it. Now, con trary to w h at 1 see d raw n a lot, the ridge m uscles d on 't have a crease in them w hen the arm is bent. T he crease y o u see is sk in fo ld in g, n ot the m uscle. T h in k o f t h e m u scle as a cable o r a piston - neit her o f these ob jects fo ld o ver on them selves. Instead, th e y go slack. A s a rule, skin fold s p erp en d icu lar to m uscle fibres, a n d th is is w hat's tak in g place in th is region. T he skin folds, th e m uscle stays th e sam e sh ap e - just com pressed a little bit m ore. W hen the h an d is pronated, th e ridge m u scles cross o v er from
This arm was drawn from a photo of a bodybuilder, so the muscles are more visible in their construction than in the average person Weightlifters idealise their bodies. sculpting the muscles to perfection under the the skin, like walking anatomy charts.

th e o utside to the inside edge o f th e arm . T h e ridge m u scles attach just b e lo w th e th u m b so, as a ru le o f th u m b (sorry, cou ld n't help it), w herever th e th u m b is, the ridge m u scles are p oin tin g to it. T h e ridge m u scles break u p th e even sym m e try b etw een th e arm 's o utside an d inside edges. O n e w a y to rem em ber w here an d how ali these m uscles w ork togeth er is to th in k o fth e arm as a series o fc h a in lin ks. F.ach link alternates
Here is an arm drawn from the underside, with the ulnar crest over-emphasised to show where it is and how it separates the flexor and extensor muscle groups. This bone ridge is overemphasised to show how the bone traveis from the elbow to the wrist.

Contrary to what I see drawn a lot, the ridge muscles do not have a crease in them. The crease you see is the skin folding, not the muscle 99
direction, an d th a ts w hat the arm d oes from sh ould er to hand. For th e arm to fold in on itself, o r flex, th e m uscles


Muscles involved in a particular activity will tense - or the muscle form will accentuate more than the muscles not directly reiated to the action. The body shouldn't be drawn like a muscle chart, or it won't look convincing. Use the anatomy you learn only to fix problems in a drawing or to simplify complex posing. Use your knowledge in moderation reiated to the action of the pose - otherwise you should leave it out.

have to be p osition ed to interlock w ith each o th er to prevent an y con flict o f space b etw een ali th e m eohanical parts w ith in th e arm m ass. Exam p les on p age 45 sh o w th is further.

Ridge muscies
T he ridge m uscles share in th e p rofile o f the flexo rs an d th e extensors, blen d in g into b o th sides in the upper third o f th e fbrearm . T h e inside o f th e arm seats the flexo r grou p - the set o f m uscles that flexes th e h an d tow ard the body. T he brachiorad ialis - the biggest m uscle o fth e g roup overlap s on to th e inside surface o f the arm , the o p p o sin g m ass to the flexo r grou p and pronator teres. Both these sets o f m uscles fu n n el together


Presents Anatomy

The forearms



If the muscles are grouped together, they can ali be paired to make drawing them easier to manage. The forearm is drawn foreshortened to show the relationship between the generic shape design and the significant anatomy underneath. The anatomy design is missing the pronator muscle to show how the flexors and extensors are separated by the bone structure.

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Human anatomy


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Study anatomy from every book you can find, including muscle magazines and fitness books. Don't just copy the drawings: examine the construction, memorise the names and the bones. Then practise whenever you can. redraw the charts and labei them from your head. Drawing the chart once or twice is not enough to memorise them. Drawing from memory helps you reflect on how much has been absorbed.

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* ' belovv the b icep to form th e pocket it sits inside o f w hen the arm is bent. T he e x te n so rc a rp i m u scles - tw o m ore m uscles b elo n g in g to the ridge group blen d in w ith th e exten sors at the e lb o w and then across th e top o f th e arm . On the o th er side o f th e arm , the e xten sors an d flexo rs are separated b y th e u ln a b o n e - a split in th e m u scles k n ow n as the u ln a crest. T he flexo rs o riginate at the e lb o w on th e in sid e b u m p (k n o w n as th e m ediai epicon d yle) o f the h u m eru s, the b o n e that con n ects th e arm to th e sh o u ld er (also often k n o w n a s th e u p p er arm ). T he m u scles cross o ver th e tw o bo nes o f the fo rearm - th e u ln a an d radius. M ost

As flexing, gripping, holding and so on are the primary functions of the hand, more muscles are attributed to assist in these actions
flexo rs term in ate at the fin gertips, w h ile a few term in ate in the p alm o f th e hand. T here are m a n y layers o f fle x o r m uscles. B ecause the fle x in g o fth e hand - for gripp in g, h o ld in g an d so on - is its p rim a ry fu n ction s, m ore m uscles are assign ed to assist these actions. T h e exten sors originate from the o utside b u m p o f th e arm (the lateral epicondyle) and cross over the tw o bones o f the forearm , spread in g out across the topside o f th e arm an d term in atin g at the fingertips. T hese m uscles are responsible for o p e n in g th e h a n d an d p u llin g back in a halt p osition - the o p p o sin g fu n ction s o f the flexo r group, in o th er w ords. T he exten sor gro u p is the m ost active o f the forearm m uscles. lfy o u 're d raw in g


Presents Anatomy

The forearms

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Figure 1locates the arm in space and its action. Figure 1b then describes the simple cylinder forms fleshed over the action lines. Figure 2 is a simple version of what the muscle shapes might look like as other shapes. Figure 3 is the anatomically fleshed out version of the arm. The next step (not shown here) would be to flesh out the rendering and lose most of the anatomy chart to light and shade.

superh eroes o r so m e oth er idealised b o d y fo rm , th e insid e o f th e arm (flexors) is a big b all-typ e shape, vvhile the exten sors are a series o f p ipes radiatin g from th e elbow . A li o f th e forearm m u scle ten d on s are protected as th ey p ass o v er th e vvrist b y the retinacu lu m . T h is m igh t lo ok like a w rist ban d , but it attaches sep arately to bo th th e top a n d the b ottom o f th e hand. T h is keeps th e ten don s from p o p p in g out a n y old w a y fro m th e arm . W hen d ra w in g th e arm , y o u shou ld keep in m in d that grou p in g th e m uscles

u u ja p .


togeth er is a better w a y to begin th an d ra w in g th e in d ivid u al shapes. D raw in g th e figu re o n e m uscle at a tim e is p ain fu l an d m ore th a n lik ely goin g to g ro w into its o w n u n iq u e sh ap e - o n e that doesn't n ecessarily resem ble a real figure. T he v isu a l sym b o ls in th e im ages here should help m ak e so m e sen se o f w hat I m ean by this. Stu d y th e m uscles as on e exercise,

but learn to con solid ate th em into groups as an o th er exercise - an d as a m an tra for y o u r w ork. D raw in g is not ab out parts: d raw in g is ab out susp en sio n o fd is b e lie f, fo o lin g th e eye into b e liev in g w hat is seen. W e study p arts to id en tify them as a fun ction , o n ly to th row th em back into th e p ile o f tools called intuition . 9


Presents Anatomy

Ron Lem en
COUNTRY: US See more of Ron's work at his website
w w w .s tu d lo 2 n d s tre e t.c o m

On the disc
Find videos and sketches by Ron in the Hands folder inside Human Anatomy


them . The fingers are not p arallel w ith each other, althou gh som e action s m ay m ak e it seem that way. Fin gern ails and knu ckles are d etails: leave them until last. Its im p ortan t to keep steps in their p articu lar order w h ile y o u ab so rb the process b e h in d th em : w h eth er the d raw in g y o u r e m ak in g is sim ple or com p lex, i f so m e th in g falls apart, it's easier to detect w h ere it w en t w ro n g in the process. O n c ey o u 're con fid en t an d w elltrain ed in y o u r craft, its u p to you to fin d y o u r o w n w a y o f w ork in g, an d y o u m ay w ell deviate from th e ac ad em ic o r schooltaught way. T his is w here you w ill fin d y o u r independen t style - not in cop yin g o w n voice.


Many artists fear drawing this part of the body, but apply the principies youVe learned and learn the anatomy, and youll find the process much easier
others, but in reassessing y o u r w ork in g order. Learn it right, then break the rules an d tools ify o u ch o ose, an d fin d y o u r H an d s can be c o n v in cin gly d raw n interacting w ith ob jects o r surfaces. I can't stress e n ou gh that learn in g from life is the key to u n d erstan d in g ev ery th in g y o u ll ever need to k n o w in art. W h ile art b o oks m ight give a coo l trick for g e ttin g a certain lo ok o r ap pearance, so lv in g the problem d im en sio n a lly o r from ev ery an gle w ill giv e so m uch m ore w isd o m an d insight. I f y o u can't take an art class, use a m irror. You can use y o u rse lf to study from , and y o u d on 't h ave to p ay a m o d el fee.
Starting with the overall gesture of a pose helps you design realistic hands.

efore d ivin g into further d raw in g ad v ic e , le ts th in k about a few concepts to help

m ak e th e process o f d raw in g

a com p lex sh ap e such as the hand easier. in it: its m ech an ics are g u id ed b y the

T h e h an d actu ally h as v e ry few m u scles fo rearm , an d its d esign is based m o stly o n b o n e an d fatty tissue. T h e th u m b is a distin ct sh ap e rooted to th e h a n d m ass an d sh ou ld be d raw n into th e im age after th e bigger m ass h as b een designed. T he fo u r m ain fin gers ali radiate tow ard a co m m o n point: th e in d ex fin g er an d the p in k ie cu rve tow ard each other, an d the o th er tw o fin gers fit so m e w h e re betw een


Presents Anatomy

The hands

Getting to grips with the anatomy of hands

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A n a to m y is im p o rta n t - bu t m o re s o to a d o c to r th a n to an a rtis t. T h e p a rt o f a n a to m y y o u s h o u ld b e fir s t co n c ern ed w ith is th e sh a p e d e sig n , a n d h o w c a n y o u s im p lify y o u r th in k in g a n d d r a w in g d o w n to th e co re e ssen c e o f th e se sh ap es. Finger b o n es h ave a p articu la r design to th em . T he fin gers are m ore th an 60 p er cent v isib le b o n e sh ap es d efin i ng w h at w e see, so u n d erstan d in g th e fin ger b o n e o r knu ckle shap es is k ey in m ak in g a m ore con vin cin g d raw in g. T he fin ger jo in ts are spo ol-shap ed, depressed slig h tly in th e m id d les for the ten d on s o f th e exten sor m uscles o f the fo rearm . T h e m etacarp al k n u ck le - th e big o n e th e fin ger is attached to - is barrelshap ed , not to tally spherical, an d the ten d on s that sit in th e grooves o f th e spo ol shap es on o u r fin gers sit on top o f the barrel-shap ed knu ckle. A s research, lo o k at N o rm an R o ck w ell's h a n d s in h is paintings. H e d id it better than alm o st a n y oth er illustrator out there. T h e h an d has a sq u ish y sid e an d a firm side. T he sq u ish y side - th e p alm - is w here the m ajo rity o f m u scles o f th e h a n d are ^ocated. T he o th er v isib le soft spot is

b e tw een th e th u m b an d in d ex fin ger on th e h a n d 's back, o r dorsal, side. T h ese soft areas are the p oin ts on th e h an d that fle x an d ch an g e sh ap e w h en active w ith an ob ject o rsu rface. T he h a n d then con form s to th e sh ap e o f th e object it holds. T his last d etail can really th row o f f th e best o f u s at tim es - u n less y o u rem ind y o u rse lf o f a few basic concepts o f con struction that y o u can fali back on.


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Mechanics of anatom y
D ifferent h a n d s can lo ok like th e y are differen t sh ap es - babies' han d s, for exam ple, are ch u b bier th a n old people s. But w e are bu ilt sim ilarly, o u r hand s included. T h e h a n d is b lo ck y b y nature: it has m ass, a top, a bottom , sides, a front an d a back. T h e h a n d is also circular, a s it sw ive ls a n d pivots in th e wrist. W hen the fin gers are pressed together, th e h a n d lo ok s like a spade. T h is is w here y o u w a n t to start d raw in g the hand. Im ag in in g th e h a n d as a soft, b lo c k y fo rm , so m e th in g akin to a sp o n ge in texture, helps y o u to rem em ber w hat y o u r e d raw in g is a physical object.


ME N h C
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Start with the object to be held (the bali. top). Next. add the arm rhythms and the bali shape for the palm of the hand. then attach the finger wires to the bali mass. These wires should represent the absolute middle pro contour. the middle of the finger mass




Now flesh out the forms. This means adding dimension to the shapes by giving them planes. To locate the finger \ segments. find the arclng lines: these segments arc more than 90 per cent of the time. The ares determine the relationship of each particular band of knuckles - prxima!. middle or distai - from finger to finger KnuckU are knobby: either round or blocky. However. you may find that stylising will change this blocky appearance


Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy
* I f y o u ran 't rem em ber the anatom y, T h e h a n d is attached to th e arm , an d the arm is an exten sion o f the torso, so startin g w ith an overall gesture o f th e p ose ensures that the d esign y o u pick for the fin al hand is correct. T h e h an d position is relative to the rotation o f th e arm (o r its pronation or su p in atio n ). T he sketch h o p e fu lly solves th e d ilem m a o f h o w to start the design o f the hand. I som etim es th in k o fd e sig n in g th e h an d in action b y d raw in g the object first. O nce I k n o w w here the object is, rem em ber th e concepts: th ey'11 g e ty o u through a n y d ou bts y o u have abou t w hat you're d raw in g. T he fin g ers are ro u g h ly th e sam e length as the h an d m ass. R em em b erin g th is is a g o o d check-an d-balan ce to m ake sure yo u r d ra w in g s p rop ortio ns are right, even w h en the fingers are fold ed a n d th e h an d is foresh orten ed. P ro po rtio n s have a w a y o f b ein g u n derstoo d even w hen obscured.


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The finger wires are about the same length as the palm ofthe hand

relative to th e p o se o f m y character, I can 4j

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w ork out the rest o f t h e action.

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***< Interactive hands ; A n o th er w a y o f estab lish in g the han d 's interaction w ith an object w o u ld b e to d raw th e object, d raw a h a n d p rin t on th e object so y o u k n o w w here to d efin e the details, then b u ild u p o f f o f th e h a n d print ali the


The hand is connected to the wrist. and so to the rest of the body - so you can begin by sketching an overall pose to ensure you pick the right hand design. (Dont take too long: lts just a sketch.)

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L i> Je i One method of drawing the hand interacting with an object is to draw the hand print on the object first

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Presents Anatomy

The hands
Details sit better on the fingers when they are well designed dimensionally. Draw them last
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The hand is spadeo r diamond-shaped when the fingers are closed together.

fo rm al sh ap es, th e h a n d block, th e fin ger m asses, an d so on. T he lin e that s h o w s th e con n ection w ith th e object is th e w eld line. Press it firm ly against th e o bject, sh o w in g o f f the o b jects fo rm m ore th an th e h and. N o m atter ho w m uch y o u see a little space betw een the joints, don't m ak e them im p ortant. M ake the w eld lin e sh o w o f f th e action.

D raw d etails - fn gern ails, knuckles, w rin k le s - last. T h ey sit better 011 the fin gers w h en th e y are w ell designed d im en sion ally. Before this, ren der the surfaces: fin d th e sh a d o w patterns, and u se p lanes to chart valu es across the surfaces. T his is w hat it m ean s to render a fo rm ; m ak in g a stronger v isib le shape, n o ta d d in g details.

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The different-coloured lines here indicate the gesture o f the hand and the character. showing how the object sits in relation to the character.

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Drawing the object first helps you when drawing the hand in action. Here. IVe begun with the object before using the weld line (shown in blue) to connect the hand and object correctly.

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Next, it's time to sub-divide surfaces. Here, l'm using the plane structure method to chart values and tones across the surfaces, working up from flat values.

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Only when ali o f this is done do I begin to shade and detail the hand. Once I have the hand shape rendered. I can then add details such as creases, fingernails and knuckles to make it look realistic.

much you see a little space between the joints, don't make them important. Use the weld lines.


Presents Anatomy

The head is one of the most important parts of the body to draw. so practise as much as you can.

Break the skull and features into simple forms to get the proportions right

More at or

it 8 The head

hen d raw in g th e h u m an body, on e th in g th a ts essential to perfect is y o u r m eth od for

o f th e fig u re w ith con fiden ce, help in g y o u to m ain tain th e correct p ro p o rtio n s an d scale for the figu re as a w hole. I lere, I'm g o in g to t a lk y o u through m y basic process for creating w ell-d raw n heads. T lie th e o ry is im p ortan t an d can o ffer a certain degree o f freedo m from reference - but, as Iv e said before,

n o th in g beats h an d s-on practice. G et a frien d o r fa m ily m em b er to m od el for y o u at ev ery op p ortu n ity, hire a m odel or, w ith the help o f a m irror o r photos, d raw you rself. T h eo ry alon e can n ot give you en ou gh exp erien ce a s an artist to w ork th rou gh ev ery problem y o u 11 en coun ter in y o u r career.
See more of Rons work at his website
w w w .s tu d io 2 n d s trc c t.c o m


d raw in g th e head. T he sk u ll

is th e trad itional acad em ic m easu ring been created that en ab le artists to u se the

stick o f th e h u m an fo rm : fo rm u la e h ave sku ll as a tool from w h ich to d raw th e rest

Shape up: basic head forrris

Put your head in a box to ensure that youVe got the correct dimensions
B e lo w is m y sketch o f a h e ad in fro n t a n d sid e p ro file s, sp lit in to th ree r o u g h ly ev en s e c tio n s. M e a s u rin g th e s k u ll fro m th e sid e (in c lu d in g th e n o se) it fts r o u g h ly in to a s q u a re b o x (as y o u c a n se e to th e rig h t). From th e fro n t bu t e x c lu d in g th e ea rs, it's a b o u t tw o -th ird s th e w id th o f th at b o x at its w id e st p o in t. W hen children d raw a head, th ey u su ally start w ith a v ag u ely o v al o r 'egg' shape. T he head is really n either an oval n or a block, o f course, but th in k in g about b o th w h ile d esign in g th e sk u ll w ill help y o u ach ieve realistic d im en sion s. So, like a child, begin w ith an oval. D raw a lin e to fin d th e inside corn er o f th e face, o r th e ch an ge o f p lan e from th e front to th e side. T h is is u su a lly w here p ortraits fa li apart: w ith ou t a threeq u arter line, th e features d rift from the

On the disc
Find reference 'C sketches by Ron in the Heads folder inside Human Anatomy

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front to th e side o f the head, and prop ortio n , direction o f gaze and sy m m e try ali fali ou t o f alignm ent. N o w d raw a centre line. T h is helps keep the features sq u ared u p o n the face p lane


an d is e sp ecially n ecessary w h en th e head is tip p e d o r tilte d . D raw p erp en d icu lar lin es attached to th e top an d bottom o f th e centre line


i n ,The first centre line helps to keep the features squared up on the face. You can then add centre lines for specific features. such as the nose.



Presents Anatomy

Human anatomy

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* to forehead a n d chin. T he sku ll sh ap e sh ou ld n o w b e d ivid ed into three visible surfaces; th is w ill help get th e p rop ortio ns m ore accurate fo r the sm a ller shapes. D raw a second, m o reo rg an ic, centre line to d efin e th e centres o f th e ex tru d ed features - th e lifted brow, nose, tooth cy lin d e r an d chin. T he first feature to start w ith is the split betw een th e eyes: th is is k n ow n as the glab ella. Typically, it's a w edge sh ap e betw een th e eyebrow s, just ab o ve the bridge o f the nose. I ch o o se to begin here becau se th e glabella establishes an overall w id th fo r ali th e rest o f th e features. N ext, attach a ho rizon tal line to the top o f the glab ella w ed ge to establish the tilt o f the eye sockets in relation to th e centre line (a p erp en d icu lar relation sh ip).

d irection as the side p lan e o f the head. T h is en su res that the n ose stays centred betw een th e eyes correctly. T h e bottom s o f the eye sockets are n ext to d raw : m ake these parallel to the top line, in tersectin g th e nose about h a lfw ay d ow n its length. Extend th e top line aro u n d to the side planes, keep ing it at th e sam e elevation to th e top o f th e head. T h e eye sockets sh ould look som ew hat lik e su n glasses in their d esign. T ake the bottom lin e and d o the sam e th in g you d id w ith the top one. Both o f these lines fram e w here th e ea r should b e placed on th e sid e p lan e in correct elevation to the top an d b o tto m o f th e head.

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C h e & tis

Cheeks and teeth

T h e ch eeks an d tooth c ylin d er can be d raw n togeth er in a rh yth m , startin g w ith an arc that crosses throu gh the face plane from cheek to cheek. From d irectly in front, th is rhythm can be d raw n as a cird e ; m ore w o rk is need ed from th e side view , since th e cheek shares its rh yth m w ith both the front an d side planes. T he ears are u sed to help design the cheeks (see the d iagram to the right). T h e tooth cylin d er is con n ected to this cheek an d d rop s d o w n tow ard th e chin , arcin g across the centre lin e an d u p the


Drawing the nose

D raw in g th e n o se is tricky, but g o o d organisation w ill m ak e it a w h o le lot easier. Start w ith a tall trian gle, flat against th e face p lan e a s th o u gh y o u v e shaved o f f the nose. T h e top o f the trian gle o verlap s the g lab e lla an d creates th e interior lin e o f t h e ey e sockets. K n o w in g the p ersp ective o f th e head m akes it e a sy to d raw th e perspective o f th e nose. E xtru de th e bridge in th e sam e


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Presents Anatomy

it 8 The head
o th er side, leavin g en ou gh space fo r th e b ali o f t h e chin. T h e m ou th exten ds from th e face like a m ou n d . O ften , it is m ore c ylin d rical than rounded, w h ich is w h y it's c o m m o n ly k n ow n a s t h e to o t h cy lin d e r in lifed raw in g m an u ais. th e h ead as a basic shape, an d attach th e face like a m ask, w ith the h a irlin e fram in g th e u p p er h a lf o f th e m ask shape. It's just as im p ortan t to see th e h a irlin e as a geom etric sh ap e as it is a n y o f th e o th er features. V isu alisin g th e h airlin e as p art o f th e facem ask can help attach the U nless y o u re d raw in g a d isem b o d ie d head, there w ill com e a tim e w hen yo u 'll w ant to attach it to the rest o f the body, w hich m ean s ad d in g th e neck, ribcage an d shoulders. A ttachin g the neck an d shou ld ers to the head can be a trick y business. lfy o u 'r e d raw in g th e head first, it'sat th is p oint that the rest o f th e p ose is ab out to be d raw n . ITiis con n ectih w ill help y o u to d evelop an d d efin e the shap es o f that pose, en su rin g that it fits correctly w ith the head y o u ve alread y got. Attach th e head (bali) to the neck (cylind er), then attach the c ylin d er to the ribcage (b a li), l h e shou ld ers float over the ribcage. T he o n ly p oint w here tw o bo nes connect together is at th e pit o f the neck, w h ere th e c lavicle con n ects to th e ribcage. Therefore, the The top o f th e sku ll, w h ile rou n d ed , can a ctu ally be d raw n as a b lock. W hen d raw in g th e h air 011 to th e head, th in k in g about th e sku ll as a block can ad d extra d im en sion to the h air m ass. T h e best w a y to d raw th e h air is to start w ith th e hairline. I d o th is as fo llow s (refer to m y sketch b e lo w to help): draw h a ir correctly to the sku ll an d keep e v e ry th in g lin ed u p aro u n d the head. W hen d raw in g an y th in g organic, th in k ab o u t th e sh ap es w ith edges an d corners first. T h e perspective o f a form is fo und m uch m ore easily i f there are p oints to u se as lan dm arks, an d a straightish line co n n ec tin g th e m . ribcage is the m ost im p ortan t structure after the head an d neck.


When drawing anything organic, it's best to think about the shapes with edges and comers first. The top of the skull can be drawn as a block



While the top of the skull is rounded. it can be drawn as a block. Thinking of it this way helps give extra dimension when it comes to adding the hairline.

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lts important to see the hairline as a geometric shape. Visualise it as part of the facemask Cabove) to help you position it correctly on the skull.


Presents Anatomy


Presents Anatomy

Whether you draw or paint, knowledge of anatomy and form will enable you to get your ideas into images f f
Marshall Vandruff on animais, page 60

Your animal anatomy expert

Marshall Vandruff is a freelance illustrator whos worked for Warner Bros, HannaBarbera and Dark Horse among many others. Marshall has trained professional artists and students in Southern Califrnia since 1984.


Explore animais in six parts

6 0 Basic forms Begin your exploration of creature anatomy by seeing the shapes beneath the skin and fur . 66 The torso , Find out how the core of the animal body operates and how you can use it to bring life to your animal art 72 The hind legs Explore the real-wheel drive of animais, and how this part of the body can propel your art forward 78 The forelegs Use your observation, skills and knowledge to build the pillars of balance and grip in animais


8 4 The neck and head Discover what part of the animal body tells you about the creature and the traits ali animais share 9 0 Animal faces Find out what animal faces have in common with human faces, and the crucial ways in which they differ


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy

Begin your exploration of creature anatomy by seeing the shapes beneath the skin and fur

limais are something I love to draw, especially from imagination. Foryears, 1 had no idea how animators,

learned that there are secrets to animal anatomy - old secrets, well-known to a few. These workshops reveal the secrets o f inventing animais. W hetheryou draw, paint, sculpt, model or animate, basic knowledge o f anatomy and form will enable you to get your ideas into images. W hen you can create any animal you see in your m ind's eye, thats mastery.

comic-book artists and old masters could not only draw anim ais without copying

what they saw, but actually make animais look thicker, stronger, funnier and more alive than anything they could see. Then I

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Presents Anatomy

Part 1 Basic forms

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Mammals, reptiles and birds share most o f the same bones and muscles, but at different sizes and ratios. That's w h y you should study proportion. W hen you look at two-legged beasts (bipeds) like humans, or other plantigrades that plant feet on the ground, you can begin with front views. But creatures who run around on four legs (quadrupeds) don't take to being studied from the front. Its like trying to judge the length o f a ship b y looking down one end. Proportions reveal what an animal does. O ur bones show that people are designed to stand up: w e have long legs, shallow ribcages, shoulder blades 011 our backs, and arms that are good for playing instruments, drawing and hugging, but not made to support our weight. Four-legged anim ais have deep ribcages with shoulder blades on the sides, and arms that act as legs. Different functions, different forms.


D iagram an anim a l fro m th e side. M easure a box th a t fits th e big p a rts o f th e torso : th is tra in s you to see b ig th in g s first. By re d u cin g heads, hind legs and ribcag es in to boxes, tria n g le s and eggs, you le arn to see co m p le x c o m p o n e n ts as sim p le shapes. T h a ts th e u n d e rlyin g secret to m aste ring p ro p o rtio n .


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
P O N E f OO N*r
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Over-complicated anatomical charis full o f ribs and gnarls can confuse the more delicate learner students. The diagrams below leave out the more exacting details and hidden bumps, and simplify the hard-surface architecture that artists can

use. Theres plenty o f time to get into the details later. For now, compare the colour coding on the diagrams to see the analogies between human and animal bones. They are often quite striking.

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P e lv is (h ip bone)

S c a p u la (shoulder blade)

F e m u r (u p p e r leg)

Radius & Ulna (forearm bones)

fused to g e th e r on hoo fed animais

Tibia & Flbula (lo w e r leg bones) fused to g e th e r on h oo fed animais

Draw stickfigure animais

D raw skeletons as stick figures. K eep th e m sim ple: d e ta ils and te x tu re s d o n t help, le n g th and p o sitio n s do . A rtis ts o fte n d o best w hen th e y be g in w ith loose lines to g e t p ro p o rtio n s and rh yth m s rig h t - Mke an a u th o r b ra in s to rm in g an idea. then w ritin g it out.

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Presents Anatomy

Part 1 Basic forms

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Muscle charts are more confusing than


bone charts - not just because there are more muscles, but because muscles are layered. Surface muscles can be so thin that the>' disappear on a fleshed creature, while buried-deep muscles can show as large bumps on the surface. Let's start proceedings with some general observations: Muscles anchor close to the trunk (proximally), and insert distant from the trunk (distally) to move the limbs. Muscles are thick near the trunk, lean as they m oveaway. On hoofed animais,

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the distai limbs look like shrinkwrapped bones. Muscles can be simplified by grouping them. Several extensors with hard-toremember Latin names can make a single easy-to-remember egg shape. Muscles work in pairs that pull against


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each other, shown in the illustrations usi ng complementary colours. We'11 study specifics later. First, look at these images to see how they work.


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy

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,r The longest measurement o f anything - a bone, a limb, or an entire anim al - is its major axis. W hen you look along something, its length appears to collapse until you can't tell how long it is. Artists keep track o f this so that they can tip, swivel and roll objects around, yet keep them lookingtrue.

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Learn from lhe rabbit

L o o k at a side vie w o f an anim al. N o w d ra w it as if sw ivelled in to a th re e -q u a rte r fo re s h o rte n e d p o s itio n . It's d iffic u lt, b u t n o t im possible. R em em ber to reduce co m p le x fo rm s to sim ple ones to help yo u visualise th e pe rs p e c tiv e .

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Presents Anatomy

Part 1 Basic forms

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M P U F Y / \ N l M ^ L AN ATO M Y


Mastering classic anim al drawing enables you to invent as well as observe. The secret is to learn simple forms - cylinders, blocks, and spheres that are based on anatomy - then assemble them into complex beasts. After ali, what are animais but 3 D creatures in a 3 D world? You can build them from 3 D forms - any w ay you like! #

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Animal anatomy


Find out how the core of the animal body operates and how you can use it to bring life to your animal artwork

hen I first saw a famous art i teachers approach to figure drawing - human torsos with no limbs, strange-looking

parts o f anatomy first - which is the best place to start. This approach should be applied not only to hum an figures, but to animais. They have torsos much like ours, but are different in ways that enable them to run faster, jump higher, kick harder, and have trouble standingup orsitting in chairs. Here, I approach them simply, nam ingthe basic parts, helpingyou to leam theirstructure and understand their functions. In later lessons, IT1 get to the limbs, but let's begin with the big parts.

bean-bodies twisted and floating - it

baffled me. It took me years to understand the value o f that approach. There are several sound ways to draw the figure, but beginning with a solid torso is a good one thats shared by Michelangelo, Rubens, Tmtoretto and scores o f other masters. It puts the big

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Presents Anatomy

Part 2 The torso

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Vertebrate anim ais grow out from the spine, which runs from the base o f the head to the tail, connecting the ribcage (thorax) and pelvis (hip bone). Study these parts generally:


See the spine

D raw a series o f anim ais w ith a sin gle line - th e spine. It's easiest fro m th e side view , b u t d o n t fo rg e t to see th e c o n v e x ity o f th e curve - and d o n 't e xp e ct it to im press anyone. Its an exercise to d e v e lo p the X-ray vision o f artists w h o know anatom y. W hen it g e ts easy, m ake it to u g h e r b y a d d in g th e rib c a g e and pelvis.

ignore the little bum ps on the pelvis that are mostly hidden and the individual ribs that do you no good until you ve established the simplified ribcage. Here are some observations about animal torsos to set you off.

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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
f?ONE O O N 'r M O V E V D EE. rH E lB - OWM POWER. 7N T H E Y M O V E ffY T H E T E N fO N O F HlOOEN CO R JX ...
W e have muscles in our backs, bellies and haunches to hold us upright. Four-legged animais have the same muscles, but in different proportions and for different reasons. They are made to move forward more efficiently than we are. Torso muscles include thin layers that don't show 011 the surface. I'!l focus here bend the torso. But spiral or oblique muscles, like those on the side, pull to spin or twist the torso, allowing it to lean and tum . These muscles can barely be seen on a fleshed animal, but study them to know what goes on under the surface, so you can exaggerate convincingly. llnlike bones, muscles change shape. Think o f them as rubber straps. They eilher stretch and get thinner, or squash and get thicker.

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on the core functional set o f three. Straight muscles, like those on the back and belly, simply pull to straighten or

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Mix movement and angles

Try d ra w in g v a ria tio n s o f th e p itc h , yaw and roll m o tio n d iagram s fro m d iffe re n t angles: above, a t eye-le vel. below , and in variou s fo re s h o rte n e d p o sitio n s. If you use p h o to reference, see if yo u can ca tch glim pses o f th e to rs o m uscles at w o rk. T h e yre su b tle and usually cove re d w ith fur, b u t th e y occasionally show u p in e xtre m e ly w e ll-c u t s h o rt-h a ire d anim ais, like racehorses.

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A s animais travei, they adjust their movement in the sam e three ways as _ , j t ' aeroplanes. Pitching describes the H H , forward and back movement - the j... back and beHy m uscles at work. Yaw means heading to the left or right. muscles on one side pull the torso toward that side. Rolling (also called banking) happens when muscles on each side pull to twist the ribcage so that it leans into a tum.



Presents Anatomy
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Studying side views isn't enough - they only give us two dimensions o f a three-dimensional animal. W e need anotherview to see width measurements, as witnessed in theexam ples above.

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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
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Look for the basic structure that simplifies
rig id . Cats how ever tw is t a round , so y o u ll need separate form s fo r th e pelvis and th o ra x. Solve those b ig fo rm s b e fo re yo u conce rn yo u rse lf w ith lim b s o r textures.

Sort out the big things first

A nalyse refe ren ce o f horses and cats. You'll fin d th a t horse torso s fit

bone and muscle into a single form. It can be a big bean from which appendages emerge, or any invented form that helps you twist or add body to the spine. The important thing to remember is that torsos are complex, so you must simplify them enough so that they can be drawn in any position you care to choose.

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Presents Anatomy

Part 2 The torso

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A torso serves several functions: as a core for the body; a hub forthe limbs; a trunk from which branches emerge; a chassis to support a craning neck. A ribcage is a cage to contain soft parts and protect them. A spine is a spring (especially with cats), or a bridge, or a flatbed truck that can carry a load. A bird's sternum is both a boats keel and an anchor for m uscles... t

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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy

Explore the rear-wheel drive of animais, and how you can use this part of the body to propel your artwork forward

The H lnd Legs fo ld e r in side A n im a l A n a to m y

hen the first artists drew i animais, they drew the way ali children still draw, with outlines around the shapes

their illusions seem real, as if the picture was a w indow into a world o f animais with meat on their bones. Look at an anim ais hind leg, and you'll see a shape. Cartoonists capitalise on that. You1 also see a surface with colour and 1 texture: short hair, long hair, rough skin,

smooth skin, mottled, groomed, light, dark... Painters and photographers care deeply about such surfaces. However, I'll begin with bones and muscles. I'll explain how these affect the living anim ais rear-wheel drive system: its hind legs.

they could see. That's the foundation o f

drawing: charm ingand primitive. As drawing evolved, artists worked to make

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Presents Anatomy

Foot bones

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FO N E M A C H iN E Z T . VNOEU. A LL T H A T F L E H If A m e c h a n i m o f t o c x e n , h i n c e , l e v e e j a n d p o o l ...
Whichever names you choose to use to refer to the bones in the leg - femur, fibula, tibia, tarsal mass, or others - they still have the same job: to support and propel the animal, and, occasionally, to enable it to kick out at an aggressor. In most animais, there are two bones in the lower leg. The bigger one is the tibia; the smaller one is the fibula. This is different in hooved animais, however. A horse's fibula fuses right into the tibia, and so it can hardly be thought o f as a separate bone. Artistically, however, you are less concerned with the number o f

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bones in the lower leg, and more concerned with the fact that hooved animais don't wiggle their toes or retract theirclaws. This means that they d ont need a wide lower leg to anchor those extra muscles.

Tkt M-m-iwce^jnnt o tkt U tnAei tk t ^pptif f> Itg ir sivuiy tvU imkI, Lickuyp iMt (f tk t lUt-

Knee bones
Tkt hvtt u n kuw tjwnt, k*t ut utCt fixtd liit < ? knft. Tkt inttcxj> (fxvtiU) fM on n itrap rt k f t tk t Icwtr Ity.

(ott fej)
4 j iV t. Ml kirvpa, tjktr. .W
t k t kvrJs i^ u x y l, t k t

X Ijitl it y cmutteat
tk tw y M H - t t k t u r i.

Tkt ku> u tk t fxii/u. Tkt ftnw r u tkt Kffer Itty. r k i int:tjvint u trfttn. tf tkt stifit- Tkt m H s m kttl, u cftlUii tkt bsdr-.

(\itM |ey>


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
There are over 16 muscles in the hind leg that artists can study - but even if you carne to know every one o f them, it would help you less than knowledge o f their groups and functions. Here are the simplified structures for understanding hind legs. jl ' Qjw lnibeil tr*udt cM rti


n (U fferent m tm t ftr


tke Mruttmrj. Mt tkere

Hr( fWf cmwSCefityrwjn

A big pair
jrnj> ir f tke

kw w tnM i /y tke n^iui y. The . fMVrLCtpi (re/)

tke frty jw t ik tke lApjxr ley, W tke smaller jm s eu tke lw(r Im .

tke frm t t f tke tkiyk /mII m- tke hxeic4f> n . itrALjkte*- tke Itwer itj. Tke katnitrinys yreen) u v tke frnck. t f tke tktyk fmII tn tke bpuer ley Unes n herJ. tke Iy. Camjwre tke cctmv trvyi t f tke kiAtrjtr. n^ilcleqnuts U tkme t f tke ktrse <W tke e*r.

A kew i kirU [j u reyrwhiky iu r Jw n < w rw C s, nviudy ecx*.se k ew mlw 7 M m - tkeu- feet c - tkejrnwd-. a m

A smaller pair

Target the muscles

O nce you u n d erstand th e basic gro u p s, you can separate th e m in to in d iv id u a l m uscles. For e xam ple, th e ham strings are d iv id e d in to tw o parts: th e m e dia i (in n e r) a nd la teral (o u te r) sets. The m e dia i set actually d ivid e s in to tw o m ore: th e sem itendinosus and sem im em branosus. Nam es like th a t can pu t o ff d e lic a te learners. b u t n o te th a t, on a horse, th e sem im em branosus m uscle alone is la rg e r than a h um ans e n tire u p p e r leg.

The ctif ntU ertemcrjnMjn uuert cmv tke feet. They w i leMr tknn tke tkiyk tnusda ecume tkey ktti/e leu n/tt! n i w |^
g r if a i G r e v fi

Tke keel t f tke ktre, he m y kmved- fmjrji, u kiyk lk tke nu-. Tke jrrtjmtLHK u very ikfferent fnn\ n kunwn. Ij, but 11 ktv nviny tMcywl fivn. temerrder tkitr mesclei nre t^Ioer ruew tke ttrlt and letiMr nt rky tna/e d-unn tke LtrA.

fo / fT

Tke cxifyaMp ImIU tfn animal

K v c ts

sMt its tw,

prtfieLt it n

The urcrutrj n n f lifti < fmt, w i /m IIi r tva ttcL Tke temUn.i t f tke e x te r n ctver twst t f tke jnvilt /nnjca w. tke fm t


Presents Anatomy

Part 3 The hind legs

Naming parts
Zvery detadjets a m w ^atnes let nr p i f tkoxys c*t and tal afn f tkem.

K W \L L S tW A S T fcN V T I S K J D JK I

t h e w s l f a c e o f a n a n i m a l is o e t e i l m in e o py t h e w g a ^ c E inioe, ?o d e v e lo p x - r/iy V is io n r o o h a w wtx A A v rH o m ry ...
Study animal anatomy from books, and you'11 find that four books m ay use four names for the same part. The part that 1ve labelled pelvic crest on this cat can be found in any book - but it m ay be called the pelvic point, the tuberosity o f the iliac crest, the tuber coxae or the anterior superior iliac spine. If youre trying to impress people, you should learn ali the names. But ifyou're trying to master drawing, any name will do. Yourconcern isn't the name, but that its the wide point o fan anim ais haunch. Pelvic crest is fine. Most names, however, are consistem. The ischium is the ischium - theres no need to distinguish it as the ischial tuberosity. But you do need to know that its the back-most part o f an animal's haunch, and always narrower (on the X measurement) than the pelvic crest.

Exercise your X-ray vision

Choose yo u r fa vo u rite p h o to g ra p h s o f anim ais in va rio u s p ositions. Place vellu m o r tra cin g pa p e r over them , o r m ake a layer in P hotoshop, and try to d ra w th e pelvis. fem ur. patella, tib ia , fib u la , and ankle bones in th e ir p ro p e r p o sitio n s. You m ay fin d it to u g h , b u t the a tte m p t w ill help you to see th e substance un d e r

W eu A
O f f im J f

"N 0t - O fT lK ti

Sausage legs
Cnartlei dnCt kave intecaps, j< tke Me deesnt kave tke r cns/> plarve-lrreak. tka t " e see e . a dvy nr a deer. /?f tkey n hwe tke iatne kasu> bme.t as ntker ivw -l^ed anuwls. tuice tkew owUrtceys tend<mi ccnsiect dcrectif n tke t w Lhe a hlt-straj?, tkey kave tevertwe and can nwe very fast-

Knee clarity
i< ~nees htve seventl fmnf t k t t altemate fcr atUMurn. Tke fatelU (kne-caf) u tke rrutst pntrw.erf fiant, 6>*t vt trnitfcts J (tt tke m se t f tke tina, wktck u a fix'ed friAtry m. tke *
Ivwer ley. Tke <Mter s^ell ck

*vhe^yvj t t jw d- a t

vtMaltsuiy tke wUeAyu^, Py repfliMusy tke [eys and redrawiny tkerr.

tk i fenwr, and tk< fa t f>ad tk a t asven tke patella \ */ken a kvrse U rebwed, can ali seem kU tke nee.


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
p o e jv i l e t y o v i n v e n t l e c p - M r o o K J r e x i r - u n t i l y o w c r b a t e t h e m ... W hen we dream, or daydream, we imagine realistic images. The trick is to get those images onto paper. There's no better way to master this than to use wireframe structures based 011 simple forms. Anatom y is complex - but ifyou can see the bulk o f the upper leg as an egg, the calf as a bowling pin and the foot as a stick and bali, then you simplify your task and turn the leg into somethingreal. . _ f



R o u n d ito u t
Huut tf to n t fact fom arit in nmson they iplity

<Mt H<r< I a way ftr idv< if- t e Acw

r f tb c fif
lm v

tn tir{ Udy

a cy L m lc r.

Segm entation
The -fU ftrrtn t f tke kiiy L tatus ilvxpe fjo * w w w i t an- woriL m tack part as a xparatt mdt~

Block it up
Black, /srmj fvrcjovi att ifxufic cktut aim t jpAn< rtah, and kelj> cku<l tke fonn intv cnsfntss. nT also that frttn htkurjL, ym can tke legs facunj ruf a t a 50-< ).o anale.

i I 1 1

Wired forms
G et o u t th o se fa vo u rite p h o to g ra p h s th a t you used to exercise yo u r X -ray Vision (p a g e 7 5). Instead o f lo o k in g fo r th e bones in side th e legs, try to w ra p w ires aro u n d th e Iegs. If y o u fin d it to u g h , tre a t each p a rt o f th e leg as a bar o r a block, and visualise a ru b b e r bartd aro u n d it. From there, it b e g ins to take on form .

/ F fir jS 'A PJC


Presents Anatomy

Part 3 The hind legs

Rons robot
My It^dent 6j- Creen uwinted- thu cm tnw tn. <ts strm ye, h*t -iefA fsr iw U ritrtm iny hvw fa. ttnrwl leWS fr irtn UJ
huv leys. Ty^ycur uvm, bttsed- <rn OMtvrny-

Q o < < ic o (x 4

Artuti mwir sisnplcfy n ^ndentand. fWy aWj Uwiny.I m j c UV x i th^tt he a

y.ynnny twf tM rpntiew : fjhere thejzlM I

nr(, twU h< v fhll hMf-fMvinyed- e/^s wU n itvnas tv j e t oKf.

Spontaneous art
T h e cr d y *wty n y n m te r M W tA ^ u tn drtXM,

nw < W drtw - k


n Mrefuy-

Forelimb fandango
W teuwL cn. 8w hir~d IyJ Hnd,

OjutL. aettural stwkei ^Lthjxn nmi m i durCr alewjfUH tvjetf* u y, env,e w l fvc, w
th e y f r z t t c t j / o k f m t n c r e n tx n y W t v t retC > w i.

,!( (MC <vmi w v l Ivtru tr

jK ptrftrtn*- deltatte tnih warU,. (iMdnWs swxdm thew tvtns. The dcfftrtMts ktween.
\ i m d -fvrelitnfa

theit Imil di'.fui - nlvit )ne Wenthedy edis ttWlderiny". YouII lA^ftfnjOvo- jhlll ky a bm/ung uwnttxrely fn m kfe, wfr<4iptUe
rd> MtU tV it rniM e.

tv e w w ttr tluvx
' W kvw en. l(jl

W- huut Im. In, the next CM f>t<r, > itv4y the vetl ftreLirs: ann m leys.


Once you know how theyre made and how they're shaped, you can go back to the reason legs exist. Legs help support an animal. They get it m oving to find food, or to keep it from becoming food. In the blink o f an, eye they can become a weapon. A lever. A catapult. A spring. Rear wheels. O r a bludgeon. Seeing legs through their functions reminds us w hy they're worth studying.


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy

Use your knowledge and observation to build the pillars of balance and grip for the animal kingdom

On the disc

ometimes you have to take things apart if you want to knovv how they work. With animais, that gets messy.

how bones move. Another solution is to assemble bones on your own. I've assembled a horse's leg bones with glue and rubber bands. It's full-sized, it's real and it impresses friends and family, but I could never have done it without at least a reasonable amount o f book knowledge. The lessons that follow will help you understand bones and muscles enough to look at living animais and see their structure, so you can exaggerate proportions, make planes crisp and invent your own animais - imaginary beasts with real legs to stand on. Let's have a look at how forelegs are made, and how they work.

Beatrix Potterand herbrotherdissected

dead animais together, which served her well as an illustrator. But dissection is not an easy business: you can end up smelly and confused. There are better ways to study animal anatomy. One is to observe museum skeletons from varying angles to be sure o f their forms and connections. But assembled skeletons are often poorly put together and locked into a single position that teaches you next to nothing about

F ind sketches b y M arshall in The F orelegs fo ld e r in side A n im a l A n a to m y

'Ne stnf w n y tke swrfnct <f nr. anwvil n see vlvtt tnxie w w r i Artutit w jttm y ieyuns *mtk ti^ s/letm.. The wsre -fiwuluvycu. art fJutk tke inmcfJtri, tke w ot u n JmU tke M y nrmnd tke bhhi.


Presents Anatomy

Part 4 The forelegs

a n im a is h a v e

H o v L e e i a n o a il m u n e u, g v r W irH A O/FF 0UENCE: TH E Y W Auc ON T H E M ...

fleshed animal, the upper arm is buried in the side o f the body. That means you may mistake the lovver arm bones (radius or ulna) for an upper arm unless you can see through the surface.

Legs, limbs and arms

Anitruil fsrelejs vtvy *ntr< tkdn, kiu ItyS. Prttmtes drU tke nncoent
j f t w i i jfcrA IsAxm U ve w j nnA,

W e have shoulder blades on our backs; quadrupeds have them 011 their sides. The shoulder blade (scapula) connects to the upper arm bone (humerus). This is obvious in a bone diagram, but on a

0 (e.c(i**ri fc o c c it

M mk l

fh U x hoM

(c * < v l 8 ***7
S t* " '

knt\i Ne 1 W. nr nnn meclutws 1 rovtlt next fm t - m t first, netu* t k t t tkere tve fwt trnes un. tke ftrenrty-.. rke l<ut U tke frty l iW y n t tke M w tlvit tm/w n n imnll 1Wy> a t tke littie-jinyer se t f tke kntut. The rtyMS u n J rwll spuwuy Mte tke elw, wktck iivels n kcU tke wrut mes n t tke twrni uAe r f tke kn^U. Unruii, nK/tjiy klwe 2 - tM. -9 tei/eml s tkein in tke Mrut yr^Su f < luryle Torir* wlled- tke wjxxl mmj t Hitf&l nnimth knve m ^ik iimjrler strv\ct*res. Tkeur mdvA w vl v.I are < m {s-id ttjetker m tt a unyle fyrenrm. t we itill dunnf*uk tke ew jusrtviK n\ tke < m , and- tke m s t A fHtrtun. m tke nUiKj.


Not ali is bone: cartilage happens

Hirnei nmC vtker !m C munAs (my^Lttes) kai/e ovtdn^e a t tke tnf> rfe< 0 tkecr kwUer bMei- OvHUae ^ears wny, st nwse^tr- lume suletm.s / w-Ay njfenr tv knve tke n f part t f tke m f^ U ckcptred- cff. uvw y kqrsei hwe ryer ikvuUer bUdes tknn tkeir dJfU reUtu/es.

sp/we 0 F
S d K fU L / y

fo tL ^u m d
C L tH \c ie fiK D lU S u s ,* e t n
OLfC^MOW r fftO C J / of O lc c r ** * p r o t .* 5 K


i>ir f




F |N & t< S * t> * < -PHALV-frC"


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy


Shoulders and elbows

rAc l tckrJMnt r f fA< kwUer Mltwi
sttr^e n ftttcn ftr itn i t j/>ot ro- -msA onf nr tke lUe, <u well ti ivrwnnL < W tL

IS l / -

a -


n i




M T<

O f tke fwir / w t n bma, tke Ana

o tdy n knye. Anitrjtli wttk krtrj


tilt W

H rtdiMl tkxt fin.

Arm mechanics
firm fireivmi ipin nrmrji. ! t w lf>ui n kit. Sttne tire fiXL Ui tt ftrwttni f)tiUitK.

jK fr

<Iw 11

leps k tt/e t w t fam a, s t t o lawer <tr m . r k e t o f fe r e i u e u t f W - we Iyi, u f use o u r trtn i t t j n t s f l to v l

l ^ j f t r t tw ttln< ! Ivi-tk w

rke Am toesrit sfttv. Ml i t o, to u ketU *vU stmtykten tke ttrm vkt r< V IS sejxtmtz ttwi revtL/f ttrmtu tke ni/ul t t Sftn tke W . wAtfn. it) \ *s, ptrMltl n tke A m , nctk tke tlwynh c*t tv tke sUe, ws s^uie- wken tke nttons crwes tver tke A m , CVrtytM tke tk*trd ttwurd tke ktdy, w) j>nne.

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Stick-bone forelegs



usually best to dra w the ulna b e fo re th e radius, because th e radius d oe snt a ffe c t th e u ln a s position. Keep it sim ple. Don t t r y to learn fore leg an a to m y by dra w in g fore legs: rather. learn by d ra w in g th e ir sim ple com p o n e n ts.

tkeur w dty (1r sfun tktuIvtrjfa. Cttts to Lt tpute ^ell, tops M t "is well. HttfM nnur^L w t Sfin tkeur ftrelys ttt M L.
Tkeir rtvU*s 6 u me

v.setL irjv tk t tut, Itcked. st th t t tkey atn.

5 0 fM U K T )9 tf

ruK, (fn-t n tt rexck t* t

P*/m d a v J /1 -

fVl i)f~
Imagine Presents Anatomy

wuk tm j/reuseM jxti/n. gl&fAT Oor

O Ciidt

b Jf

C o '/

Part 4 The forelegs

THB m v SCUES IN! FOfcREC e v r r H e v a z j A tton a h e m
im il A r. a n

FOIl A ll A n


A l ,

Quadrupeds have smaller and simpler deltoids than humans and apes. O ur lower arms spin partly from the pull o f two special muscles called supinators, which make up the ridge o f the extensor group.

Human arms and animal forelimbs have many, but not ali, muscles in common. Not only do our upper arms extend out from our bodies, but they reach above our heads. It takes a deltoid, anchored to clavicles and scapulae, to lift our arms.


M d f l jM l tM S. The m q cr muscle 7W u t f a herses ihoulder Are the tn cefs A nd detn i . Here */e see th a t they fath

The trajxnM ! m U tw urw s d tn . Apjreexr aiye on- AKAtvmicAl pintei, (W have U ttie e ffe c t on the ftrm 1 1t f AKt,mife. rh e tmfeOMS u t h fi And a n sver the t f t f dcefer n e c i m^lces. The lAtlSlLmui * w lly uftpfem a i t h*ys th e fone-, i * r t t c a k (Aow *f> a a cm vtx iL v r cn the sie. By the to n e w e je t t i the metAcArpAl cn

A nchcr

tn, the ica/m U. The d e ittU jMlls the vreley w y fn m th e U dy. The m ceps exten d the ftreiey. Eten rh o y h lurnet C A nt .1fin . th eir w w , they hai/e A sliyhtiy helue-m j>edgnM f A t th e rU ge hke *>e d t.

A w -y^txte n
nw sclei

(m a lcyeu.1

a d eef

( r cm r h an d), the A thw , th a t artuts nd

d e n t Stw iy them . The tn ei, u rA ffed tn LyA m ent M- ilu-n, crente the ftrrm.

Simplify complexity

< u itmA Ay M tf tw i*j> v re , n f> r

nw ices. m m m Are a three- Ftertri c m , ire sepAmted tnrt- ~fwe tr mure, lW th a t s tw trw ch Ln.firfnttWH. They Mirk. Ai jrn u fs , Io surnfkfy. tf

W hat arms do to hands

BTtnjars fM cn the k<vk- iid t cf th e httnd. f^lttfrs

fM m .ll

the j>A.{in Side. dench j/n ur

fvst, AndifcU lL fie l the few rs cn^yow UUIe fureArm lutrden. On tn a t m u m Ii, the fiertrs Are (Mckedw id e r th e tnjU e t f thew fvr{Arm<, frAreiy vuiM e cn the M tite.

ftrm i tn ecther

Chest muscle
The jU cixm Li in yo r Anchers on the chest And uuerts in tt the Iw tn tru j (r f>l the <ffcr Arm i w v a r- c fr the imdy. ir s th e SAmt m *sdej<M m e tn iU <rg fM tluyi. i f j/kwj o the m rftvt Ai fw r vA tyiny n sU c t f the e w t n itr^ 0/ th e chestOn th e htrne, M tice the rhythm t f c tn vef A tvl cm cnve l iei. The cviter cmUTMr. ten n ie m tre cani/ex. The u in er iim h frvm the f m t i/LfH M ve M ticeA y mure ctncAVity.


Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
/4N/VTOMY FOR. rtRJTTT f V/LK UNLEf THE ^EJfrC iV /E f T F O ItM ...
The scapula and humerus create the point o f the shoulder. The scapula hugs closely to the centre line at the top and spreads out to the sides as it goes d o w n ... but that gets complex. When you construct a horse, it helps to simplify by seeing a wedge form, which is true enough to the anatomy o f horse shoulders, but simple enough to master from memory. #

5K w \d tr

Breaking down knees

Hcrse kneei < very bvy tke ctvftil knes nre v-e <Ki<WW tn. rwr frexbiHe w tk n t threctiy x f f u t tke fm-m. niate tkn t tke fetieck.jtwts <ve <^ite spkenuti. \

v ta ie
MS a f

The problem with cats

C*tts tve Jt fie n b ie tkxtjp au c tu t m e tke tw yle Mege firtn you. *se f jr krrse skwU ers Its iU ff\o 4 t nr suryU fy s*ck fiu u nnunrtL t r Jv in * firrtns - tkey tire tw re ciytinLC, ttnd qrefKter clvillenye- Yew rrw jt see tkrv^ yk nr tkeu- frmes, M t yov< c v tk is w itk unf>le I

stick. ftm res. For tk ree-ifw vter voems, fMM, . tk e stic k cntz fzies, d n y e srn^e fie ik m tr tk e pqiei, n r ji tuU/ cnsi-cmtTMrs t t be lre crf tke tkcckness. r

Horse legs
C o lle c t a dozen p h o to g ra p h s o f horses th a t in clude th e ir shou lders and fore lim bs. The im ages can be lo w re so lu tio n - in fa ct, th a ts an adva ntag e, as it w ill keep you fro m being te m p te d to copy surfaces. Try to d ra w th e w e d g e fo rm o f th e shoulders, th e blo ck fo rm o f th e ca rpal mass, fe tlo c k jo in t. W hen you can d o it successfully. m ove to th e n e x t g re a t cha lle n g e - d ra w th e shou lders and fo re le g s in a new. unseen po sitio n . To m aste r fo re le g s, you m aster th e ir form s.

From form to function

A cttt i W k*s textwe nrul s*rfau tk x t 11 nr see, o w m h nwst lewn <v nr see tke fim*.. An/ttryry kelt> vt vt rw y o e t wneceswrtly crtnblejc. A s, f w li < sunfile M ? eck., w tv tke fnmt, like n wkiiky fieuk- M oiwotm. km/e < unynnon tk*T kelfsjfu see tke frrtn, v*ntwe, m- dnw it. r fvke reltftvnuktjf r f whisky fAih nr < a tts f w ens tkere tkey kme very t tUfferefit functicn.!. Cnts knve cUws tv survive tkraviyk vlAence. v e n jw kmsecnt, wktse mdjf renitrn fvr M t ettiny^yM- u tk a tjw r e nnr Uiye, cak da
j\a lerurns dAtrAye

For fAnctim, t t ytjm be better nr see n cnts j>w < stnpler, iwuzMlrUe u tr Twr cf tkese <ve nr /Mree. Tive rf tktnn tve sjnnyxwUd Ali tkree remmti k r f nlutt n cittiv tUes.


Presents Anatomy

Part 4 The forelegs


The piercing
ckvI y w y cnr o/ ^(VJ t t Snf- <,/
irMcles cAn, vrdy fx4 i, Acw cat* they prvject A

clsw ckc <W- iiv<iy frwn

isviy11 tA 1 es

ivtk. ertenurs (tv p A l a c tke /pkalxrs, vr fin y e r bvnt) ArU- ftexvrs (tv fM ll ^owrt. the cl/w ) w rm y tvyetker tt renc-k

A stronq support for shoulders

Tke f m t Creet tW vu luU m pedestnls: tkey,J*st went strALykr tke kw- A they ei/aived, they ju/en feet.
iM ttm a lD Qt/Mr


dv^rwn jAcwr

kw c t )

dn. oe
set a f

r x e jw . Ltow Acvv a cA t citw tvwlb,j/iM


a k fv ry e t ur a tU fkiupn, aijto h like. ShCj/vu. nw -it^-t fv r je t tke fw s tiv K .

chw u

knw ei tv itvjxe, cr A ifAe tv t y , vr A AccjL.

Lvny fvre Cree cIhjw,

am im I fvrlyi were pd lw
ftr A prAzttcAl reAim. -

tnvre tktm, t o per cent < tf tke kemts netgkt reta vn tke iwelys, amCplan are
M tv rt.c u .liy I t r m y .

Fcrelps hv/e funttvcni: f>dUn, slwiei, kmis, jbwo, lUdes AsJ, ij/AiCei, ^renckei atjI fiken, cUtrys, vices, wa /wm, skueUi, fAtodei,
Cvif>S a s A - o w lj...

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From pillars to spokes

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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy


*! - -


Discover what this part of the animal body tells you about the creature - and the traits ali animais share
: try to make anim al anatomy Human heads rest on our necks because we stand upright, and we have large craniums because we rely on our brains. Apes have smaller brains and greater jaws; and because they lean forward on their knuckles, their skulls sit slightly forward from their necks. Quadrupeds are horizontal - their skulls extend from their bodies. From these basic conditions, skulls vary according to an animal's need to survive and thrive. Cats, for example, have alarm ing eyes and teeth. Wolves have incredible noses and teeth. But the big differences between animal and human heads are that animais have a snout that leads, and their brains, rather than being on top o f their heads, are more towards the back. They hunt and run. They gra/.e. They don't read magazines or draw pictures or concoct fantasy worlds and write them down to enchant others. In thischapter, you'11 study head structure - but we begin with how necks emerge from the torso, and hold heads that face the world.


easier by comparing animais to humans. Unfortunately, m any artists barely know

human anatomy. Robert Beverly Hale pointed out that an artist w ho knows human anatomy can learn animais relatively easily. Part o f the emphasis should be on 'relatively': it's still something o f a task. But the most efficient and fun way is indeed to see creatures as people who run around 011 ali limbs, noses forward, fast and strong. You can tell a lot about an animal by the position and proportion o f its skull.

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Presents Anatomy

Part 5 Necks & heads


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A P F C T T H E V tiF A C

b c fa t A


M O V/E...

Mice have seven neck bones. So do

HO M E W O lH O ASIGNM ENT S Get familiar with the neck

Treat th e neck bon es as a sim ple line, b e g in n in g io w , usually w ith a b it o f an 'S' to th e curve. W hen yo u ca n see th e c o re o f th e neck, you k n o w w h at pa rts o f th e flesh squash, and w h ich p a rts stretch.

giraffes. So do humans. So do almost ali mammals. Theyre called cervical vertebrae. In a human, the top one (that s C l , for Cervical 1) isso deep it can't be seen, but in many animais it spreads out near the head and can be felt on the side, behind the ears. its also known as the Atlas bone. Its wide, and may even look like part o f the head.

The stretching neck

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'r t o d ' p i V t f f / fls io e .

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Taking the head to the ground

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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy



l&av com plex n eo c a n a to m y r o t h e veterjni^kj.-an - ^ b jk tt imPl/PY NEC*. FOItM POR.THE IMPOILM^TTON rHEY NEEO...
Neck muscles have inconsistent names because the structures vary. The muscle that goes \

cephalo humeral (from head to humerus) or other variations. The names must not bo gyo u down from your concerns. Lets look at what animal necks have in common that artists need to know.


from your collar bone to the bump behind your ear is the sterno-cleido mastoid. Cleido refers to the part that

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connects to your clavicle - but most animais don't have clavides, so that

A shoulder base
r k c tcrsc u t k t fiM ir M ttv m i f

muscle m ay be called the sterno-mastoid (sternum into mastoid process) or the

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A core of bones
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Squash and stretch

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Presents Anatomy

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Part 5 Necks & heads

Animal anatomy

jo in f



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Skulls have m any parts, so you must simplify. The cranium is the brain case. lt's egg-shaped, which is obvious in human and ape skulls, but not in many animais because it can't be seen. It's very small, buried under a cranial ridge, and covered with a large muscle (the temporalis) on the side o f the head. The eye sockets

(orbits) face forward on most predators, and to the side on most prey animais. The upper jaw is made up o f the long protruding nasal bone and the maxilla, which simply hokls the teeth. The lower jaw (mandible) is the only m oving part on a skull. It has its hinge, the temporalm andibular joint, just below and in front o ftheear.

Multiple views reveal forms

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Presents Anatomy

Part 5 Necks & heads

lts tricky to tip

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Relying on X
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Take the antidote

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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy

Find out what animal faces have in common with human faces, and the crucial ways in which they differ
! began this animal workshop observing the world - the fact that living phenomena come to us in mirrored halves. Faces are essentially symmetrical. If they were simply flat, artists would still need perspective to represent them in three-quarter views tipped away from us. But they are far from flat: they are made ofseveral 3 D components, like a puzzle o f sculpture. To draw faces from any position other than head-on, and even to draw them head-on if you want them to look
r r p r lK N r c n lir l rp H u rt t h p m tr

simple forms based on anatomy. Then, when you have a solid structure, find expression: glorious, fearful, attractive or amusing symmetry. As in previous chapters, we begin here with technical lessons - including how perspective applies to the structure o f a skull and how features themselves are made o f three-dimensional forms - but w eare heading toward a common artistic purpose: to create pictures that channel feeling. I leads display faces - our final study o f animal anatomy.

with basic forms, then worked from the torso to the hind legs, forelegs, neck and

head. We now finish with the the most emotive and expressive entity in life: the face. When William Blake wrote:

Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests o f lhe night, W hat immortal hand or eye Dare fram e thy fearful symmetry ?
...I le put into words a mystery that has

Draw from life

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Presents Anatomy

Part 6 Faces

NECW H ol HEAO, A n d H E A M H o l D FAC&. l e t rjeview b a i c to jc tu c ^ ...
Bones provide the hidden structure o f

HOM E W O lH OM A G N M E N T SSI Box clever to carve a head

Choose tw o vie w s o f an anim al head. D raw th e sim plest box in to w hich each w ill fit. Then tr y ca rvin g o u t sections to leave th e rem a ining fo rm o f th e head.

the body - most obviously with the head, where the skull makes most o f the form. There are m any small and interesting parts on an anim ais head, but 110 matter how perfectly a nose, an eye or even an expression is drawn, it looks awkward if it doesn't fit onto the skull. So we1 begin with 1 simplifications that enable you to place features where they belong.

Thinking inside the box

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Useful reductions
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Eggs, boxes and cylinders

Using th e sam e heads as above fo r reference. dra w th e cra n iu m as an e g g , th e facial stru c tu re as a b o x o r cylin d e r, and th e eye sockets as cylin d e rs o r cones. A li o f th is is p re p a ra tio n fo r featu res. Alw ays b u ild th e house b e fo re you s ta rt han g in g curtains...

Forms first
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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy


E Y E , EARS, M O f B ANO M O v /P -f H A V E R J E M A f c M g t V /A rjE T Y , A n o a c o m m o n o u o T Y ... Features are not painted on like colours or textures. They have their own shapes and thicknesses. Here are some observations to help you see them not as surfaces, but as smaller forms within bigger forms.

Thick, not flat

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Making sense of ears

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Eye as bali
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Curved surface
Ever. th&yh m or t f the eyeht rests tn. the stcet. the surface u stiM c*wed. Cet thu cMn/e !><yy<A isefsre rentriHy.


Presents Anatomy

Part 6 Faces

Snouts stick out

O*/- neses Hre measly arMWd- fr fnojf- w m - the tnncie o an f

anunal j Mie cwd mouth fryects ftm ard. 11 kelfl fr see it as a pyluur cr a ta". tyhen <? n w zilt LI ta < three-Mrter pcStftcn, tke pUv*ei w tk detwis, Liejc*i w netnls, vttt yivrjfcw a r/w -<;<rUrr^nJunAl m < p f r h eifjc* ccnfrm tke detadi f r f A j f 7 M ( w / .

Hcrse MStrdl, ke tkeur eyes, ja u scme^kere tret^een iumard tt-tke-sUe. T?vr ccnes cnn Mpj/ou fcreskcrten tknt complex arranpement, r*t u i sctne extreme ccwhucm n h e n a kcrse u rH ru u n y, tkets M S trd l may a o n fc rw a r d l u sUtyvin torreis.

Trunks and boxes

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Ja w s as hinges
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Presents Anatomy

Animal anatomy
Compare and contrast
G ather refe ren ce o f anim al faces, and d ra w th e m as p eo ple. The m ost c o m m o n surprise is h o w sm all hum an m uzzles seem c o m p a re d to anim ais. Seeing th e d iffe re n c e helps you n o tic e th e form s.

HvmMnj A n o S E A m HAVE THE A m E PARTS P Z D P O R IiO N . LFT^ CO MBJE... m

Socially, it might not be a good idea to compare your friends and family with animais. Artistically, it's a very good idea if you want to understand facial features. There are so m any variations o f animal features that it could take a career to learn

i n VAnyiN

them ali. Comparisons are the most efficient shortcut, and the most fun as long as they don't end up in hurt feelings or violent responses. These metamorphoses, courtesy o f w w w , make the point.

Precious piglet
O W VftM t A Mnvtn 7 W LtUpUrf At\ ahum I a

Mmhey, a tntuie, a lutren, tnllunf

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Big bear aspirations

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Morphing magic
Try p a in tin g a m o rp h b e tw e e n an anim a l and a hum an face, like Bane has in his studies on this page. The challen ge and th e le a m in g hap pens d u rin g th a t tra n s itio n stage in the m id d le illu s tra tio n .


Presents Anatomy

Part 6 Faces

Pencil head
I Iwi tT d rw : i?'s *rv iM tit ir fikn yl < W n pUyyrtMnil ftr uCem s.

Draw stuff you like

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It doesn't take a trained artist to draw an animal face. Children do pretty well not because o f their skill, but because o f their emotional connections to faces. Most children, however, hope to have the grown-up skills that we've studied in these six workshops. Technical skill helps you understand anatomy, so that you can keep the bones hard when the flesh stretches. Technical skill helps you understand forms so you can point a snout toward or away from you, or exaggerate a creature into absurdity, yet keep it looking real. Technical skill is useful for anyone who makes a living at creating animais, but its only the structure - the heart and arteries. By itself, it's dead. F.motion is the blood. Anim al faces evoke feelings. Their mystery, strangeness, terror and splendour are more marvellous than we could ever imagine on our own. The more

Get to it!
'Nitk d l the vnncty t f
nrujnnis ft uwettf, <t

you feed your imagination, the more you can reflect their power in your work. I hope these pages have helped you to draw animais, and inspired you to give your viewers the best you have to offer! Q

Icfetum ikesrir sum f w e Icnf tM w k...


Presents Anatomy

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^ Imagine
Presents Anatomy

Digital art skills

It extends and energises your characters personalityff
Warren Louw on posmg figures: page 104

S u p p o rt files for these guides J are on the 1 disc

Expert advice from professional arfists, written especially for you

The sort of advice you'11 find in every issue of ImagineFX...
98 Creature features Combine human and animal anatomy to create a fine-art portrait of a monster with Justin Gerard 102 Top ten fantasy poses Whetheryou re drawing a hero or a villain, we've got the gestures and silhouettes to help you out 104 Strike a pose Warren Louw explains how to fill your characters with energy by earning the art of posing 108 Artist Q&A Our artist panei solves real-world anatomy issues, including painting realistic hands and drawing eyes


Presents Anatomy

Digital art skills


Combine human and animal anatomy to create a fine-art portrait of a monster with Justin Gerard

et's assume that youve been i approached by a wealthy commission you to paint its whole. He wants to commission you to execute his portrait, to show the world that he is really a civilised and noble creature at heart. The followingdemonstration in

t /X A > / f i y


Justin Gerard
COUNTRY: US Justin G erard is an illu s tra to r w h o enjoys s to ry -d riv e n illu stra tio n . His w o rk has been fe a tu re d in S p ectrum , S o c ie ty o f lllu stra to rs and Expos, and he is c u rre n tly a rt d ire c to r fo r P o rtla n d Studio.

literature, and unjustly categorised on the

with just such an event. After ali, it pays to be prepared, just in case. ITI be doing an underpainting in watercolour and scanning the irnage onto the Computer, where ITI add the colours, refine the lighting and work on the final details in Photoshop.

' monster w h o w a ms to

On the disc

portrait. (Unlikely, perhaps, but I've had he's been misrepresented in film and

stranger requests.)'s say that he feels

watercolour and digital will help you deal

F ind Ju stin 's screen gra b s in th e C reature Features fo ld e r in side D ig ita l A r t Skills

Drawing from life

Before I begin working on my

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Thum bnails and exp lo rato ry w ork

monster, I warm up by doing studies from

N ow I throw out ali o f m y reference and burn m y studies, and start drawing completely from m y head. ITI use my reference later, but for the time being, I want to work completely from m y m emory and imagination. I work quickly, using eilher ballpoint pen or a 0 .7mm IIB (number 2 ) pencil. This drawing is often the most fun for me. The possibilities o fw h at could beare almost always more interesting than what is, and I try to get down as m any ideas as I can. Eventually there are 20 or so twoor three- inch monsters to pull from.

life. In this case, ITI be using pictures o f wild animais as reference. The goal o f these studies is to form a better understanding o fth e elements and characteristics o f my subject matter. W ild animais are excellent reference for monsters, because they personify human characteristics taken to extremes. I don't spend too long on any one study. The goal is to commit the forms and details o f these creatures to memory, so that I can work from my imagination without the aid o f reference.

Tight sketch
This particular monster looks promising. 1 now do a more

careful, detailed drawing using a Generais 2 B pencil. I spend as much time as is necessary on this step to arrive at the right look. The drawing is the most essential element if an illustration is to succeed. There are ways to finish an illustration from a poor drawing, but it would be like wrestling a baboon into a lunchbox. > >


Presents Anatomy

Monster portrait

Digital art skills

4 A djusting proportions
Novv that I have a sketch that l'm pleased with, I'm ready to transfer it to my watercolour paper. Before doing this, theresonedevilish little trick that I use that hastotally reinvented m y work. I scan the drawing into Photoshop, mirror it and adjust it before I print it back out and transfer it to paper. This minor readjustment often spells the difference between glorious success and miserable, shivering failure. Before adding this step, ali my pieces had an odd tendency towards disproportion and unbalanced composition. So after I mirror the image, I select areas that don't look right and, usingtheTransform function, alterthem until they look right, before flipping back.

Layer flair
Keep y o u r layers o rganised. Som e layer ty p e s can be m erg ed to g e th e r w ith o u t n e g a tiv e ly a ffe c tin g the im age. Several M u ltip ly o r Screen layers can be m erg ed. Try to keep y o u r PSD file clean, so th a t if yo u fin d la te r th a t y o u need to add m ore shadow s to an area, you can cre a te a new M u ltip ly layer, add y o u r shadow s and m e rg e th is in to your ex is tin g M u ltip ly ____ layer. This w ill save you headaches la te r on.

W orking in sepia
I'm not concerned with adding

colours at this particular stage, because I'm effectively treating this watercolour as an underpainting. I'U add the final colours and effects later in Photoshop; for now, establishing the forms within the composition through value is the most important task. I could add the colours in watercolour as well if I wanted to, but I want to play to the strengths o f each medium for this portrait. Digital paintingisgreat for bright, intense colours, but it can tend towards looking plastic, for reasons l'll touch on later. Watercolour, on the other hand, struggles with achieving bright colours but can generate beautiful textures as the water dries on the surface, and gives linework a wonderful variety.

O p aq u e highlights

W j Once lve established the shadows, I use a white watercolour

or gouache to add opaque details and highlights. This opaque highlighting step could also be done on the Computer, but 1 enjoy the feel o f a natural brush a little more than a Wacom tablets pen. (One day, when W acom in its wisdom releases a digital brush with fibre-optic hairs that works like a traditional brush, 1 will happy to do this on m y Computer.)

Settin g up the w aterco lou r

Peatured book. T Encyclopaedia of Mammals b David MacDonald he y

N ow 1 leave the Computer and turn to setting up m y watercolour. For this illustration, I'll be using Strathmore 50 0 series Bristol and working at 8.5 x 9.5in. This Bristol is an excellent paper that can take a lot o f abuse, and enables precise linework. For this piece, I want to tone my canvas before I transfer m y sketch to it. One o f the strengths o f working digitally over a watercolour is the wonderful texture that watercolour lends to a digital piece: it respondsbeautifully to dodging and burning. For the wash, I m ix up burnt stenna and Prussian blue. As it's drying, I fleck water over the surface to create blossoms 011 the surface for the interesting patterns they create in the background.

Scan and adjust

N o w that Iv e arrived at a watercolour underpainting that I'm

Transferring the draw ing

There are dozens o f ways to transfer a drawing to paper: light tables, graphite

satisfied with, I'm ready to scan it. After its scanned, I use a Curves layer to pull back some o f the depth that was lost in the scan. Next, I add a host o f layers to get the image to look correct before m oving on. The key issue is to make sure that no areas on the image at this point are absolute darks or absolute lights. I want the image to occupy a midtone range. To do this, I create a Lighten layer filled with a midtone ochre colour and set it to a lower opacity. This Lighten layer helps to scale back some dark pencil work that's too intense.

transfer, Artograph, freehand and even methods o f printing directly from a Computer onto watercolour paper. A ny o f these methods are good, but I usually go with the everdependable Artograph. Whenever I'm transferring a drawing, I spend only as much time as is required to establish the basic shapes and outlines. Then I finish as much o f it as possible freehand: drawings that rely too heavily on the transfer tend to lose their soul. After I've transferred the basic outlines to m y watercolour, I begin working freehand. I first focus on refining the forms and doing a more accurate drawing.


Presents Anatomy

Monster portrait
S ta g e lighting
N ow it's time to make the monster glow. In m any ways, this stage is the inverse o f the M ultiply/Shadow stage, and it's where the watercolours texture really shows its worth. Using Colour Dodge layers and a dark grey, I work in much the same w ay as I did 011 the Multiply layers, brushing in and erasing out on several different layers until the image looks right. Colour Dodge reacts wonderfully with watercolour, pulling up the contrast on the texture and the grain. I use the effect sparingly, and only in areas to which i want to direct the view ers attention. If you use this ali over the image, the illustration will lack focus.
Diameter: 100% Roundness: 100% Spacing: 49%

Angle Jitte r: 38% Control: D ire c tio n


Opacity J itte r Pen Pressure Flow J itte r Pen Pressure

Shadow s
Once the image has been adjusted,

Fm ready to begin laying in the shadows. t want them to be deep, with the sense o f a classical Edwardian-era portrait. I want the scene and the image itself to feel as though it were lit by a candle, so I can make a natural focal point o f our monster's face through lighting. Often I work with dozens o f layers to arrive at the final Multiply layer. i work using a textured, soft-edged brush or an airbrush, and I erase out areas that aren't to be affected. I then take down the layer's opacity until it looks correct, and begin again 011 a new layer. This process gets repeated dozens o f times.

I use this brush fo r shad ing and b le n d in g . Its te x tu re allow s fo r th e b le n d in g po w e rs o f th e airbrush, b u t w ith o u t th e sy n th e tic lo ok th a t so o fte n accom pan ies it.

1 4 Colour balancing
At the end, 1 colour-balance the image. I try not to use too m any colourbalancing effects: if they are used too much, they burn out an image, scorching


The hairy details

now begin to work in m y final

the texture and exaggerating the highlights. This too is a bane o f digital painting, and one to be careful of. I use it very sparingly at this stage o f a painting. I lere 1've used it to pull the painting into a slightly warm er and darker range, and Fve turned the opacity on the layer down to 50 per cent. N ow w ere finished. Its time to take the image to the printer, and hope that the client doesn't eat me. %

hairy details. I paint using Screen and Normal layers. I work on the basis that shadows are to be painted transparently, and highlights are to be painted opaque. This helps maintain which areas are to be focal points, and which are to recede into the background. I try not to use too much Normal layering. If I work too opaque in Photoshop, the piece takes on the plastic look thats the bane o f most digital art. Yet there are some details that absolutely need to be sharp and opaque: the highlights on metal or teeth, the rim o f a horn, the areas around the eyes. Along with using Normal to sharpen details in the eyes, I use it in subtle glazes to diminish areas where the texture is too obvious. I11 the background, l've laid in a thin layer o f darks.
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To colour a m onster
There are m any methods o f applying colours. For this illustration, I'm going to use layers o fSo ft Light. 1 like working with Soft Light because it approximates the feel o f colour glazing in oils, and I want to maintain the look o f classical portraiture. I build slowly, using as m any layers as necessary. Often Fll paint an area, take the layer's opacity down to 15 or 20 per cent, and repeat the process.


M in o r d e t a ils D o nt w o rry a b o u t d e ta ilin g every single b it o f y o u r illu s tra tio n . W h ile th is levei o f d e ta il m ay be im pressive on its ow n, it d oe snt always h elp th e im a g e overall. W hen yo u focus on ali th e m in o r deta ils o f an im age yo u lose a sense o f th e w h ole; and if you try to focus on th e w h ole o f an im age, yo u lose y o u r sense o f th e details. A successful illu s tra tio n m ust reco n cile th e tw o .


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Presents Anatomy

Digital art skills

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Whether youre drawing a hero or a villain, weVe got the gestures and silhouettes to help you out...

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This is a beautifully balanced and elegant pose. The extended leg is long and straight, and is at a right angle to the staff, giving the character added balance and strength. The right arm balances the body as it leans forwards, while the slope of the shoulders creates a diagonal almost parallel with the line of the leg. The staff is gripped with a strong hand, giving the pose a focal point.


Presents Anatomy

The extended arms stretch the chest and stomach, and the muscles are clearly defined as a result. The raised leg counterbalances the sword held behind the ^ body. It follows that as the sword falls, the leg will drop down and back in response.


- feeding more power into the attacking action.

Both the left arm and the left leg extend forward to suggest stillness (motion is represented by simultaneous i _ movement o f opposing ^ ^ a r m s and legs), creating a diagonal hip line and strong B k leg shape. The right arm pulls back, causing the | | shoulders to pull together.


The arms are raised in tw in claws o f menace and evil intent, while the face is impassive and coolly confident. This pose suggests an im m inent strike.

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Viewed from above, we see the gripping hands and arm muscles tau t w ith the strain o f clinging to the wall. The raised left leg balances the leading right arm. The upturned face and concentrated stare hint at a sense o f purpose and also help create the illusion o f height, as the character looks to his destination.


Fantasy anatomy
These poses come from the book Anatomy for Fantasy Artists by Glenn Fabry.
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Keeping low, the torso is held parallel to the ground.The arms are ready to lurch forw ards and grasp the prey.


Successful in battle once again, the mighty hero raises his muscled arms and shouts his victory to the heavens. The straight limbs create a X-shaped silhouette that adds dynamism. %


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Digital art skills

W arren Louw explains how to fill your characters with

energy and dynamism by learning the art of posing...
khat I'm about to tell you are the w h ats ever been achieved in art. Learn from other artists around you. Art is about self-expression and reaching new undiscovered leveis within yourself. Find your own style. We are ali unique expressions o f infinite possibilities, so w eall have the potential. Make sure that you're loving the experience that art is bringing to your life, and you will only move forward W hen you have ali the ingredients in place, you can think about your characters in terms o f their spatial relationship to the world.

Warren Louw
COUNTRY: S o uth A frica W arre n is a p rofession al illu s tra to r w h o spends his spare tim e re verse-e ngi neeri ng

i crucial basics, the foundations o f your characters. If you're

r not getting this right, don't

expect too much else to get better. Posing greatly extends and energises the personality o f your character, giving you the control you need to deepen the relationship that they have with the viewers. This is where you give your characters life. This is where it begins. Be very specific about what you want and what you like. Study it, understand it, make it a part o f you and expand with it. Nothing is random. Everything has a purpose. A im high. A im beyond

fe m in in e beauty.


On the disc
Find sketches by W arren in th e Strike A Pose fo ld e r inside D ig ita l A r t Skills


Before you even pick up a pencil, the most important thing to consider is intention - visualising and knowing what you want to achieve. You have to be very specifc about what you want, you have to believe you can do it, and you must expect it to manifest. Aim the highest you possibly can, higher than anything thafs ever been achieved in the history of mankind on Planet Earth. This way you charge the process with positivity, and youll be sure to get things o ff to a great start.


Presents Anatomy

Character pose tips


W hat needs to happen early on is fo r you to become fam iliar with the shapes and form s th a t y o u ll be w orking with. You'11 need to pay attention to ali the curves, joints and bo d y parts, and understand where they need to be in relation to each other. Finding the hidden lines and patterns where certain points m eet and join will be your guide to w o rk from . Just rem ember: every tiny line you draw has a purpose and is designed to w ork as one w ith the rest. You'll notice that if one thing is out, then others will follow.

If you can master the feminine, the masculine will be p re tty easy. They share m any o f the same basic characteristics. W hen dealing w ith the male. its just a m atter of adjusting a few things here and there. I d o n t draw males much, but I can do it very effectively because o f my w ork w ith the female figure. Those w ho focus prim arily on males will have a far greater difficu lty achieving fem inine beauty and sexiness.

I find my skills spontaneously upgrade themselves after Ive worked with a range of alternate styles... 9
5F L O W
Everything has a flow. W ith a bit of attention to anatom y and its rhythm, this will soon becom e clear. The best way to help your poses have flow is to think o f an S shape, as this will be the flow leading your eye through the pose, and will even help with your overall composition.


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W hen giving your figure an attractive, confident and sexy pose, you have to adjust the angles o f the head, torso, hips and legs. To draw it, you need to understand it. This pose is achieved by the legs shifting, pushing the channelling of the body's w eight to the right side. Now the right hip is confidently exposing itself, and w ith the legs w ider apart, both legs are taking a good portion o f her weight.

Foreshortening and perspective can be quite the cow fo r ali o f us artists - don't think the pros are excluded from this difficulty. So here's a good starting point. If you know how to give perspective to a box. or even a rectangle, this should help you give perspective to your figures, since both have a front, sides and a back. Yes, the human form is far more com plex than that. w ith many o th e r things to consider. But if you can keep the proportions w ithin the rectangle guidelines. things will com e much easier. Notice the consistency o f the centre point th roughout both boxes.

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Amazingly, you can learn a lot from using a different style. W orking from a different perspective on how to approach things can give you a fresh viewpoint. It will only expand your understanding about posing and anatom y in general. I find m y skills spontaneously upgrade themselves after lve been w orking w ith a range o f alternate styles, so this is highly recom m ended to ali. **


Presents Anatomy

Digital art skills

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Emotion and m ood are vital elements w hen creating a piece o f artw ork. A pose in itself can convey many em otions w ith o u t using things like facial expressions. Real em otion is always expressed thro u g h o u t the rest o f your body as well. There are no exceptons: it just depends on intensity. So just be aware o f bo d y language.


You firs t need to establish the eye levei: yo u ll be looking up at everything above it. Try to keep the sym m etry o f the body running on the lines. Refer back to the fig u re s fro n t design to see which areas and elements run parallel w ith each other.

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Breaking it dow n to a simpler scale will give you the focus you need to concentrate on the essentials w ith out ali the details confusing you. Loosen up your technique and just flow with it. W hen you think too much, youre acknowledging that you don't already know it ali. You know m ore than you think, so d o n t let th o u g h t obstruct you.


lm sure you have been left frustrated sometim es - ali you're tryin g to d o is get a simple pose, right? This is norm ally a result o f being oblivious to the physics o f balancing and centring weight. The solution is p re tty basic: the leg th a ts the m ost u pright and straightest is the one that takes m ost o f the weight. So keep your footing balanced in relation to your character's centre, also keeping in mind where the focus o f the w eight lies.
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A great way to check if your pose is eye-catching or dynam ic is to fill it in w ith black o r a darker colour and reduce It to a silhouette. This enables you to see if your pose has flow and impact, and still conveys the same essence that you originally intended, Your focus is being . centred on the actual form , w ith no internai affairs to distract you.



Eye levei is really im p o rta n t in creating a dynam ic pose. Using a low view can make a character seem dom inant, heroic or just plain huge. The point from w hich you view it plays a criticai role in creating a pose, because this is essentially how you w ant the w orld to see it. So when deciding on a pose, consider where you w ant the eye levei to be, as this can make even a simple pose appear very d ra m a tic.#

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Presents Anatomy

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Digital art skills

Learn from the professionals as our nanei of nrofessionals panei experts tackle real-world anatomy issues

____ v A
Our panei
Marek Okon
L H M Marek is an experienced sci-fi and fantasy artist. though he started out as a web designer. He has worked as a digital illustrator for two years.
o m e n 2 5 0 1 .d e v ia n ta rt.c o m

Jonny Duddle

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Jonny is a freelance illustrator. He's working on a top-secret project for Aardman, and released the picture book / The Pirate Cruncher last year.

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Andy Park
H jj# 1 Andy is a talented concept 1 artist who works for Sony. Among the games he has J worked on is the popular God of War for Playstation 2.

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Bobby Chiu
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> *^1 Bobby Chiu is an independent artist from Toronto, Canada. Part of the Imaginism outfit. he's involved primarily in film and TV production.

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Jim Pavelec
| Jim Pavelec lives in a world surrounded by demons, monsters and devils. He's the author of the how-to monster book Hell Beasts.

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Frazer Irving
P 2P <Top comic artist Frazer spendslotsof time drawing horrid-looking things on his Wacom Cintiq He's worked for 2 0 0 0 AD and DC Comics.

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Melanie D elon

Questioti How can I make the hands I paint appear more realistic? Answer
M elanie replies
Hands are one o f the most difficult parts o f a character to paint. You should bear in m ind that they have soft, round edges, and also that they are a powerful w ay o f conveying emotions. W hen you begin a hand, think about the construction lines (they ali com e from

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Melanie is a freelance i illustrator who specialises in < * fantasy portraits. Her most 1 recent book cover is for the ^ ebook of A Crown of Swords.

The c o lo u r schem e fo r a hand is th e same as fo r th e character, except fo r the extre m ities o f the fingers and th e joints, w h ich are redder.

tip for the base and a speckled one for the final blending. T he light is stronger and redder at lhe joints, because the skin is thinner there. The next step is texturing. This stage is the most decisive one. I use a basic Hard Round tip with 1lardness set to 70% and Shape D ynam ics set Size litter Control set to Pen Pressure. I add a few thin lines and folds on the skin, and som e light dots on another layer.

Full-size [iQ & A images; are o n your disc

the wrist): d on 't hesitate to use your ow n hands as a m odel. In general, fingers are halfway along the hand, and they are more like cylinders than boxes. W hen you're satisfied with your sketch, start shading. Try to sm ooth as best as you can here. Use a basic Hard Round brush


Presents Anatomy

Queslion Whats the best way to draw a screaming face? Answer

Frazer replies
Ali the w ay from F.dvard Munch to Jack Kirby, every artist has their own w ay o f depicting screams. The type o f scream can vary a great deal depending on the emotion that drives this reaction: as an artist, you need to know the differences between a scream o f fear as opposed to a scream o f anger, or perhaps o f pain. It's not uncommon for a lazy artist to use the wrong expression for an illustration and cause much confusion in the onlooker, especially in comics. W hat ITI do here is takeyou through the process o f how I construct an angry scream for a comic, which is ali about the scream and the power behind it. To do this, I em ploy standard drawing techniques next to graphic elemems, in much the same w ay that Munch used swirls to enhance his Scream painting. Remember, though, that even the most detailed-looking image is really still composed o f the most basic elements. The trick is to identify which aspects o f the face convey the idea most effectively.

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Step-by-step: The perfect scream

f start w ith a rather basic sketch. This drawing is loqse and rough, to effectively cpture and reflect the raw energy th a fs needed to drive the rest of the art. I always find that the initial stage o f a drawing - whatever the tone, style or subject m atter provides the fuel for the final image. You m ustn't hold back at ali at this po in t if you want to capture that scream.
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Next, I trace over the sketch on a new layer. Thpse lines refine the basic shape and the main features, fram ing the rnouth w ith a beard and making sure that it reads as simply as possible. A lot o f the raw energy from the original sketch is lost at this stage, because o f the sim plicity of the black line - but this will ali return as I progress to the final piece.
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The next stage in the process is to block in some Sh^dows on the su b je cfs face. Extreme, dram atic lighting can be an incredibly valuable tool when youre tryin g to create a particular mood. and is especially useful when defining dram atic lines on the face. Here, I choose to use quite strong side lighting, to imply the co n flict of em otion w ithin the character.

The wrinkles stemming out from the eyes are very im p o rta n t in depicting strong expressions. Here I exaggerate the lines on the forehead a little to enhance the anguish, as well as darkening the bridge o f the nose to show tension. These features capture the basies of the scream: after this, ali you need is the right colour palette and a well-chosen background to set it o ff perfectly.


Presents Anatomy

Digital art skills

Question What does the term 'heroic proportions' mean in the context of character design?

In this painting. I use various tricks to suggest m ovem ent. such as adjusting shadows to place vehicles in mid-air, rough brush m arks and flo w in g fu r and f lags.

Question My figures always look static in my paintings. How can I give them more of a sense of motion and dynamism? Ansiver
parts o f the previous d raw ing, or sketch digitally and save different versions. You can use Photoshops Transform tools to stretch, scale a nd distort particular parts o f a figure's anatomy. Reference is im portant. Look at photographs o f figures in m otion. A n a lysin g som e o f the incredible photography online or in m agazines, can reap benefits w hen d raw in g d yn am ic figures. Skateboarding shots are a good exam ple: they do a great job o f sh ow ing the h u m a n figure in m ovem ent and under lots o f tension and stress. Lastly, look at artists and art reference bo oks for tips, tricks and techniques. There are som e wonderful artists, such as Phil H ale and Jon Foster, w h o are masters o f d yn am ic figure painting. L o o k clo se ly at h o w they use com position, perspective, figure
Sketch yo u r character, then revise him w ith a m ore exaggerated pose. Real-life action shots o f skateboarders are a g o o d source fo r seeing the hum an fig u re in m ovem ent and un d e r tension. This im age shows th e p ro p o rtio n s o f the average hum an male. and th e m usculature and skeletal structure beneath th e skin. N ow take a lo ok a t ou r hero. A t betw e en eight and nine heads high and a shoulder span o f a b o u t fo u r heads. hes th e gu y you w a n t on y o u r side.

Jonny replies
Its co m m o n to find that the m ore you w ork o n an image, the m ore static the end result becom es. I often find m yself

renderinga successful character sketch, into som eth ing dull and lifeless. But

w ith lots o f m ovem ent and d yn am ism , there are w ays o f keeping a character lo o k in g d yn a m ic. T he m ost o bvio u s place to start is the character's pose. To properly convey character, you need to paint figures in poses that suggest their personality and m ovem ent. For exam ple, an aggressive character could be hunched over w ith clenched fists an d taut neck muscles. Sketch the figure, then revise it w ith a m ore exaggerated pose. Keep pushing a pose: it w ill often gain m ore and m ore personality. U se layout paper to trace

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shoulders - the body s widest point. But you don't want your superhero looking average, so design them based on the principie o f heroic proportions. A hero should stand anywhere between eight and nine heads high, with a shoulder width o f four heads across. The hero's waist is kept the same as the average person's, to help accentuate the width o f their shoulders and the sweep o f their crushing thighs.

Jim replies
Heroic proportions are important when working in comic books or fantasy illustration. A common

unit o f measure when drawing the human body is head height and width. At eye levei, the typical human being is rough lysix-and-a-half to seven heads tall, and three heads across at the

Question I ve learned how to paint an eye head-on, but there seem to be no workshops on how to paint one from the side. I ve tried and failed. What could I be doing wrong? Answer
f l k o f course spherical, with only about a quarter o f the sphere visible. The eveball is basically a sphere with lids that wrap around it. Keeping these things in mind will help you when you have to illustrate the eye from different angles - even from a direct front-on view.

A ndy replies
The key to drawing or painting an eye is to think o f it in three dimensions. Although we instinctively think o f eyes as almond-shaped, they're

d raw in g and markm ak ing to add d yn am ism to images.


Presents Anatomy

Artist Q&A
Question How do I put realistic mass and weight into my character designs? Answer
P W P . i

Bobby replies
'W eigh t' is really I gravity a ctin gu p o n

Q Artisfs secret
B A iA N C t

H / _ ] a m ass. Therefore, the b e st'w e ig h te d ' character designs accurately reflect h o w gravity affects a body. Lo o k in g around you, you can gauge this in a couple o f different w ays: b y looking at the body, and b y looking at h o w the b o d y affects the environm ent. In a soft m ass such as a pot belly, w here g ravity is strong and the forces h olding up the fat are w eak, the greater the weight is, the lower the soft tissue w ill dro o p or h an g dow n. A lso , consider h o w weight m ight im p a ctyo u rsu b je ct's surroundings. Ify o u r character is heavy, they m ight sink into the m ud or cause the bridge or b ranch that th e y re standing o n to bend noticeably. Ifth ey're bein g lifted (strenuously) o ff the ground, the vertical forces associated w ith the action sh ou ld be tense an d taut, to dem onstrate h o w d ifficult it is to overcom e the gravitational forces tryin g to pull the b o d y back to earth. In a m agical environm ent, you could guide expectations by m a k in g yo u r h e av y character appear to be m ade o f stone or som eth ing else that's very dense. Yo u r vie w e r w ill understand from association that stone is heavy, therefore you r character m ust be ve ry h eavy as well.
The initial sketch to capture th e idea and establish forces. The m onk is straining to lift the m onster, b u t the m onster does n o t budge. In this later version o f the same image, the w e ig h t o f the m onster is show n b y th e m o n k s reaction: th e re s strain on his face. and his back and legs are stretched w ith tension.

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Step-by-step: Painting eyeballs side-on

. Heres a quick sketch o f someones right eye. As you can see, there is a circle faintly drawn in, which represents the sphere that makes up the eyeball. There are tw o lids th a t w rap around the eyeball and, in doing so, cover the m ajority of it. Take note o f the way in w hich the botto m lid wraps under the top lid on the side.

This is the same eye, seen from the side instead o f the front. I've rendered o e sphere that makes up the eyeball wthin the eyelids to help to illustrate the three-dim ensionality of the form . Again, note how the top lid goes above the b o tto m lid on the side. It s really im p o rta n t to get the eyes right, or else the picture can distort.

Here's the final rendering o f the eye. There are a few things that are w orth FiQting here. Because the eye is moist, you need to capture its reflective nature; there's a shadow that the to p lid creates on the eyeball; and the whites of the eyes are not solely white they too need to show elements of form and shadow.


Presents Anatomy

Digital art skills

uesion ow do I draw facial expressions that convey the right emotion and don't feel stiff or forced? Answer
Jonny replies
If you're painting figures, drawing cartoons or rendering 3 D characters, you need to m ake them interesting to look at. W hether itse vil, sad, h ap p yo rd ead p an , theirfacial expression could be vital in com m unicating the story or message in you r work. H ow ever different people m ay look, everyone's faces are m ade up o f the sam e set o f bones and muscles. B y becom ing fam iliar w ith the basic anatom y o f the face, it can be easier to paint more believable expressions. You don't need to nam e every m uscle or identify every com ponent o f the skull, but w ith practice, you can get to know the m ain building blocks o f the face and h o w they fit together. Use reference to practise drawing faces. Reference can be anything from photographs you've taken or in books and m agazines, D V D stills or old-master paintings. W hile drawing, try to identify the m ain shapes in the face and h o w they distort and m ove w ith different facial expressions. A lso try exaggerating the size o f particular features to see h o w subtle modifications can affect the m ood. T ry big noses, heavy brows or high foreheads. Sm all changes can m ake a big difference. lt's also worth bearing in m ind that facial expressions work in conjunction w ith bo d y language, so in most cases you'11 need to ensure the face matches the body.

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Do n t be shy: draw yourself! (If I lo ok a little wonky, th a fs because I am...)

Its a g o o d exercise to dra w diffe re n t facial expressions, w h e th e r you try draw ing th e same character o r a v ariety o f diffe re n t faces fro m reference

Question I nave trouble posing figures realistically, particularly when they're in mid-action. How can I make my moving figures better? Answer
figure: w hen a b o d y is

Try som e experim entation. The trun ks o f th e bodies d o no t change: I only adjust th e lim bs and props to a position th a t I like.

Bobby replies

airbom e, gravity pulls it d ow n, led b y the trunk o f the figure. Inertia dietates that the lim bs w ill tend to trail behind the torso. W ith these points in m ind, I sketch out m y figure accordingly. If l'm unsure about h o w to position certain parts o f the body, I w ill attempt to recreate that part o f the pose myself, so that I can see h o w far back an arm or a leg can extend behind the m oving bo d y without it starting to feel uncom fortable.
Even th o u g h this b o d y is upright, we understand th a t th e fig u re is airbo m e th ro u g h th e posing o f th e lim bs relative to th e body.

W hen y ou sh ow bodies in m otion, yo u m ust consider physics. W hat are the effects o f gravity on the pose? W hat

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about inertia or m om entum ? W hich w a y is the b o d y m oving? A li o f these considerations tell you w h ich forces are acting on o ur figure, and h o w m uch strain the b o d y should undergo to do what it w ants to do. N ext, consider the restrictions im posed b y anatomy. Bodies are limited in the w ays that they can bend, twist, stretch a nd rotate. Artistically speaking, it's acceptable for you to exaggerate these limits, but not to ignore them altogether. Take a leaping


Presents Anatomy

How can I be more true to life when I paint the shading on my character's faces?



M arek replies
light and shadows on such

W hen I wasyounger, i always wondered w h y artists practised simple objects as spheres, cylinders or boxes instead o f on cool robots. N o w I know that the simplicity o f those objects enable an artist to fully understand how light casts shadow and then to transform this knowledge to more complex shapes. Let's take the head, for example. !t's a complex object with different planes to consider, which can be really tricky to shade properly. But ifyou break it down into basic shapes like spheres and cubes, it's much easiertograsp it in yo ur mind. I n much the same way, divide complex scenes or objects into familiar shapes, and detail them after basic shading is properly done. This will help you greatly in your efforts to master the art o f shading.

C ontra ry to initial im pression, th e hum an face is an exceedingly com plex object, especially w hen it com es to an accurate portraya l o f natural lighting and shadow.

Step-by-step: Add shading detail to a plain face

S tart with a basic shape ideally a roundish cylinder (the head), attached to another cylinder (the neck) attached to another roundish cylinder (the body). Just to make this easier to understand. le ts put a simple grid on our shapes and add some basic shading.

Now its tim e fo r the basic features. The nose is basically a triangle sticking out in th e m iddle o f the face, while the eye sockets are those tw o sym m etrical depressions. I usually paint these w ith a simple single brush stroke.

tle ts shape this face more correctly. Here, l've split thp surface o f my head into shapes that can be shaded more carefully. Ali of those features are parts o f spheres and cylinders that are fairly easy to shade. Just check out the eye area: it looks like I put another sphere into the middle of my eye socket.

The next phase is to blend the borders between these shapes, then add some muscle and skin structure to make the face fuller. Don't forget to stick to the shading you did before; its a good base fo r complex detailing. Finally, you add in ali the details you need. W ith good base shading. this head should look p re tty convincing by now.

In every issue o f ImagineFX, o u r panei solve real-world Creative problem s w ith helpful techniques. Em ailyour question to help@ im or write to Artist Q&A, ImagineFX, 30 M onmouth St, Bath, BA1 2BW, UK.


Presents Anatomy

On your disc

On your disc
To support our anatom y and painting workshops, your disc includes a wealth of resources to aid your Creative process. From how-to videos to step-by-step w orkshop images, you'11 find this disc essential.
D raw ing v id e o s Learn the fundamentais of human figure construction with Ron Lemen S t e p -b y -s t e p im a g e s Follow the artists' steps to creating their paintings in our art workshops R efe ren ce sk e tch e s Study the drawings from our anatomy workshops in detail as you learn ON THE DISC:
D raw ing v id e o s Learn figure construction basics Hum an a n ato m y sk( tch c s Study from anatom y masters C roatu re portraits Combine human and animal forms St nkc a pe s o Sketches to help you position your figures




Videos and reference to help you develop your draw ing skills

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Presents Anatomy




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WeVe gathered together our finest workshops by the worlcTs leading artists in four


-= s -o -s HOW TO DRAW AND PAINT *-o-

Whatever your levei, knowing the correct way to draw anatomy is fundamental in bringing your work to life. In this collection of human and animal anatomy workshops, the finest artists in the world share essential figure-drawing techniques to ensure you create fantastic images every time.

The complete guide for artists on how to draw the structures and forms ofhumans and animais in easy tofollow steps


Prtnted In tho UK if z o i 7.99 20K)

ISBN 1 -8 5 8 7 0 -3 2 3 -9

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