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FRONT COVER

KAMBOJAS
OF THE

OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS


AND

SANSKRIT VEDIC LITERATURE.

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Author:

G. Thind
(Also Publisher and Author of 1. Our Indian Sub-Continent Heritage ISBN 0-9688162-0-7) 2. Caste System and UN Conference (Durban, 2001) and Dr. Ambedkars Annihilation of Caste ISBN 0-9688162-1-5 3. Why I Am A Humanist! ISBN 0-9688162-3-1

Published by: Cedar Publications Surrey, B.C. CANADA

****** Above books is available on the following website: www.humanlife.ca

ISBN 0-9688162-2-3

KAMBOJAS
OF THE

OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS


AND

SANSKRIT VEDIC LITERATURE.

FINAL DESTINATION OF ARYANS

CONTENTS
Chapter Page

Top Cover.1 Contents5 Editors Note. . 6 1. Origin of Kambojas and other Aryans. 8 2. Kamboja and Aryan Epoch. 13 3. Quest for Principal Era, Ancient Literature, Cambodian (Cambodge/Kamboj) Kings. .....15 4. Angkor Vat. (One of the wonders of the world). .36 5. Kambojas Kingdoms and their Influence in the Far East. ......50 6. Kambojas Affiliation with Budh Gaya and Sarnath. .68 7. Kambojas Love for India, Punjab and the Sikh Panth. .72 8. My visit to Lahore105 9. Notes. 113

Editors Note
This book is the by-product of Our Indian SubContinent Heritage which I wrote and which was released in Vancouver, Canada in early 2000. Since I immigrated to Canada in 1953 and did not have much knowledge of India with the exception of Punjab and New Delhi where I had lived for four years to undergo training in Aeronautics, I decided to retire early to do my own thing i.e. travel, travel and nothing but travel. I visited numerous places of interest all over the Indian Sub-Continent including the Central Archaeological Library of New Delhi, Calcutta Library, Madras Library, University and British Libraries of Trivandrum in Kerala, the ruins of Meonjodaro in Sindh and Harappa near Lahore, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Borneo, Java (Borobudur) and Bali in Indonesia, Island of Philippine, Thailand, Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboj), Vietnam and Laos (Champa of the olden days). During these travels I collected nearly five kilos of pamphlets and notes. After a heart attack in 1995 (since my son told me that I could no longer help him in the family business), I had no choice but go back to my pamphlets and notes. After sifting and arranging them in sequence I felt the need to know more about Kambojas. I went back to Cambodia in February of 1997. Cambodia (Etat du Cambodge) was formerly a colony of France, and 99% of the ancient records relating to Kamboja kings, the over 1000 year old former Kamboja city and Angkor Vat and many other temples which were built by Kamboja kings from Jaya Varman II to Jaya Varman VII (790-1202 A.D.) are all preserved in French and/or in their own language, alphabets of which derived from South India, Pali and Sanskrit. To tackle the task of translating those works into English, I was lucky to be rescued by Dr. Sorn Samnand, Dean of the Faculty of History, University of Phnom Penh, Etat du Cambodge.

While going through our ancient history the fact must be born in ones mind not to expect any critical and detailed narrative of the political events, or a proper

estimate of the life and character of great historical personages, of whom we catch but fleeting glimpses of the
moving panorama of the history of thousands of years before our eyes in a haze of mist or gloom. I have tried to support every statement by an authoritative text, and copious references are given in the endnotes from pages 81-86. No one is more conscious than I of the possible shortcomings of the work. I hope that my indulgent readers will look kindly on this pioneer work. If this humble production arouses a general interest in the Kamboja community towards this fascinating field of study, and induces others, better equipped for the task, to take up the work, I shall consider my labours amply rewarded. My grateful thanks are due to respective librarians, Dr. Sorn Samnang and Dr. Myint Thein who supplied me with the research materials and I acknowledge gratefully my debt to Mr. Kirpal Singh Dard author of Souvenir, 1993 and all the authors, journals and publishers from whose books or publications I have drawn excerpts. Last but not least, I wish to express my special thanks to Ms. Edith and Dr. Arlis Packer for computer scanning of photographs, reading through the manuscript and for some valuable suggestions in this matter.

G. Thind Burnaby, B. C. September 9, 2002

Chapter - 1
ORIGIN OF KAMBOJAS
AND

OTHER ARYANS.
It is human nature that migrating people will look back to the land of their origin for generations to come. Many times, through those centuries and millenniums gone by, they managed to pass on the name of the continent or country but some where along that distant past innocently missed pointing out the location of their last stop or even the origin. The ancient history of Vedic Aryans became a victim of such circumstances. Nevertheless, as a result of perseverance and systematic research by the world renowned students of ancient history, Vedic literature such as: Rich or Rig-Veda; the Yajush or Yajar-Veda, the Saman or Sama-Veda has made visible to us a clear trace of Vedic Aryans itinerary from their departure points and stopovers to their final destination. The evidence of linguistic paleontology need not be considered in detail, since Schrader (E/N #1) did that with masterly thoroughness in his well-known works; but it is important that the region to which he assigned the IndoEuropean original home after his epoch-making researches is also South Russia. The argument that has been most persistently levelled against Schrader is the so-called beech-argument: since the beech was known to the Indo-Europeans, it is argued, their original home must have been to the west of a line drawn from Konigsberg in Prussia to the Crimea and continued thence through Asia Minor, for the beech does not grow to the east of this line. But there is absolutely no certainty that the IndoEuropean word bhagos, from which the English word beech is very probably derived, also signified the object designated by this English word beech. Moreover, the word for beech seems to have been confined only to the western IndoEuropeans, for there is no trace of it in any eastern dialect if the late Kurdish word, bus is left out of consideration. In spite of the enormous increase in

knowledge since the days of Schrader, it would be best therefore to adhere to his conclusion that South Russia, more than any other region, can claim to be regarded as the cradle-land of the Aryans = Indo-Europeans.(E/N #2). After their departure from South Russia, Iran became the second stopover for Kambojas and Aryans for a couple of hundred years. Probably Kambojas arrived in Iran a few hundred years before the Aryans and had become part and parcel of the Iranian society, just stopping short of becoming assimilated. That is why even after arriving and settling at the tip of India their language, customs and traditions remained different from other Aryans. Arriving Aryans believed in Daiva (Deva) (E/N #3), whereas Iranians were followers of Asura (E/N #4). They worshipped their respective gods and as we will see below there was intermingling of each others cultures and religious cults over a period of time.

In spite of the Daiva-bias of the Indians and the Asurabias of the Iranians, their culture and religion continued to be essentially the same till the advent of Zarathustra (E/N #5) in Iran. Zarathustras position is more or less analogous to that of the Buddha in India and Orpheus in Greece, both of whom protested effectively against the ceremonial slaughter of animals in the name of religion, but not nearly as vehemently as Zarathustra. In his Gathas (sermons), Zarathustra condemns in bitter terms the orgiastic festivities at which the Daivaworshippers, inebriated with Soma (E/N #6), offer bloody sacrifices to their gods, extinguishing amidst shouts of revelry, the life of the innocent bull (E/N #7). It is clear that the ritual practices, against which Zarathustra directed his homilies, closely resembled those of the Vedas. A large number of common cult-words such as haoma (=soma), zaotar (=hota), atharvan (=atharvan), manthra (=mantra), yazat (= yajata), yashna (= yajna), azuiti (= ahuti), etc., and also the whole sacrificial cult, leave no doubt that the Vedic and Avestan rituals are of one and the same origin (E/N #8). Evidently, the Zarathustras reform could not materially alter the essentially

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Vedic character of the Soma cult, cherished in Iran from ages before his time. In the field of religion and mythology, however, Zarathustra was more successful. But here too, the points of similarity are striking enough to prove previous identity. The ceremony of Upanayana (E/N #9), is practically the same in the Vedas as it is in the Avesta and in both the conventional number of gods is the same, namely thirtythree. Both in the Veda and the Avesta, the picture of the gods is primarily that of a heroic Aryan warrior riding in a chariot drawn by powerful steeds. Like the Vedic gods, those of the Avesta also hold up the sky to prevent it from falling down, while image worship is equally unknown in the Avesta and the Veda. The majority of Vedic Kambojas and Aryans had left Iran around 3500 B.C., yet the influence of their culture and religious cults lingered on amongst the Asura and remaining Deva for Zarathustra to redress. The reticence maintained by the Vedic Aryans about immigration from Indo-Irania was, therefore, at least partly intentional, for otherwise it would seem that those parts of the Rigveda, in which possible or probable Iranian names occur, were composed already in Iran, as A. Hillebrandt (E/N #10) actually suggested. According to modern research, as we have observed above, in spite of a long contact and the exchange of cultures and religious rituals, to some extent Asuras and Vedic Aryans did not get along very well with one another. In many hymns of Rigveda Asuras are referred to as enemies. This may have been the root cause of their reluctant move towards India. The following tribes are said to have made the first move: Finally we come to the Udichyas or Northerners, among whom are the Uttarakurus, the Uttaramadras, Mujavants, Mahavrishas, Gandharis, Bahlikas, Keshins, Kekayas and Kambojas.(E/N #11). As to their final destinations almost all of the main tribes of Vedic Aryans reached the north west and east tip of India situated in the Pamir region, a mountain complex laying mainly in Todzhikshaya (U.S.S.R.), but also reaching into China, Hindu Kush, Afghanistan, Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir and north east of Punjab (now Pakistan). According to the map mentioned above in foot note..we see a Kamboja settlement on the tip of mainland India whereas we see other Aryans settled deep in the Pamir region. From this we conclude that Kambojas were the first ones to arrive and because of reasons given below settled on the fertile land and did not feel the

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need to move into proper India. Dr. A. D. Pusalker, Assistant Director and Head of the Department of Sanskrit Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan in Vedic Age, 1951 says: The earliest mention of Kambojas occurs in the Vamsa Brahmana of the Samaveda where a teacher Kamboja Aupamanyva is referred to. The sage Upamanyu, mentioned in the Rigveda (9-97-5), is in all probability the father of this Kamboja teacher. From the fact that Kamboja Aupamanyava is stated to be a pupil of Madragara, Zimmer (H. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben. Berlin, 1879) infers that the Kambojas and the Madras were close neighbours in northwestern India. The speech of the Kambojas is referred to by Yaska (Nirukta VII. 12) as differing from other Aryans, and Grierson (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London) sees in this reference the Iranian affinities of the Kambojas; but the fact that Kambojas were reputed for Vedic learning shows them to have been Vedic Aryans, so that Kamboja was an Aryan settlement. Later on Kambojas settled to the northwest of the Indus, and were the Kambujiyas of the Old Persian Inscriptions. There is some difference of opinion as to the location of the Kambojas. Rhys Davids places them to the extreme northwest of India, S. K. Aiyangar and P. N. Banerji in a country near Sind (Sindh), Raychaudhuri in the Rawalpindi and Peshawar districts, Smith along the mountains of Tibet or Hindu Kush, and Eliot (Dr. Law, Tribes pp. 2-3) in Tibet or its border. The latest attempt at locating the Kambojas is by Jayachandra who, after discussing the problems afresh identifies Kambojas with Badakhshan and the Pamir, and Motichandra has further supported the identification (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London). Further research in Rigveda 9-97 shows: Vasistha (Vashisht) is that of the first tricha (triplet); of the second Indrapramati; of the third Vrishagana; of the fourth Manyu; of the fifth Upamanyu; of the sixth hymn by Vyaghapad; seventh by Sakti; eighth by Karnasrut; ninth by Mrilika and tehth by Vasukra ---these ten are all of the Vasishtha (Vashisht) gotra.

According to Hindu Tribes And Castes by Rev. M. A. Sherring , M.A., LL.B., Lond. P. 6 under Section 1 Genealogy of the Brahmanical Tribes: The Brahmans of all tribes, according to Hindu writings and traditions, are originally descended from seven Rishis, or sages, held by Hindus universally in profound veneration as semi-deities of great sanctity and wisdom. These, as given by the Nirnai Sindhu, and also by the Dharma Sindhu, are as follows:

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1. Bhrigu.
3. Atri. 4. Viswamitra. 5. Kasyap. 6. Vashisht 7. Agastih

2. Angirah (Angiras).

Gotras descended from Vashisht Rishi: Vashisht.


1. Kaundinya 2. Upamanyu. 3. Parashara. 4. Jatukaraniya.

Further while discussing Cambodia (Cambodge) we will see descendents of Kaundinya, a merchant hailing from Kamboja renaming their country as Cambodge/Kamboj. It must be remembered that to the Aryans surprise, there were aborigines such as Nagas and Dravidians in particular, with a great civilization unparalleled to any other they ever encountered during their stopovers en-route from South Russia to India. Therefore, the best alternative for them was to settle in and around the Pamir region and advance further into aborigines territories in the east, west and south tactfully by correlations, diplomacy, spreading Vedic belief and the employing of divide and rule tactics of which they had become masters during hundreds of years of intermingling with different people.
When they failed in all other means, intimidation by the waging of war on one pretext or another was the name of the game!

Dr. A. D. Pusalker says: The Rigveda repeatedly refers to the attacks on the aborigines. Their hatred towards the aborigines was so open that they called them Krishna-tvach (black skin) metaphorically. Kuyavach (evil speaking), a demon slain by Indra, probably personifies the barbarian opponents. Mridhravach (speaking insultingly), is also similarly used for denoting barbarians in the Rigveda. If Balbutha, called a Dasa, were the son of an aboriginal mother or an aboriginal himself, his reference as giving gifts to the singer indicates the establishment of friendly relations between the Aryans and Dasa.

*****

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Chapter - 2 KAMBOJAS
AND THE

ARYAN EPOCH.
While Kambojas who probably arrived at the tip of India well ahead of other Aryans settled there for good, others had no choice but to settle in the Pamir region. Being used to migration from one country to another, Aryans were habituated to founding colonies. Colonization was usually followed by commerce, leading to ownership of large tracts of land, keeping the local owners as slaves and resulting in domination for good. Puranas (history books) mention that a couple of generations before Manu Vaivasvata, there were numerous Daitya (aboriginal) kingdoms, out of which Bali, a very powerful king often called an Emperor, ruled along the Indus river, probably at a location where the ruins of Moenjodaro now stand. In order to enter India proper, Aryan tribes had to fight Bali first, but not being strong enough militarily, they had to be content in settling in the Pamir region. During the same period, an Aryan by the name of Vishnu (E/N #12), came along with his tribe to enter India, but on hearing of Balis military strength and determination of keeping aliens out of the mainland, stopped short of entering his kingdom and like earlier arrivals, settled on the bank of a nearby river. One day Vishnu meekly went to Balis court along with a few men, women and children, and begged him for a piece of land and to accept his clan and himself as his subjects. Mighty Bali took pity on the courteous fellow and granted him permission to live in his kingdom with a fairly large piece of fertile land. As soon as Vishnu obtained a footing in Balis kingdom, he started an underground campaign of inviting new settlers, making new colonies and providing them with proper military training. After several years, Vishnu attacked Balis kingdom, defeated him and forced him to flee to the East (i.e. Bengal side). During the same struggle, Indra, a powerful young man among Aryans, joined Vishnu in conquering the aborigines lands and giving them to their Aryan kith and kin. Following are a few quotations from Rig-Vedas of the atrocious actions, such as merciless killings and pillages committed by the Indra, who was also anointed as God of rain and thunder, king of gods, protector of Aryans, etc. RIG VEDA QUOTATIONS (OF INDRAS EXPLOITS)
(Trans. by Prof. H. H. Wilson, M. A., F.R.S., Boden Prof. of Sanskrit, Ox. England.)

Indra, the destroyer of cities, possessed of wealth, manifesting (his greatness), merciless to his enemies, has overspread the day with his radiance: attracted by prayer, armed with weapons, he has delighted both Heaven and Earth. (RV.II-34).

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Thou hast subjugated PIPRU (E/N #13) and the mighty MRIGAYA (E/N #14) for the sake of RIJISWAN (E/N #15), the son of VIDATHIN; thou hast slain the fifty thousand KRISHNAS (E/N #16) and, as old age (destroys) life, thou hast demolished the cities (of SAMBARA) (E?N #17). (RV.II-6-13). Exhilarated (by Soma beverage) I have destroyed the ninety and nine cities of SAMBARA. (RV III-V-3 and f/n for RV I, Sukta 51-6C). Indra has overturned a hundred stone-built cities for DIVODAS E/N #18), the donor of oblation. (R.V. III-9-20). Due to lack of space only few of Indras exploits have been given above.

Historical events, as elaborated in the above Rigveda hymns and ruins of Moenjodaro (E/N #19), Harappa and Chitradurga along with their museums and hundreds of skeletons unearthed, suggest that Vishnu and Indra were responsible for the above-mentioned killings and destruction of places. Moenjodaro may have been the capital of the aboriginal king Bali, who happened to be the first victim of Vishnus victory. There is no mention of territorial conflict between Kambojas and other Aryans, probably because the Kambojas were well established way before the other clans arrived and were strong enough militarily to ward off intruders i.e. other Aryan clans.

Chapter 3 starts next page.

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Chapter - 3 QUEST FOR PRINCIPAL ERA ANCIENT LITERATURE


NAMES OF

CAMBODIAN (CAMBODGE/KAMBOJ) KINGS.


Whenever we think of the word History, our minds are inclined to relocate to an early era such as A.D. (Anno Domini) or B.C. (Before Christ), but like ancient civilizations that flourished in the remote past, a skeleton of the history of ancient India has only been possible to reconstruct with the help of our ancient literature and archaeological evidences discovered recently. Then, of course, to pin-point an appropriate era, we must locate an important occasion relating to some unprecedented happening and then work backward or forward with the help of long gone generations of kings, kingdoms and dynasties and literature of their times. In this respect, we are proud of our ancestors that emphatically encouraged intellectual and literary works covering a wide field of human activities, even when their endeavours could not be reduced to writings. According to F. E. Pargiter (E/N #20), the importance of literature is explicitly laid down in the Yayu Purana (1-31-2), that the Sutas (venerable sages) special duty, as perceived, by good men of old, was to preserve the genealogies of gods, Rishis (sages), most glorious kings and the traditions of great men. These accounts probably formed the basis of the original Puranas, from which the genealogical texts of the existing puranas were ultimately derived. As to the question of the art of writing known to the Vedic Aryans, Prof. D. R. Bhandarker (E/N #21) maintains on the grounds of internal evidence, that the art of writing was known to the Indians as early as the time of Rigveda, and derives the Brahmi alphabet from alphabetic signs found on prehistoric potteries dug out of the Hyderabad cairns.

The discovery of the seals at Moenjodaro with pictorial writing has put an altogether new complexion on the whole subject. It may be regarded as very probable, if not almost certain, that the old Indian alphabet was derived from the pictographic script current in the Sindh Valley. Unfortunately, we cannot trace its development during a long period of more than 2000 years, which elapsed before

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we came across the first actual specimen of the Brhmi lipi (Brhmi script) in the third or fourth century B.C.
The scholars, who maintain that the art of writing was unknown to the Vedic period, are naturally forced to the conclusion that the whole Vedic literature was preserved by oral tradition only. To those who look upon this as incredible, the following lines of Max Muller (E/N #22) would serve as a reply: It is of little avail in researches of this kind to say that such a thing is impossible. We can form no opinion of the powers of memory in a state of society so different from ours as the Indian Parishads (places of higher learning), are from our Universities.....Even at the present day, when manuscripts are neither scarce nor expensive, the young Brahmana who learn the songs of the Veda and the Brahmanas and the Sutras, invariably learn them from oral tradition, and know them by heart. They spend year after year under the guidance of their teacher, learning a little day after day, repeating what they have learnt as part of their daily devotion, until at last they have mastered their subject and are able to become teachers in turn. How then was the Veda learnt? Every Brahmana learned it during the twelve years of his student-ship (forty-eight years in the case of those who did not wish to marry). Looking back at our literature, the people of the SubContinent of India owe a lot to Western scholars who, in order to enlighten us and the world of our past, had to overcome many obstacles in learning the Vedic language (i.e. classical Sanskrit). They encouraged the Brahmins to bring into open the literature they were hiding for 800 years, for fear of destruction by Muslim rulers possessed by irrational zeal. Muslim rulers like barbarous Babur not only replaced temples with mosques but destroyed Vedic literature as much as they could. Al-Biruni (997-1030), a Persian scholar came to India and took a camel load of Vedic literature to Baghdad, which was a centre of learning in the Arab world. In one of the books he interpreted a symbol, which was meant to read empty. AlBiruni renamed that symbol as sifr meaning cipher of today. Arabs called it Hind-sah, meaning, from Hind. That cipher

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zero is the heart and soul of modern science. As the last of Muslim rule came to an end and the dust settled, people started to feel free at least in so far as religion, culture and traditions were concerned. Unlike Muslim rulers, rather than suppressing our past, the Europeans in general and British in particular wanted to know about our past as much as possible. To help us in locating some of our literature, The Vedic Age, by Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan, V, The Age of The Rik-Smahta, and Early Hindu India, give us merely the following works:

VEDAS AND ANCIENT LITERATURE


Rigveda-10 books comprising 1017 hymns. Yajush Rich, or Black Yajur Veda. Samaveda. White Yajur Veda, 10 books each.Atharvaveda-20 Books. Ramayana. 7 books (approximately 25000 verses). This scripture is an epic poem of ancient India (approx. 1500 B.C.), describing a horrendous war between Rama and Ravana, an aboriginal king of Lanka (Sri Lanka), to free Ramas wife Sita, who was abducted by Ravana and held as prisoner in his palace in Lanka. Mahabharta(approx. 24000 verses). This thought -provoking scripture is also an epic poem of ancient India (1450 B.C.), narrating a widespread horrific destruction of human life through war brought upon the Indian people from the northern tip of Indias Kamboja kingdom bordering Afghanistan and Iran down to Lanka (Sri Lanka), by greed, booze and compulsive gambling between two cousins, Pandavas and Kauravas. It is interesting to note that as the Pandavas were passing through Kampila, a capital of the Panchala kingdom, they heard of a stiff marksmans test imposed by the local king to win his daughter, Draupadi, for the wedding. Arjuna successfully accomplished the feat and the daughter of king Drupada became the common wife of five, the Pandava brothers Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Sahadeva and Nakula. Thereafter, Arjuna contracted marital alliances with Chitrangada, the princess of Manipur, and Subhadra, the Yadava princess (sister of Krishna). They promoted their alliances with many kings and people of influence either by subjugating or accepting gifts. With that kind

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of encouragement, all five Pandava brothers led a campaign respectively towards the east, south, west and North. In the North they antagonized mighty Kambojas whose king in turn joined Kauravas against Pandavas in Mahabharta. Further, we will find the names of 75 countries consisting of India; not even one stayed neutral!

LAW Books - 20 by various lawgivers such as Manu, Narda, Yajnavalkya, Atri, Vyasa (Krishna), etc. Neard and Surya Sidhanta.
UPANISHAD (Generally an elaboration upon the earlier Vedas.) Aitareya; Kaushitaki; Taittirya Mantrakosha Part I and Part II; Mahanaryana Mantrakosha; Brihadarayaka Mantrakosha; Chhanddogya Mantrakosha; Kena Mantrakosha; Katha Upanishad; Brihadararan Yak Opanishad; Svetasvatra Upanishad; Mahanarayana Upnishad; Isavasya Upanishad; Mundaka Upanishad; Prana Upanishad; Maitrayaniya Upanishad; Mandukya Upanishad of the Atharva Veda; Upanishad of the Saktas such as: Jabala; Paramahamsa; Subala; Garbha; Atharvasiras etc (One of the latest Muktika Upanishad counts them all 108 if not more). SUTRAS
(Collection of a precise meaningful statement of a truth or rules)

Sutrasthana; Sushruta Sutrasthana; Rajatarangni; Rig-Veda Pratisakhya Sutra; Taittirya Pratisakhya Sutra; Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya Sutra; Atharvaveda Pratisakhya Sutra; Panchavidha Pratisakhya Sutra; Pushpa Pratisakhya Sutra; Vyasqa Siksha; Paninya Sikhsha; Sarvanukramani; Brihdevata; Rigvidhana; Kalpa Sutra; Vishnu Smriti; Srautra Sutra; Grihya Sutra; Sradhhakalpas; Pitrimedhas; Dharma Sutras (4 books by one each sage); Sulva Sutra; Gobhila Grihya Sutra; Mantrabrahmana; Apastambiya Grihaya Sutra; Apastambiya Dharam Sutra; Nirukta; Taittirya Samhita (Krsna Yajurveda); Yajurveda (Vajasaneyi Samhita); Gopatha Brahmana; Vaishishika Sutra by Kanada; Nayaya Sutra by Gotma; Mantrapatha; Vaitna Saruta Sutr; Kaussika Sutra; Manava-Sradhakalpa (4 books one by each

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sage); Apastambiya Srautasutra; Grihyasamgraha-Parisishta; Karmapradipa; Gobhila-Sutra; Prayaschitta-Sutra; Prayyogas; Karikas; Yaskas Nirakta; Ashtradhyayi; Unadi-Sutra; NidanaSutra; Jyotisha-Vednga; Vayu Purana; Kaushitaki Upanishad; Satapata Brahmann; Aittareya Brahmann; Atareya Aranyaka; Arsheya Brahmana; Daivata Brahmna; Kaushitaki Brahmana; Samavidhana Brahmana; Samhitopnishad Brahmana; Shadvimsa Brahmana (26 books); Taittirya Brahmana; Vamsa Brahmana; Sankhayana Aranyaka; Aitareya Aranyaka; Asvalayana Grihya Sutra; Baudhayana Dhramshastra; Baudhayan Grihyasutra; Baudhayana Srautasutra; Baudhayana Upanishad; Brihadaranyaka Upanishad; Kapishthala Katha Samhita; Katyayana Srauta-Sutra; Khadira-Grihya-Sutra; Maitrayani Samhita; Paraskra Griha Sutra; Sankhayana Srauta Sutra; Garga Sanhita; Vajasayi Sanhita, Vasishtha Dharam Sutra; Caraka Samhita; Sutrasthana; Caraka-Samhita Vimanasthana; AstrngaSamgraha; Bhela-Samhita; Cakrapani; Kasyapa-Samhita; Nirnai Sindhu; Dharma Sindhu; Jaiminiya Brahmana; Panchavimsa Brahmana; Adbhuta Brahmana; Ashyaiyana Grhya Sutra,etc. PURANAS
(Books of prayers and other subjects such as education, astronomy, medicine etc. )

Brahmandeya with 12000 Slokas (verses); Brahma Vaivarta 18000 verses; Markandeya 9000 verses; Bhavishya 14500 verses; Bamana 10000 verses; Brahma 10000; Vishu 23000; Naradiya 25000; Bhagavat 18000; Garuda 19000; Padma 55000; Varaha 24000; Matsya 14000; Kurma 17000; Linga 11000; Vayu 24000, Skanda 81000; Agni 15400; Jain and Buddhist Puranas, Tantras, Secular and religious literary works by ordinary men and women of intellect.

Literary works of Kalidasa, the Shakespeare of India in the first century A.D. is unique. It has been proven by the scholiast that a considerable amount of ancient literature was lost to natural calamities and destroyed by Muslim bigots who attacked India during the last thousand years. Massive literature left by sages and scientists of ancient India is unparalleled amongst any nation in the world.

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BHAGAVAD-GITA
(A message of action on the philosophy of life.)

According to Indian Philosophy, by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the first President of India, The Bhagavad-Gita is later than the great movement represented by the early Upanishads and earlier than the period of the development of the philosophic systems and their formulation in Sutras (books). From its archaic construction and internal references, we may infer that it is definitely a work of the pre-Christian era.
This literature is as bulky in volume as it is varied in its contents. Although it does not help us very much in reconstructing the political history of ancient India, it throws a flood of light on it, and enables us to trace the various stages in the development of culture and civilization in ancient India, which is not possible in the case of ancient Egypt, Western Asia and even Greece and Rome. The icons discovered at Moenjodaro are those of gods and goddesses who are still worshipped in India, and Hindus from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin (also called Kanya Kumari) repeat even today the Vedic hymns which were uttered on the banks of the Indus nearly four thousand years ago. Unlike any country in the world, from this voluminous ancient literature bequeathed to us by our ancestors, we conclude that Mahabharta (great-war) was the unprecedented occasion. Besides numerous rowing tribes, Sakanda Purana gives a long list of about 75 kingdoms existing within the boundary of India.

The Sakanda Purana shows that before the Great War, there was a total population of approximately 300 million and folk tales

21

reveal that after the war, the human population was reduced to one person per 12 miles. Every able-bodied person, one way or another became entangled in that horrifying war; those who did not die in the war died of famines and diseases such as cholera. List of kingdoms: Andhla Vaguri Atisindhu Balaka Bhayanaka Chata Ekabahu Ekapada Gajanaka Hariyala Jalandhara Kamarupa Kantipura Kashmira Kuru Laghu Lingodbhava Machipura Magadha Malva Nepala Nilapura Pakshabahu Pambipura Pandu Panduvishya Pangu Sahnapura Sapadalakha Saurashtra Sindhu Sivadesha Strirajya

Bhadra Asvamukha Sayambhara Kosala Kamboja Sanjayu Suryamukha Gauda Drada Bambhanavahaka Dahala Lohapura Konkana Nivrit Konkana Oddiyana Pulastya Pingala Spadalaksha Kanyakubja Amala Karnata Sapadalaksha Rataraja Virata Jahahuti Lanka Mevada Sapadalaksha. Balhika Latadesha KachchhaKalahayanjaya Mulasthana

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Tomara Vardhamana Varedu Sapadalaksha Varendeka Vidrbha Yasana Romaka

Sapdalakha KirataAtilugala Devabhadra Yamakoti Sinhala

From the archaeological findings such as at Moenjodaro, Harappa and excavation work being carried out at present on many sites in Rajasthan, ancient literature, the names of the prince Bharat of Bharat-Varsha and later Manu Vaivasvata, well known in the Puranas to be the first full-fledged king of the Aryan race of the Ayodhya dynasty followed by revered personalities such as Raghu and Ram Chandra (Rama) of the Ramayana epic, the genealogies of kings take us to 1400 B.C. as the period of Mahabharat, the Great War of attrition. Now working backwards from the earlier date, the age of Manu Vaivasvata who flourished, according to the genealogies prepared on the basis of traditional accounts, 95 generations before the Bharata War, can be put as (95X18+1400) = 3110 B.C., by taking one generation to an average 18 years (as we have dealt with very long genealogies over 90 generations, we would be erring on the side of caution if we assumed 18 years as the average reign). This date, viz. 3110 B.C., curiously enough, approaches 3102 B.C., which has been taken as the beginning of the hypothetical Kali age for astronomical calculations. There is no doubt that the date 3102 B.C. signifies one important and epochmaking event in the traditional history of India. If it denotes the period of the beginning of the rule by Manu Vaivasvata, then it stands for the date of the Great Flood recorded in the Satapatha Brahmana and other accounts, at which Manu was the savior of humanity. The devastating Flood undoubtedly was the most important landmark in the history of the ancient world, and common flood legends suggest that the same event has been described to Indian, Hebrew and Babylonian accounts. The Flood in Mesopotamia is generally held to have occurred about

23

3100 B.C. The Flood in India probably also occurred at the same time, and the date 3102 B.C., supposed to be the beginning of the Kali era may, therefore, commemorate this event. The year 3102 B.C. thus represents the age of Manu, the first traditional king in India. Yayati, who is fifth in descent from Manu and figures also in the Rigveda, thus flourished (18X5=) 90 years after Manu or in (3100-90=) 3010 B.C. Mandhatri, coming after twenty generations, has to be placed in (310020X18=) 2740 B.C. The period of Arjuna Kartavirya, Visvamitra, Jamadagni, Prasurama, and Harishchandra can be put between (3100-31X18=)2542 B.C. and (3100-33X18=) 2506 B.C., or roughly between 2550 and 2500 B.C. Sagara of Ayodhya and Dushyanta and Bharata of Hastinnapura flourished between (3100-41X18=) 2362 B.C. and (3100-44X18=) 2308 B.C., or roughly between 2350 and 2300 B.C. Rama flourished 65 generations after Manu (i.e. in (3100-65X18=) 1930 B.C. or roughly in 1950 B.C.) and the famous Dasarajna war, which occurred about three or four generations after Rama, in c. 1900 B.C. These dates will, of course, have to be lowered by400 years if the Bharata War is placed in c. 1000 B.C. Since we have reached our desired objective of searching the year 3102 B.C. as the age of Manu Vaivasvat, the first traditional king of ancient from a reference point of 1400 B.C., described above as an unprecedented occasion, we, in order not to be bored, might as well stay away from going too deep into the unimaginably unique characteristics of thousands of our ancient revered women and men, princes and princesses, kings and queens, kingdoms and dynasties. Nevertheless, we have found in the preceding pages, and shall also discover further, that the lives of our worthy to be proud of or even disdainful ancestors were colourful. No doubt, aborigines (i.e. mainly Dravidians and Nagas), being descendants of Moenjodaro and Harappa civilizations, unprecedented in the world at the time of their splendor had had kingdoms and dynasties surpassing those of

24

Aryans, but ballads and/or Rishis (sages), being Aryan Brahmans composing and singing songs praising a certain king for material gains, did not care to mention the good qualities of the aborigine kings. Coming back to ancient history of Kambojas, after Mahabharta with the exception of larger kingdoms trying to absorb the smaller ones, nothing happened politically significant on a large scale. According to Buddhist literature in the seventh century B.C. traditional Tamil kingdoms were still in existence. The sixteen Aryan powers of northern India were: (1) Anga, (2) Magadha, (3) Kasi, (4) Kosala, (5) Vajji, (6) Malla, (7) Chedi, (8) Vatsa, (9) Kuru, (10) Panchala, (11) Matsya, (12) Surasena, (13) Asmaka, (14) Avanti, (15) Gandhara, (16) Kamboja. Since there was a continual tug of war between aboriginal Tamil kings and the above sixteen northern powers, the powerful

Archaemenian Emperors of Persia naturally cast their longing eyes towards this region. Cyrus (c. 558-530 B.C.) overcame some tribes living to the south of Hindu Kush. Gandhara and Kamboja at the tip of India resisted, till Darius (c. 521-486 B.C.) pushed further into India proper. At that Kamboja, being on the border was annexed to Persia. Two inscriptions of Darius dated between 518 and 515 B.C. mention Hi(n)du as a part of his domain. Kamboja royal families and their people rather than staying under Dariuss rule commenced a move in body towards the south with some settling on the way in and around Taxila. The Puranas tell us that only two years after Alexanders (c. 327 B.C.) raid on India prince Chandragupta (grandfather of Ashoka, the Great) assembled an army of local Kambojas who had settled in and around Taxila after annexation of their Kamboja Desa to Persia by Darius, decimated Alexandras Macedonian authority,

25

declared India free, attacked Afghanistan and conquered up to Kabul. The foundation of the Maurya Dynasty was poured. According to excerpts from the Panjab Census of 1881 in the Panjab Castes, 1916 by Denzil Ibbetson, Hindu Kambojas of Ghaggar, Sirsa, Jallandar etc. claimed that they were the descendants of Kamboja Rai Chajju of Ujjain (Ujjayini in ancient times), Madhya Paradesh. The Bangarh Pillar inscription and another preserved in the garden of Dinajpur Raj (now in Bangladesh) show us that Kambojas ruled Gaur Kingdom of West and North of Bengal in the tenth century A. D. Three kings of the family are known to usRajyapala and his two sons, Narajanapala and Nayapala. These names are also borne by Pala emperors, but it cannot be said that they were identical. We do not know the origin of the Kamboja family. The most plausible view is that some high official of the Palas dynasty belonging to the Kamboja family took advantage of the weakness of the Pala rulers and set up an independent kingdom. It is evident that from Ujjain in Madhya Paradesh some members of the Kamboja royal family went to Bengal in the east and the rest proceeded towards the south. According to Sherring: The Maharaja of Vizianagram is descended from the Ranas of Udaipur, one of the most ancient, and, in popular estimation, most illustrious families in India. He is consequently of the Grahilot tribe; and speaks of himself as belonging to the Sisodiya branch, and of the Vasisht gotra (sub-caste). According to the tradition of this famous house, Bijaibhup, one of its members, at a very early period, settled in Ajudhiya, the modern Oudh, whence, in the year 514 of the Saka era, corresponding to 592 A.D., his descendant, Madhavavarma, emigrated to the Telingana country, accompanied by representatives of the Vasisht, Dhanunjaya, Kaundinya, Kasyap, and Bharadwaj gotras (sub-caste) of his own tribes. Further, Sherring in Vol. I on p.135 of his Hindu Tribes and Castes gives genealogy of the

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family of The Maharaja of Vizaianagram up to 1866. According to vol. 1, page 128 of Hindu Tribes and Castes, 1872 by M. A. Sherring, since Rishi Upamanyu, Kaundinya and Vashisht belonged to the same Vashisht gotra as that of The Maharaja of Vizianagram who descended from the Ranas of Udaipur, we can authoritatively presume that the Royal Family of Vizianagram were Kambojas and their rule lasted up to the end of eighteenth century. In the next few pages we

will find a full list of kings of Cambodia (Cambodge or Kamboj). Kaundinya I (end of first century A.D.) was a founder of the Kamboja Kingdom, eighth king Kaundinya II (late fourth century A.D.) also came from India and their successor Jaya Varman II (790-850 A.D.) whose mother due to disruption caused by the Saliendra king of Java in Kamboja took refuge in Bali (ruled by another Kaundinya) along with his royal household. Saliendra King brought young Jaya Varman to Java. The above finding of Kaundinya by Sherring demonstrates a correlation with Cambodia or Kamboja, a name given to the country previously known as Chenla.
If it be true that immediately after his accession he stayed for a while in Java paying homage to the King of the Mountain (Saliendra King), his sojourn was profitably spent, for some of the ideas on government which he introduced later in his own country seem to have been borrowed from the Saliendra regime. Possibly the sagacious and humane statesman occupying its throne brought Jaya Varman to Java not only as a subordinate to perform an act of allegiance, but also as a pupil to serve an apprenticeship in the supreme art of kingship. The date of Jaya Varmans return to Chenla (name of the country before being named Kamboja) is uncertain, but it was probably about the year 790. Then a young man of around twenty, he was to reign for sixty years and to establish the Khmer Empire firmly in the capital and territories, constitution and religion, which it continued to enjoy for the next six centuries. During his life the word Kamboja began to be employed to describe the country

27

over which he ruled. (E/N #23). Besides sentimental reasons and nostalgia of once belonging to his great ancestors, Jaya Varman II not only changed the name of his country to Kamboja but named the newly built capital Kamboja also; the ruins (See photos) of that city are near a village called U dong, about 15 km. north of the present capital Phnom Penh. Since living quarters and government buildings were of wooden construction, there is no trace of them. Archaeologists have pinpointed the sites. Like any other country in the Far East temples, the ruins which we see today were buildings made of stone and baked bricks. **

Names of Cambodian kings start from next page..

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NAMES OF

CAMBODIAN (CAMBODGE/KAMBOJ) KINGS


FROM EARLY HISTORY TO PRESENT. Courtesy:
Dr. Sorn Samnang
Dean of the Faculty of History University of Phnom Penh CAMBODIA

NAME

REIGN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

The Funan epoch ( = The Mountain Kingdom) Kaundinya I


st nd

End of 1 cen. A.D.2. Phan-Phan Phan-Siman(Sri Mara) Phan-Tchan Siun (Assachey) Chandan Kaundinya II Late Sri Indra-Varman Jaya-Varman Rudra-Varman

Hoven-Phan-Houang 2 cen.
rd

Early 3 century.
th

4 Century
th

4 Century
th

4 Century. 480-514 514-550 550-802

The T Chenla epoch

1 Bhava-Varman 550-600 2 Mahendra-Varman 600-615 3 Isara-Varman 615-635 (The above Kings, originally from the Royal Family of Funan, founded the Chenla Empire. Led many expeditions against Funan. Lastly Isara Varman put an end to the Kingdom of Funan and annexed it into Chenla.)

15 Bhava-Varman II

639-6
(Name of Ruler/s unknown)

16. Jaya-Varman I 655-682 682-769

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III The Angkor epoch (about 630 years.)

17. Jaya-Varman II 790-850 (Most probably to enhance their nostalgic pride he renamed his country from Chenla Kamboja and built the capital of same name.) 18. Jaya-Varman III 850-877
19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. Indra-Varman 877-900 Yaso-Varman 889-900 Harsha-Varman 900-922 Isana-Varman 922-928 Jaya-Varman IV 928-942 Harsha-Varman 942-944 Rajendra-Varman 944-968 Jaya-Varman Udayaditya-Varman 1001-1002 Jaya-Varman 1002-1012 Surya-Varman 1012-1050 Udayaditya-Varman II 1050-1080 Harsha-Varman III Nripatindra-Varman 1080-1113 Jaya-Varman VI 1080-1107 Dharanindra-Varman I 1107-1112 Surya-Varman II 1113-1150 (The Angkor Vat Temple was built during his reign.) Dharnindra-Varman II 1150-1160 Yaso-Varman II 1160-1165 Tribhuvanaditya-Varman 1165-1177 Jaya-Varman VIII 1181-1201 (The Bayon Temple was built) Indra-Varman II 1201-1240 Jaya-Varman VIII 1243-1295 Indra-Varman III 1295-1308 Indra-Varman IV 1308-1327

44. Jaya-Varman IX 1327-1336 45. Ang Chey (Trasak Paem) 1336-1340 (The king stopped

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using the word Varman = protector) Political as well as Religious Revolution from Brahmanism to Buddhism took place in this period.
46. Nippean Bat 1340-1346

47. Sithea Reachea 1346-1347 48. Lumpong Reachea 1347-1353 (Siam (Thailand) occupied the Angkor Capital ---1353-1357)
49. Srei Soryovong 1357-1366 50. Barom Rama 1366-1373 51. Dhammasoka 1373-1394 (Siam occupied the Angkor Capital
again 1394-1401)

52. Soryovong II 1401-1417 52a. Barom Sokha 1417-1420 (Siam seized the Angkor Capital for the third time.) IV The Post Angkor epoch from 1431 onward. 53. Ponchea Yat 1432-1467 54. Noreary Reachea 1467-1472 55. Srey Reachea 1472-1477 56. Ponhea Thommo Reachea 1477-1494 57. Dam Khat Sokonthor 1494-1505 58. Neay Kan 1505-1515 59. Ang Chna I 1515-1555 60. Barom Reachea 1555-1567 61. Satha I 1567-1585 62. Chey Chettha I 1585-1593 63. Rama Chong Prey 1593-1596 64. Ponchea Ton 1596-1597 65. Ponchea An 1597-1600 66. Srey Soryovor 1600-1618 67. Chey Chettha II 1618-1628 68. Preach Reach Samphea 1628-1634 69. Ang Tong I 1634-1640 70. Ang Non I 1640-1642 71. Ramathipdey Chan. 1642-1658 72. Botum Reachea 1658-1672 73. Chey Chettha III 1672-1673

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74. Chey Chettha IV 75. Outey Chey Chettha IV 76. Ang Em. Chey Chettha IV 77. Thommo Reachea II Chey Chettha IV Thommo Reachea II 78. Ang Em. Satha II Ang Em. Satha II Thommo Reachea II 79. Ang Tong II 80. Chey Chettha V Ang Tong II 81. Outey II 82. Ang Non II 83. Ang Eng 84. Ang Chan II 85. Ang May 86. Ang Duong

87. Norodom 1674-1694 His first reign. 1695-96 (C.Chettha IVs nephew.)1696-1700 His second reign. 1700-01 (Chettha IVs son-in-law.)1701-1702 His third reign. 1702-1704 C. Chettha
nd

IVs son.1704-1706 His fourth reign.1706-1710 His 2 reign. 1710-1722 His second reign.1722-1729 1729- ? His third reign.1739-1736 His second reign.1736-1747 His third reign.
1747-1749 1749-1755 1756-1757 1757-1775 1775-1779 1779-1796 1806-1834 1834-1841 The Queen. 1845-1859 1859-1804 (French Colonization began since 1863.) 88. Sisowath 1904-1927 89. Sisowath Monovong 1927-1941 90. Norodom Sihanouk Varman----1941-1955 (The Country attained
Independence in 1954 after the Geneva Conference.)

91. Norodom Suramarit 1955-1960 Prince Sihanouks father

92. Sisowath Kossamak 1960-1970 (Prince Sihanouks mother). ----- Military coup on March 18, 1970. Pol Pots Genocidal Regime started on April 17, 1975 and he died in April 1998. The earliest Indian settlement in Funan, which became part of Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboj) at a later

32

stage, came about in the first Century A.D. The Indian kingdom of Funan is alluded to in the history of China (Southern Tai), which was compiled in the beginning of the fifth Century. The story goes: Of old this countrys head or sovereign was a woman of the name of Lieou-ye. Then, there was a man Ki Hoeun-Tien, who dreamt that God gave him a bow and bade him embark on a junk and go out on the sea. In the morning Hoeun-Tien went to the temple of the God and found a bow. Then embarked on a junk and sailed towards Funan. Lieou-ye saw the junk and led her troops to resist him. But Hoeun-Tien raised his bow and shot an arrow which passing through the side of the boat struck somebody within. Lieou-ye was frightened and submitted. HoeunTien married her. He wrapped her in a piece of cloth as she had no clothes. The sly Brahmin ended up having a wife and kingdom.
It is pointed out that Hoeun-Tien is a transcription of Kaundinya whose name is revered and often appears in inscriptions as the founder of the Hindu royal families of India.

From the above list we find the arrival of Kaundinya II who seems to have reorganized the state and society. He introduced Indian laws and rules in the kingdom of Funan. The Chinese writers have given the following information about the state of Funan under the Kaundinyas: For merchandise they have gold, silver, and silk. Persons of high degree dress in brocade, the women wearing also a kind of turban. Poor people wear pieces of cloth. They cut down trees to make dwellings and the king lives in a storied pavilion. They build palisades of wood

33

and people live in houses raised from the ground. They make boats. When the king goes out he rides on an elephant and the women also ride elephants. For amusement they make cocks and pigs fight. Games of cock fights are still prevalent in Cambodia.
Further, we see Bhava-Varman, Mahendra-Vraman and Isra-Varman, originally from the royal family of Funan founding the Chenla Empire and their successor Jaya-Varman II changing its name from Chenla to Kamboja. Under Rajendra-Varman andJaya-Varman V, the kingdom of Champa (now Laos andVietnam) was invaded. Suriya-Varman I is stated to have overrun the whole of Siam (now Thailand) and invaded Lower Burma. One of the provinces of Thailand is called Buri Ram (Buri=place:-Ramas place); the Hindu temple Phanom Rung, built in the eleventh Century by Surya-Varman II, a Kamboja king, near the Buri Ram Capital city holds a fair every year from April 3-7. This king is described as one of the greatest kings of Kamboja. He set up a strong centre of Brahmanical culture; invited Hiranyadama, a highly educated Brahman from India who brought a thousand bachelor Brahmans with him. They all intermarried with local Khmer people and spread Hinduism. He was responsible for the construction of the famous Angkor Vat, which has been considered as one of the wonders of the world. Jaya-Varman VII ruled from 1180 onward. He conquered Champa and a large part of Lower Burma. He founded the new capital of Angkor Thom and built the Bayon temple nearby. After that, Kamboja began to decline. Yaso-Varman I occupies a unique place in the history of Kamboja. Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions of his reign testify to the fact that Sanskrit literature was patronized in his court. Sivasoma, an ancestor of the mother of the king was a learned Brahman from India. There were hermitages where saints lived and devoted all their time to study. Besides having been known to bring Kamboja to its zenith, the king has been compared with Panini (E/N #24) and he is stated to have written a commentary on the Mahabhashya of Patanjali (E/N #25).

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By the time of Surya-Varman II, the builder of Angkor Vat, Indian culture had spread far and wide in the Kamboja Empire and many of its towns had Indian names such as: Tamrapura, Vikrampura, Dhruvapura, Adhyapura, Ajudhya, Ratnakiri, Buri Ram etc., and India was called Aryadesa (Aryans country).

There were recitations from Ramayana and Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita and other Vedic scriptures. Several contemporary Arab writers describe the kingdom as vast and powerful and pay eloquent tribute to the people of Kamboja for their abstinence from wine. Ibn Rosteh (A.D. 903) highly praised the judicial administration in Kamboja. He said: There are eighty judges. Even if a son of the king appears before them they would judge equitably and treat him as an ordinary complainant.
Jaya-Varman VII founded a new capital city, the famous Angkor Thom. It is surrounded by a ditch 8.5 miles long and 110 yards wide, having a stone wall with five gates which gave access to the Temple of Beyon, masterpiece of Kamboja architecture of Indian origin. To the north of Bayon is a great public square, surrounded by famous structures such as the Baphuon, Phimeanakas, the Terrace of Honor, etc., each of which form a splendid monument by itself. The extraordinarily liberal royal donations made to Rajavihara (Kings temple), i.e. the temple of Ta Prohm and the institutions connected with it makes interesting reading and reveals the vast resources of the state. The temple employed 66,625 persons and was maintained by the revenues of 3,400 villages. There were 439 teachers and 970 scholars who were provided with the daily necessities of life. There were altogether 798 temples and 102 hospitals in the whole kingdom. In maintaining temples, travel lodges and hospitals the Kamboja

35

kings were probably following the footsteps of Ashoka the Great of India (c. 304-232 B. C.). The death of Jaya-Varman VII was followed by a period of doom and gloom created by infighting of Royal families and the subsequent growing weakness of the kingdom. Jaya-Varman IX (also called Jayavarman Paramesvara) who ruled from 13271336 A.D., was the last king referred to in the Kamboja inscriptions. The growing power of Siam (Thailand) steadily encroached upon its territory and sank it into a poor and petty state, resulting in becoming a French protectorate in 1863. Cambodia (Kamboja) attained its independence in 1954 and lingered on with internal strife under five kings and a queen until March 18, 1970 when a military coup took place. As if a military regime was not bad enough for the impoverished nation, the genocidal regime of Pol Pot came into being on April 17, 1975. That wicked regime of Pol Pot termed as Khmer Rouge sold natural resources such as diamond mines, forests and landed properties to businesses from Thailand, Vietnam and Laos next door, in order to buy arms and ammunition; it killed and tortured to death over two million people. Those victims included mostly children, teachers, writers, business people, lawyers, doctors, civil servants, politicians etc. They rid themselves of their own intelligentsia and then encouraged Chinese, Vietnamese and Laotians to settle in their country; now people from these three countries control the economy and politics of Cambodia. On my second visit to Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboja) Pol Pot was dead, Khmer Rouge guerrillas were trying to join the mainstream, but that perilously weak-minded king Norodom Sihanouk Varman (Varman=Protector of subjects), whose ancestors one time were called mighty Kambojas of the North of India, was observed reigning by fax machine from his palace in Beijing, most probably on advice from the communist camp.

*****

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Chapter - 4 ANGKOR VAT


IN CAMBODIA (CAMBODGE OR KAMBOJ)
(ONE OF THE WONDERS OF THE WORLD)

The temple of Angkor Vat (near Siem Reap about an hours flight from Phnom Penh), contrary to most other shrines or monuments which face east, spreads from west to east; that reversal from an age-old tradition or a distinctive feature can be attributed to the fact that it was a funeral temple. It is dedicated to the god Vishnu, with whom the soul of King Surya-Varman II, a self-acclaimed demy-god himself was to be merged. King Surya-Varman II was an ardent follower of Buddhism, but did not give up the official religion and constructed both Shiva and Vishnu temples. Even as today Buddhists are far from being fanatics, they pay respects to Hindu gods just the same as they do to the image of Buddha. The outside wall of the temple extends between the river and the present road and is surrounded by ditches 190 meters wide to serve as a canal, forming a vast rectangle of 1,300 X 1,500 meters; their sandstone borders, with steps and curb are more than 10 Kilometer long and 3 meters high. The border framework is broken in the west and east only; the broken border in the west is for entrance to the temple and is inlaid with thick stones well ground and polished on the top, while the east one is a dirt road, which seems to have been left as it was during digging for transporting the materials for the temple. The west road leading to the temple begins with a beautiful terrace decorated with lions, which unlike other monuments face inwards for some strange reason or ritual. A fine Naga decorates the road and terrace along the whole length. It has a serpentdesigned handrail with supporting posts. The road is 347 meters long and 9.40 meters wide. The road passes between two fine libraries and two square ponds. Further westwards there is a large royal terrace surrounded by columns, which made two

37

storied buildings; the central one being reserved for the king and his high-ranking public officials. From there they watched the processions in front of the monument. As we reach the temple the surrounding consists of fine reddish-brown decorative columns and encloses a space of 1.025 X 800 meters. The west entrances extend along a frontage of 255 meters with three passages. The above royal terrace gives direct access onto the gallery enclosure, which is the basis of the principal group i.e. the famous bas-relief gallery, which measures 215 X 187 meters. While making the round of the right gallery, the first section represents Mahabharat the Great-War of Kauravas and the Pandavas. From each side of the panel, the two armies advance in well calculatedly arranged ranks, with chiefs on chariots or elephants stationed at strategic positions. In the center, both sides meet in frantic struggle. As we move our eyes above we see a great figure pierced with arrows, filled with dying pain and surrounded by his bitter and avenging men, he happens to be Bhisham, the general commanding the Kauravas. Along with many other scenes from different Indian epics, we see a well documented story of two monkey-king brothers, Sugriv and Bali in which they are shown fighting and Bali is killed. Further, to the west section of the southern gallery we see the king Surya-Varman II, the builder of the famous Angkor Vat, under the name of Paramavichnouloka (Eternal), which is there inscribed and which he takes at his death, when his soul merges with the god Vishnu. He is giving marching orders to his army which is later to be seen under his command advancing towards the enemy with him mounted on an elephant, wearing the royal crown and is armed with an axe of a type which the Cambodians (Cambodge) still use. Fire carrying Brahmans are seen mixed among the procession. On the right side of the gallery there are several scenes from legends of Vishnu, Krishna and Rama. On the west bay is the ordeal of Sita, wife of Rama. Sita being torn by mental agony is shown passing through the flames and thus showing that Ravana, her abductor had been unable to win her, while in

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another scene in the south bay she is a captive of Ravana and is visited by the monkey god Hanuman who comes to tell her about the attempts being made to free her. On the last panel of the north section of the west gallery, the sculptor ends the story by showing the struggle of the monkeys, allies of Rama against the vicious looking soldiers of Ravana. The monkeys fight naked against the armed giants and tear them to pieces. In the center is Rama on the shoulders of the god Hanuman, monkey. Further on, stands the ten-headed Ravana, on a chariot drawn by vicious looking Jamma, demons, taking him to Narak, hell. On my last visit in April of 1993, Indian archaeologists were seen busy in the restoration of Angkor Vat with the help of the Cambodian work force. In 1987, they had embarked on a sixyear program to clean and restore the principal monument but were nowhere near their final goal. There are ruins of other temples such as Phnom Bakheng built by King Yaso-Varman I. It is a mass of rough sandstone 65 meter high with a platform of about 200 X 100 meters. Jaya-Varman VIIs greatest undertaking was the recreation of his main capital, now famous as Angkor Thom. Its central temple is the Bayon, the most celebrated Kamboj monument after Angkor Vat. According to Malcolm MacDonald in his Angker and the Khmer, Angkor Vat is the supreme masterpiece of Khmer art. Built in the first half of the twelfth century, it is an Asian contemporary of Notre Dame de Paris and Chartres Cathedral in France, and of Ely and Lincoln Cathedrals in England. But in spaciousness and splendor it is more ambitious than any of these. About the Angkor Vat, Rawlinson observes: Had the Khmers left but this single monument, it would have placed them among the great artists of the world, so perfect is its architecture and so rare its art.

*****

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Dr. Sorn Samnang, Dean of the Faculty of History, University of Phnom Penh, Etat Du Cambodge was kind enough to devote two weeks of his valuable time in going through the National Library to help me in obtaining ancient records of Kamboja Kings. This is the first comprehensive list of the Kamboja kings ever published. The records in the Etat Du Cambodge are kept in French and/or Cambodian languages. The Cambodian language derives from Sanskrit and Pali. The French ruled Cambodge from 1863 to 1953.

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Author sitting under the Naga Head.


The Naga Bridge of Phanom Rung Temple is s cross-shaped platform that joins a passageway lined on both sides with 65 sandstone posts to the second set of stairways. The rails are carved in the shape of a Naga (Hindu mythical God), serpent with five heads ornated with crowns. Motifs of the Nagas crowns are identical with those seen at Angkor Vat.

The sun was shining on the Linga, Phallus deities of Phanom Rung on April 3, 1994 and no flash was required to take the photo. The Temple was dedicated to the God Shiva.

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PHANOM RUNG TEMPLE This impressive temple was built in Kamboja king Surya-Varman IIs period (1113-1150 A. D.) when Siam (now Thailand) was under Kamboja suzerainty. It is located on a hilltop with splendid views near the capital city of Buri Ram in the District of Buri Ram. Buri means place and Ram stands for Rama, the Hindu God, Rams Place. The architectural position of the temple is such that the sunrays adore the deities inside the temple only from April 3-7. The Fine Arts Department of Thailand, which restored the Temple, holds Phanom Rung Fair annually during these five days.

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CAMBODGE NOTE

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STUPA
In the memory of millions tortured and killed by Khmer Rouge (Communist Regime) of Pol Pot. As a reminder of cruelty to humans by humans the Stupa houses hundred of skulls and accessories used to torture and kill.

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Ruins of ancient Kamboja capital city near village U Dong founded by Jaya Varman II.

Ruins of ancient Kamboja capital city at a later period with Buddhist influence.

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ANGKOR VAT TEMPLE (built by Surya Varman II 1113-1150)

ANGKOR VAT MAIN ENTRANCE

46 GENERAL VIEW ANGKOR VAT.

ANGKOR VAT GALLERIES With Engravings of Ramayana and Mahabharta.

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One of the two libraries under restoration. These libraries show Kambojas interest in the literary field.

Restoration of Angkor Vat by Indian archaeologists with the help of Cambodian labour. Labourers are seen going home after a days hard work.

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Arial view of Angkor Vat Manmade lake seen on left of the main entrance.

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Engravings in the Galleries of Angkor Vat Temple. Camboddge (Cmabodia) king at war. Lower portion of the engreaving shows his faith in Hinduism and Buddhism.

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Chapter - 5 KAMBOJA KINGDOMS IN THE FAR EAST


G. T. Garrat in his The Legacy of India,1937 says: . great prominence is given, where possible, to the influence of India on Europe, but still more might have been made of Indias influence on Asia, notably the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet, China, and Japan. The spread of Buddhism across Asia may well be considered Indias greatest contribution to the civilization of mankind.
In the Indian colonization of Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago, the social, religious, and artistic ideals of India maintained themselves for many centuries and evolved fresh developments of art in which to express themselves, ancient Indian culture was prominent here for ten centuries until the advent of Islam in the fifteenth century. Definite evidence exists of Kamboja influence and their kingdoms in Bali, Borneo, Lower Burma (Myanmar), and Cambodia (Cambodge/Kamboj), which of course, was the hub of Kambojas and we have discussed it above in detail. Bali still retains Hindu culture and civilization, for it was not submerged beneath the flood of Islam. The dynastic pride, religious fervour and the natural instinct of the colonists to import familiar place-names of their country or city in their land of adoption have all resulted in the introduction of quite a large number of well-known Indian geographical names into Burma. In his Hindu Colonies in the Far East, 1944 Dr. R. C. Majumdar gives some of the fairly early names such as: Aparanta, Avanti, Varanasi, Champa Nagar, Gandhara, Kamboja, Kelasa (Kailash), Mithila etc.

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BALI
The Indian Kambojas had colonized the island of Bali and set up a kingdom there long before the sixth century A.D. In 518 A.D. the king Kaundinya of Bali sent an envoy to China. The name Kaundinya is interesting and shows the influence of that family in almost all of the colonies in the Far East. When a sudden and violent disturbance occurred in the Royal family of Chenla after 769 A.D. because of Shailendra Empires meddling in their affairs, the royal family took refuge in Bali for 10 years and as soon as the political atmosphere became tolerable, Prince Jaya-Varman II, a young man of only 20 morally buoyed by powerful Kaundinyas of Bali thundered back into his country, renamed it from Chenla to Kamboja, established a capital of same name and declared his country independent. The history of the Liang dynasty (502-556 A.D.) contains the earliest account of Bali. It gives the following interesting account of the king of the country: The kings family name is Kaundinya and he never before had any intercourse with China, when asked about his ancestors or about their age, he could not state this, but said that the wife of Shuddhodana was a daughter of his country. The king uses a texture of flowered silk wrapped round his body; on his head he wears a golden bonnet of more than a span high, resembling in shape of a Chinese helmet, and adorned with various precious stones. He carries a sword inlaid with gold, and sits on a golden throne, with his feet on a silver footstool. His female attendants are adorned with golden flowers and all kinds of jewels, some of them holding chowries of white feathers or fans of peacock feathers. When the king goes out, an elephant draws his carriage, which is made of different kinds of fragrant wood. On the top of it is a flat canopy of feathers, and it has embroidered curtains on both sides. People blowing conches and beating drums precede and follow him. The above Chinese account leaves no doubt that Bali was a rich and civilized kingdom. It has over 20,000 temples, out of which the main one is Pura Besakih (see photo), at the root of the mountain Gunung Agung. At important ceremonies,

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Buddhist and Hindu priests jointly conduct the rites and bless the devotees. I was elated to observe that the priests uttered Sanskrit hymns in front of the deities to bless us all, most of whom were Japanese Buddhists. Balinese literature and language, religion, worship and cremation services clearly reflect Indian influence at least from 500 A.D. to date; no wonder Islam failed to penetrate into this island. I-tsing also mentions that Buddhism was dominant in the island of Bali.

Bali Morning at Besakih Temple *****

BORNEO
According to seven Sanskrit inscriptions engraved in about 400 A.D. and found at Muara Kaman on the Mahakam river, king Mula-Varman, son of Asha-Varman and grandson of king Kaundinya, performed a sacrifice called Bahusuvarnaka (distributed a large quantity of gold as charity) and made gifts of 20,000 cows to the Brahmans in the holy field of Vaprakeshvara.

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King Kaundinya may have founded his kingdom at the end of second century A.D. and may have been a relative of Kaundinyas of Kamboja and Bali. In addition to the above inscription, a bronze image of Buddha in Gupta period style has been found at Kota Bangun in the district of Koti. Remains of ancient Indian culture have been found in other localities in east Borneo. The cave of Kombeng in the north of Muara Kaman was found to have Buddhist and Brahmanical images. The latter included those of Hindu gods Shiva, Ganesha, Brahma etc. SRI LANKA
Being Indias closest neighbor to the south was probably the first country to feel the impact of Indian immigration. Indian immigration to Sri Lanka started as early as 1900 B.C. when aboriginal king Ravana, the ruler of Lanka abducted Sita, the wife of king Rama. Rama in turn played a devious divide and rule policy amongst the aboriginal kings of south India to butt them against the king of their own race, put a wedge between members of Ravanas royal family and fought a grave battle in which Ravana is said to have been killed and Lanka completely destroyed. While in Sri Lanka, I was given to understand that the sites of Ravanas palaces have been located and marked but not yet excavated due to lack of resources. Majority of Sri Lankans regard Ravana with just as great devotion as Hindus of India revere Rama as their god incarnate. What strikes most about Sri Lanka is its amazing diversity of scenery; it is a landscape of brilliant green paddy fields, coconut and banana trees, sun-bronzed beaches, ruined cities, small lively villages, near desert regions, sanctuaries for wildlife in tropical jungles, and hill country tea plantations; when traveling it seems as if one is traveling through a well laid out garden. The history of Sri Lanka stretches back over 2500 years. Its very beginnings are lost in myth and legend along with details

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about the arrival of Prince Vijaya an exile from North India with his entourage of seven hundred followers. However, according to Mr. Suranga my guide, a Lecturer with National Trust of Polonnaruva, Sri Lankas earliest recorded civilization dates back to 380 BC, when Anuradhapura (about 250 Km from Colombo) was established as the first Capital City. Following the advent of Buddhism in the 3rd Century BC, a civilization rich in Indo-Aryan culture took root. Due to consistent invasions from neighbouring South India, the base of power shifted to Polonnaruva. In 11th Century since king Parakarma was infertile and according to traditions of the royal house a king could only marry within the royal family circle, he married a Kamboja princess from his royal root in North India. (According to Hindu Tribes and castes, 1872, Volume I by M. A. Sherring, Kaundinya a member of the Kamboja Royal Family and his retinue moved to South India in Telingana country in the year 514 of the Saka era, corresponding to 592 A. D. In all probability the princess belonged to that Royal Family). As per ancient Hindu traditions her brother Bahu Wiraraja Nissanka came along with her as an escort. On the death of king Parakarma, Nissanka became the 7th king in the Polonnaruva era. All major religious schools of thoughts such as Vishnu, Shiva and Buddhist flourished in his reign. There were also places of serpent worship which lingered on from the days of Kamboja country; which was also known for serpent worship. At a later stage as Buddhism became stronger people rejected serpent worship. King Nissanka established a mile long bazaar for international trade within the boundaries of four gates and invited traders from the world over to do business with Lanka. Places of worship were mixed with international as well as local traders booths. Royals Vishnu temple was located immediately next to the East Vishnu Dewale (gate). Traders from all over the world flocked to buy and sell their merchandise.

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Mr. Suranga my guide, a Lecturer with National Trust of Polonnaruva, Sri Lanka with me in front of East Vishnu Dewale (gate).

English translation of the Inscription No. 9, a Stone Pillar discovered near the east of the Vishnu Dewale (gate) reads thus: His Illustrious Majesty Kalianga Lankeswara Parakrama Bahu Wiraraja Nissanka Malia Aprattimalla Chakarawarti was pleased to confer a boon on many beggars. He erected an almshouse and gave it the name of Nissankas almshouse throughout the three kingdoms, and was pleased to bestow ripe and unripe fruit of charity on such beggars as received alms from it. The boundary on the South, was the Kamboja gate; on the North the stone wana together with the whole of the moat; on the east the boundary wall (of the city); on the west the whole of Nissankas ocean (i.e. Topawewa). He made a royal-garden within these four boundaries, and called it the royal garden of the almshouse; with the exception of the trees etc., which are within the rampart of the Nissanka Dana Winoda Mandapaaya the rest of the land he made to belong to the almshouse. With the exception of such beggars as receive alms from the almshouse, (namely) ripe and unripe fruit of charity, no

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one else is to take (such produce), whether for his own consumption or for any pecuniary motive; and to ensure this, he erected this stone inscription. Any stranger of any sort, not mentioned in the proclamation, who shall take for himself or give to others even the smallest twig from it, shall be likened to dogs and crows, and shall be classed with beggars who go about with earthen bowls in their hands (i.e. unattached beggars of the lowest grade). (Perhaps to emphasize the punishment of throwing the guilty ones to crows and dogs for stealing from the almshouse there is drawing of a crow and under it is drawing of a dog.) (Translation courtesy: Journal No. 34-1887 - R. A. S., Ceylon). (Note by the author: This Inscription is in excellent preservation, as it was almost completely buried in earth. It is to the east of the so-called Vishnu Dewale.) NOTE ASSOCIATED WITH ABOVE INSCRIPTION AND ANCIENT KAMBOJA COUNTRY. by
Dr. S. M. Burros, p. 65 of Journal No. 34-1887, R. A. S., Ceylon.

This is perhaps the most interesting allusion in all the new inscriptions. I append the passage from Fergusons History of Architecture, which appears to me to lend it especial importance: In the country not far from Takkhasinla (Taxila) there reigned a great and wise king. His son, the vice-king having done wrong, was banished, and after many adventures settled in Cambodia etc. The time is not indicated, but we gather from the context that it must have been about the fourth century. It may at first sight look like catching at a nominal similarity, but the troubles which took place in Cashmere (Kashmir) in the reign of Tungina, and generally in Western India about the year 319, look so like what is recorded further east, that at present that seems the most probable date of the migration, assuming it to have taken place. Many would be inclined to doubt the possibility of

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any communication between the two countries; but it must be borne in mind that the country around Taxila in ancient times was called Camboja (Kamboja); that it was the headquarters of serpent worship; that the architecture of Cashmere (Kashmir) bears every considerable resemblance to that of Cambodia; while there is a general consent that the Cambodians came from India. If this were so, it seems certain that it was not from the east coast that they migrated. As pointed out above, it seems certain the Indians who introduced Buddhism and Buddhist architecture into Java certainly went from Guzerat (Gujarat) or the countries on the west coast. This seems undoubted, and there is no greater improbability of a migration from Indus to Cambodia than of one from Guzerat (Gujarat) to Java. Ceylon was always addicted to snake worship, and may have formed a halfway house. On the other hand, it is by no means improbable that the communication may have taken place behind the Himalayas..All this will require careful elaboration hereafter. Now, there are four facts, which appear to me to throw light on this problem and to make it more than probable that Ceylon was the halfway house which Ferguson suspects it may, have been. (1). The fact is elicited from the inscription that one of the city gate of Polonnaruva was called the Kamboja Gate, possibly, surely, from its being situated on the side from which the exiles entered, or by which the emigrants left? (2) A curious fact is mentioned in Nissanka Mallas inscription at the Ruwanweli Dagaba, Anuradhapura, and viz. that when the king visited the famous shrine; he not only gave security (abhayadi) to all animals within seven GAW (over seven miles) of it, and to the fish in the twelve large tanks, but he also gave security to the birds in the manner: he presented Kambodyans (Kambojas) with gold, clothes, and other acceptable gifts, and ordered them not to kill birds! *******

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MYANMAR (Burma)
Myanmar, being the nearest country to India, and directly accessible both by land and sea naturally attracted Indian traders, merchants, missionaries and restless military spirits from a very early period. According to traditions current among the Burmese of the old, Indian colonists from the lower courses of the river and Godavari had at a remote time crossed the sea and
(continued below picture)

Dr. Myint Thein Deputy Director (Research) Universities Historical Research Centre, Amara Hall, Yangon University Campus, Yangon (Rangoon), Myanmar.
(continued from top of picture)

formed settlements in the delta of the Irawadi and on the adjoining coast. In ancient Myanmar, there were three famous kingdoms: Myanmar kingdom, Mon kingdom and Rakhaing kingdom. They were rivaled to each other for the superior power amongst them. According to 1631 A. D. Sittan (census), Myanmar kings divided their administrative areas into 8 divisions. Out of them, Moone and Nyaungshwe areas (Shan States) were called as Kamboja Tai (Division). (Ref: Zebudiva Okksaung Kyan, 1960, Sarpaybeikman, p-48).

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The stone inscription of 1777 describes that there were 16 divisions in Myanmar and Kamboja was one of these divisions. The unification of Lower Myanmar by the Myanmar king was the reason of the increasing division from 8 to 16. (Ref: - Forchhammer, Inscription of Pagan, Pinya and Ava, 1892,
Govt. Press, p-374).

The areas that the Shans lived were called as Kamboja by the Myanmar in the early times. At present Shan state is the biggest state of the 14 States and Divisions in Myanmar. It is situated in the northeastern Myanmar and adjoins China and Thailand. King Bayinnaung of Taungoo period (16th to 17th century) unified and controlled the whole area of Shan. King Bayinnaung built the new palace of Kamboja Thadi, after occupying the Mon capital in lower Myanmar. (Ref. Tun Nyo, U,
Mahayazawin Thit (New Chronicle), Vol. II, 1998, Khaing Yi Mon Press, Yangon, p-86.)

In Myanmar official writing the Shan States to the East of the Ayewaddy River are collectively called Kamboja. In the connection it may be interesting to note that the appellation, Shan, applied by the Myanmars to the whole Tai race, is a corrupted form of Cham, Kamboja Vide S. V Champa Shan and Shan in Yules Hobsen-Jobon. (Taw Sein Ko, some remarks on the
Kalyani Inscriptions, 1894, Education Societys Steam Press Yangon, p-16).

Toungoo Dynasty.
King Minkyinyo probably a prince from Kamboja Pala Dynasty from nearby Bengal (now Bangladesh and East Bengal of India) ventured into Myanmar and founded Toungoo Dynasty in 1486. His son King Tabinshwehti unified Myanmar and ruled from 1531-50. In 1535 Tabinshwehti began a military campaign against the kingdom of Pagu in southern Myanmar and captured the city of Bassein. After carrying out many successful as well as failed campaigns in Arakan and Siam (Thailand) he gave himself to drinking, leaving to his brother-in-law Bayinnaung, the task of suppressing a southern revolt. King Bayinnaung reigned 1551-81 in Myanmar, unified his country and conquered the Shan States and Siam (Thailand) making Myanmar the most powerful kingdom in mainland

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Southern Asia. Bayinnaung was a patron of Buddhism; he built pagodas, gave generous donations to monasteries, and maintained extensive diplomatic relations with the Buddhist kingdom of Ceylon. When Pegu was burnt in a Mon revolt in 1564, he rebuilt it on an even grander scale, making one of the richest cities in Southern Asia.

King Bayinnaungs Palace. The king used his palace for living as well as to attend to emergencies. He had hung a bell in front of the palace so that any subject with a grievance could ring it and ask for justice. Author standing in front of the palace.

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Throne in the above palace is in front while King Bayinnaungs bed is in the back of it. According to the legend not one emergency call went unanswered and heard judiciously. In front of the throne there is an ample place to accommodate about 50 persons.

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General view of Kings court.


King Bayinnaungs throne is located in the central building adjoining two large halls on its sides to accommodate at least 2000 persons each. Geometrical location and elevation of the complex is such that even a puff of breeze passing through the building gives an air conditioning effect.

Close-up view of king Bayinnaungs court showing

KAMBAWAZA THARDI GOLDEN PALACE. Kambawaza stands for Kamboja and Thardi means gate. Author sitting under shadow of the board.

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Chapter - 6
KAMBOJAS AFFILIATION WITH BUDH GAYA & SARNATH.

As we observe from pages 54 onwards Kamboja king Parakarma of Sri Lanka and his subsequent successors, Kamboja kings of Pala dynasty of Bengal, kings ruling Moone Nyaungshwe areas (Shan States) of Myanmar (Burma) also known as Kamboja Tai (Division) were ruling these areas from 952 onward. According to The Mahabodhi Temple by Suresh Bhatia and In the Footsteps of the Buddha by Shanti Swaroop Buddh, The beginning of the thirteenth century saw much of India in chaos due to the invasion by the Turkish Empire. These marauding Muslim soldiers destroyed temples and defaced statues. There is no record of exactly how and when Budh Gaya was destroyed, but there are records of those who were compelled to flee the onslaught of the Turks who put to death innumerable monks and destroyed images, which they considered sacrilegious, as it did not conform to the edicts of Islam. During the rule of Turks, the Mahabodhi Temple fell to ruins. According to my guide after destroying the temple and images Turks overcome by religious zeal and Islamic fanaticism covered the remains with dirt to the extent that no trace of temples presence was left and evidence of pilgrims becoming less and less. The temple itself became just one of the many ruins, neglected and forgotten. As the names of many cities and towns had been changed from Indian to Islamic names after the Islamic invasion, trying to locate Budh Gaya would have been quite a task for the pilgrims coming from distant places. Suresh Bhatia in his The Mahabodhi Temple says that there is information available of the repairs done from 9th century onwards. This was due to the zeal of a number of devoted Kamboja kings of Burmese, Sri Lanka and Indian kings of Pala

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dynasty of Bengal (see e/n 26a) who sent teams of monks and workers to restore this holy site and what ever else were there in the vicinity of its prescient. From records available, we learn that two Burmese missions came to the Mahabodhi Temple in the 11th century A.D., the first inscription was engraved on a copper-gilt umbrella which was found buried 8 feet under the ground level (as mentioned above Muslim fanatics had demolished the temple, broken the statutes and buried them with dirt) to the west of the temple. The inscriptions on the umbrella were mentioned in two languages Burmese and below it the medieval Nagari characters. Although Burmese portion was damaged and unreadable, the Indian inscription was nearly perfect and held the following message Sam (year) 397, Sri Dhamma Raja Guru, calculating it with the Christian era calendar, this could very well be 1035 C.E., when Dhamma Raja Guru undertook restoration of the Mahabodhi Temple at Budh Gaya. The other Burmese inscription was on a black stone slab and was discovered on the wall of the Mahantas Palace. It describes a brief history of the Mahabodhi Temple. Herewith is a word for-word translation of it done by Ratanapala, of Pali Scholar from Sri Lanka; This is one of the 84,000 shrines erected by Sri Dharma Ashoka, Ruler of the World, (Jambudvipa), at the end of the 218th year of the Buddhas Mahaparinibana (B.C. 326) upon the Holy spot on which Bhagwan (Buddha) tasted milk and honey. In the lapse of time, having fallen into disrepair, a Monk named Naik Mahanta rebuilt it. Again, having been ruined by Muslims, it was restored by the Raja Sado Meng. After a long interval, it was once again demolished by Muslims when Raja Sempyusakhen-tra-Mengi appointed his Sri Dharma Raja Guru, to supervise the restoration. He proceeded to the spot with his disciple, Sri Kassapa, but was unable to complete it although aided in every way by the Raja. Other records show that repairs were also done under the patronage of Kyanzittha, king of Pagan of Burma between 1084

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and 1112 CE. This king made a serious attempt to repair the Mahabodhi Temple at Budh Gaya. He gathered together gems of diverse kinds and sent them in a ship to build the holy temple. But the Burmese inscription found at Budh Gaya revealed that the mission was unsuccessful. It was only during the reign of King Alaungsithu (between CE 1112 and 1167), his immediate successor that the ruler of Arakan King Letyamengnam (of Burma), who gained back his ancestral throne with assistance of Alaungsithu undertook, in fulfillment of the desire of his benefactor to repair the sacred shrine of Budh Gaya. The beginning of the thirteenth century saw much of India in turmoil due to the invasion by the Muslims. This was a period where both Buddhists and Hindus alike were massacred for not conforming to the edicts of the Islamic Rulers and their blood thirsty soldiers. Temples were destroyed and images were defaced Presences of vast jungles if date-palm trees in the area suggest there was a huge concentration of Muslim invaders time to time and they made a point of discouraging and breaking backbone of Buddhism by demolishing their temples time and again. Dates were main diet in desert lands of Middle East where the invaders came from and dates were carried by them as dryration used in long journeys. Most of the Muslim lands of Middle East were barren and did not grow enough food. Hungry Muslims encouraged by Mohammads 78 historic battles always looked forward to invade foreign lands; India weakened by caste system, quarrelling petty maharajas and chiefs became their prime target. Eventually this Great Temple was repaired by a British archeological team and completed in 1880 thus restoring it at the dawn of an era when the flame of Buddhas teachings would once again rekindle and its light would spread even further than ever before. Muslim fanaticism failed to obliterate Buddhism from India.

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BUDH GAYA TEMPLE.

Partial repairs and a face-lift were once again given to the Temple in 1956 to mark the 2500th anniversary of the birth of the Buddha. Again in 1997 efforts were made to partially repair and chemically wash the walls of the Temple. Up to and including small minarets the temple was built by Ashoka the Great and two stories on top of the main temple were added at a later stage by different Indian, Burmese, Sri Lankan and Pala dynasty Buddhist king. As mentioned above, the beginning of the thirteenth century saw much of India in chaos due to the invasion by the Turkish Empire. Original Temple was destroyed and covered by dirt to hide the existence of the temple by fanatic Muslims of Turkish Empire.

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INNER CHAMBER OF ABOVE TEMPLE.

MAIN TEMPLE
The magnificent Buddha Image, most venerated by pilgrims from all over the world is at end of the barrel-vaulted room. This image has been placed exactly on the spot where the Buddha attained Enlightenment, the place famously referred to as the Victory Throne of all Buddhas(Sabbabuddhanam Jayapallankam), or the Navel of the Earth. The scriptures mention: It was here that Vision arose, Knowledge arose, Wisdom arose and Light arose in the Buddha on the full moon night when he attained Enlightenment. Buddhist monks and devotees from Myanmar (Burma) visiting the Temple, while the author is seen standing on the extreme right. Room is so small that hardly this many people at a time can be accommodated. Despite the day time temperature hovering around 44 deg. C apart from across India devotees from Thailand, Burma, Japan, S. Korea were seen poring in.

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BODHI (Enlightenment) TREE


The tree stands inside a fort-like structure surrounded on the south, west and north by a brick wall; it has pointed leaves of bright green colour. Inside, one could see tree standing in a large trench in the shape of basin. Author standing in front of the Bodhi-Tree.

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SARNATH

Ashoka Capital was discovered in this condition.

THE ASOKAN LION CAPITAL Indias National Emblem A Noble tribute to the Buddhas Noble Teachings.

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Dhammeka Stupa
after restoration. Following His attainment of Buddhahood, it was Sarnath that the Lord delivered His first sermon to the Panchavaggiya Bhikkus (Group of five Monks). There is no record available of the intervening centuries between King Harshavardhanas rule and Mohmood Gaznavis invasions. During his plundering of Varanasi, Mahmood had also attacked Sarnath (in 1017 A. D.). Nine years later in 1026, two brothers named Sthirapala and Vasantapala took up renovation of Dharmarajika and Dharmacakra monuments during Kamboja King Mahipalas reign, inspired by the king. Thus the place retained its import during the Kamboja Pala kings regime. **************

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Chapter - 7 KAMBOJAS LOVE FOR INDIA, PUNJAB AND THE SIKH PANTH.
Kambojas had been in the forefront since settling at the tip of India way before other Aryan tribes who had no choice but to settle in the Pamir Region. Besides being well versed in Vedas as Brahmins they were also well known fighters (Kshtriyas) in war like situations and ever eager for trading in gold, precious stones, silk, medicinal herbs etc. in general and horses in particular as Vaishyas, the traders. Probably they did not believe in caste system and its insulting by product Shudra because we do not find a trace of such a derogatory appellation in Cambodia, Vietnam & Laos (Champa of the old), Bali, Borneo, Thailand, Malaysia and Java where Kambojas ruled and/or had a great deal of authority and influence. Caste system, which plagues Indian Diasporas of Malaysia as of now, is only hundred-year-old phenomenon imported from India by so-called high caste Indians especially emigrating from south of India. However, if Shudra, a degrading appellation and a low paid category did exist, fluidity in switching from one profession to another with ease and pride was the quality, which enabled them to withstand the horror of moving lock stock and barrel between c. 521 486 B.C. from their Kamboja Desa (land of the Kambojas) to rest of India and Far East. Like hundreds of thousands of other Hindus some Kamboja Hindus also embraced Islam during the Muslim rule. Denzil Ibbetson in his Punjab Races Castes and Tribes of the people of Punjab, 1916 says: Under Akbar (1560-1605) a Kamboj General called Shahbaz Khan commanded 5,000 men and distinguished himself greatly in Bengal. Musalman Kambojs held Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that they have left show that they must have enjoyed a considerable position. According to Mr. Kirpal Singh Dardi,

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author of Souvenir, 1993 under the auspices of Kamboj Virasat Chetna Manch, Jullundur where Muslim Kambojas earned name and fame in military; in civil many served as Chief Ministers, Governors, Judges, Lawyers, Professors, Hakims (doctors practicing medicine with ancient Indian and Persian herbs), writers, Chancellors etc. As an example Mr. Dardi has given a long list of such Muslim professionals along with their villages, towns and respective areas in the Punjab and rest of India. Likewise, records kept by Brahmins at Hardwar are a testimony to prove that Kambojas were in the forefront in the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, for instance my great-grandfather Baba Phula Singh (1802-December 18, 1845) was killed in the Battle of Mudky and many other Kamboj warriors sacrificed their lives for the Sikh Raj.

BHAI DIALA
Again, Mr. Dardi, author of Souvenir mentioned above elates our spirits by discovering for us that Bhai Diala, a Sikh and confident of Guru Teg Bahadur scornfully and with a cool mind rejected Muslim offer of accepting Islam and chose to be martyred by being boiled alive in a cauldron. From psychological point of view in order to jolt Guru Teg Bahadurs belief, will power and resolve to help the Brahmins of Kashmir, the Muslim Mullahs boiled Bhai Diala alive in his presence. Guru Teg Bahadurs martyrdom in turn shook the foundation of Muslim rule. It awakened the conscientious Hindus. Kamboj Bhai Diala was the elder brother of Bhai Mani Singh who at the time was a companion of Guru Teg Bahadurs son Gobind. Bhai Diala was born to father Kalu and mother Daya Kaur of village Kakru in the district of Ambala.

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AKALI PHULA SINGH.


Kamboj General Akali Phula Singh was born in 1761 in village Shinh in Bangar area (area around Karnal and Kaithal). Akali Phula Singhs father was killed in the holocaust of February 5, 1762 also known as Vada Ghallughara (the great massacre) when he was only 15 months old. When young Phula was only seven his mother also died and his fathers friend Nihag Nainna Singh brought him to Nandpur where he was taking care of the shrine. As Nihang Nainna Singh became old he came to Amritsar along with now teenager Phula Singh who had also become a full fledged Nihang. On Nihang Nainna Singhs death newly baptized Nihang Phula Singh started to enrol young Nihangs to form a mini army of his own. Most of his army comprised of young Kambojs who were barred by Sikh tribes from joining their Misals. His martial spirit and Panthic activities came to be known to influential Sikh heads of clans other than Misal chiefs. At that they granted him a tract of fertile land to augment his income for the maintenance of his army. As soon as Maharaja Ranjit Singh subdued Pathans of Kasur and the Rajputs of Kangra taking over of Amritsar became a priority because it had sanctity in the eyes of the Sikhs. Anyone who aspired to be the leader of the Khalsa and Maharaja of the Punjab had to take Amritsar to make good his title. Amritsar was divided between nearly a dozen families owning parts of the city. Each family had built a fortress of its own. As Maharaja Ranjit Singh entered the city all dozen or so families took up arms and started to fight. At that juncture while Misals were grinding their teeth to get even with the Maharaja for subduing them Nihang Phula Singh helped him to capture the city. Maharaja Ranjit Singh established an army unit under Nihag Phula Singhs command and named it Akal Army. That newly established army also had a large number of Kambojs. Maharaja Ranjit Singh owed many of his victories to the desperate valour of Nihangs (also described as Akalis) of Phula Singh. Akali Phula Singh was also known for his devil-may-care attitude and his freedom in speaking his mind even to Ranjit

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Singh. Akali Phula Singh was killed in the battle of Naushera in March 1823. Unfortunately as the Sikh Raj fell and British took over the Sikh army, Maharaja Ranjit Singhs motto of oneness of mankind in general and Punjabiat in particular got trampled upon and same age old Missal characteristics i.e. cronyism and nepotism reappeared, resulting in majority community i.e. the Sikh Jats impressing upon the British to consider small communities of Punjab, in particular the Kambojas as noncombatants; Jat Sikh Misals got even with the Kambojs for helping the Maharaja to subdue them. Having been barred from the British army Kambojas suffered hardships in finding jobs because for Punjabi Sikhs, armed forces were the main employers. One did not find a single Kamboj officer in the Indian army till the World War II heated up and British had no choice but to enrol them and later on, of course, when India became independent in 1947. On other hand Hindu and Muslim Kambojs were accepted in military as well as police at par with the Sikh Jats. Even in independent Indias Punjab politics of Akalis Balwants Singh (Thind) was installed as a minister of finance only because he was the only one who had the right qualifications. The minute Akali Jat Sikhs found their own man Balwant was done to death. Even Atama Singh, a veteran Akali leader was given a third class minister-ships during his terms. Even Atams daughter Upinderjit Kaur, a Ph. D was treated no better than her father. Kambojas will never be considered at par in SAD (Shiromani Akali Dal). Politically, Kambojas have no choice but to associate themselves with Congress, That kind of discriminatory, gluttonous and inappropriate treatment by a majority i.e. by the Jat Sikhs was dished out not only to Kambojas, Mahars of Bombay who happened to be the back bone of the British when they were on the hit list of political stalwarts like Tilak (1856-1920) were also treated with contempt by the opportunist Hindu majority. As soon as the British established their Raj in Bombay and planned

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to take over rest of India, they invited the Hindus to join the army. The Hindu majority agreed provided they (British) ban the Mahars from the army. British obliged the majority and achieved what they were yearning for, for decades a split in the Indian nation. During peacetime British butted one community against the other and they did succeed in splitting the nation just as in 712 A.D. in the invasion of Sindh, military commanders of king Dahir accepted bribes from the agents of Mahommed-BinKasim, a foreign invader. How did the Kambojas survive? Hard work, perseverance, economising, co-operation, co-existence, and tranquility - they worked hard on small patches of land of their own as well as rented fertile lands from Jats, in many cases resulting in buying the same land outright. As their financial position improved they started to give higher education to their children. Before l947 one could hardly find a Kamboja man using liquor, in particular opium, drinking of brewed dried opium poppies (dode),ganja, sukha, marijuana and other related drugs, which had ruined many Jat families financially, resulting in selling their fertile and cultivating lands. As of now, per capita, Kambojas own more and better cultivating lands and their children are better educated than the majority community. In consideration of cronyism, nepotism and corruption involving bureaucrats such as former Punjab Public Service Commission Chairman Ravinder Pal Singh Sidhu and 99% of politicians of the previous Akali government hailing from majority community which have come to light in Punjab during 2002, my advice to Kamboj youth is that they should have the best of education, white collar as well as blue collar professions, explore rest of India and find jobs in private corporations because statistics show that four out of five jobs are created by the private sector. There is no room for cronyism in private sector in the Western World and I am sure it is also true in India. Remember, businessman expects sincerity, dedication, hard work and production rather than caste, creed or religion.

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When it comes to taking part in politics I would like to draw Kambojas attention to Balwant Singhs fate. Balwant Singh (Thind) started his political carrier with the Indian National Congress but slyly slithered over to Akalis for quick promotion to the position of Finance Minister. The Akali Party, which comprised of 99% of Jat Sikhs accepted him readily because he was the sole politician having highest qualifications for the job; deviously they accepted him as an employee (muneem-cumaccountant rather than a political partner. On the other hand his ambition was to become a Chief Minister in the course of time not realizing that for a Jat majority he belonged to Kamboj caste, an adversary in farming. Unlike The Indian National Congress which was comprised of majority as well as all the minorities of India and criteria of which for attaining a higher position was dedication to the party, Akali Party suffered from nepotism, a disease which will one day prove to be a danger to the very existence of it. The late Giani Zail Singh, President of India and one time Chief Minister of Punjab though belonged to Ramgarhia caste, a very small community of Punjab. He attained the highest offices in Punjab in India only because he dedicated his life to The Indian National Congress; Balwant Singh (Thind) on the other hand lost his life for proving to be dedicated to the Akali Party and aspiring to become a Chief Minister of Punjab. Indians suffer from two chronic deceases called nepotism and endogamy, which can be diagnosed as under: Nepotism = Favouritism shown or patronage granted by persons in high office to relatives. Along with being vulnerable to genetic diseases endogamy and nepotism further lead to cronyism and corruption, which can be described thus? Cronyism = Favouritism shown to cronies, without regard for their qualifications. Corruption = The act or result of corrupting.
PUNJAB GOVERNMENT HEADED BY BJP/SAD IN GENERAL AND PARKASH SINGH BADAL, CHIEF MINISTER OF PUNJAB IN PARTICULAR ARE PRIME EXAMPLES OF NAPOTISM IN INDIA.

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Despite a whooping population of 1.2 billons as soon as corruption reduces to a manageable level India will be no less a land of milk and honey than any of the rich nations in the world. Endogamy = Marriage within a particular group, tribe, caste, or class in accordance with set customs. Findings, published in the journal Nature as reproduced by The Tribune, India dated October 1, 2009 are given below: Endogamy made Indians vulnerable to genetic diseases.
Hyderabad, October 1, 2009

The age-old practice of marrying within the same caste or community has made Indians more vulnerable to genetic diseases. The rampant inbreeding has led to genetic mutations, thus explaining why certain diseases are concentrated only in a particular pocket of population in the country. A joint research by premier Indian and American institutions has found that the caste system existed thousands of years before the colonial rulers entered the country. Tracing the genetic history and diversity of the Indian population, the study came up with findings that have important medical implications. Many modern groups of people in India have descended from a small number of people. The scientists describe this as founder event- a rampant Indian practice of marrying within small group of people. This high endogamy within the country, a practice that dates back to several thousand years, makes these pockets genetically unique. Because of this, there may be mutation in the gene that leads to various diseases, senior scientist with Hyderabad-based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and a lead author of the study Kumarasamy Thangaraj said. Claimed to be the largest-ever genome-scale analysis of diverse Indian groups, the research was jointly conducted by scientists from the CCMB, Harvard Medical School, Harvard

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School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, USA. The recessive hereditary diseases, the single gene disorders that occur when person carries two abnormal or malfunctioning copies of a disease causing gene, are seen among Indians who have descended from a small group of founder individuals. Thallasaemia is one such example wherein a couple carrying one abnormal and normal gene each passes on the abnormal ones to the child. The researchers say there is a certain genetic mutation specific to the Indian sub-continent, which is linked to the cardiac condition. The study gives us an understanding why the incidence of cardiac disease is different in the Indian sub-continent from the rest of the world, Thangaraj said. He said there were similar diseases that could be understood genetically. Similar founder events seen in other groups, such as Finns and Ashkenazi Jews are well known to increase the incidence of recessive genetic diseases. The new study predicts that the same will be true for many groups in India. Further studies of these groups should lead to the rapid discovery of genes that cause devastating diseases, and will help in the clinical care of individuals and their families who are at risk, said the studys co-author David Reich, an associate professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School. As part of the study, the research team analysed more than 500,000 genetic markers across the genomes of 132 individuals from 25 diverse groups, representing 13 states, all six language families, traditionally upper and lower castes, and tribal groups. The findings, published in the journal Nature, showed that Indias caste system is not a relic of colonialism but had existed for thousands of years. Punjabi Khatris in general but those of Pakistani origin in particular are more prone to have thalassaemic children as the percentage goes up to 7.5 per cent (compared to national percentage of 3.5) in Khatri-dominated districts. To contain this rising rate, it is a must to encourage inter-caste marriages.

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UNSUNG HEROS.
While in the process of writing Why I AM A Humanist! and trying to grasp some knowledge on the lives of Bhagat Singh, his colleagues and other martyrs I came across a simple but emotional tribute paid to Mata Sant Kaur an unsung hero of the days of Babar Akalis and other revolutionaries in www.tribuneindia.com of June 27, 2003. Fights staged by Babar Akalis and independent revolutionaries against the British Raj to gain independence for India would have not been successful in the absence of underground help extended by Mata Sant Kaur and her women colleagues; in fact Sant Kaurs home was a

MATA SANT KAUR THIND

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nucleus of that underground ring. Underground work entailed collection of funds, delivery of food and laundered clothes etc. to Babar Akalis. Naveen S. Grewal of Tribune News Service in his report in www.tribuneindia.com says: When Mata Sant Kaur entered the freedom struggle, freedom fighters could not have visualized that she would outlive most others. When she died earlier this month at the age of 108, there was hardly anyone from her generation to throw a light on the sacrifices she had made for the country. Today, the All-India Shiromani Inqlabi Dal (AISID) mourned her death, not only as a freedom fighter but also as the mother of Dr. Jaswant Singh Chamak (Thind), a renowned economist and secretary-general of the AISID. Expressing his grief and sorrow, the president of the AISID, Mr. Jagir Singh Rattanpal, said Mata Sant Kaur breathed her last at the age of 108 on June 12, 2003 at Kapurthala where she lived with her younger son Tarlok Singh Thind. Not many people know that the freedom fighter, who led a simple life with simple food habits, optimistic attitude towards life, toiling hard, austerity and devotion to Gurbani, was actually an ordinary housewife, a simple rural lady who jumped into the freedom struggle to see that her countrymen enjoyed the life and liberty as envisaged by Sikh Gurus. She visualized the importance of education and emphasized on her sons to pursue higher studies. She was of the philosophy that one should even sell ones clothes, ornaments and property for the sake of ones childs education, said Dr. Chamak. He said his mother was so self-respecting that she continued to prepare tea for herself even towards the fag end of her life. Mata Sant Kaur was the wife of Gurmat scholar Sant Mayya Singh of Shahwala Andrissa, Sultanpur Lodhi, and was involved in activities of the Babbar Akalis and other revolutionaries.

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Those who mourned the death of Mata Sant Kaur included senior vice-presidents of the AISID, Mr. Deep Singh Kamboj, Mr. Harkirat Singh Dhot (Advocate), Dr. Mukhtar Singh Dhanju; Principal Hardyal Singh, president women wing, Ms. Harbans Kaur, vice- presidents, Mr. Inder Singh Josan, Mr. Kewal Singh Thind, Mr. Gulzar Singh Jammu and press secretary, Mr. Jagdishpal Singh Momi. Members of the AISID will pay their tributes to the freedom fighter at her Bhog, which will be held at Gurdwara Devi Talab, Kapurthala on June 29, 2003.

MASSACRE AT NANKANA SAHIB.


Almost all historic Sikh shrines in India were controlled by the hereditary caretakers who owed no accountability to government or any Sikh institution. Any donations offered by the devotees became personal income of the caretakers cum priests called Mahants. Sri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee an organization set up by the Sikhs at Amritsar had vowed to free shrines (Gurdwaras) from the clutches of the Mahants but British Government had backed them and encouraged them to stay put. Case of Nankana Sahib (place of Guru Nanaks birth now in Pakistan) bothered the Sikhs most because Maharaja Ranjit Singh had allotted pretty near 10,000 acres of land to that shrine for its maintenance and Narayan Dass, a caretaker-cum-priest (Mahant) apart from living a life of luxury, boozing, frenzied singing, dancing, drinking, sexual activities had illegitimate relations with a Muslim woman. He had become the father of two sons and two daughters through that woman and they followed Islam rather than becoming Hindus or Sikhs. The Mahant had also built two luxury houses for them, one in Lahore and the other in Nankana Sahib. Narayan Dass had turned the shrine into a prostitution house to such an extent that when six Sikh ladies from Jarhanwala in the district of Lyalpur went for prayers, his assistant priests molested them. That was the last straw, which broke camels back. Sri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee urged the British to remove Mahant Narayan Dass

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from the shrine but no avail. As an answer to their request to remove the Mahant, he with the knowledge British hired a private army of 400 strong goons and called a meeting of 60 Mahants from other shrines, which resulted in a decision to oppose the Sri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee through media, legal and/or violent means. To achieve their goal of keeping Anandpur and other shrines as their private property and to keep their style of priesthood alive they started a newspaper called Sant Sewak, priest server. Kamboj Master Sunder Singh Layalpuri started to enlist do or die squads of young Sikhs from his village Bahoor, village Nizam Pur Deva Singh Wala and many other villages in the district of Layalpur and Shekhupura to free Anandpur from the clutches of Mahant Narayan Dass. Similarly Sardar Lashman Singh Dharowal, Sardar Kartar Singh Jhabar, Master Tara Singh and Sardar Tehal Singh Kamboj got together their own warriors and assembled in Kamboj village Nizampur Dewa Singh. On the other hand Mahant Narayan Dass, his assistant priests and 400 strong goons had stored hundreds of gallons of kerosene oil and tons of dried wood in the premises of the shrine. As the Sikhs raided the shrine they were sprayed with kerosene oil and with wood already burning caused havoc. Sikhs took over the shrine and freed it but at the cost of 86 martyrs out of which 31 were Kambojs. Mr. Kirpal Singh Dardi has given a complete list of Kamboj martyrs with their fathers and village names in his Souvenir, 1993. Per capita Kambojas paid a heavy price and the credit for that strategy and valour unparalleled in Sikh history goes to no other than Kamboj Master Sunder Singh. Kamboj Master Sunder Singh was born on October 4, 1875 to Sardar Lakhmir Singh and Sardarni Ram Kaur of village Bahoor in the district of Amritsar. He graduated from Khalsa College Amritsar. He was an instrument in having the Anand Marriage Act passed on October 22, 1909. He was a top progenitor of Akali Lehar (Party) and many Newspapers such as Hindustan Times, and Akali and helped many writers in starting magazines. He started eight high schools in Punjab.

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In 1911 when the British started to dismantle a wall of Gurdwara Rikabganj in Delhi to make room for Secretariat and Assembly Hall, Master Sunder Singh agitated and stopped the dismantlement and took the case to Chief Commissioner of Delhi with the help of Harchand Singh, President and General Secretary of Khalsa Young-man Association, Teja Singh Samundri, three Jhabal brothers and Sardul Singh Kveeshar. Thecase lingered on for few years and by that time since the World War I came on the horizon; the British gave up because they needed the help of the Sikh in the army. The British rebuilt the wall in question, marking it the first victory of the Sikh Panth. In 1919 some how fire broke out to a heap of wheat husk laying near the railway station, Layalpur and since Master Sunder Singh was taking a vigorous part in a violent agitation against Rowlett Bills (see note 27) in Punjab, he was apprehended, declared an offender and fined a sum of RS. 1200.00. His father mortgaged some land in village Bahoor, Amritsar and paid the fine and at the same time Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya, President All India Hindu Society had also raised his voice in the Imperial Council. At that the Martial Law was lifted on July 23 and those apprehended set free. That incident toughened Master Sunder Singhs attitude towards the British resulting in meeting with Hira Singh Dard and in turn meeting Madan Mohan Malviya, Gandhi, Tilak (see note 28) and Moti Lal Nehru (father of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister). At that Sunder Singh and Hira Singh founded Sikh League on December 27, 1919 and joined hands with All India Congress in opposing Rowlett Bills. There was a personal but bitter dispute between Bhupendra Singh (d. 1937), Maharaja of Patiala and Ripudaman Singh, Maharaja of Nabha. Since Ripudaman Singh took interest in National affairs of India and Bhupendra Singh was in the good books of the British as a loyal subject, the British removed Ripudaman Singh from his state on advice of Bhupendra Singh. At that news, Central Sikh League called a meeting in June of 1923 under Presidentship of Master Sunder Singh. In the

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meeting Master Sunder Singh did show sincere support to Ripudaman Singh against the British but admitted that both maharajas had earned a bad name. Master Sunder Singh always spoke from the innermost of his heart and called a spade a spade with malice to none.

THE MARTYRDOM OF BHAI MANI SINGH.


One of the greatest examples of the new spirit, which Guru Gobind Singh infused in the downtrodden peasantry of Northern India by creating the Khalsa Panth was Bhai Mani Singh. Bhai Mani Singh Kamboj (1729-1791) was son of Kalu, and mother Daya Kaur of village Kakru, District Ambala. At the age of five, little Mani (Mania) was presented to Guru Teg Bahadur as a servant and companion to the Gurus son and the future Guru, Gobind Singh. He was amongst the first to be baptized as a Khalsa in Baisakh, 1699, and renamed Mani Singh. When armed forces of Aurangazeb compelled Guru Gobind Singh to evacuate Anandpur (fortress of Chamkaur) on December 17, 1704 along with Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Maan Singh and Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Mani Singh was charged with the care of the Gurus wives, Mata Sundri and Sahib Dewan, whom he accompanied to Delhi. After leaving fortress of Chamkaur, when Guru Gobind Singh reached Alamgir on December 23, 1704 Bhai Nagahia Singh, brother of Bhai Mani Singh, presented him with a horse. Some months later Bhai Mani Singh along with the ladies, rejoined the Guru at Talwandi Sabo, better known to the Sikhs as Dam Dama. It was at Dam Dama that Guru Gobind Singh dictated to Bhai Mani Singh the final recension (critical revision) of Adi

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Granth-----the Dam Dame wali Bir-----which is the authorized version of the Sikh scriptures today. Bhai Mani Singh also helped in the compilation of the writings of Guru Gobind Singh, the Dasam Granth. Sikh history books describe Bhai Mani Singh as a prolific writer. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh (1708) and the meteoric rise and fall of Banda Singh Bahadur (d. 1716), dissensions broke out between the followers of Banda known as the Bandei Khalsa and the orthodox Sikhs, the Tat Khalsa. Mata Sundri sent Bhai Mani Singh to Amritsar to resolve the dispute. Bhai Mani Singh settled the misunderstanding amicably between the factions and took over the charge of the Harimander (now Golden Temple). In the year 1738, Bhai Mani Singh obtained permission from the Mughal Court with a promise to pay Rs. 5000.00 to celebrate Diwali at Amritsar. The Bhai expected to recover the money from the offerings of pilgrims. But the fanatic Muslim commander of the capital Lahore posted his constabulary on all roads leading to Amritsar, which prevented the Sikhs from reaching the Harimander. Bhai Mani Singh was arrested and taken in chains to Lahore after Diwali because of his failure to the pay the amount agreed upon. He was given the chance of saving his life by accepting Islam. Bhai Mani Singh spurned the offer. As a capital punishment for rejecting Islam the Mughal Court ordered him to be executed by having each limb severed from the other in public at the Nakhas-----the horse market. The Nakhas has ever since been known as Shahid Ganj----the place of martyrdom. See page 65 for painting by Kirpal Singh. Bibliography:
1. Encyclopaedia of Sikhs Literature, Vol. IV by Kahan Singh. 2. The Sikh Religion, Vol. I, IV and V by M. A. Macauliffe. 3. Prachin Panth Prakash by Giani Gyan Singh. 4. A Short History of the Sikhs by Teja Singh and Ganda Singh. 5. Painting by: Kirpal Singh.

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Bhai Mani Singh, the Martyr.

The Mughal Court decreed that Bhai Mani Singh be cut joint-byjoint. The executioner set Bhai Sahibs right hand on the wooden block and raised the chopper to cut off wrist first. Stop, said Bhai Sahib; Start chopping the joints of my forefingers before you chop my wrist, so that you carry out your masters order precisely. The executioner, mullah and the warders stood aghast.

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UDHAM SINGH
ALIAS

MOHMAND SINGH AZAD

(1). Indians dreams of a free India intensified by exposure to people of the free nations in World War I.

(2). Humiliation of the British in the world forum during and after the Komagata Maru episode and a futile attempt by them to keep Canada All White which resulted in the hanging of Bhai Mewa Singh (see e/n # 26). (3). Trials of the Ghadar (revolutionary) Party patriots of India most of whom happened to be Punjabis. (4). People looked forward to promised selfdetermination and self-rule after the war. (5). Doors to the political reforms and jobs for educated youth were nailed shut. (6). India already sucked dry of wealth was drowned under a debt from England to fight strictly an English war. (7). Cruel persecution of all political leaders of India. (8). A strict censorship of the press was enacted. Ever since the Mutiny of 1857 when Sikhs saved the British from total extermination, they formed a very substantial portion of the British Army. According to The Punjab and the War, p. 44 by M. S. Leigh, the number of Sikhs in the services rose from 35,000 at the beginning of 1915 to over 100,000 by the end of the war, forming about a fifth of the army of India. As the war started maharajas of Patiala, Jind, and Kapurthala offered personal services, and all the other princes of the Punjab made generous contributions in cash and equipment. Sikh soldiers fought on all war fronts in Europe, Turkey, and Africa. Of the 22 military crosses awarded for glaring gallantry to Indians, the Sikhs won 14. On pp. 107-09 in his book mentioned above Leigh says, It is true that in practically every part of the province the Sikhs came forward in strength and established an all-round record which leaves little room for criticism.

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In the last two years of the war the British experienced an acute shortage of manpower. This strain was caused by collapse of Russia and rising of Muslim Mahsud, Mohmand, and Mari tribes of northwest frontier of India. Sir Michael ODwyer, lieutenant governor of the Punjab instituted the Indent System by which every village had been forced to provide a certain number of recruits, and the pressure used to raise war funds. Other factors such as the failure of the summer monsoon added fuel to the smouldering fire. According to the Hunter Committee Report, Disorders Inquiry Committee Report, p. 152, urban population was further hit by the imposition of a special income tax. The increase in some cases ranged from 100200 percent. Cost of living rose higher than ever before, wheat was 47% above normal price of 1914, foreign cloth 175%, Indian cloth 100%, sugar 68% higher than the prewar period. German submarine warfare restricted imports by sea. Rather than using Indian railway service to transport goods around the country was strictly kept in waiting to transport troops to quell mutiny like the one in 1857. To cap it all, an epidemic of influenza raged across the entire country taking a heavy toll of life. By the end of the year 1918, over 100,000 Punjabis had succumbed to the flu. An atmosphere of doom and gloom came to prevail in the province. Now it was the time for the British to render assistance and reassurance, a balm to soothe their nervesinstead the government rubbed salt into their wounds. The British office in England sent Sir Sidney Rowlett a ruthless imperialist and trouble-shooter at large for India in general and the Punjab in particular. On advice from Sir Rowlett, Sir Michael ODwyer, lieutenant governor of the Punjab, rejected the notion of self-government for India and introduced some bills called Rowlett Bills (see 3/n # 27) to combat revolutionary crime. In order to justify its repressive measures, a committee under Sir Rowlett himself produced a report on revolutionary crime in India since 1907 and proposed a series of sly measures empowering the executive to override ordinary legal process in dealing with violent political agitation. Despite

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visualizing dark days ahead, ever humorous Punjabis nicknamed Sir Sidney Rowlett as: Jhagru Sahib (Mr. Belligerent), and they summed up his drastic changes in one slogan: na dleel, na vkeel, na apeelno argument, no lawyer, no appeal. By the way, when Indira Gandhi declared the Emergency on June 26, 1975, freespirited Punjabis treated her no different and her dictatorship frittered away in January 1977. In view of the above pros and cons, to achieve their goal of crushing the existing few civil liberties of slave India and ruling it with an iron fist, the Rowlett Bills. All great leaders like Lockmanya Tilak (see e/n # 28) and Bipan Chandra Pal, the most dreaded enemies of the foreign rule called for a general strike to be launched at Amritsar on April 6, 1919. Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, representing the Muslims and Dr. Satya Pal, representing Hindus and Sikhs took up the challenge to lead the strike. That kind of show of aggressively hostile determination and an unheard of united state between the Hindus, the Sikhs and the Muslims, triggered Punjabs Lieutenant Governor Sir Michael O, Dwyers demonic mind to work overtime to devise ways and means to teach the Punjabis a lesson. In a fit of rage and egotism, little did he try to look back into their not too distant past that they may let carts roll over them without uttering a sigh of complaint, but when it came to their honour, they would leave no stone unturned to rightfully punish the overbearing culprits. Panic-stricken O Dwyer ordered Dr. Satya Pal to be prevented from addressing public rallies on March 29 and 30, put Dr.Kitchlew under house arrest, and L. Tilak and Bipan C. Pal were barred from the Punjab. Characteristically undaunted 50,000 strong Punjabis attended the strike on April 6, 1919, which shook the administration like a feeble building by a strong earthquake. As Ram Naomi (Lord Ramas birthday) procession was in progress, there came the ill-omened news that Drs. Pal and Kitchlew were sent to jail in Himachal Pradesh. Immediately, procession turned to Deputy Commissioner Miles Irvings office demanding release of their leaders. Police opened fire at the procession and killed 18 unarmed people, resulting in retaliation by the mob and

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in the evening all six Britons working for the Allowance Bank in the Hall Bazaar (shopping centre) were hacked to death. On April 11, 1919, Amritsar was handed over to the Army and Brigadier General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer started a door-to-door hunt of the reactionaries, arresting men and humiliating women and children. Over and above all the inhuman treatment, he arrested 11 persons who were charged with murder and waging war against the crown. To give a finishing touch to the drama, Dyer cut electricity and water supply to the city on the eve of Baisakhi. (Baisakhi is an auspicious day for the Punjabis when Guru Gobind Singh created Khalsa). Although Martial Law and orders of shoot on sight were in full force, about 20,000 rural folks and local men, women and children gathered at Jallianwala Bagh 29 after having paid their respects to the Golden Temple to hear from their leaders of what transpired in the last few days. On April 13, 1919, at about 5:00 p.m., Dyer stationed 90 Gurkha 30 soldiers in a half-moon shape shooting position to cover every nook and corner of the crowd with British soldiers standing behind and pointing their guns at the Gurkhas to make sure they did not back down in shooting the Punjabis. According to the Hunter Commission which was set up by the British in England, Dyer was quoted as declaring proudly that it took him not more than 30 seconds to decide as to what my duty was. Further, by his own admission, Dyer had directed it upon places where the crowd was the thickest because I had made up my mind to punish them for violating Martial Law. When the Hunter Commission asked Dyer on whether the Martial Law was actually proclaimed, because they had learned otherwise from some witnesses as to why he did not consider it proper to consult the Deputy Commissioner Miles Irving, who was the Civil Authority responsible for the law and order of the city before taking such a grave step. His reply was, There was no Deputy Commissioner around to consult at the given time. After what I had seen and observed I did not think it was wise to

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ask anybody further. When questioned on asking the crowd to disperse before firing on the defenseless mob, his curt reply was, No, at the time I did not. I merely felt that my orders had not been obeyed and it was my duty to fire immediately by rifle. And I was going to fire until they dispersed. A local leader, Lala Girdhari Lal, who witnessed the foolish firing from the roof of his house says, There were small outlets, four or five in all, and bullets actually were rained on people trying to get out. Shots were also directed into the thick of the meeting. Within minutes the Bagh wore the look of a slaughterhouse. There was not even a single corner where people did not die or get wounded by the dozen. Many got trampled under the feet of the rushing crowd and others fell into the well on the eastern side of the meeting place. Even those who lay flat on the ground were shot at. The fusillade went on for ten consecutive minutes. When the English journalists asked Dyer about the act of barbarism by marching off from his duty leaving behind the dead and the wounded, the pompous Generals reply was It was not my job to render aid. The injured could have gone to the hospital if they liked. That added fuel to the fire, not only to the minds of the bewildered Indians, but also to level headed Englishmen. The curfew and shoot at sight orders immediately after the carnage left hundreds wounded in agony and dead lay scattered on the ground for two days; those days turned out to be hay days for vultures and jackals. Dyer did not give a damn. When General Dyer realized the gravity of the situation, he tried to win over the Sikhs. He summoned the manager of the Golden Temple (who felt no shame in lowering the prestige of the mighty Sikhs who once toppled the ruthless Mughal empire) and Sir Sunder Singh Majithia 31 and asked them to use their influence with the Sikhs in favour of the Raj. On advice from lackeys like High Priests and Sir Majithia, he sent vicious looking troops to villages to show to them that Raj was still strong and ever-ready to beat the hell out of them. Priests of the Golden Temple, the issuers of Hukamnamas (Edicts) of

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excommunications to intellectuals who question their integrity and logic on trivial matters to keep them under their thumps in the name of religion, invited the General to the sacred shrine and presented him with a Saropa, a gift of honour. The above treacherous act on the part of Sir Majithia and High Priests brought self-respecting Sikhs in the forefront. Under the guidance and inspiration of such people a new organization, the Central Sikh League, consisting of nationalists who were opposed to the Chief Khalsa Diwans toadying to the British, came into existence. The outcome of Hunter Commissions inquiry was a simple military style reprimand to Dyer, it was no more than rebuking of a Shudra by Aryans of the old or by American whites to their slaves for mistreating one of their animals. On the civilian front, the British die-hards garlanded and presented him with a golden sword as Defender of the Empire. The Morning Post started a campaign to raise funds to reward Dyer; a sum of 26,317 pounds poured in and was paid to him as an honour for Job well done. (continued below picture)

Bhag Mal and wife Attar Kaur.


(text continued from top of picture)

Avinash Singh in his article They died that India must live. in The Hindustan Times, April 10, 1994 gives an account

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of Udham Singhs Vow and what made him to take an unprecedented step to deliver an overdue death sentence to Lieutenant Governor Sir Michael ODwyer, the culprit responsible for mercilessly killing 379 and injuring and maiming 1600 of innocent men, women and children by his BrigadierGeneral Reginald Edward Harry Dyer. Mr. Singh says, At 74 Sohan Lal Bharti is a proud man. And he has reasons to be one for being an offspring of parents who were a living example of communal harmony and brotherhood and personified ultimate in human compassion. Sohan Lal was in his mothers womb when Attar Kaur after hearing the gunfire in the Jallianwala Bagh had to fish out husband Bhagmal Bhatia, from the sea of humanity that lay dead and wounded here on that fateful Baisakhi of 1919. Bhagmal Bhatia, a firewood dealer, had taken leave of her earlier in the day to be present at the rally organized to express solidarity behind the national leaders protesting against the Rowlatts Bills and demand release of their local heroes. She had seen two men, bleeding profusely, rushing out of one of the lanes. No stopping to think, the six month pregnant woman of 25 rushed towards the Bagh where hundreds lay writhing in pain and crying for water and help. Attar Kaur who had gone to pray at Harimandir Sahib (the Golden Temple) early in the morning for a long life of her husband was stupefied to see the dead and the dying that included all sections of society, women and children besides men of her grandfathers age. The bloody water in the well wherein an innumerable number had jumped, and the air bubbles of those who were in the process of drowning proved too much for her and she lost consciousness. When she regained it she found her clothes bathed in blood. Not withstanding the grisly surroundings she moved ahead walking over a heap of dead to continue her search for her husband. It was already well past nine in the night and the help of her husbands stall, Santa Mishra had joined her. Bhagmals body was finally located near a wall with a hole in the heart and 36 other gunshot wounds. As she felt his body and found it still little warm, she held out a loud cry in a state of extreme mental agony. This

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attracted the attention of a young man of 18, who after having savoured the spectacle of worst ever crime against humanity was busy separating the critically injured from the dead and providing whatever little help possible. The youth was none other than Udham Singh son of Tehal Singh and Naraini from village Sunam, District Sangrur who was studying at the Khalsa Orphanage in the city. Seeing the plight of a mother-to-be the youngster went down his knees held the hand of the lady to pledge in choking voice, The slaughter of so many would not be forgiven. I shall take revenge. So moved the lady was by Udhams gesture that she along with Santa Mishra took to assisting the young man in rendering help to those wounded by fetching water, first aid and medicine from nearby houses for the next three hours fetching water, first aid and medicine from nearby houses for the next three hours forgetting her dead husband. That the sprightly youth kept his word given to a sister by killing the perpetrator of the crime many years later in the United Kingdom, is of course, a historical fact to day. Sohan Lal Bharti who was born to Attar Kaur a few months after the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy grew up to follow the footsteps of his mother. If Attar Kaur had refused to bargain for her husbands sacrifice by declining an offer of cash and kind her son too has followed her principle all his life. Attar Kaur died in 1964, but Sohan Lal still cherishes her words Remembrance of a dead one is more sacred than all that money could buy. Like his mother who was once honored with title of Jyoti of Jallianwala Bagh (Light of the Jallianwala garden), he too has stayed away from the lure of cash rewards, plots (lots) and other benefits. He seems content with the name Abhimanyu 32 given to him by the late Dr. Rajendra Prasad. Sohan Lal is not at all sore that miscreants who after the outbreak of 1984 riots burned his electrical goods shop. The above riots took place when two misguided Sikhs assassinated Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for an avoidable assault on the Golden Temple Amritsar to flush out the terrorist of her own making to create a rift between Hindus and Sikhs of the Punjab for the good of her own Congress Party. Her son

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Rajiv Gandhi, a third rate pilot turned politician and Prime Minister immediately after her assassination let his goons loose on the Sikhs all over India. Rajivs goons, all members of the Congress Party killed over three thousand Sikhs all over India. Unfortunately some wicked Sikhs retaliated and burned Hindus shops. Further, Mr. Singh says, Sohan Lal is still raising one of his two sons as a Sikh though he himself is a Hindu, in keeping with the age old ties and traditions of Punjab culture. While attending seventy fifth anniversary of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, it gave me a sense of pride in being born in a great country like India whose revered leaders like Rabindranath Tagore and Thakur threw their Knight-hoods and badges of honor bestowed upon them by the British in trash cans. While returning the Knight-hood to the Viceroy of India, R. Tagore wrote: The disproportionate severity of punishment inflicted upon the unfortunate people and method of carrying it out is without parallel in the history of Civilized Government, barring some conspicuous exceptions, recent or remote. Great-souled Thakurs mind was disturbed at the agony of indignation to such an extent that he told the British rulers point-blank: The time has come when badges of honour make our shame glaring in the incongruous context of humiliation, and I for my part, wish to stand shorn of all special distinctions. The least I can do for my country is to take all consequences upon myself in giving voice to the protest of the millions of my countrymen, dumfounded by the terror unleashed. If it was at Plassey 33 that the foundation of British domination were laid, it was at Amritsar that they were shaken; seeds of Swaraj (Self-rule) were sown in the land soaked with martyrs blood. It gave me a hearty consolation when in a visitors book of 1938, I read the remarks by none less than an English man Donald Cunningham. He wrote, I am filled with remorse for my race after visiting this place. I feel that every Indian in the

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street looks at me as a member of a community of murderers. Another Englishman writes in one of the books, I am ashamed to be an Englishman when I hear of mass murders committed in the name of civilization. I should bear the name of uncivilized with more pride as I bear the name of civilized. In consideration of the above, none of the Congress or any Hindu Member of the Parliament has to date uttered a word of remorse in the calculated and widespread murder of the Sikhs in 1984.

UDHAM SINGH
ALIAS

MOHMAND SINGH AZAD

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It is mind boggling and hard to comprehend that Udham Singh kept the Vow, The slaughter of so many would not be forgiven. I shall take revenge. given to Attar Kaur simmering for 21 years in an anticipation to find the right place at the right time to carry out an overdue death sentence to Sir Michael ODwyer, the criminal at large. The right time and place, Udham Singh found was the afternoon of March 12, 1940 in Tudor Room at Caxton Hall, London. East India Association and Royal Central Asian Association had invited Brigadier-General Sir Parcy Sykes, Sir Louis Dane, Lord Lamington, Sir Michael ODwyer etc. well known pillars of the British Raj under the President ship of Lord Zetland. Just as Sir Dwyers Brigadier-General Dyer had chosen the savage Gurkhas and posted them with precision at Jallianwala Bagh, Udham Singh now a professional Engineer calculatedly positioned himself against a wall of the Tudor Room, a leaping distance from his countrys enemy Sir Michael ODwyer who was sitting at the end in the front row. As soon as all of the invited dignitaries finished praising the good deeds of the Raj, their own exploits and Lord Zetland thanked them, Udham with the swiftness and ferocity of a hungry lion rushed forward, shot and killed ODwyer, shouted Inklab Zindabad (Long-live Revolution), Raj Murdabad (Down with Imperialism) and poured the remaining bullets on Lord Zetland, Lord Lemington and Louis Dane. ODwyer, the number One enemy of Udhams country died instantly and others were injured; Udham was taken into custody. On March 13, 1940, in the Commons Mr. Neville Chamberlain, the Prime Minister of England gave an account of the assassination of Sir ODwyer and wounding of the other three and assured the house that all Englishmen condemned the act, also that India and Indians will surely condemn such act, Sure enough, Gandhi, a double faced hypocrite, unlike Tagore and Thakur who threw their Knight hoods in the garbage bin to protest Jallianwala Bagh massacre, condemned Udham Singh in his The Harijan and the British lackeys rejoiced.

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On June 4, 1940, Udham was brought from Pantonville jail to the Central Criminal Court. Court was full with Government Officers, Press and English pensioners from Indian services etc.; no Indians other than recognized lackeys were permitted to enter. Common Indians and Udhams best friend Bob Connelley, an Irishman stood out side with gloomy faces. English justice system known to be critical of justice systems of other nations, adamantly refused to recognize Udhams Statement given as Exhibit 22 at Red Caunan Row Police Station, A Division, signed by him as M. S. Azad under his assumed name: Mohmand (a Muslim name) Singh (common to Hindus and Sikhs) Azad 34 upon his arrest was ordered inadmissible and Press was ordered not to publish his statement. Self-acclaimed so-called just society of England lost its balance of mind. Refusing to take an oath on the Bible and pointing out to the above orders by the court Udham thundered, Is it justice? I know that not a word of my statement will be published. Why have this show at all? You are all Englishmen here, fattening yourself with the blood of Indians like me. Now you charge me with being a murderer. I find your sense of justice ridiculous. You have suppressed our struggle of freedom with the force of arms. Why shouldnt Indians use the same weapons to free themselves? When hundreds of my countrymen were killed by one of your General in Amritsar, you did not call him a murderer. You gave him thousands of pounds as a reward. ODwyer supported and upheld the misdeeds of this General. He gave him a pat. Far from condemning their crimes, you honored these people for enslaving us. The visitors were dumbfounded. Udham Singh raised his voice, I wanted to avenge myself upon General Dyer, but he died before I could reach him. I tried my best to locate his companion, Captain Briggs but I failed. I am an eye witness to the Amritsar massacre. One of my friends fell prey to your bullets there. I have seen their blood flowing into gutters. If a murderer of hundreds can be called a hero then who can deny the honours of a patriot, who has avenged the innocent by killing the murderer. You can keep

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down a country with guns, why shouldnt we use guns to free ourselves? You make yourselves ridiculous when you express sympathy for people enslaved by other powers. How dare you use the sacred word of justice, when you dont allow my countrymen to speak, while you crush them under your heels? If you try to keep my country in thralldom with the force of arms, it becomes my duty to fight you with any weapons I can get. You have faith only in weapons. So my countrymen too must use the weapons which you respect. Like a lion after cutting into the jugular veins of its victim and waiting for blood to drain out of its brain, to render it immobile, Udham paused and after observing Justice Atkinson listening to him rather impatiently, he said, You must remember what Herbert Spensor has said, every body is free to do what he likes as long as he does not interfere with other peoples freedom. The above quotation mesmerized the present Englishmen in general and the Press in particular, they sat still with eyes and mouths wide open, seemed as if they were pondering over the plight of India and visualizing the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh. Men and women of the Press were stunned at Udhams command of English and general knowledge, they had thought that he spoke pidgin English while others were at a loss to understand why unlike a two-bit murderers, Udham was incriminating himself. Sizing up the mood of the Englishmen, he pointed out, If you followed the advice of your great philosopher there would be peace in the world. I would like to remind you of another of your thinkers, who said, It is not only our right, but our duty to rise against injustice. Only cowards put up with injustice. A life without self-respect is not worth living. Political murders are not a crime, when people cannot get justice they do resort to individual revenge. Only weapons can fight weapons. Upping himself on his toes, he emphasized, The only difference between you and us is that you use weapons to

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enslave others, while we have been compelled to shed blood to regain our freedom. And how did you treat the Irish? What about Dublin Massacre? Here, the Judge told him to confine himself to his own defence. Udham Continued, you killed Khaksars 35 in Lahore. They were my countrymen. One of them was a friend of mine. Whenever we ask for our human rights, you answer with bullets. I have fired only six bullets. Thousands of my countrymen are in jails. Hundreds have been hanged. They are suffering only because they want to be free. He looked around, sure of his capabilities of representing a great nation, loosened his tie and pointing to the men and women in the courtroom said, I want to put all of you a question. In fact this question was asked in 1909 by one of our countrymen. You know his name was Madan Lal Dhingra. I put the same question again. What would you do if your country is occupied by the Germans? There came voices of protest. The Judge restored the order and asked Udham Singh again to stick to his defence. Udham defiant as ever continued, Supposing you are defeated in war, but some of your young men still go on fighting. Will you call them heroes or murderers? If those young men be honoured as patriots, then I too have done my patriotic duty. But you cannot see your adversarys point of view. You are incapable of seeing the sun of truth. Your ears refuse to hear the voice of justice and I feel I am wasting my time in pleading with you. I dont want to say anything in self-defence. But I must repeat that I have acted with a great sense of responsibility. I have acted alone and independently. I did not seek anyones advice. Holding the collar of shirt he said, Please go ahead and be guided by your conscience. I am eager to join the company of my comrades Madan Lal Dhingra, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhagat Singh, Ashraf and others. My friend Madan Lal is calling me and Bhagat Singh is beating the war-drum. Ashraf is rejoicing at the prospect of my meeting him. Sucha Singh and Bahadur Singh wait for me along with thousands more who have gone before me. We will all join the grand dance of freedom-----.

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The Judge requested the jury for their verdict. It took the jury no more than one hour and thirty-five minutes to declare Udham Singh guilty. Udham was not finished yet, in order to make sure that his accusations against the Raj did not evaporate with his death, he swiftly took out a packet of papers and declared, This is my recorded statement. The Judge immediately ordered the Press not to publish his statement, which proved to be a futile attempt in the long run. Indian freedom fighters, Bob Connolley and his Irish compatriots raised some money and hired John Hutchinson, K.C. on recommendation from V. K. Krishna Menon, a well respected Indian politician and decided to appeal. Menon also happened to be an eminent lawyer. On hearing that, Udham became upset and wrote to his friend Johal I must insist that I have nothing to do with these people. I dont want money to be wasted to defend me. I am eager to pay the price of my deed. My friend Bhagat Singh left me ten years ago. I want to be united with him. He must be waiting for me. He was hanged on the 23rd, I hope to be hanged on the twenty third. If you know the people who are raising funds for me, please ask them to stop. The money, which has been collected already can be better spent on the education of some young Indians. Farewell, to all, kindly send me a Gutka (Extracts of hymns by different Gurus and Saints from Sikh Holy Adi Granth) a prayer book and oblige. I am a Royal guest here. So, please dont worry about me. Contrary to Udhams wishes, Mr. John Hutchinson K.C and Krishna Menon filed an appeal and hearing started on July 9, 1940. Justice Humphery, Justice Hilbury and Justice Groom Johnson upheld the earlier verdict and set the date of Udham Singhs execution for July 31, 1940. At the foot of the gallows he raised the slogans: Hindostan Zindabad (Long Live Hindostan); Inklab Zindabad (Long Live Revolution); Raj Murdabad (Down with Imperialism.)

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Dr. Bhagat Singh Thind Dr. Thind hailed from the district of Amritsar and came to America to study after World War I. He obtained his Ph. D in Philosophy, toured extensively in America and lectured on spiritual aspects of Indian thought throughout his life. He wrote

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over two dozens books and had a large following from priests to professors and politicians. When he came to California, he found out to his surprise that Sikhs working on the farms were not treated as human beings. Though, some educated Indians circumvented the Immigration and Naturalization Service and managed to get citizenship awards through various States but the Jat Sikh farm labourers who happened to be illiterate had no choice but to go back to India or stay illegal and single and ready to be kicked out at moments notice. In 1923 before applying for naturalization status as a test case Dr. Thind had it proved to the immigration department that East Indians were of the same racial classification as Europeans-namely Caucasians. Dr. Thind applied for citizenship but The Immigration and Naturalization Service did not give up. The issue now was not merely the granting of citizenship to persons already in the United States, but the admission of persons from India as immigrants to the United States, for in 1917 Congress had made ineligibility to citizenship a basis for immigration exclusion. Devoted to the principle of excluding all orientals, the Service was desperately anxious to have the Indians declared ineligible. For this reason it appealed Judge Wolvertons decision granting citizenship to Dr. Bhagat Singh Thind, to the United States Supreme Court. Nor were its efforts to go unrewarded, for in an extraordinary decision delivered by Justice George Sutherland, the Court announced that not all Caucasians were white persons. White persons..are words of common speech and not of scientific origin. The word Caucasian not only was not employed in the law, but was probably wholly unfamiliar to he original framers of the statute in 1790.in this country, during the last half century especially, the word (white person) by common usage has acquired a popular meaning not clearly defined to be sure, but sufficiently so to enable us to say that the popular, as distinguished from its scientific application, is of appreciably narrower scopeThe words of the statute are

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to be interpreted in accordance with the understanding of the common man from whose vocabulary they were taken. (U. S. v Bhagat Singh Thind). Undeterred Dr. Thind kept on soliciting help from politicians through intellectuals because the only open opposition to this action came from the American Federation of Labour and the California Joint Commission and not any literate person or literary society. Spurred by the feeling that an injustice had been done to the East Indians whose citizenships had been cancelled, Senator David Reed of Pennsylvania, in 1926, introduced a joint resolution into the Congress asking for the ratification and confirmation of the naturalization of those persons of the Hindu Race (Indians) who had lost, or were being threatened with the loss of their citizenship as a consequence of Justice George Sutherlands decision. While serving as secretary of Khalsa Diwan Society I was honoured to meet Dr. Thind in the Gurdwara of Yuba City, California. He was a saintly person but when it came to rights of his fellow men, he stood out against injustice. He rendered selfless service to East-Indian community of America.

***** Chapter - 8
MY VISIT TO LAHORE, PAKISTAN in March of 2004 It was an honour to meet Muhammad Tahir Chaudhry who was kind enough to receive me at Wagah border post (entry point from India) and who in turn introduced me to at least 50
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Muhammad Tahir Chaudhry


Advocate High Courts & Supreme Court.
(continued from previous page)

Kamboja businessmen and lawyers of Lahore. In fact one bazaar of Lahore is dominated by Kamboja businesses, whether they are grocery stores or small scale manufacturing firms. According to Mr. M. T. Chaudhry there are over 300 Kamboja lawyers in Pakistan out of whom there are 60 in Lahore alone and they play a great role in the juridical system of Pakistan.

Chaudhry Bashir Ahmed (Josan) Advocate Supreme Court Pakistan.

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Young and charismatic Arif Chaudhry a Member of American Bar Association and presently an Advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and Member of Punjab Bar Council holds offices in Lahore and Islamabad. He is a former ViceChairman of the Punjab Bar Association, Lahore and being the President of Pakistan Chapter of Indo-Pakistan Friendship Association he headed three delegations to India to address at least ten gatherings of Kamboj Brotherhood International.

Advocate Arif Chaudhry (Rattanpal)

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Dr. Yunas Ali (Rattanpal)


Principal, Government College, Lahore.

Dr. Yunas Ali (Rattanpal) obtained M. Sc. in Zoology from University of Punjab in 1969. During his travels to Western countries such as Europe and America from 1975-1980 he attained his Ph. D. from University of Wales, U.K. and worked as Demonstrator and Lecturer in the University of Wales.

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Before joining Government Islamia College, Lahore as a Principal Dr. Yunis Ali worked as a lecturer in Zoology in Government College, Lahore; Government College Murree; Vice Principal and Principal Government College of Education, Lahore and Principal of Government College Chakwal. During those years of pursuit of academic excellence he published 23 papers on insect Physiology in the journals of international repute, many papers on general science in the Pakistan journals and also many papers on education in the Pakistan Times. Quoting his father Mian A. D. Chaudhry, Dr. Yunis Ali says his grandfather maintained that he migrated to Sialkot from Balkh and Bukhara along with other men of his Rattanpal tribe in the seventeenth century due to crushing defeat by white men. Further, according to Dr. Yunis Alis Articles Published in Newspapers and Honourary Letters, his grandfather claimed that Zaid (Zayd) prophet Mohammads adopted son was from Kambo tribe in Saudi Bedouins. From the point of view of distortion of facts relating to racial characteristics of humans from different parts of the world, it is of concern to note that Zaid being a slave was from black stock with kinky hair, fat lips and flat noses, whereas I have never seen a Kamboja with such features. Those black Bedouins were kidnapped in Africa by Arab slave traders, and sold in Zanzibar, Saudi-Arabia and Egypt. Until fifty years ago, those black Bedouins were slaves to the white Arabs and mixing of races was and still is just as frowned upon as mixing of Shudras and high caste Hindus and Sikhs in India. Picture above shows a black African couple with fat lips, flat nose and kinky hair. According to Hindu Tribes and Castes vol. II (Introduction page xli) under Brahmanical Tribes and Their

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Localities by M. A. Sherring, Dr. Yunis Alis surname Rattanpal belonged to Brahmins of Jammu before moving to Punjab. Probably most of them who resisted forced conversion to Islam by Aurangzeb, the most fanatic Muslim ruler of India fled Jammu. Since converts to Christianity are from amongst low castes of Hinduism and they feel no shame in once being Shudras I was flabbergasted to observe that every Pakistani Muslim of means tried to correlate his ancestry to Saudi Arabia. Following extract from Why I Am A Humanist! ISBN 09688162-3-1 explains dilemma of Pakistani Muslims to a great extant. Here the non-Arab Muslims, especially the Indians, the Pakistanis, the Bangladeshis, the Sri Lankans and for that matter any country construing Umma as You pretend that the word Umma in this verse means the international community of Muslims. By feigning so they have lost all sense of national honour and sing the songs of greatness of Arabic world day in and day out whereas that same Arabic world does not even recognize them as brethren. A child born to foreign national parent in Saudi Arabia will never be considered a bona fide citizen. For lack of space let me take up the example of India. The Muslims began invading India in a big way from 1000 A.D. onward. Eventually, as the influence of Islam increased with the Turkish conquests, the Muslim converts of India reneged on their Indian nationality. Under the force of faith they began to pretend that India, the land of their ancestors, was a Dar-ul-Harab, a kind of battlefield until they turned it into Land of Peace (Dar-us-Salaam), a spiritual and cultural satellite of Arabia through civil and military actions. They turned out to be traitors to their motherland and therefore became enemies of their own heritage. They thought of Arabia as their home and sang songs of the Meccan superiority. That love of Arabia became so intense that they hated everything that was Indian. They sought partition of India to create the Islamic Nation of Pakistan, a Land of Peace (Dar-us-Salaam) of their own! Those traitors to their Indian heritage, the creators of the land of Peace (Dar-us-Salaam), soon split into Bangladesh

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and Pakistan and have been ruled directly/indirectly by military dictatorships ever since. It is ludicrous to observe that while a gutless secular India subsidizes its Hajjis, the Wahabis of Saudi Arabia make sure to inject everyone of them with venoms of Umma and Dar-ul-Harab against it and what it stands for. For Wahabis such venomous injections will do wonders when oil stops gushing but Hajjis will keep on pouring in to fill their pockets at the cost of welfare of their own children and also that of majority of tax payers of India who happen to be Hindus. It is little wonder that due to this psyche, Muslim majority areas in countries like Philippines, Yugoslavia, Russian Caucasia, Chinese Turkistan and Thailand etc. agitate for separation from their motherlands. Thus, Islam is the self-perpetuating Arab Imperialism; it now needs no swords, no guns: its hypnotic appeal, mentally and emotionally reduces man to the level of monkey. By destroying the national spirit of the non-Arab Muslims, Islam has totally demolished the ancient civilizations and cultures of such countries as Egypt, Iran, Syria, Mesopotamia (present day Iraq), Anatolia (present day Turkey), Barbary States of North Africa (from Libya to Morocco). However, no doubt Kamboja tribe as well as other Aryan tribes of India came from Central Asia and moved to the tip of India via Balkh and Bukhara etc. as shown on the map. Last but not least I met Chaudhry Abdul Razzaq, Advocate High Court, Lahore and Dr. Qadeer Ahmed (Thind) who is a professor in Government Islamia College, Lahore. Professor Thind was kind enough to show me places of interest around Lahore. Having been born in India in 1923 and now a resident of Canada since 1953 it shocked me to observe that the same Muslim women who like any Hindu or Sikh women folks lived a free life in Punjab of India were now clad in Burkas in the Punjab of Pakistan. It further surprised me, rather, upset me to experience that when I visited my friends in Karachi not even one of them introduced me to their families whereas they had

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stayed in my home for two days while going through training in Aeronautics in Boeing at Seattle with me and paying visit to Vancouver. My wife and children (two sons and a daughter) had gone out of their ways to make all four of them (supposed to be my friends) feel at home; my wife even prepared some Indian sweets and packed full dinner for them to eat on the evening of Sunday at Seattle. It infuriated me to observe that when I visited them in Pakistan they never felt a ting of shame for treating me Personanon-grata as if introducing me to their families was below their dignities whereas they considered themselves to be worthy of staying in my home in Canada. All of a sudden they became Saudis who treat their women folks as nothing but slaves and baby producing machines in accordance with: SURA XXIV: 31 (LIGHT)
The Koran ISBN 0-8041-1125-1.

And speak to the believing women that they refrain their eyes, and observe continence; and that they display not their ornaments, except those which are external; and that they throw their veil over their bosoms, and display not their ornaments, except to their husbands or their fathers, or their husbands fathers, or their sons, or their husbands sons, or their brothers, or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male domestics who have no natural force, or to children who note not womens nakedness. And let them not strike their feet together, so as to discover their hidden ornaments. And be ye all turned to God, O ye Believers! That it may be well with you.

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KAMBOJA - NOTES
1. Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte, Jena, 1906-7. by O. Schrader. (English trans. by F. B. Jevons under the title Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan People, London. 2. The Vedic Age by Bharattiya Vidya Bhavan, Chapt. X, page 21617. This historical information was collected by O. Schrader from the following works: (I). Reallexikon der indogermannischen Altertumskunde, Strassburg, 1901 (ii) Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte. Jena,1906-7. ( Eng. Trans. By F. B. Jevons under the title Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan People, London. (iii) Die Indogermanen. Leipzig, 1911. 3. Deiva (Deva) - Any of various gods or divinities in Vedic belief. 4. Asura ( Asur ) - Assyrian mythology before Zarathustra ( 628-551 B.C. ). The principal deity and God of war and empire. 5. Zarathustra ( in Persian ) or Zoroaster (in Greek) a Persian with a homeland from north western Persia originated Zoroastrianism, a religion named after him. Achaemenid rulers embraced this religion and one of the rulers of this line, by the name of Darius (522-486 B.C.), unified his empire using the principle of one God, Ormazd, which created two opposing forces, Truth and Untruth, which in turn rewarded or condemned humans after death according to their actions on Earth. 6. Soma ( Persian Haoma) or Hom of Parsees. Since Soma juice is the main offering to the gods in the Rig-Veda, it needs to be explained as to from which plant it was made and what rituals were performed to offer it to the deities. Dr. H. H. Wilson, M. A., F. R. S., Bond Professor of Sanskrit, in the University of Oxford in his translation of Rig-Veda, 1850, Vol. I, footnote of page 6, giving references of Mr. Roxburgh and Rev. Mr. Stevenson, explains Soma thus: These Somas are libations of the juice of the Soma plant, the acid asclepias or Sarcostema viminalis, which yields to expresser (squeezing ) a copious milky juice, of a mild nature and sub-acid taste---Roxburgh ii., 32. According to Rev. Mr. Stevenson, it is not used in sacrifices until it has gone through the process of fermentation, and has become a strong spirituous beverage. 7. Kultarges-chichte de alten Orient, p. 220--By A. Christense. 8. Ritual-Litteratur, Strassburg, 1897 by A. H. Hillebrandt. 9. Upanayana means initiation. (Lit. The drawing near or leading forth of a student for study under a teacher.)

113 10. ( a ) Research by A. Hillebrandt in Vesische. Mythology Breslav, 1891-1902, Vol. 1, p.99; Vol. III, p. 372-8. (b). Cambridge History of India, Vol. I, p. 322 by A. V. W. Jackson. 11. (a). The Vedic age, by Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan, Bombay, p. 262-64. (b) Map showing approximate locations of settlements of first arrivals according to scriptures. See map on page 2. 12. According to Early Hindu India,1917, p. 225-26, by A. Kumar Mazundar, this tradition is preserved in the Mahabharta and the Puranas. 13. Aborigine 14. Aborigine. 15. Aborigine. 16. KRISHNAS means black-skinned aborigines (ASURAS). To express hate towards aborigines, Aryans often used hateful terms such as slaves, murderous, robbers, flat-nosed or nose-less Krishnas, Bannars, monkey nation etc. Even in Ramayana, an epic of ancient India, the aborigines who laid down their lives in thousands to free Ramas wife Sita from the clutches of Lankas (Sri Lanka) mighty aborigine king Ravana, the Aryans called them, Bannars, monkeys; their Commander-in-chief, a dare-devil, was called Hanuman, monkey. 17. Asuras i.e. aborigines. 18. Aryans. 19. In Sindhi language the word Moenjodaro means mound of the dead, but on reaching the site, it turns into an indescribable sensation of visiting a sprawling city, with two-way streets for bullock-cart traffic and back alleys to enter the houses through the backyards. For safety reasons no house is open to the main highway i.e. two-way street. Archaeologists name for it is First Street. 20. Ancient India Historical Tradition, Lond. 1922, by F. E. Pargiter. 21. Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Polity, 1929 by Dr. D. R. Phandakar. 22. Sacred Book of East, Oxford by Prof. Max Muller. 23. Angkor and the Khamer, p. 44, by Malcolm MacDonald. MacDonald was Commissioner-General for South-East Asia. He paid many visits to king Norodom Shinanouk Varman during his stay in the Far East. 24. As early as seventh century B.C., Panini wrote his great grammar of the Sanskrit language. Paninis book is something more than a mere grammar. It has been described by the Soviet professor Th. Tscherbatsky of Leningrad as one of the greatest production of human mind. Panini is still the standard authority on Sanskrit grammar,

114 though subsequent grammarians have added to it and interpreted it. It is interesting to note that Panini mentions the Greek script. This indicates that there were contacts of some kind between India and the Greeks long before Alexander came to the East. 25. The Yoga (union) system of Patanjali (second century B.C.) is essentially a method for the discipline of the body and the mind leading up to psychic and spiritual training. Patanjali not only crystallized that old system but also wrote a famous commentary on Paninis Sanskrit grammar. That commentary, called the Mahabhashya, is as much of a classic as Paninis work. The above professor of Leningrad also praises Patanjalis work as: the ideal scientific work for India is the Mahabhashya of Patanjli. Use of Panini and Patanjlis works shows that Cambodians (Cambodge/Kambojas) had great regard for literature. 26. A brief history of Canadian Sikh Immigration to Canada, Martyrdom of Mewa Singh and Komagata Maru. 26a. Refer to the beginning of this right up - Kamboja kings were ruling Burma, Bengal and Sri Lanka. The Bangarh Pillar inscription and another preserved in the garden of Dinajpur Raj (now in Bangladesh) show us that Kambojas ruled Gaur Kingdom of West and North of Bengal in the tenth century A. D. Three kings of the family are known to usRajyapala and his two sons, Narajanapala and Nayapala. 27. These were the Indian Criminal Law Amendment Bill and the Criminal Law (Emergency Powers) Bill. They were introduced in February, 1919 and passed and became law in March 1919. 28. L. Tilak was the first Indian patriot to start a Sawaraj, self-rule and boycott British made goods movement, which was later on copied by Gandhi. 29. This vacant lot near the Golden Temple once belonged to Sardar Himmat Singh of village Jallian, an aide to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 30. Whenever Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs stuck together (which unfortunately did not happen too often) on national issues against the British, they used Gurkhas to suppress them. 31. Sir Sunder Singh (1872-1941) of village Majitha near Amritsar, was a descendant of the Majithias in the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He was Secretary of Chief Khalsa Diwan from its inception (1902-1921) and President of the Khalsa College Committee from 1920 till his death. He was a wealthy landlord and sugar magnate. Unlike Sir Tagore, Thakur, and many other conscientious leaders of India, massacre at Jalliamwala Bagh was of no significance to Sir Sunder Singh and the High Priests.

115 32. Abhimanyu was the favourite son of Arjuna, the hero of epic Mahabharta (about 1400 B.C.). 33. Plassey is a historic town in West Bengal State of India where Robert Clive of East India Company defeated forces of Siraj-ud-Daula, the Nawab (Muslim Ruler) of Bengal and established British Rule in India. 34. This Alias of Udham Singh being a combination of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh names was liable to fire up the sentiments of all three major communities of India against the British and start a revolt against the British Raj in India at a time when Germans apart from advancing on all fronts had dropped bombs on Kent. 35. Khaksar was a movement of poor, mostly Muslims. It stood for independence of India. *****