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Master List of American Government / NSL Vocabulary WITH Definitions

1. 2. 3. 1st Amendment - The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great rights/freedoms/liberties: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, and of peaceful assembly. 4th (IV) Amendment guarantees freedom from unreasonable searches of the home or the person and freedom from the seizure of property. 5th (V) Amendment in criminal cases, it assures the right that people cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, including protections against being tried for the same crime twice (double jeopardy), suspects and defendants cannot be forced to answer questions or testify against themselves (self-incrimination), being indicted by a grand jury, and government seizure of private property without just compensation. 6th (VI) Amendment- The constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial. (criminal cases) guarantees the right to a fair, public, and speedy trial by an impartial jury 7th (VII) Amendment guarantees the right to a fair, public, and speedy trial by an impartial jury (civil cases). 8th (VIII) Amendment - The constitutional amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase. Through the Fourteenth Amendment, this Bill of Rights provision applies to the states. Guarantees protection against excessive fines/bail 10th (X) Amendment The constitutional amendment stating that The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. Any rights not given to the federal government in the US Constitution belong to the states and the people. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 12th (XII) Amendment requires presidential electors to vote separately for president and vicepresident. 13th (XIII) Amendment - The constitutional amendment passed after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.

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10. 14th (XIV) Amendment a constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War granting citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States; banned states from denying any person life, liberty, or property without due process of law; and banned states from denying any person equal protection under the laws; it forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law. The equal protection clause states that government cannot draw unreasonable distinctions among different groups of people. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 11. 15th (XV) Amendment - The constitutional amendment adopted in 1870 to extend suffrage to African Americans males.
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12. 16th (XVI) Amendment - The constitutional amendment adopted in 1915 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax. 13. 19th (XIX) Amendment - The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote. See also suffrage. 14. 20th (XX) Amendment shortened the time between a presidential election and inauguration by designating January 20th as Inauguration Day; set January 3rd as the date for the opening of a new Congress. 15. 22nd (XXII) Amendment - Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two full terms of office. 16. 24th (XXIV) Amendment - The constitutional amendment passed in 1964 that declared poll taxes void. 17. 25th (XXV) Amendment - Passed in 1951, the amendment that permits the vice president to become acting president if both the vice president and the presidents cabinet determine that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job. Provided for succession to the office of president in the event of death or incapacity and for filling vacancies in the office of vice president. 18. AARP - American Association of Retired Persons; Nationwide organization for people over 50 that offers discount drug purchases, health & auto insurance, publications, & other activities 19. Absolute monarchy autocracy in which a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government. 20. Action alert a message from an interest group to its members, calling upon them to respond immediately by telephone, fax, or email to a specific lawmaker, group of lawmakers, or other official. 21. Action-Reaction Syndrome - for every action on the part of government, there is a reaction on the part of the affected public. Then the government attempts to counter the reaction with another action, which starts the cycle all over again. 22. Activation - One of three key consequences of electoral campaigns for voters, in which the voter is activated to contribute money or ring doorbells instead of just voting. See also reinforcement and conversion. 23. Activist approach - Judges should discover the underlying goals of the Constitution. 24. Actual group - That part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join. See also interest group. 25. Adarand Constructors v. Pena - A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional. Such programs must be subject to the most searching judicial inquiry and can survive only if they are narrowly tailored to accomplish a compelling governmental interest. 26. Administrative discretion - The authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem. Discretion is greatest when routines, or standard operating procedures, do not fit a case.
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27. Administrative law law that spells out the authority, procedures, rules, and regulations to be followed by government agencies. 28. Adversarial press - a press corp that is suspicious and/or hostile 29. Adversary system a judicial system in which opposing lawyers present their strongest cases. 30. Advertising -According to David Mayhew, one of three primary activities undertaken by members of Congress to increase the probability of their reelection. Advertising involves contacts between members and their constituents between elections. See also credit claiming and position taking. 31. Advisory opinion a ruling on a law or action that has not been challenged. 32. AFDC Aid to Families with Dependent Children - designed during Depression. Helped families where the main wage earner was disabled, dead, or had left the family. 33. Affidavit a written statement to prove statements of fact signed by a witness under oath. 34. Affirmative Action government policies that award jobs, government contracts, promotions, admission to schools, and other benefits to minorities and women in order to make up for past discrimination. Designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment of members of some previously disadvantaged group. 35. Age Discrimination Act - Prohibits discrimination in hiring based upon age and banned some mandatory retirement ages. Makes an exception where age is necessary for job performance. 36. Agents of socialization -Families, schools, television, peer groups, and other influences that contribute to political socialization by shaping formal and especially informal learning about politics. 37. Alien a person who lives in a country where he or she is not a citizen. 38. Alliance an association (as by treaty) of two or more nations to further their common interests. 39. Ambassador an official of the government who represents the nation in diplomatic matters. 40. Amendment (Constitutional) changes in, or additions to, a constitution. In the United States proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of two thirds of the state legislatures. Ratified by approval of three-fourths of the states. 41. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 -A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make reasonable accommodations for people with physical/mental disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment. 42. Amicus curiae briefs- Legal briefs submitted by a friend of the court (a third party) for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties. These briefs attempt to influence a courts decision. 43. Amnesty a group pardon to individuals for an offense against the government. 44. Annapolis Convention - A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention. 45. Answer a formal response by a defendant to the charges in a complaint.
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46. Anti-Federalists - Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. They argued that the Constitution was a class-based document, that it would erode fundamental liberties, and that it would weaken the power of the states and give too much power to the federal government and did not protect the political rights of the people . See also Federalists and U.S. Constitution. 47. Antitrust policy -A policy designed to ensure competition and prevent monopoly, which is the control of a market by one company. 48. Appellate jurisdiction - The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, only the legal issues involved. Compare original jurisdiction. 49. Apportionment/Reapportionment the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census. 50. Appropriation approval of government spending. 51. Appropriation- the amount of money that is actually given to implement a program 52. Appropriations bill - An act of Congress that actually funds programs within limits established by authorization bills. Appropriations usually cover one year. 53. Arbitration in common law, arbitration was not a favored form of settlement, and agreements to arbitrate were generally declared void. In labor law, arbitration has become a major means of settling disputes. 54. Arms control any international agreement that limits the number, types, and use of weapons or weapons system. 55. Arms race - A tense relationship beginning in the 1950s between the Soviet Union and the United States whereby one sides weaponry became the other sides goad to procure more weaponry, and so on. 56. Arrest warrant an order signed by a judge naming the individual to be arrested for a specific crime. 57. Article one of the seven main divisions of the body of the Constitution. 58. Articles of Confederation - The first governing document of the confederated states drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781; it created a weak national government replaced in 1789 by the Constitution of the United States. 59. Assessment the complicated process involved in calculating the value of property to be taxed. 60. At-large as a whole; for example, statewide. 61. Attitudinal view - To vote according to your views. (Do as you see fit) 62. Australian ballot - a government printed ballot 63. Authoritarian government a form of government in which those in power hold absolute and unchangeable authority over people such as in a dictatorship.
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64. Authorization bill - An act of Congress that establishes, continues, or changes a discretionary government program or an entitlement. It specifies federal program goals and maximum expenditures for discretionary programs. Compare appropriations bill. 65. Authorization legislation - Legislation that stipulates spending limits on a given program 66. Autocracy a system of government in which the power to rule is in the hands of a single individual. 67. Balance of trade - The ratio of what is paid for imports to what is earned from exports. When more is imported than exported, there is a balance-of-trade deficit. 68. Balanced budget plan requiring that what the government spends will not exceed its income. 69. Ballot - the device voters use to register a choice in an election 70. Barron v. Baltimore - The 1833 Supreme Court decision holding that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities. Almost a century later, the Court first ruled in Gitlow v. New York that state governments must respect some First Amendment rights. 71. Beats - Specific locations from which news frequently emanates, such as Congress or the White House. Most top reporters work a particular beat, thereby becoming specialists in what goes on at that location. 72. Beyond a reasonable doubt this refers to the degree of certainty required for a juror to legally find a criminal defendant guilty. These words are used in instructions to jury in a criminal trial to indicate that innocence is to be presumed unless the guilt is very clear. Reasonable doubt refers to failure to meet the required degree of certainty. 73. Biased sample in polling, a group that does not accurately represent the larger population. 74. Bicameral legislature - A legislature divided into two houses. The U.S. Congress and every American state legislature except Nebraskas are bicameral. 75. Bicameralism - The principle of a two-house legislature. 76. Bill - A proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the House of Representatives or the Senate can formally submit a bill for consideration. 77. Bill of Attainder a legislative act that inflicts punishment with a court trial. 78. Bill of Rights - The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and offer protections against arbitrary searches by the police and being held without talking to a lawyer. 79. Bipartisan consisting of members of both major political parties. 80. Blanket primaries - Elections to select party nominees in which voters are presented with a list of candidates from all the parties. Voters can then select some Democrats and some Republicans if they like. See also primaries. 81. Bloc coalition that promotes a common interest.
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82. Block grants- Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services. Compare categorical grants. 83. Bond a contractual promise by a borrower to repay a certain sum plus interest by a specified date. 84. Breach of Contract a breach of legal duty; failure to do something that is required in contract. 85. Brief- A document that sets forth the facts of the case 86. Broadcast media - Television and radio, as compared with print media. 87. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) Supreme Court decision that overturned the separate-but-equal doctrine established under Plessey v. Ferguson, as it violated the 14th Amendment. As a result, the decision outlawed segregation in schools nationwide.Stated that the separate but equal clause was unconstitutional (a bad idea that didnt promote equality) This case marked the end of legal segregation in the United States. See also Plessy v. Ferguson. 88. Budget- An itemized policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures) for a given period of time.. See also balanced budget amendment. 89. Budget resolution - A resolution binding Congress to a total expenditure level, supposedly the bottom line of all federal spending for all programs. 90. Bundling - A tactic of organizations whereby they collect contributions from individuals and bundle them as one large contribution 91. Bureaucracy - A large complex organization composed of appointed officials. According to Max Weber, a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality. Bureaucracies govern modern states. 92. Bureaucrat one who works for a department or agency of the federal governmentcivil servant. 93. Business cycle a repeating pattern of economic expansion and contraction over time. 94. Cabinet - A group of presidential advisors not mentioned in the Constitution, although every president has had one. Today the cabinet is composed of 13 secretaries and the attorney general. (Sec of State, Sec of the Interior) 95. Calendar a schedule that lists the order in which bills will be considered in Congress. 96. Campaign a political bid by a candidate when they decide to run for elected office. 97. Campaign strategy - The master game plan candidates lay out to guide their electoral campaign. 98. Candidate an individual who applies for or seeks a job or position in local, state, or national government. 99. Capitalism - An economic system in which individuals and corporations, not the government, own the principal means of production and seek profits. Pure capitalism means the strict noninterference of the government in business affairs. Compare mixed economy. 100. Casework- Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals; cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get. See also pork barrel.
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101. Categorical Grants - Federal money for specific purposes. A more specific type of Grants in Aid. I.E. build a specific airport. Usually requires some sort of "matching" funds. 102. Caucus A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform. 103. Caucus (congressional) - A group of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic. Most are composed of members from both parties and from both houses. 104. Caucus (state party) - A meeting of all state party leaders for selecting delegates to the national party convention. Caucuses are usually organized as a pyramid. 105. Censorship - Governmental regulation of media content. 106. Censure a vote of formal disapproval of a members actions. 107. Census a population count. A valuable tool for understanding demographic changes. The Constitution requires that the government conduct an actual enumeration of the population every 10 years. See also demography. 108. Centers of Disease Control (CDC) a government agency that promotes the health and safety by preventing and controlling disease, injury, & disability 109. Central clearance Office of Management and Budgets review of all legislative proposals that executive agencies prepare. 110. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - An agency created after World War II to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad. It became involved in intrigue, conspiracy, and meddling as well. 111. Centralists - People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels. 112. Checks and balances - An important part of the Madisonian model designed to limit governments power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually check one anothers activities. This system reflects Madisons goal of setting power against power. For example, the president may veto legislation passed by Congress; the Senate must confirm major executive appointments; and the courts may declare acts of Congress unconstitutional. See also separation of powers. 113. Circular structure - an organizational structure that allows for liberal access to the President 114. Citizen a member of a political society who therefore owes allegiance to the government and is entitled to its protection and to political rights. 115. Citizenship membership in a community such as a college or a business or membership into a nation with legal rights and responsibilities as a citizen of that nation. 116. City manager- An official appointed by the city council who is responsible for implementing and administrating the councils actions. More than one-third of U.S. cities use the council-manager form of government. 117. Civic duty- The belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote.

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118. Civic responsibility the obligations of citizens that society expects them to perform such as doing jury duty, voting in elections, learning how the government functions, paying their taxes, registering for the draft, and voting in elections. 119. Civil case one usually involving a dispute between two or more private individuals or organizations. 120. Civil disobedience - A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences. See also protest. 121. Civil law all laws that do not involve criminal matters. Civil law may refer to the body of laws prescribed by the supreme authority of the state, as opposed to natural law. Civil law usual deals with private rights of individuals, groups, and businesses; one relating to disputes among two or more individuals or between individuals and the government. 122. Civil liberties - The legal constitutional protections against government. Although our civil liberties are formally set down in the Bill of Rights, the courts, police, and legislatures define their meaning. 123. Civil rights - Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals. Given to all United States citizens by the Constitution and Bill of Rights. 124. Civil Rights Act (1964) an act of Congress designed to protect the rights of individuals to fair treatment by private persons, groups, organizations, businesses, and government. It made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination. See also civil rights movement and civil rights policies. 125. Civil rights movement - A movement that began in the 1950s and organized both African Americans and whites to end the policies of segregation. It sought to establish equal opportunities in the political and economic sectors and to end policies that erected barriers between people because of race. 126. Civil service - A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service. Compare patronage. 127. Class action suits - Lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated. 128. Clean Air Act of 1970 - The law that charged the Department of Transportation (DOT) with the responsibility of reducing automobile emissions. 129. Clear and Present danger test - A Supreme Court formula to legitimate the abridgement of the right of free speech. Speech that has the potential to cause harm or that constitutes a clear-andpresent danger to the government is not protected. 130. Client group individuals and groups who work with a government agency and are most affected by its decisions. 131. Client politics - benefits concentrated, costs distributed 132. Closed primaries - Elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that partys candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty. See also primaries.
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133. Closed rule rule that forbids members of Congress to offer amendments to a bill from the floor. Sets a limit on debate and restricts amendments in the House 134. Closed shop A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment. 135. Cloture a procedure that allows each senator to speak only 1 hour on a bill under debate. 3/5 Senate vote that ends a filibuster 136. Cluster sample a polling method that groups people by geographical divisions. 137. Coalition- A group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends. See also New Deal Coalition. 138. Coalition government - When two or more parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature. This form of government is quite common in the multiparty systems of Europe. 139. Coattails - The power of a popular president to positively affect the election probabilities for members of his party. 140. Cold War- War by other than military means usually emphasizing ideological conflict, such as that between the United States and the Soviet Union from the end of World War II until the 1990s. 141. Collective bargaining - Negotiations between representatives of labor unions and management to determine acceptable working conditions. 142. Collective good - Something of value (money, a tax write-off, prestige, clean air, and so on) that cannot be withheld from a group member. 143. Command economy an economic system in which the government controls the factors of production. An economic system in which economic decisions to answer the basic economic questions of what, how, and for whom are made by an authority such as a feudal lord or government agency. 144. Command-and-control policy - According to Charles Schultze, the existing system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders. Compare incentive system. 145. Commerce clause - The clause in the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations. Which source of federal power did the Supreme Courts narrowly construct in its decision in United States v. Lopez? Commerce clause 146. Commercial speech - Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court. 147. Commission government - A form of municipal government in which voters elect individuals to serve as city commissioners who will have legislative responsibilities to approve city policies and executive responsibilities to direct a functional area of city government, such as public safety or public works. See also mayor_council government and council manager government. 148. Committee chairs - The most important influencers of the congressional agenda. They play dominant roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills when they are brought before the full house.
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149. Committee clearance the right of Congressional committees to pass on agency decisions 150. Committees (congressional) - See conference committees, joint committees, select committees, and standing committees. 151. Common Law the body of unwritten law, which originated in England and was later, applied in the United States. Based on judicial precedent rather than statutory laws, which are legislative enactments; it is to be contrasted with civil law. Common law is generally derived from principles rather that rules; it does not consist of absolute, fixed, and inflexible rules, but rather of broad and comprehensive principles based on justice, reason, and common sense. It is the accumulation of judicial decisions applied in civil law disputes. 152. Communism an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions. 153. Comparable worth - The issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill. 154. Competitive service- Appointment following the passage of a test 155. Complaint a legal document filed with the court that has jurisdiction over the problems. 156. Concurrent jurisdiction authority shared by both federal and state courts. 157. Concurrent powers - Powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes. 158. Concurrent resolution - passed in both houses to deal with rules. 159. Concurring opinion - a view that agrees with the decision but differs as to the reasoning. 160. Conditions of Aid - Federal government must tell the state governments what they want to do if they want the federal government money. 161. Confederacy/confederate government a loose union of independent states. A group of states or nations united for a common purpose. The states are supreme over the national government. 162. Confederation a group of states or nations united for a common purpose; closely associated for a common cause or by treaty usually referring to a system of government such as the Articles of Confederation. 163. Conference committees - Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill. See also standing committees, joint committees, and select committees. 164. Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 - An act designed to reform the congressional budgetary process. Its supporters hoped that it would also make Congress less dependent on the presidents budget and better able to set and meet its own budgetary goals. 165. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) - A counterweight to the presidents Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The CBO advises Congress on the probable consequences of budget decisions and forecasts revenues.
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166. Connecticut Compromise - The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress: the House of Representatives, in which representation is based on a states share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives. Compare New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan. 167. Conscription compulsory military service; also called the draft. 168. Consent of the governed John Lockes ideas that the government gets its right to govern from the people. Thomas Jefferson included this principle in the Declaration of Independence. 169. Conservation the care and protection of natural resources including the land, lakes, rivers, and forests; oil, natural gas, and other energy sources; wildlife. 170. Conservatism - A belief that limited government insures order competitive markets and personal opportunity. A political ideology whose advocates fear the growth of government, deplore governments drag on private-sector initiatives, dislike permissiveness in society, and place a priority on military needs over social needs. Compare liberalism. 171. Conservatives - Those who advocate conservatism. Compare liberals. 172. Constituent a person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent. 173. Constituents all residents of a district or members of a group represented by an elected official. 174. Constitution- A nations basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. Constitutions can be either written or unwritten. See also U.S. Constitution. 175. Constitutional Amendments - changes in, or additions to, a constitution. In the United States proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of two thirds of the state legislatures. Ratified by approval of three-fourths of the states. 176. Constitutional commission a group of experts appointed to study a state constitution and recommend changes. 177. Constitutional Convention - The convention in Philadelphia, May 25 to September 17, 1787, that debated and agreed upon the Constitution of the United States. 178. Constitutional courts - Lower federal courts of original jurisdiction created by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. Compare legislative courts. 179. Constitutional democracy - A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections. 180. Constitutional government a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the power of those who govern. 181. Constitutional law law that involves the interpretation and application of the US Constitution and state constitutions. 182. Constitutional monarchy a monarchy that has shared governmental powers with elected legislatures or serves mainly as a ceremonial leader of a government.

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183. Constitutionalism - The set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights, that requires our leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make laws. We then hold them politically and legally accountable for how they exercise their powers. 184. Consul a government official who heads a consulate in a foreign nation. 185. Consulate office that promotes American business and safeguards it travelers in a foreign country. 186. Consumer an individual or group who uses resources, goods, and services to satisfy economic wants. 187. Consumer price index (CPI) - The key measure of inflation that relates prices in one year to prices for a base year that are figured as 100. A measure of the overall price level in the economy. 188. Containment doctrine - A foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, contain its advances, and resist its encroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if necessary. 189. Contempt willful obstruction of justice. 190. Continuing resolutions - When Congress cannot reach agreement and pass appropriations bills, these resolutions allow agencies to spend at the level of the previous year. 191. Contract a set of voluntary promises, enforceable by the law, between two or more parties; the writing of a document containing an agreement. There is a branch of law that deals with formal agreements between parties. 192. Convention - a meeting of delegates of a political party to form policies and select candidates 193. Conversion - One of three key consequences of electoral campaigns for voters, in which the voters mind is actually changed. See also reinforcement and activation. 194. Cooperative federalism- A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly. Compare dual federalism. 195. Corporate charter a document that gives corporation legal status. 196. Council manager government- A common form of government used by municipalities in which voters elect a city council (and possibly an independent mayor) to make public policy for the city. The city council, in turn, appoints a professional city manager to serve as chief executive of the city and to administer public policy. See also mayor-council government and commission government. 197. Council of Economic Advisors (CEA) - A three-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy. 198. Council of Governments (COG) - Councils in many areas of the country where officials from various localities meet to discuss mutual problems and plan joint, cooperative action. 199. Counsel an attorney or lawyer.

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200. County - the largest political subdivision of state government that has a set of government officers to administer some local servicesoften on behalf of the state. Called a parish in Louisiana and a borough in Alaska. See also county government. 201. County board/council the governing board of most counties. 202. County government - A unit of local government that serves as the administrative arm of state government at the local level. It has many social service and record-keeping responsibilities. See also county. 203. Courts of appeal - Appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases. In addition, they also hear appeals to orders of many federal regulatory agencies. Compare district courts. 204. Covert secret. 205. Craig v. Boren - In this 1976 Supreme Court decision, the Court determined that gender classification cases would have a heightened or middle level of scrutiny. In other words, the courts were to show less deference to gender classifications than to more routine classifications, but more deference than to racial classifications. 206. Credit claiming - According to David Mayhew, one of three primary activities undertaken by members of Congress to increase the probability of their reelection. It involves personal and district service. See also advertising and position taking. 207. Criminal case one in which the state brings charges against a citizen for violating the law. 208. Criminal justice system system of state and federal courts, police, and prisons that enforces criminal laws. 209. Criminal law- The body of law involving a case in which an individual is charged with violating a specific law. The offense may be harmful to an individual or society and in either case warrants punishment, such as imprisonment or a fine; one that defines crimes and provides for their punishment. Compare civil law. 210. Crisis - A sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event requiring the president to play the role of crisis manager. 211. Critical election - An electoral earthquake whereby new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era. See also party realignment. 212. Cross-cutting cleavages Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different. 213. Cross-cutting requirements A technique of Congress to establish federal regulations. Federal grants may establish certain conditions that extend to all activities supported by federal funds, regardless of their source. The first and most famous of these is Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which holds that in the use of federal funds, no person may be discriminated against on the basis of race, color, or national origin. More than 60 cross-cutting requirements concern such matters as the environment, historic preservation, contract wage rates, access to government information, the care of experimental animals, and the treatment of human subjects in research projects.
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214. Crossover sanctions A technique of Congress to establish federal regulations. These sanctions permit the use of federal money in one program to influence state and local policy in another. For example, a 1984 act reduced federal highway aid by up to 15 percent for any state that failed to adopt a minimum drinking age of 21. 215. Crossover voting Voting by member of one party for a candidate of another party. 216. Cruel and unusual punishment - Court sentences prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory death sentences for certain offenses are unconstitutional, it has not held that the death penalty itself constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. See also Furman v. Georgia, Gregg v. Georgia, and McClesky v. Kemp. 217. Damages money to be paid as compensation for injury or loss. 218. De facto existing in fact rather than legally. 219. De facto segregation - Segregation by fact (preferred living patterns) 220. De jure segregation - Segregation by law ( statutory, such as literacy test) 221. Dealignment - Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of Independents. 222. Debt money owed to a person, company, or government. 223. Decentralists - People who favor state or local action rather than national action. 224. Declaration of Independence - the document approved by representation of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence. The major premise of the Declaration of Independence was that: People have a right to revolt when they determine that the government is destructive of their rights 225. Defamatory speech false speech that damages a persons good name, character, or reputation. 226. Defendant in a civil suit, the person against who the plaintiff brings a court action; in a criminal case, the person charged with the crime; the person against whom a civil or criminal suit is brought. 227. Deficit the amount by which a sum of money falls short of the required or expected amount. An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues. See also budget. 228. Deflation - too many goods chasing too little money 229. Delegate - a person appointed or elected to represent others 230. Delegate approach- Do what the public wants. 231. Delegated Powers powers expressly granted to the national government by the Constitution. These powers, found in Article I, Section 8, include the authority to provide the common defense, to coin money and to regulate commerce. Also known as expressed powers and/or enumerated powers 232. Democracy/Democratic government government in which the people rules. A form of government in which political control is exercised by all people, either directly (direct democracy) or through their elected representatives (representative democracy).With free and frequent elections.

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233. Democratic centralism - The true interest of the masses are served by those in power, without a vote given to determine power. 234. Democratic theory - A theory about how a democratic government makes its decisions. According to Robert Dahl, its cornerstones are equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, final control over the agenda, and inclusion. 235. Demography - The science of population changes. See also census. 236. Denaturalization the loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process. 237. Denied Powers limitations on the powers of Congress and the national government. The national government is a government of delegated powers. Expressly stated within the US Constitution, Article I, Section 9. 238. Dennis v. United States - A 1951 Supreme Court decision that permitted the government to jail several American Communist Party leaders under the Smith Act, a law forbidding advocacy of the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. 239. Deregulate to reduce regulations. 240. Deregulation - The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and other professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer. 241. Descriptive representation - Representatives who are demographically similar to the constituency 242. Desegregation to eliminate the practice of segregation including any practice or law that requires isolation of individuals due to their race. 243. Dtente - A slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy and policymaking. It sought a relaxation of tensions between the superpowers, coupled with firm guarantees of mutual security. 244. Devolution revolution - The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states. The shifting of national government actions to that of the states. Examples include welfare and health care. 245. Dictatorship a government in which the leader has absolute power and authority. 246. Dillons Rule - The idea that local governments have only those powers that are explicitly given them by the states. This means that local governments have very little discretion over what policies they pursue or how they pursue them. It was named for Iowa Judge John Dillon, who expressed this idea in an 1868 court decision. 247. Direct democracy - Government controlled directly by citizens as they vote on laws and select officials directly.. In some U.S. states, procedures such as the initiative, the referendum, and the recall give voters a direct impact on policymaking and the political process by means of the voting booth and can therefore be considered forms of direct democracy. 248. Direct mail - A high-tech method of raising money for a political cause or candidate. It involves sending information and requests for money to people whose names appear on lists of those who have supported similar views or candidates in the past.
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249. Direct primary - Election in which voters choose party nominees. 250. Discharge petition - a rule that allows a bill to reach the floor even when it is tied up in committee 251. Discount rate the interest rate the Federal Reserve System charges member banks for loans. 252. Discovery process when both sides prepare for a trial by gathering evidence to support their case. 253. Discretionary authority - The ability to choose a course of action that is not specific within the law. 254. Discrimination prejudice, usually based on race, religion, class, sex or age; unfair treatment of individuals based solely on their race, gender, ethnic group, age, physical disability 255. Dissenting opinion - the minority opinion of the judges 256. District courts - The 91 federal courts of original jurisdiction. They are the only federal courts in which no trials are held and in which juries may be empanelled. Compare courts of appeal. 257. Divided government - Government divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress. A President of one party with a Congressional majority constituted of the opposing party 258. Domestic Policy - public plans or courses of action that concern issues of national importance, such as poverty, crime, and the environment. 259. Double jeopardy retrial of a person who was accused in a previous trial for the same crime; part of the Fifth Amendment that says that no person can be put in jeopardy of life or limb twice; once a person has been tried for a crime, he or she cannot be tried again for the same crime. 260. Double-tracking - Shelving a filibustered bill to allow for other business. 261. Dred Scott v. Sandford - The 1857 Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories. 262. Dual Federalism (layer cake federalism)- The national government is supreme, but the state governments are equally supreme and thus are separate. Each remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. The Supreme Court serves as the umpire between the national government and the states in disputes over which level of government has responsibility for a particular activity. I.E. interstate commerce vs. intrastate commerce 263. Due process of law principle of the Fifth Amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals. The right of every citizen to be protected against arbitrary action by the government. No state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. 264. Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) - A negative income tax that provides income to very poor individuals in lieu of charging them federal tax. 265. Economic Growth growth that occurs when increasing amounts of goods and services are produced over the long term; generally measured as GDP (Gross Domestic Product) or GDP per capita and reported or a quarterly and annually. Economic growth is a goal for which economies strive in order to improve the material standard of living of the society.
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266. Economic resources the natural, human and capital resources that are used to produced goods and services; also called factors of production. 267. Economic Sanctions economic penalties applied by one country or group of countries on another for economic, political, or other reasons. It is a foreign policy tool of the US government in which the government imposes a measure such as boycotting or withholding economic aid to influence a foreign governments activities. By doing so, would be to weaken the economic status of the country being sanctioned. 268. Economic wants human needs and desires than can be satisfied by consuming goods and services, including but not limited to such needs as hunger, thirst, protection from the elements, and good health and such desires as entertainment and a pleasing physical appearance. 269. Economics the study of human efforts to satisfy seemingly unlimited wants through the use of limited resources. 270. Elastic Clause the clause in the final paragraph Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to make all laws, necessary and proper to carry out the enumerated powers expressed in the other clauses in Article I. The elastic or necessary and proper clause of the Constitution has been used by cooperative federalists to: Promote interaction between the levels of government. See also implied powers. 271. Electioneering - Direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form political action committees (PACs). 272. Elector member of a party chosen in each state to formally elect the president and vice president. 273. Electoral college - A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Although the Electoral College vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner-take-all rule gives clout to big states. 274. Electoral vote the official vote for president and vice president by electors in each state. 275. Electronic mailing list an automated email notification that provides subscribers with current information on a topic. 276. Elite and class theory - A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization. According to the elite and class theory of government and politics, elites control policies because they control key institutions. Compare hyperpluralism, pluralist theory, and traditional democratic theory. 277. Embargo a prohibition by a government on certain or all trade with a foreign nation. 278. Embassy an ambassadors official residence and offices in a foreign country. 279. Eminent domain the power of the government to take private property for public use. 280. Endangered Species Act of 1973 - This law requires the federal government to protect actively each of the hundreds of species listed as endangeredregardless of the economic effect on the surrounding towns or region.

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281. Engel v. Vitale - The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New Yorks schoolchildren. Compare School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp. 282. Entitlement Programs that cannot be cut because people are entitled to the money. A required government expenditure that continues from one year to the next. 283. Entitlement programs - Policies for which expenditures are uncontrollable because Congress has in effect obligated itself to pay X level of benefits to Y number of recipients. Each year, Congresss bill is a straightforward function of the X level of benefits times the Y number of beneficiaries. Social Security benefits are an example. 284. Entrepreneurial politics - benefits distributed, costs concentrated 285. Enumerated powers - Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article I, Section 8, and include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes. Compare implied powers. 286. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - A report filed with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that specifies what environmental effects a proposed policy would have. The National Environmental Policy Act requires that whenever any agency proposes to undertake a policy that is potentially disruptive of the environment, the agency must file a statement with the EPA. 287. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - An agency of the federal government created in 1970 and charged with administering all the governments environmental legislation. It also administers policies dealing with toxic wastes and is in charge of enforcing clean air and water quality standards. . The EPA is the largest federal independent regulatory agency. 288. Equal opportunity- A policy statement about equality holding that the rules of the game should be the same for everyone. Most of our civil rights policies over the past three decades have presumed that equality of opportunity is a public policy goal. Compare equal results. 289. Equal Protection Clause or Equal protection of the laws: provided by the Fourteenth Amendment mandating that all people be protected by the law. Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment that forbids any state to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. By interpretation, the Fifth Amendment imposes the same limitation on the national government. This clause is the major constitutional restraint on the power of governments to discriminate against persons because of race, national origin, or sex. Part of the 14th Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent protection to all people. As one member of Congress said during debate on the amendment, it should provide equal protection of life, liberty, and property to all a states citizens. The idea that no individual or group may receive special privileges from nor be unjustly discriminated against by law. 290. Equal protection of the laws (Equal Protection Clause) - Part of the 14th Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent protection to all people. As one member of Congress said during debate on the amendment, it should provide equal protection of life, liberty, and property to all a states citizens. The idea that no individual or group may receive special privileges from nor be unjustly discriminated against by law. 291. Equal results - A policy statement about equality holding that government has a duty to help break down barriers to equal opportunity. Affirmative action is an example of a policy justified as promoting equal results rather than merely equal opportunities.
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292. Equal Rights Amendment - A constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1978 and sent to the state legislatures for ratification, stating that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Despite substantial public support and an extended deadline, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures. 293. Equal time - if a TV station sells time to one candidate they must offer the same to an opponent. 294. Equality of Condition Creating the same situation for all citizens. Equality in all aspects of life, such as personal possessions, living standards, medical care, and working conditions. 295. Equality of Opportunity an equal chance for all persons to participate in such areas as education, employment, and political participation. 296. Equity most commonly thought of as justice, however equity developed as a separate body of law in England in reaction to the inability of the common law courts to provide a remedy for every injury. A system of rules by which disputes are resolved on the grounds of fairness. 297. Establishment clause - Part of the First Amendment stating Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.; is the basis for separation of church and state. 298. European Union (EU) - An alliance of the major western European nations which coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies, making its members one economic unit. An example of a regional organization. 299. Ex Post Facto Law a law applied to an act committed before the laws passage. Such a law violates the Constitution of the United States that states that neither Congress nor any state shall pass an ex post facto law; these provisions have held applicable only to criminal statues. 300. Excise tax tax on the manufacture, transportation, sale, or consumption of certain items such as gasoline, liquor, or cigarettes. 301. Exclusionary rule - The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure. 302. Executive agreement an agreement made between the president and a head of state; a pact made by the President directly with the head of a foreign state; a binding international agreement with the force of law but which (unlike a treaty) does not require Senate consent. 303. Executive orders - Directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law. Regulations originating from the executive branch. Executive orders are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy; more often, though, presidents pass along their wishes through their aides. 304. Executive privilege - The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security. 305. Exit polls - Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision. 306. Expatriation giving up ones citizenship by leaving to live in a foreign country. 307. Expenditures - Federal spending of revenues. Major areas of such spending are social services and the military.
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308. Expressed contract a contract in which the terms are specifically stated, usually in writing. 309. Expressed powers powers directly stated in the Constitution; powers directly expressed or stated in the Constitution by the founders. Also known as delegated and enumerated powers. 310. External efficacy - The belief that the political system will respond to citizens. This belief has declined in recent years because of public sentiment that the government has become too big to be responsive 311. Extradition - A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed. The legal procedure through which a person accused of a crime who has fled to another state is returned to the state where the crime took place. 312. Factions - Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10. Todays parties or interest groups are what Madison had in mind when he warned of the instability in government caused by factions. Aa group, usually a small part of a larger group, united around some cause; disagreement within an organization 313. Factors of production resources that an economy needs to produce goods and services. 314. Fairness doctrine rule requiring broadcaster to provide opportunities for the expression of opposing views on issues of public importance. 315. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) a government agency that regulates air travel. 316. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) a government agency that regulates broadcast media (TV and Radio) that use public airwaves. 317. Federal debt - All the money borrowed by the federal government over the years and still outstanding. Today the federal debt is about $5.5 trillion. 318. Federal Election Campaign Act- A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions. 319. Federal Election Commission (FEC) - A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The FEC administers the campaign finance laws and enforces compliance with their requirements. 320. Federal government a form of government in which a union or states recognizes the sovereignty of a central authority while sharing powers with political units such as states. 321. Federal grant a sum of money given to a state for a specific purpose. 322. Federal mandate - A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds. 323. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) - the most important body within the Federal Reserve System. The FOMC decides how monetary policy should be carried out by the Federal Reserve System.
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324. Federal Reserve System the nations central bank; the Fed. The main instrument for making monetary policy in the United States. It was created by Congress in 1913 to regulate the lending practices of banks and thus the money supply. The seven members of its Board of Governors are appointed to 14-year terms by the president with the consent of the Senate. 325. Federal system/government a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments. A system in which sovereignty is shared so that in some matters the national government is supreme and others, the state, regional, or provincial governments are supreme. 326. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) - The independent regulatory agency traditionally responsible for regulating false and misleading trade practices. The FTC has recently become active in defending consumer interests through its truth-in-advertising rule and the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Regulates businesses and enforces fair business practices 327. Federalism a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments. A form of political organization in which government power is divided between a central government and territorial subdivisions. Power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional governments both exercise direct authority over individuals. 328. Federalist Papers - A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name Publius to defend the Constitution in detail. Collectively, these papers are second only to the U.S. Constitution in characterizing the framers intents. 329. Federalists supporters of a stronger central government who advocated ratification of the Constitution. After ratification, they founded a political party supporting a strong executive and Alexander Hamiltons economic policies. See also Anti-Federalists and Federalist Papers. 330. Fee shifting - allows the plaintiff to collect from the defendant if the defendant loses. 331. Felony a major crime; a generic term used to distinguish certain high crimes from minor offenses known as misdemeanors; crimes declared to be such by statue or as true crimes by common law. 332. Feminization of poverty - The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children. 333. Filibuster- A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation try to talk it to death, based on the tradition of unlimited debate. A method of defeating a bill in the Senate by stalling the legislative process and preventing a vote Today, 60 members present and voting can halt a filibuster. 334. Fiscal federalism - The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national governments relations with state and local governments. See also federalism. 335. Fiscal policy a governments use of spending and taxation to influence the economy; a course of action that seeks to achieve socioeconomic goals by affecting the level of taxes and governmental expenditures in the economy. In the US, fiscal policy is largely the responsibility of the President and the US Congress and on the state level, the Governor and the General Assembly. The policy that describes the impact of the federal budgettaxes, spending, and borrowingon the economy. Unlike monetary policy, which is mostly controlled by the Federal Reserve System, fiscal policy is
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almost entirely determined by Congress and the president, who are the budget makers. See also Keynesian economic theory. 336. Fiscal year a 12-month accounting period. 337. Flat tax - a tax in which people pay an identical rate regardless of income. 338. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- The federal agency formed in 1913 and assigned the task of approving all food products and drugs sold in the United States. All drugs, with the exception of tobacco, must have FDA authorization. Also inspects food and drug processing plants 339. Food Stamps - coupons issued by the federal government to low-income individuals to be used for the purchase of food. 340. Foreign aid aid/help provided by the United States to foreign nations devastated by war, economic crisis, or natural disasters. Usually done to promote national security, open up free trade, increase world peace, concerns for humanity/well-being for people, and helping the spread of democracy. 341. Foreign Policy the strategies and goals that guide a nations relations with other countries. The politics of the federal government directed to matters beyond United States borders, especially relations with other countries. The president is the chief initiator of foreign policy in the United States. 342. Formula grants- Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations. 343. Forum medium for discussion. 344. Fragmentation - A situation in which responsibility for a policy area is dispersed among several units within the bureaucracy, making the coordination of policies both time-consuming and difficult. 345. Framers of the Constitution group of delegates who drafted the United States Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. 346. Franking privilege - Free postage for Congress when mailing to constituents. 347. Free exercise clause - A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion. 348. Free market economic system in which buyers and sellers make free choices in the marketplace. 349. Freedom of Expression - The constitutional rights of Americans to "freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of greivances" (1st amendment) 350. Freedom of Religion - The religious rights of Americans outlined in the First Amendment to the Constitution. 351. Free-rider problem - The problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the groups activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the more serious the free-rider problem. See also interest group. 352. Frontloading - The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention. At one time, it was considered advantageous for a state to choose its
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delegates late in the primary season so that it could play a decisive role. However, in recent years, votes cast in states that have held late primaries have been irrelevant given that one candidate had already sewn up the nomination early on. 353. Front-runner the early leader in an election. 354. Full faith and credit clause - Clause in the Constitution (Article 4, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid. 355. Fundamental right a basic right of the American system or one that is indispensable in a just system. 356. Funded mandate - When a higher level of the U.S. government (i.e. the federal government) tells lower branches of the government (i.e. state governments) to do something, that's a mandate. If the federal government give the states money to help them do whatever it is they want them to do, it is a funded mandate. 357. Gatekeeper - The medias role in determining what will be news. 358. Gender gap - A term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates. Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose the higher levels of military spending. 359. General election the election that takes place, usually in November in which voters can choose a candidate from any of the political parties for an elective office 360. Gerrymander/Gerrymandering to draw a districts boundaries to gain an advantage in elections; the dividing of a geographic area into electoral district lines to give an unfair advantage of a party or group. 361. Gibbons v. Ogden - A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity. The commerce clause has been the constitutional basis for much of Congresss regulation of the economy. 362. Gideon v. Wainwright - The 1963 Supreme Court decision holding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer. See also Sixth Amendment. 363. Gitlow v. New York - The 1925 Supreme Court decision holding that freedoms of press and speech are fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the states as well as the federal government. Compare Barron v. Baltimore. 364. Globalization the lowering of economic, social, and political barriers between nations. 365. Goods & services physically tangible objects that can be used to satisfy economic wants, including but not limited to food, shoes, cars, houses, books and furniture; physically intangible actions that can be performed to satisfy economic wants, including but not limited to medical care, dental care, haircuts, education, police protection, fire protection, and national defense. 366. Government the institution and processes through with the state maintains social order, provides public services, public policies are made for a society and enforces binding decisions.
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367. Government corporation - a business that the federal government runs that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. The U.S. Postal Service is an example. Compare independent regulatory agency and independent executive agency 368. Governor- The elected chief executive of state government who directs the administration of state government and the implementation of public policy in the state. 369. Gramm-Rudman-Hollings - Named for its sponsors and also known as the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Act, legislation mandating maximum allowable deficit levels each year until 1991, when the budget was to be balanced. In 1987, the balanced budget year was shifted to 1993, but the Act was abandoned in 1991. 370. Grand jury group that hears charges against a suspect and decides whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trial. 371. Grandfather clause- One of the methods used by Southern states to deny African Americans the right to vote. In order to exempt illiterate whites from taking a literacy test before voting, the clause exempted people whose grandfathers were eligible to vote in 1860, thereby disenfranchising the grandchildren of slaves. The grandfather clause was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1913. See also poll taxes and white primary. 372. Grants (grants in Aid) - Federal funds provided to states for services such as airports , highways, and education. 373. Grass Roots - the common people at a local level (as distinguished from the centers of political activity) 374. Gregg v. Georgia - The 1976 Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty, stating that It is an extreme sanction, suitable to the most extreme of crimes. The court did not, therefore, believe that the death sentence constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. 375. Gridlock - the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government 376. Griswold v. Connecticut - Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens' right to privacy. 377. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - the total worth estimated in currency values of a nations production in a given year. GDP = consumption + investment + (government spending) + (exports imports). 378. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)/ Gross national product (GNP) represent the size and strength of the economy. While both concepts are similar, their definition, calculation and applications are different from each other. 379. Gross National Product (GNP) the total of all business production and service sector industry in a country plus its gain on overseas investment. GNP = GDP + NR (Net income from assets abroad (Net Income Receipts)) 380. GS (General Schedule) rating- A schedule for federal employees, ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience. See civil service.

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381. Hard money - Campaign money campaign contributions donated directly to candidates that must be reported to the federal government 382. Hatch Act 1939 - Made it illegal for federal civil service employees to take an active part in political management or political campaigns by serving as party officers, soliciting campaign funds, running for partisan office, working in a partisan campaign, endorsing partisan candidates, taking voters to the polls, counting ballots, circulating nominating petitions, or being delegates to a party convention. Gradually took federal employees out of machine politics. 383. Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) - Organizations contracted by individuals or insurance companies to provide health care for a yearly fee. Such network health plans limit the choice of doctors and treatments. About 60 percent of Americans are enrolled in HMOs or similar programs. 384. Hearing a session at which a committee listens to testimony from people interested in the bill. 385. Higher Education Act Title 9 (IX) 1972 gives women equal rights in the area of education and ensures that womens sports receives funding and attention equal to mens sports 386. High-tech politics - A politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology. 387. Home rule - The practice by which municipalities are permitted by the states to write their own charters and change them without permission of the state legislature, within limits. Today this practice is widely used to organize and modernize municipal government. See also local charter. 388. House arrest a sentence which requires an offender to stay at home except for certain functions the court permits. 389. House Rules Committee - An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget, and appropriations bills) coming from a House committee before they go to the full House. 390. House Ways and Means Committee - The House of Representatives committee that, along with the Senate Finance Committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole. 391. Human rights fundamental freedoms. 392. Hung jury a jury that is unable to reach a decision. 393. Hyperpluralism - A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism. Compare elite and class theory, pluralist theory, and traditional democratic theory. 394. Ideological Parties - Parties based on a particular set of beliefs, a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters 395. Ideology - A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government. A set of basic beliefs about life, culture, government, and society. 396. Illegal alien a person without legal permission to be in a country. 397. Image mental picture.
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398. Immigrant those people legally admitted as permanent residents of a country. 399. Immunity freedom from prosecution for witnesses whose testimony ties them to illegal acts. 400. Impeach to accuse a public official of misconduct in office; charging a public official with a crime in office for which they can be removed from power. (House of representatives function) 401. Impeachment a formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official; charges a public official with a crime in office for which they can be removed from power. The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 402. Implementation - The stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. Implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program. See also judicial implementation. 403. Implied contract a contract in which the terms are not expressly stated but can be inferred from the actions of the people involved and the circumstances. 404. Implied powers - Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. In Article I, The Constitution states that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out enumerated powers Many federal policies are justified on the basis of implied powers. See also McCulloch v. Maryland, elastic clause, and enumerated powers. 405. Impound to refuse to spend. 406. Impoundment - Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated. 407. Incentive system - According to Charles Shultze, a more effective and efficient policy than command-and-control; in the incentive system, market like strategies are used to manage public policy. 408. Income - The amount of funds collected between any two points in time. Compare wealth. 409. Income distribution - The shares of the national income earned by various groups. 410. Income strategy - programs that provide cash assistance 411. Income taxes - Shares of individual wages and corporate revenues collected by the government. The first income tax was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1895, but the Sixteenth Amendment explicitly authorized Congress to levy a tax on income. See also Internal Revenue Service (IRS). 412. Income Transfer - a transfer of income from some individuals in the economy to other individuals. This is generally done by way of the government. It is a transfer in the sense that no current services are rendered by the recipients. 413. Incorporation a process of setting up a legal community under state law. 414. Incorporation clause - The Fourteenth Amendment makes the Bill of Rights applicable to state law as well as federal law.
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415. Incorporation doctrine a process that extended the protections of the Bill of Rights against the actions of state and local government. Also see Process of Incorporation (Incorporation Doctrine) the process of incorporating or including most of the guarantees in the Bill of Rights into the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause. 416. Incrementalism - The belief that the best predictor of this years budget is last years budget, plus a little bit more (an increment). According to Aaron Wildavsky, Most of the budget is a product of previous decisions. 417. Incumbent elected official that is already in office; In congressional elections, incumbents usually win. 418. Independent a voter who does not support any particular party. 419. Independent executive agency - The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the presidents pleasure. The Veterans Administration is an example. 420. Independent regulatory agency - A government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules supposedly to protect the public interest. It also judges disputes over these rules. The Interstate Commerce Commission is an example. Compare government corporation and independent executive agency. 421. Indian Education Act of 1972 landmark legislation establishing a comprehensive approach to meeting the unique needs of American Indian and Alaska Native students. The Indian Education legislation is unique in the following ways: 1) It recognizes that American Indians have unique, educational and culturally related academic needs and distinct language and cultural needs; 2) It is the only comprehensive Federal Indian Education legislation, that deals with American Indian education from pre-school to graduate-level education and reflects the diversity of government involvement in Indian education; 3) It focuses national attention on the educational needs of American Indian learners, reaffirming the Federal government's special responsibility related to the education of American Indians and Alaska Natives; and 4) It provides services to American Indians and Alaska Natives that are not provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 422. Indictment a formal charge by a grand jury; a formal complaint before a grand jury that charges the accused with one or more crimes. 423. Individualism - The belief that individuals should be left on their own by the government. One of the primary reasons for the comparatively small scope of American government is the prominence of this belief in American political thought and practice. 424. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1997 ensures that students with disabilities receive fair treatment in public schools by accommodating the students needs. 425. INF Treaty - The elimination of Intermediate range Nuclear Forces (INF) through an agreement signed by President Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev during the May 1988 Moscow summit. It was the first treaty to reduce current levels of nuclear weapons. 426. Inflation an increase in the overall price level in an economy. The rise in prices for consumer goods. Inflation hurts some but actually benefits others. Groups such as those who live on fixed incomes are particularly hard hit, while people whose salary increases are tied to the consumer price index but whose loan rates are fixed may enjoy increased buying power.
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427. Influence of the media the power of the media to persuade the public one way or the other on various topics and issues of concern through different mediums (TV, radio, newspaper, & the Internet). 428. Information a sworn statement by the prosecution that there is sufficient evidence for a trial. 429. Inherent powers - The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government. 430. Initiative- a method by which citizens propose a constitutional amendment or a law; A process permitted in some states whereby voters may place proposed changes in the state constitution on a state referendum if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum. See also legislative proposal and constitutional convention. 431. Injunction an order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation. 432. In-Kind Subsidy - a good or service such as food stamps, housing, or medical care provided by the government to lower-income groups. 433. Instructed delegate- A legislator who mirrors the preferences of his or her constituents. Compare trustee. 434. Integration the process of bringing a group into equal membership in society. 435. Interdependency- Mutual dependency, in which the actions of nations reverberate and affect one anothers economic lifelines. 436. Interest group - An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas. 437. Intergovernmental relations - The workings of the federal systemthe entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments. 438. Intergovernmental revenue revenue distributed by one level of government to another. 439. Internal efficacy: Confidence in one's own ability to understand and to take part in political affairs. This confidence has remained stable over the past few decades. 440. Internal Revenue Service (IRS)- The office established to collect federal income taxes, investigate violations of the tax laws, and prosecute tax criminals. 441. International Federation of the Red Cross/Red Crescent an international organization devoted to protecting and assisting civilians, war wounded, prisoners, refugees, and other noncombatants in war zones. 442. International Monetary Fund (IMF) this is an international organization of 184 countries established to promote monetary cooperation and exchange stability. The organization also fosters economic growth and high levels of employment and provides temporary financial assistance. 443. Interstate Commerce trade,, traffic, or transportation in the United States 1. Between a place in a State and a place outside of such State (including a place outside off the United States); 2. Between two places in a State through another State or a place outside of the United States; 3. Between two
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places in a State as part of trade, traffic, or transportation originating or terminating outside the State or the United States. 49 CFR 390.5; 13501 444. Interstate compact - An agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements. 445. Intrastate Commerce - means any trade, traffic, or transportation in any State which is not described in the term interstate commerce. 49 CFR 390.5 446. Investigative journalism- The use of detective-like reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, putting reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders. 447. Iron trianglescomposed of bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommitteeshave dominated some areas of domestic policymaking. Iron triangles are characterized by mutual dependency, in which each element provides key services, information, or policy for the others. Also see Issue Network 448. Isolationism- A foreign policy course followed throughout most of our nations history, whereby the United States has tried to stay out of other nations conflicts, particularly European wars. Isolationism was reaffirmed by the Monroe Doctrine. 449. Issue Network - A more complex network that also includes scholars and the media, along with the iron triangle participants. 450. Item veto the power to turn down a particular time in a bill without vetoing the entire bill. 451. James Madison 452. Jim Crow laws laws requiring racial segregation in such places as schools, buses, and hotels. 453. John Q Public - a term to represent the common man 454. Joint Chiefs of Staff- The commanding officers of the armed services who advise the president on military policy. 455. Joint committee a committee of the House and the Senate that usually acts as a study group and reports its findings back to the House and the Senate. See also standing committees, conference committees, and select committees. 456. Joint resolution - passed in both houses, signed by the President and with the force of law (Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq.) 457. Judicial activism - A judicial philosophy in which judges make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground. Advocates of this approach emphasize that the courts can correct pressing needs, especially those unmet by the majoritarian political process. The philosophy that the Supreme Court should play an active role in shaping national policies by addressing social and political issues. 458. Judicial circuit a region containing a United State appellate court. 459. Judicial interpretation - A major informal way in which the Constitution is changed by the courts as they balance citizens rights against those of the government. How and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy, affecting the behavior of others. The courts rely on other units of government to enforce their decisions. See also judicial review.
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460. Judicial restraint the philosophy that the Supreme Court should avoid taking the initiative on social and political questions. A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that strictly to the legislatures. Compare judicial activism. 461. Judicial Review the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional; the power of the courts to determine the constitutionality of the actions of the legislative and executive branches of government. The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the U.S. Constitution. Judicial review was established in the 1803 case by John Marshall and his associates in Marbury v. Madison. See also judicial interpretation. 462. Jurisdiction the authority of a court to rule on certain cases. See appellate and original jurisdiction. 463. Jury a group of citizens who hear evidence during a trial and give a verdict. 12 persons who decide upon the facts at issue in a court trial. 464. Justiciable disputes - A constraint on the courts, requiring that a case must be capable of being settled by legal methods. 465. Keynesian economic theory - an economic theory, named after English economists John Maynard Keynes, that gained prominence during the Great Depression of the 1930s. It is typically associated with the use of fiscal policy to alter national economic variables for example, increased government spending during times of economic downturns. Also see fiscal policy. 466. Keynesianism - Economic key is to create demand. Pump money into a slow economy by spending more, taxing less 467. Korematsu v. United States - A 1944 Supreme Court decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Americans of Japanese descent in encampments during World War II. 468. Laffer curve - As taxes go down, government revenues go up! 469. Laissez-faire the philosophy that government should keep its hands off the economy. A freely competitive market 470. Lame duck an outgoing official serving out the remainder of a term, after retiring or being defeated for reelection. 471. Law a set of rules and standards by which a society governs itself. 472. Leak the release of secret information by anonymous government officials to the media. 473. Legislation the product of a lawmaking bodys action; laws and ordinances. 474. Legislative courts - Courts established by Congress for specialized purposes, such as the Court of Military Appeals. Judges who serve on these courts have fixed terms and lack the protections of constitutional court judges. 475. Legislative oversight - Congresss monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings.

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476. Legislative veto- The ability of Congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find the legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers. 477. Legislator these people are elected by the people at the state and national level to make laws, check and balance the power of the Executive Branch. Most states and the national government have two houses of legislatures. They represent what is considered the most democratic branch of government. 478. Legitimacy - A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders. When legitimacy is high, as in the United States, even the losers accept the results peacefully. 479. Lemon v. Kurtzman- The 1971 Supreme Court decision that established that aid to church-related schools must (1) have a secular legislative purpose; (2) have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) not foster excessive government entanglement with religion. 480. Liaison officer a cabinet department employee who helps promote good relations with Congress. 481. Libel false written or published statements intended to damage a persons reputation. 482. Liberalism -A political ideology whose advocates prefer a government active in dealing with human needs, support individual rights and liberties, and give higher priority to social needs than to military needs. 483. Liberals - Those who advocate liberalism. Compare conservatives. 484. Lieutenant governor- Often the second-highest executive official in state government, who is elected with the governor as a ticket in some states and is elected separately in others. May have legislative and executive branch responsibilities. 485. Limited Government a higher law such as a constitution which declares it necessary to limit the powers of government in order to protect individual civil liberties, political, and economic freedoms. In a limited government everyone must obey the laws. Limited government was central to John Lockes philosophy in the seventeenth century, and it contrasted sharply with the prevailing view of the divine rights of monarchs. 486. Line-item veto - The power possessed by 42 state governors to veto only certain parts of a bill while allowing the rest of it to pass into law. 487. Linkage institutions- The channels or access points through which issues, people's concerns and peoples policy preferences get on the governments policy agenda. In the United States, elections, political parties, and interest groups are the three main linkage institutions. 488. Literacy tax - Blacks had to prove literacy in order to vote 489. Litigant a person engaged in a lawsuit. The plaintiff and the defendant in a case. 490. Litmus test - A test of a judicial candidates ideology 491. Lobbying - direct contact made by an interest group representative in order to persuade government officials to support the policies their interest group favors. According to Lester Milbrath, a communication, by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his decision.
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492. Lobbyist - representative of an interest group who contacts lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making 493. Local charter- An organizational statement and grant of authority from the state to a local government, much like a state or federal constitution. States sometimes allow municipalities to write their own charters and to change them without permission of the state legislature, within limits. See also home rule. 494. Logrolling - Trading votes on pork barrel bills 495. Loophole - a legal method by which individuals and businesses are allowed to reduce the tax liabilities owed to the government. 496. Loose construction 497. Majoritarian politics Political activity in which both benefits and costs are widely distributed; benefits all, paid for by all 498. Majority - The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election. 499. Majority leader- The Senate leader of the majority party. The principal partisan ally of the Speaker of the House or the partys wheel horse in the Senate. The majority leader is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and rounding up votes on behalf of the partys legislative positions. 500. Majority rule - A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. In a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majoritys desire be respected. A principle of democracy that asserts that the greater number of citizens in any political unit should select officials and determine policies. See also minority rights. 501. Majority-minority district - Congressional districts drawn to encourage the election of a minority candidate. 502. Malapportionment - Districts of unequal size with regard to population. 503. Mandate a formal order given by a higher authority; an authoritative order that must be obeyed. 504. Mandate theory of elections - The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics. Politicians like the theory better than political scientists do. 505. Mandates - Federal rules that tell state governments what they must do with or without federal government funding. Mostly civil rights and environmental issues. 506. Mandatory sentencing a system of fixed, required terms of imprisonment for certain types of crimes. 507. Mandatory spending - Spending not controlled by annual budget decisions (nondiscretionary spending, automatic spending, etc.) Examples of: Budgetary constraints make it difficult to accomplish policy goals. It is difficult to make budget cuts that might accomplish policy goals. 508. Manifest destiny A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
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509. Mapp v. Ohio - The 1961 Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable searches and seizures must be extended to the states as well as the federal government. See also exclusionary rule. 510. Marble cake federalism Conceives of federalism as a marble cake in which all levels of government are involved in a variety of issues and programs, rather than a layer cake, or dual federalism, with fixed divisions between layers or levels of government. 511. Marbury v. Madison - The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Courts power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789. 512. Marginal district - a Congressional district won with less than 55% of the vote. 513. Market economy an economic system which allows buyers and sellers acting in their individual interests to control the factors of production. 514. Market value the amount of money an owner may expect to receive if property is sold. 515. Marxist theory - power is in the hands of those that control the means of production. 516. Maryland General Assembly the state legislative body in the state of Maryland consisting of the Senate and the House of Delegates. 517. Maryland Senate the upper house/chamber of the Maryland General Assembly. 518. Mass media means of communication, such as television, newspapers, movies, books, and the Internet, that influence large audiences. They are a key part of high tech politics. See also broadcast media and print media. 519. Mass transit systems such as subways that are used to transport a large number of people. 520. Material Incentives - money or things valued in monetary terms; groups offer material rewards for membership (example: AAA) 521. Mayor-council government - One of three common forms of municipal government in which voters elect both a mayor and a city council. In the weak-mayor form, the city council is more powerful; in the strong-mayor form, the mayor is the chief executive of city government. See also council manager government. 522. McCarthyism -The fear, prevalent in the 1950s, that international communism was conspiratorial, insidious, bent on world domination, and infiltrating American government and cultural institutions. It was named after Senator Joseph McCarthy and flourished after the Korean War. 523. McCleskey v. Kemp -The 1987 Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the Fourteenth Amendment because minority defendants were more likely to receive the death penalty than were white defendants. 524. McCulloch v. Maryland -An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
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525. McGovern-Fraser Commission - A commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation. 526. Means-tested programs - Government programs available only to individuals below a poverty line 527. Media the different means of communicating information to reach large audiences. 528. Media events - Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous. In keeping with politics as theater, media events can be staged by individuals, groups, and government officials, especially presidents. 529. Mediation a process in which each side is given the opportunity to explain its side of the dispute and must listen to the other side; the attempt to settle a legal dispute through active participation of a third party who works to find points of agreement. 530. MediCAID - A program designed to provide health care for poor Americans. Medicaid is funded by both the states and the national government. Compare Medicare. 531. MediCARE - A public assistance program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other expenses. Compare Medicaid. 532. Melting pot - The mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot. 533. Merit plan - A hybrid system of appointment and election used to select judges in 17 states. In this system the governor appoints the states judges from a list of recommended persons; an appointed judge then serves a short trial run term, after which a retention election is held. If voters approve retention by a majority vote, then the judge continues in office for a lengthy term. 534. Merit principle/system - The idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill rather than political patronage. See also civil service and compare patronage. 535. Metropolitan area a large city and its surroundings. 536. Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo - A 1974 case in which the Supreme Court held that a state could not force a newspaper to print replies from candidates it had criticized, illustrating the limited power of government to restrict the print media. See Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC. 537. Midterm election Elections held midway between presidential elections. 538. Miller v. California - A 1973 Supreme Court decision that avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a prurient interest. 539. Minority leader - The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate. 540. Minority majority - The emergence of a non-Caucasian majority, as compared with a white, generally Anglo-Saxon majority. It is predicted that, by about 2060, Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans together will outnumber white Americans.
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541. Minority rights - A principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument. See also majority rule. 542. Miranda Rights/Miranda Rule the rule pronounced in Miranda v. Arizona, that confessions are inadmissible in a criminal prosecution if the police do not advise the suspect in custody of certain rights before questioning. 543. Miranda v. Arizona The 1966 Supreme Court case that decided that all law enforcement agents must inform the accused persons of their rights such as the right to remain silent (self-incrimination) and the right to legal counsel/lawyer. 544. Misdemeanor a minor crime that is usually punished by a fine or jail sentence of less than one year; a class of criminal offenses consisting of those offenses less serious than felonies and which are sanctioned by less severe penalties. 545. Mixed economy- An economic system in which the government is deeply involved in economic decisions through its role as regulator, consumer, subsidizer, taxer, employer, and borrower. The United States can be considered a mixed economy. Compare capitalism. 546. Monarchy autocracy in which a king, queen, or emperor exercises supreme powers of government. A form of government in which a sovereign ruler such as a king, queen, or emperor heads the country. 547. Monetarism- An economic theory holding that the supply of money is the key to a nations economic health. Monetarists believe that too much cash and credit in circulation produces inflation. See also monetary policy. Governments role is to maintain a steady flow of money. 548. Monetary policy Controlling the economy by controlling the money supply (interest rates). It is a course of action that seeks to affect the amount of money and credit available in the economy and the cost of the credit (interest rates) in order to help the economy grow keep prices stable and keep employment at a high level. In the United States, monetary price is the responsibility of the Federal Reserve System; tools of monetary policy include open market operations, adjustments in reserve requirement ratios held on deposits and changes in the primary credit rate (discount rate) charged to financial institutions by the Federal Reserve Banks. See also the Federal Reserve System, and compare fiscal policy. 549. Monopoly a business that controls so much of an industry that little or no competition exists. 550. Mortgage a loan taken out to pay for a house. 551. Motor Voter Act - Passed in 1993, this Act went into effect for the 1996 election. It requires states to permit people to register to vote at the same time they apply for drivers licenses. This should lessen the bureaucratic hassles of voter registration, though critics charge that it may also increase registration fraud. 552. Muckrakers - Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public 553. Multinational corporations - Large businesses with vast holdings in many countries. Many of these companies are larger than most governments.

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554. Municipalities - Another name for cities, also known by the legal term municipal corporations; denotes a government created by charter granted from the state government or by home rule charter approved by local voters. 555. NAACP - (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) worked for the rights of colored people 556. NAACP v. Alabama - The Supreme Court protected the right to assemble peaceably in this 1958 case when it decided the NAACP did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subject its members to harassment. 557. Name-request job - A job filled by a person who has already been identified.(buddy system) 558. Narrowcasting - As opposed to the traditional broadcasting, the appeal to a narrow, particular audience by channels such as ESPN, MTV, and C-SPAN, which focus on a narrow particular interest. 559. Nation a group of people united by bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and sometimes, religion. 560. National budget the yearly financial plan for the national government. 561. National chairperson - One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national chairperson is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually handpicked by the presidential nominee. See also national committee. 562. National committee One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. Composed of representatives from the states and territories. Party organizations who run a political party. Also see national chairperson. 563. National debt the total amount of money the government owes at any given time. 564. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) - The law passed in 1969 that is the centerpiece of federal environmental policy in the United States. The NEPA established the requirements for environmental impact statements. 565. National health insurance - A compulsory insurance program for all Americans that would have the government finance citizens medical care. First proposed by President Harry S Truman, the plan has been soundly opposed by the American Medical Association. 566. National Labor Relations Act - A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining, sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor management relations. 567. National Organization of Women (NOW) - organization formed to work for economic and legal rights of women 568. National party convention - The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose to nominate a presidential ticket and write the partys platform. 569. National primary - A proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries systems who would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.

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570. National Rifle Association (NRA) - Dismayed by the lack of marksmanship shown by their troops, Union veterans Col. William C. Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association in 1871. The primary goal of the association would be to "promote and encourage rifle shooting on a scientific basis," according to a magazine editorial written by Church. a powerful lobby that advocates the right to own and bear arms and rejects any gun regulation by the government 571. National security protection of a nations borders and territories against invasion of control by foreign powers. 572. National Security Advisor director of the National Security Council staff. 573. National Security Council (NSC) - An office created in 1947 to coordinate the presidents foreign and military policy advisors. Its formal members are the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the presidents national security advisor. 574. National supremacy - Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government will prevail. 575. Natural law - God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law. 576. Natural rights - Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Lockes theories about government, and was widely accepted among Americas founding fathers. Thomas Jefferson echoed Lockes language in drafting the Declaration of Independence. 577. Naturalization the legal process by which a person born a citizen of one country becomes a citizen of another. 578. Near v. Minnesota - The 1931 Supreme Court decision holding that the First Amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint. 579. Necessary and proper clause - Clause of the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government. The elastic or necessary and proper clause of the Constitution has been used by cooperative federalists to: Promote interaction between the levels of government 580. New Deal Coalition - A coalition forged by Franklin Roosevelt and the Democrats, who dominated American politics from the 1930s to the 1960s. Its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and Democratic intellectuals. 581. New Jersey Plan - Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally in Congress regardless of the states population. Compare Virginia Plan and Connecticut Compromise. 582. New York Times v. Sullivan - Decided in 1964, this case established the guidelines for determining whether public officials and public figures could win damage suits for libel. To do so, said the Court, such individuals must prove that the defamatory statements made about them were made with actual malice and reckless disregard for the truth.
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583. Newly developed nations a nation that has had significant or rapid industrial growth in recent years. 584. News briefing a meeting during which a government official makes an announcement or explains a policy, decision, or action. 585. News release a ready-made story government officials prepare for members of the press. 586. Newspaper chains- Newspapers published by massive media conglomerates that account for almost three-quarters of the nations daily circulation. Often these chains control broadcast media as well. 587. NIT 5: The Executive Branch (10) 588. Nominating convention an official public meeting of a party to choose candidates for office. 589. Nomination - The official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party. Generally, success in the nomination game requires momentum, money, and media attention. 590. Nonrenewable resources - Minerals and other re-sources that nature does not replace when they are consumed. Many commonly used energy resources, such as oil and coal, are nonrenewable. 591. North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) an agreement that removed trade restrictions among the US, Canada, and Mexico in increase free cross-border trade. 592. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) one of the regional organizations formed in the post-World War II era. It was created in 1949 and its membersthe United States, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkeyagreed to combine military forces to treat any war against one as a war against all. Compare Warsaw Pact. 593. Nuclear proliferation the spread of nuclear weapons. 594. Nullification - The idea that a state could declare an act of the national government null and void. The right to declare a federal law unconstitutional by a state. No longer allowed after the Civil War. 595. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) a government agency that requires businesses to make workplaces safe for employees and to ensure that employees follow safety guideline. 596. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) - An office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals. The OMB performs both managerial and budgetary functions, and although the president is its boss, the director and staff have considerable independence in the budgetary process. See also Congressional Budget Office. 597. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) - The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process. 598. Oligarchy a system of government in which a small group holds power. A form of government in which a small, usually self-appointed elite holds the power to rule. 599. Olsons law of large groups - Advanced by Mancur Olson, a principle stating, the larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a collective good. See also interest group.
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600. One person, one vote, Bake v. Carr - Voters have standing (right to challenge) redistricting done by a state. One area cant have more power than another. 601. OPEC. See Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 602. Open primaries - Elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests. See also primaries. 603. Open primary Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote. 604. Open rule - Allows for amendments from the floor. 605. Open shop A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment. 606. Open-market operations the means the Federal Reserve System uses to affect the economy by buying or selling government securities on the open market. 607. Opinion a written explanation of a Supreme Court decision; also, in some states, a written interpretation of a state constitution or state laws by the states attorney general. A statement of legal reasoning behind a judicial decision. The content of an opinion may be as important as the decision itself. 608. Opportunity cost the foregone benefit of the next best alternative when an economic decision is made. If the class chooses to go to the library to work on their computer skills instead of having recess, then opportunity cost of the choice is having recess. 609. Ordinance a law. 610. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)- An economic organization, consisting primarily of Arab nations, that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations. The Arab members of OPEC caused the oil boycott in the winter of 19731974. 611. Organizational view - To vote along with your party (Do as the party wishes) 612. Original intent - A view that the Constitution should be interpreted according to the original intent of the framers. Many conservatives support this view. 613. Original jurisdiction - The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about a case. Compare appellate jurisdiction. 614. Original jurisdiction- the first court to hear a case 615. Out-of-Court Settlement negotiations between parties and/or attorneys in which the parties work out a settlement agreement without the judicial system. 616. Override to set aside a decision that has been made by another authority. 617. Pardon a release from legal punishment; the official release of a person charged with a crime, at the request of a chief executive. 618. Parliamentary government/democracy form of government in which executive and legislative functions both reside in an elected assembly, or parliament. A form of government that gives
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government the authority to a legislature or parliament which in turn selects the executive among its own members. 619. Parole means by which a prisoner is allowed to serve the rest of a sentence in the community under the supervision of a parole officer. 620. Party competition - The battle of the parties for control of public offices. Ups and downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American politics. 621. Party dealignment - The gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification. 622. Party eras - Historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections.See also critical election and party realignment. 623. Party identification - A citizens self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other. 624. Party image - The voters perceptions of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism. 625. Party machines - A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern. 626. Party neutrality - A term used to describe the fact that many Americans are indifferent toward the two major political parties. See also party dealignment. 627. Party platform - A political partys statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidates strength. It is the best formal statement of the partys beliefs. 628. Party realignment - The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period. See also party eras. 629. Passport a document entitling a traveler to certain protections established by international treaty. 630. Patronage - One of the key inducements used by machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone. An approach to managing the bureaucracy whereby people are appointed to important government positions as a reward for political services they have rendered and because of their partisan loyalty. Compare civil service and the merit principle. 631. Peer group an individuals close friends, religious group, clubs, or work groups. 632. Pendleton Civil Service Act - Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage. 633. Per curiam opinion - an unsigned opinion 634. Perjury lying under oath. 635. Personal following party - A party that functions as a tool for the promotion of a specific individual 636. Personal property movable belongings such as clothes and jewelry, as well as intangible items like stocks, bonds, copyrights, and patents.
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637. Petit jury a trial jury, usually consisting of 6 or 12 people, that weighs the evidence presented at a trial and renders a verdict; a jury of 12 persons who decide upon the facts at issue in a court trial. 638. Petition an appeal; a formal written application requesting a court for a specific judicial action, as an appeal. A formal written document requesting a right or a benefit from a group or individual in authority. 639. Petty offense a minor crime, usually punished by a ticket rather than being arrested. 640. Plaintiff in civil law, the party who brings a suit or some other legal action against another (the defendant) in court; a person who brings charges in court. 641. Planks a section a political party platform. 642. Planned Parenthood v. Casey - A 1992 case in which the Supreme Court loosened its standard for evaluating restrictions on abortion from one of strict scrutiny of any restraints on a fundamental right to one of undue burden that permits considerably more regulation. 643. Platform a statement of a political partys principles, beliefs, and positions on vital issues. 644. Plea bargaining- An actual bargain struck between the defendants lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime in exchange for the states promise not to prosecute the defendant for the more serious one. 645. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) the US Supreme Court decision that justified segregation and established the separate but equal clause, a policy which held that if facilities for different races were equal, they could be separate. Ruling that a Louisiana law requiring equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races was not unconstitutional. 646. Pluralist theory - A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies. Compare elite and class theory, hyperpluralism, and traditional democratic theory. 647. Plurality - Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half. 648. Pocket veto - A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of having submitted a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it. See also veto. 649. Policy agenda - According to John Kingdon, the list of subjects or problems to which government officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time. 650. Policy differences - The perception of a clear choice between the parties. Those who see such choices are more likely to vote. 651. Policy entrepreneurs - People who invest their political capital in an issue. According to John Kingdon, a policy entrepreneur could be in or out of government, in elected or appointed positions, in interest groups or research organizations. 652. Policy gridlock - A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy. The result is that nothing may get done.

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653. Policy impacts - The effects a policy has on people and problems. Impacts are analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and at what cost. 654. Policy implementation - The stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects. Implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program. See also judicial implementation. 655. Policy Trade-Offs - the cost to the nation of undertaking any one policy in terms of all of the other policies that could have been undertaken. For example, an increase in the expenditures on one federal program means either a reduction in expenditures on another program or an increase in federal taxes (or deficit). 656. Policy voting - Voting that occurs when electoral choices are made on the basis of the voters policy preferences and on the basis of where the candidates stand on policy issues. For the voter, policy voting is hard work. 657. Policymaking institutions - The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The U.S. Constitution established three policymaking institutionsthe Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth policymaking institution. 658. Policymaking system - The process by which political problems are communicated by the voters and acted upon by government policymakers. The policymaking system begins with peoples needs and expectations for governmental action. When people confront government officials with problems that they want solved, they are trying to influence the governments policy agenda. 659. Political Action Committees (PACs) - A political committee that raises and spends limited "hard" money contributions for the express purpose of electing or defeating candidates. Created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the Federal Election Commission (FEC), which will meticulously monitor the PACs expenditures. See Special Interest Groups 660. Political agenda - What will be debated and legislated 661. Political cue - a signal telling a politician what values are at stake with any given issue 662. Political culture a set of shared values and beliefs about a nation and its government. 663. Political editorializing rule - If a station endorses a candidate, opponents can respond. Equal time. 664. Political efficacy - The belief that ones political participation really mattersthat ones vote can actually make a difference. 665. Political ideology- A coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies. See also liberalism and conservatism. 666. Political issue- An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and a public policy choice. 667. Political participation- All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. The most common, but not the only, means of political participation in a democracy is voting. Other means include protest and civil disobedience.
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668. Political party a group of individuals with broad common interests, who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy; any group, however loosely organized, that seeks to elect government officials under a given label. According to Anthony Downs, a team of men [and women] seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election. 669. Political Party Machine - a party organization that recruits its members by dispensing tangible incentives to get favors from government; only cares about winning 670. Political questions - A doctrine developed by the federal courts and used as a means to avoid deciding some cases, principally those involving conflicts between the president and Congress. 671. Political socialization - According to Richard Dawson, the process through which an individual acquires his [or her] particular political orientationshis [or her] knowledge, feelings, and evaluations regarding his [or her] political world. See also agents of socialization. 672. Politics the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government. According to Harold Lasswell, who gets what, when, and how. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues. 673. Poll taxes - Small taxes, levied on the right to vote, that often fell due at a time of year when poor African-American sharecroppers had the least cash on hand. This method was used by most Southern states to exclude African Americans from voting registers. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964. See also grandfather clause and white primary. 674. Polling the questioning of persons to obtain information or opinions. 675. Popular consent - The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs. 676. Popular Sovereignty the rule by the people. Basic principle of the American system of government that asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power and that government can exist only with the consent of the governed. 677. Pork barrel - The mighty list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions in the district of a member of Congress. Amendments to bills that benefit certain members and their constituency 678. Position issue - An issue that allows candidates to have rival views (abortion) 679. Position taking - According to David Mayhew, one of three primary activities undertaken by members of Congress to increase the probability of their reelection. It involves taking a stand on issues and responding to constituents about these positions. See also advertising and credit taking. 680. Potential group - All the people who might be interest group members because they share some common interest. A potential group is almost always larger than an actual group. 681. Poverty line - A method used to count the number of poor people, it considers what a family would need to spend for an austere standard of living. 682. Preamble a statement in a constitution that sets forth the goals and purposes of government. 683. Precedent a model on which to base later decisions or actions; these are previous court decisions upon which are recognized as authority for the disposition of authority for the disposition of future
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cases. How similar cases have been decided in the past. In common law, precedents were regarded as the major course of law. 684. Precinct a voting district. 685. Preemption - The right of a federal law or a regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation. Example: The 1967 Age Discrimination in Employment Act stripped states of their power to establish compulsory retirement ages for their employees. 686. Preferential treatment - Giving one race or gender a leg up over others 687. Preponderance of Evidence general standard of proof in civil cases. Where it is more convincing to the trier of fact than the opposing evidence. The greater weight of the evidence required in a civil (non-criminal) lawsuit for the trier of fact (jury or judge without a jury) to decide in favor of one side or the other. This preponderance is based on the more convincing evidence and its probable truth or accuracy, and not on the amount of evidence. 688. President of the Senate 689. President pro tempore the Senate member, elected by the Senate, who stands in as president of the Senate in the absence of the vice president. 690. Presidential approval - An evaluation of the president based on many factors, but especially on the predisposition of many people to support the president. One measure is provided by the Gallup Poll. 691. Presidential coattails - The situation occurring when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the presidents party because they support the president. Recent studies show that few races are won this way. 692. Presidential election Elections held in years when the president is on the ballot. 693. Presidential government/democracy a form of democratic government in which a president heads the executive branch. A form of government in which the executive and legislative branches are separated, independent, and coequal. 694. Presidential primaries - Elections in which voters in a state vote for a candidate (or delegates pledged to him or her). Most delegates to the national party conventions are chosen this way. 695. Press conferences - Meetings of public officials with reporters. 696. Press secretary - The person on the White House staff who most often deals directly with the press, serving as a conduit of information. Press secretaries conduct daily press briefings. 697. Presumed innocence the presumption that a person is innocent until proven guilty; in criminal law, the principle that a person is innocent of a crime until he is proven guilty. Its primary manifestation is the constitutional requirement that the prosecutor establishes the defendants guilt by proof beyond a reasonable doubt. 698. Primary election/ Primaries an election to choose a political partys candidates for an elective office. The election in which members of each political party chooses its candidate for elected office 699. Print media - Newspapers and magazines, as compared with broadcast media.

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700. Prior restraint - A governments censorship of information or material from being published. This is a common method of limiting the press in some nations, but it is unconstitutional in the United States, according to the First Amendment and as confirmed in the 1931 Supreme Court case of Near v. Minnesota. 701. Private bill a bill dealing with individual people or places. 702. Privileges and immunities clause - A clause in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states. 703. Probable cause - The situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, the police are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence. A reasonable basis to believe a person or premises is linked to a crime; a sufficient reason based upon known facts to believe a crime has been committed. Compare unreasonable searches and seizures. 704. Procedural Due Process procedures used by the government in making, applying, interpreting, and enforcing the law are reasonable and consistent; principle that prohibits arbitrary enforcement of the law, and also provides safeguards to ensure that constitutional and statutory rights are protected by law enforcement. 705. Procurement the purchasing of materials. 706. Profit the difference between the amount of money used to operate a business and the amount of money the business takes in. 707. Progressive tax tax based on a taxpayers ability to pay. A tax by which the government takes a greater share of the income of the rich than of the poorfor example, when a rich family pays 50 percent of its income in taxes and a poor family pays 5 percent. Compare regressive tax and proportional tax. 708. Prohibited power denied power 709. Project grants- Federal grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications. A type of the categorical grants available to states and localities. 710. Proportional representation An election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote. Used in presidential primaries to elect delegates in proportion to their popular vote. An electoral system used throughout most of Europe. Compare with winner-take-all system. 711. Proportional tax - A tax by which the government takes the same share of income from everyone, rich and poor alikefor example, when a rich family pays 20 percent and a poor family pays 20 percent. Compare progressive tax and regressive tax. 712. Prosecution/Prosecutor a person who prepares and conducts the prosecution of persons accused of crime. It is usually a public official but in some instances involving minor offenses, it may be a private attorney. 713. Prospective Voting - voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate; based on what the candidate has promised 714. Protest - A form of political participation designed to achieve policy change through dramatic and unconventional tactics. See also civil disobedience.
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715. Public bill a bill dealing with the general matters and applying to the entire nation. 716. Public Debt Financing - the governments spending more than it receives in taxes and paying for the difference by issuing U.S. Treasury bonds, thereby adding to the public debt. 717. Public Debt, or National Debt - the total amount of debt carried by the federal government. 718. Public goods- Goods, such as clean air and clean water that everyone must share. 719. Public interest - The idea that there are some interests superior to the private interest of groups and individuals, interests we all have in common. See also public interest lobbies. 720. Public interest lobbies - Organizations that seek a collective good which does not only benefit their membership (League of Women Voters). According to Jeffrey Berry, organizations that seek a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership or activities of the organization. See also lobbying and public interest. 721. Public Opinion the collective opinion on a particular issue or group of related issues that is held by a large segment of society. The ideas and attitudes a significance number of Americans hold about issues. 722. Public policy- A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem. 723. Public utility an organization that supplies such necessities as electricity, gas, or telephone services. 724. Public-interest group a group that seeks policy goals that it believes will benefit the nation. 725. Pure speech the verbal expression of thought and opinion before an audience that has chosen to listen. 726. Purposive Incentives - People join for a cause (NAACP) the benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle from which one does not personally benefit. 727. Pyramidal structure - An organizational structure that limits contact with the President 728. Quid pro quo Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return. 729. Quorum the minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action. 730. Race - A grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance. 731. Random digit dialing- A technique used by pollsters to place telephone calls randomly to both listed and unlisted numbers when conducting a survey. See also random sampling. 732. Random sampling a polling technique in which everyone in the universe has an equal chance of being selected. See also sample. 733. Ratify/ Ratification to formally approval; final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty.

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734. Rational basis test used by a Court to determine whether a state law is reasonably related to an acceptable goal of the government. 735. Rational-choice theory - A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives. 736. Reaganomics - Belief that a combination of monetarism, lower federal spending, and supply-side economics will stimulate the economy. Supply-side Theory, belief that lower taxes and fewer regulations will stimulate economy. A combination of supply side, monetarism and tax cuts. 737. Real property land and whatever is attached to or growing on it. 738. Realigning or critical election - an election that causes a lasting change in the popular support for a party. 739. Realignment - when popular support switches from one party to another 740. Reapportionment- The process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census. Also see Redistricting 741. Recall - A procedure that allows voters to call a special election for a specific official in an attempt to throw him or her out of office before the end of his or her term. Recalls are only permitted in 17 states, are seldom used because of their cost and disruptiveness, and are rarely successful. 742. Recession a slowdown in economic activity for at least two consecutive quarters (6 months). 743. Reconciliation- A congressional process through which program authorizations are revised to achieve required savings. It usually also includes tax or other revenue adjustments. 744. Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC - A 1969 case in which the Supreme Court upheld restrictions on radio and television broadcasting, such as giving adequate coverage to public issues and covering opposing views. These restrictions on the broadcast media are much tighter than those on the print media, because there are only a limited number of broadcasting frequencies available. See Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo. 745. Red Tape - Complex rules and procedures designed to meet specific needs and specifications 746. Redistrict/Redistricting to set up new district lines after reapportionment is complete. 747. Reed v. Reed - The landmark case in 1971 in which the Supreme Court for the first time upheld a claim of gender discrimination. 748. Referendum - A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment. 749. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke - A 1978 Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race. The Court did not, however, rule that such affirmative action policies and the use of race as a criterion for admission were unconstitutional, only that they had to be formulated differently. 750. Regional primaries - A proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with regional primaries held early in the election year.
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751. Registered voters - People who are eligible to vote and have actually registered to do so 752. Regressive tax - A tax in which the burden falls relatively more heavily upon low-income groups than upon wealthy taxpayers. The opposite of a progressive tax, in which tax rates increase as income increases. 753. Regulation - The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. Regulations pervade the daily lives of people and institutions. 754. Reinforcement - One of three key consequences of electoral campaigns for voters, in which the voters candidate preference is reinforced. See also activation and conversion. 755. Reinforcing cleavages Divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogenous or similar. 756. Representation - A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers. 757. Representational view - To vote as a representative of the constituency. (Do as they wish) 758. Representative democracy a type of government in which the people choose representatives to vote and make laws for them; also called a republic. 759. Representative sample a small group of people, typical of the universe, that a pollster questions. 760. Reprieve the postponement of legal punishment. 761. Republic - A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern. In contrast to a direct democracy, in which people themselves make laws, in a republic the people select representatives who make the laws. 762. Reserve requirement the percentage of money member banks must keep in Federal Reserve Banks as a reserve against their deposits. 763. Reserved Powers those powers that the Constitution does not grant to the national government and does not, at the same time, deny to the states. 764. Responsible party model - A view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters, who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises. 765. Restrictive rule - allows some amendments but not others. 766. Retrospective voting - Voting based on a candidates past record. What have you done for me lately? or because you like his or her past actions in office. 767. Revenue the total income of a business or a unit of government. The individual income tax and Social Security tax are two major sources of revenue for the Federal Government. Compare expenditures. 768. Revenue bill a law proposed to raise money.
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769. Revenue sharing - federal money to states for any purpose 770. Reverse discrimination - Aid to a minority that consequently disadvantages a person not of that minority 771. Revolving door Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern. 772. Rider a provision included in a bill on a subject other than the once covered in the bill. 773. Riding the circuit traveling to hold court in a justices assigned region of the country. 774. Right to privacy - According to Paul Bender, the right to keep the details of [ones] life confidential; the free and untrammeled use and enjoyment of ones intellect, body, and private property ... the right, in sum, to a private personal life free from the intrusion of government or the dictates of society. The right to privacy is implicitly protected by the Bill of Rights. See also Privacy Act. 775. Right-to-reply rule - If a person is attacked on the air that person can respond. 776. Right-to-work law - A state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs. State right-to-work laws were specifically permitted by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. 777. Roe v. Wade - The 1973 Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mothers health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester. 778. Roth v. United States - A 1957 Supreme Court decision ruling that obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press. 779. Rule of Law the principle in which the law applies to government officials as much as to ordinary citizens. 780. Safe district - A Congressional district won with 55% or more of the vote. 781. Safety net a minimum government guarantee that ensures that individuals living in poverty will receive support in the form of social welfare programs. 782. Sample - A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole. 783. Sampling error - a measurement of how much the sample results may differ from the sample universe. The level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll. The more people interviewed, the more confident one can be of the results. 784. Sanctions a measure such as withholding economic aid to influence a foreign governments activities. 785. Scarcity a condition that exists because society does not have all the resources to produce all the goods and services that everyone wants. The condition that results from the imbalance between relatively unlimited economic wants and the relatively limited resources, goods, and services available to satisfy those wants.
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786. Schenck v. United States - A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a clear and present danger of substantive evils. 787. School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp - A 1963 Supreme Court decision holding that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment. Compare Engel v. Vitale. 788. School districts - Units of local government that are normally independent of any other local government and are primarily responsible for operating public schools. 789. Scorekeeper - the Medias role in determining winners and losers. 790. Search warrant - A written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for. The Fourth Amendment requires a search warrant to prevent unreasonable searches and seizures. 791. Secretary of Defense - The head of the Department of Defense and the presidents key advisor on military policy; a key foreign policy actor. 792. Secretary of State - The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key advisor to the president on foreign policy. 793. Securities financial instruments, including bonds, notes, and certificates that are sold as a means of borrowing money with a promise to repay the buyer with interest after a specific time period. 794. Seditious speech speech urging resistance to lawful authority or advocating the overthrow of the government. 795. Segregation the separation of or isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group from the rest of society. 796. Select committees - Congressional committees appointed to study one specific issue and reports its findings to the Senate or House such as the Watergate investigation. See also joint committees, standing committees, and conference committees. 797. Selective benefits - Goods (such as information publications, travel discounts, and group insurance rates) that a group can restrict to those who pay their yearly dues. The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) has built up a membership list of 32 million senior citizens through offering a variety of such goods. 798. Selective exposure - the process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases 799. Selective perception - The phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions. Individuals perceive what they want to in any given media message and disregard the rest 800. Self-incrimination - The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination. See also Miranda v. Arizona. 801. Senate Finance Committee - The Senate committee that, along with the House Ways and Means Committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole.
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802. Senatorial courtesy - An unwritten tradition whereby nominations for state-level federal judicial posts are not confirmed if they are opposed by the senator from the state in which the nominee will serve. The tradition also applies to courts of appeal when there is opposition from the nominees state senator, if the senator belongs to the presidents party. 803. Senior Executive Service (SES) - An elite cadre of about 11,000 federal government managers, established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, who are mostly career officials but include some political appointees who do not require Senate confirmation. 804. Seniority Rule an unwritten custom dating back to the 1800s and is still followed in both houses today. This provides that the most important jobs will be held by those members with the longest service in Congress. 805. Seniority system - A simple rule for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose party controlled Congress became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence. 806. Sentence the punishment to be imposed on an offender after a guilty verdict. 807. Separate-but-equal doctrine a policy which held that if facilities for different races were equal, they could be separate. 808. Separation of Church and State - see Establishment clause 809. Separation of powers - An important part of the Madisonian model that requires each of the three branches of governmentexecutive, legislative, and judicial with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law. To be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions. See also checks and balances. 810. Service strategy - Programs that train and educate 811. Session a period of time during which a legislature meets to conduct business. 812. Shays Rebellion - A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by revolutionary war Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings. 813. Shield law a law that gives reporters some means of protection against being forced to disclose confidential information or sources in state courts. 814. Shock incarceration a prison program involving shorter sentences in a highly structured environment where offenders participate in work, community service, education, and counseling. 815. Shock probation program designed to show young offenders how terrible prison life is through brief incarceration followed by supervised release. 816. Sierra Club - America's oldest and largest grassroots advocacy group that protects forests and national parks 817. Silent majority - A phrase used to describe people who have a respect for government, willing to accept the norm. 818. Simple resolution- typically passed to establish rules in that chamber
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819. Simpson-Mazzolli Act - An immigration law, named after its legislative sponsors that as of June 1, 1987, requires employees to document the citizenship of their employees. Civil and criminal penalties can be assessed against employers who knowingly employ illegal immigrants. 820. Single-issue groups - Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups. 821. Single-member district electoral district in which only one candidate is elected to each office. 822. Slander false and malicious use of spoken words intended to damage a persons reputation. See libel. 823. Smart Growth government policy in Maryland to address the issues of urban sprawl, urban decay, and environmental concerns such as the health of the Chesapeake Bay. 824. Social Contract this theory believes a nation exists due to the will of the people and that the power stays with the people, which the nation protects. Concepts that have arisen with social contract include popular sovereignty, limited government, and individual rights. 825. Social Security Act - A 1935 law passed during the Great Depression that was intended to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans and thus save them from poverty. 826. Social welfare policies - Policies that provide benefits to individuals, particularly to those in need. Compare civil rights policies 827. Socialism an economic system in which the government owns the basis means of production, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as healthcare and welfare. 828. Socialized medicine - A system in which the full cost of medical care is borne by the national government. Great Britain and the former Soviet Union are examples of countries that have socialized medicine. Compare Medicaid and Medicare. 829. Socioeconomic Goals broad social goals that relate to economic and guide government, individuals, and society in making decisions; social economic goals will vary in priority from one country to another and from one time period to another, depending on the nature of the political, social, and economic goals of the society and the political, social, and economic conditions which exist at the time. 830. Socioeconomic status (SES) A division of population based on occupation, income, and education. 831. Soft money- Political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level (buttons, pamphlets, yard signs, etc.). Unlike money that goes to the campaign of a particular candidate, such party donations are not subject to contribution limitsa nd are not reported to the federal government. See Hard Money 832. Solicitor general- A presidential appointee and the third-ranking office in the Department of Justice. The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government. 833. Solidary Incentives - the social rewards (sense of pleasure, status, or companionship) that lead people to join political organizations

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834. Sophomore surge - the surge in voter support that typically occurs after a representative is first elected. 835. Sound bites- Short video clips of approximately 15 seconds, which are typically all that is shown from a politicians speech or activities on the nightly television news. 836. Sovereign immunity - You cannot sue the government without its consent. 837. Sovereignty - the supreme and absolute authority within territorial boundaries. 838. Speaker of the House - An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant. 839. Special districts - Limited-purpose local governments called districts or public authorities that are created to run a specific type of service, such as water distribution, airports, public transportation, libraries, and natural resource areas. 840. Special Interest Groups An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group), however loosely or tightly organized, that is determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. "An organization of people with shared ideas and attitudes who attempt to influence public policy." Also see PAC 841. Split Ticket Voting - voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election 842. Spoils system the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs. 843. Sponsored party - a party that is strongly influenced or financed by an organization (unions and local democrats) 844. Spot advertising the brief, frequent, positive description of a candidate or a candidates major themes broadcast on television or a radio. 845. Standard operating procedures - Better known as SOPs, these procedures are used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations. Uniformity improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable. See also administrative discretion. 846. Standards Burdens of Proof this includes beyond a reasonable doubt in criminal and in civil law preponderances of the evidence 847. Standing committees - Separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas. See also joint committees, conference committees, and select committees. 848. Standing to sue - The requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case, which depends on whether they have sustained or are likely to sustain a direct and substantial injury from a party or an action of government. 849. Stare decisis- A Latin phrase meaning let the decision stand. The vast majority of cases reaching appellate courts are settled on this principle. Its decision serves as a precedent on which to base other decisions.
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850. State a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without approval from any higher authority. 851. State's rights - Powers expressly or implicitly reserved to the states. 852. Statism - The idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation. 853. Statute a law written by a legislative branch. 854. Statutory construction - The judicial interpretation of an act of Congress. In some cases where statutory construction is an issue, Congress passes new legislation to clarify existing laws. 855. Statutory law a law that is written down so that everyone might know and understand it. 856. Straight Ticket Voting - practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election 857. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)- Renamed Star Wars by critics, a plan for defense against the Soviet Union unveiled by President Reagan in 1983. SDI would create a global umbrella in space, using computers to scan the skies and high-tech devices to destroy invading missiles. 858. Street-level bureaucrats- A phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion. 859. Strict Construction - A belief that judges should hold to a strict, literal interpretation of the Constitution 860. Strict scrutiny - some distinctions between people are inherently suspect, thus strict judicial scrutiny 861. Subcommittee a group within a standing committee that specializes in a subcategory of its standing committees responsibility. 862. Subgovernments - A network of groups within the American political system which exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas. Also known as iron triangles, subgovernments are composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy. 863. Subnational governments- Another way of referring to state and local governments. Through a process of reform, modernization, and changing intergovernmental relations since the 1960s, subnational governments have assumed new responsibilities and importance. 864. Subpoena a legal order that a person appears and to produce documents or other requested materials. 865. Subsidy - A grant paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public. 866. Substantive Due Process the substance and the policies of government action; certain rights of individuals in the application of laws, some that are specified in the Constitution (like free speech) and some that are not specified (like the right of privacy in making personal decisions). 867. Substantive representation - representatives who are similar to the constituency with regard to the issues.
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868. Suburbs a densely settled territory adjacent to a central city. 869. Suffrage- The legal right to vote; extended to African Americans by the 15th Amendment, to women by the 19th Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the 26th Amendment. 870. Summons an official notice of a lawsuit that includes the date, time, and place of the initial court appearance. 871. Super fund - money from excise tax on chemicals used for environment clean-up 872. Superdelegates - National party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the Democratic national party convention. 873. Superfund- A $1.6 billion fund created by Congress in the late 1970s and renewed in the 1980s to clean up hazardous waste sites. Money for the fund comes from taxing chemical products. 874. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) - a federal program established to provide assistance to elderly persons and disabled persons. 875. Supply and demand Supply is the quantities of a good or service that a firm is willing and able to make available for sale at different prices. Demand is the desire and ability of individuals to purchase economic goods or services at the market price; along with supply, one of the two key determinants of price. (economic concept of supply and demand). 876. Supply-side economics- An economic theory, advocated by President Reagan, holding that too much income goes to taxes and too little money is available for purchasing and that the solution is to cut taxes and return purchasing power to consumers. Supply-side economics has widened the gap between government revenues and expenditures. 877. Supremacy Clause statement in Article VI (6) of the Constitution establishing that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress and treaties of the United States shall be the supreme Law of the Land. The Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits. Also see National Supremacy 878. Supreme Court - The pinnacle of the American judicial system. The Court ensures uniformity in interpreting national laws, resolves conflicts among states, and maintains national supremacy in law. It has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction, but unlike other federal courts, it controls its own agenda. 879. Suspect classification a classification made on the basis of race or national origin that is subject to strict judicial scrutiny. 880. Swing vote the deciding vote. 881. Symbolic speech - Nonverbal communication such as actions and symbols, in addition to or instead of words, to express opinions. Burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the First Amendment. See Texas v. Johnson. 882. T.L.O. v. New Jersey (1985) the Supreme Court decision that limited the warrant requirement for search and seizures, making them largely dependent on circumstances. 883. Taft-Hartley Act- A 1947 law giving the president power to halt major strikes by seeking a court injunction and permitting states to forbid requirements in labor contracts forcing workers to join a union. See also right-to-work law.
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884. Talking head - A shot of a persons face talking directly to the camera. Because this is visually unappealing, the major commercial networks rarely show a politician talking one-on-one for very long. See also sound bites 885. Tariff - A special tax added to imported goods to raise the price, thereby protecting American businesses and workers from foreign competition. 886. Tax mandatory payment to the government. The money that people and businesses pay to support the activities of the government. 887. Tax expenditures - Defined by the 1974 Budget Act as revenue losses attributable to provisions of the federal tax laws which allow a special exemption, exclusion, or deduction. Tax expenditures represent the difference between what the government actually collects in taxes and what it would have collected without special exemptions. 888. Tax incidence- The proportion of income a particular group pays in taxes. 889. Taxable income the total income of an individual minus certain deductions and personal exemptions. 890. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families- Once called Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC), the new name for public assistance to needy families. 891. Term limits - Laws to restrict legislators from serving more than a fixed number of years or terms in office. Since 1990, 21 states have adopted term limits for state legislators. Although similar term limits have been proposed for federal legislators (senators and representatives), a constitutional amendment on term limitations has twice failed to pass Congress, and the Supreme Court ruled in 1995 that state-imposed term limits on members of Congress were unconstitutional. 892. Terrorism the use of violence by nongovernmental groups against civilians to achieve a political goal. 893. Texas v. Johnson - A 1989 case in which the Supreme Court struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment. 894. The Federalist - Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788. 895. Theocracy - Government by religious leaders, who claim divine guidance. 896. Third parties - any political party other than one of the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections. 897. Three-fifths compromise - Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives. 898. Ticket the candidates for president and vice president. 899. Ticket-splitting - Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices. It has become the norm in American voting behavior.

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900. Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969) the Supreme Court decision that stated students have the right to exercise their freedom of speech in school 901. Title IX (9) a part of the 1972 Education Act stating that no person could be denied the benefits of a federally funded educational program or activity on the basis of their gender. 902. Tort a wrongful act, other than breach of contract, for which an injured party has the right to sue. 903. Totalitarianism a government that exercises dictatorial (authoritarian) power over nearly every aspect of human dignity. 904. Town meeting- A special form of direct democracy under which all voting-age adults in a community gather once a year to make public policy. Now only used in a few villages in upper New England, originally many municipalities in the United States were run by town meeting. The growth of most cities has made them too large for this style of governance. 905. Township a unit of local government found in some states, usually a subdivision of a county and often serves to provide local government services in rural areas. It is a particularly strong form of local governmentcomparable to a municipalityin the Northeast. 906. Trade-off a situation that occurs when choices or decisions involve giving up (trading off) some of one thing to get more of something else. 907. Traditional economy economic system in which customs dictate the rules for economic activity. A system wherein economic decisions that people and groups make to answer the basic economic questions of what, for whom, and how generally repeat the decisions made at an earlier time or by an earlier generation. 908. Transfer payments - Benefits given by the government directly to individuals. Transfer payments may be either cash transfers, such as Social Security payments and retirement payments to former government employees, or in-kind transfers, such as Food Stamps and low-interest loans for college education. 909. Transnational corporations - Businesses with vast holdings in many countriessuch as Microsoft, Coca-Cola, and McDonaldsmany of which have annual budgets exceeding that of many foreign governments. 910. Treason betrayal of ones country; in the Constitution, by levying war against the United States or offering comfort or aid to its enemies. 911. Treaty a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries; a formal agreement between two or more sovereign states. 912. Trial balloons - An intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction. 913. Trustee approach - Do what the public good requires 914. Turnout The proportion of the voting age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote. 915. Two- Party System - An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.

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916. U.S. Census government agency primarily responsible for conducting a count of the US population. Every 10 years. 917. U.S. Congress the federal/national legislative body of the United States consisting of the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives. 918. U.S. Constitution - The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation. See also constitution and unwritten constitution. 919. U.S. House of Representatives the lower house/chamber of the U.S. Congress 920. U.S. Senate the upper house/chamber of the U.S. Congress. 921. U.S. Treasury Bond: evidence of debt issued by the federal government; similar to corporate binds but issued by the U.S. Treasury. 922. Unalienable a human right based on nature of God 923. Unconstitutional contrary to constitutional provision and so illegal, null and void, and of no constitutional or legal force or effort. 924. Uncontrollable expenditures - Expenditures that are determined by how many eligible beneficiaries there are for some particular program. According to Lance LeLoup, an expenditure is classified as uncontrollable if it is mandated under current law or by a previous obligation. Three-fourths of the federal budget is uncontrollable. Congress can change uncontrollable expenditures only by changing a law or existing benefit levels 925. Unemployment compensation payments to workers who lose their jobs. 926. Unemployment rate it measures the percentage of people that want a job, but cant find one. Measured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the proportion of the labor force actively seeking work but unable to find jobs. 927. Unfunded mandates - When the federal government requires state and local action but does not provide the funds to pay for the action. 928. Unicameral a single-chamber (one-house) legislature. 929. Unified government - The President and Congress are controlled by the same party. 930. Union shop - A provision found in some collective bargaining agreements requiring all employees of a business to join the union within a short period, usually 30 days, and to remain members as a condition of employment. 931. Unitary government/system - A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most governments today, including those of Great Britain and Japan, are unitary governments. Constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government. Compare federalism. 932. United Nations (UN) in 1945, one of Trumans first presidential decisions was to form an international organization hoping to settle disputes between nations and prevent any future wars. The seat of real power in the UN is the Security Council.
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933. United States v. Nixon - The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions. 934. Unreasonable searches and seizures - Obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the Fourth Amendment. Both probable cause and a search warrant are required for a legal and proper search for and seizure of incriminating evidence. 935. Unwritten constitution - The body of tradition, practice, and procedure that is as important as the written constitution. Changes in the unwritten constitution can change the spirit of the Constitution. Political parties and national party conventions are a part of the unwritten constitution in the United States. 936. Urban Sprawl sprawl is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over more and more rural land at the periphery of an urban area. This involves the conversion of open space (rural land) into builtup, developed land over time. Urban system: an interdependent set of urban settlements within a specified region. 937. Valence issue - an issue on which candidates agree regarding the hopeful outcome but disagree on the method to that outcome (economy) 938. Verdict a decision. 939. Veto a rejection of a bill; chief executives power to reject a bill passed by a legislature; literally (Latin), I forbid. The constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. A two-thirds vote in each house can override a veto. See also legislative veto and pocket veto. 940. Veto message - A message sent to Congress explaining the veto 941. Victim compensation a program in many states whereby the state government provides financial aid to victims of certain crimes. 942. Virginia Plan - Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states. Called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that states share of the U.S. population. Compare Connecticut Compromise and New Jersey Plan. 943. Visa a special document, required by certain countries, that is issued by the government of the country that a person wishes to enter. 944. Voter registration - A system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of election day. Although a few states permit election day registration for presidential elections, advance registration dampens voter turnout. 945. Voting age population - People who are eligible to register and vote 946. Voting Rights Act (1965) the federal law passed in 1965 to effectuate the right of each citizen to vote under the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The law provides that no voting qualification prerequisite to voting shall be imposed by any state. Designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage. Under the law, federal registrars were sent to Southern states and counties that had long histories of discrimination; as a result, hundreds of

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thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African-American elected officials increased dramatically. 947. War Powers Act /Resolution in 1973, in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia, requiring presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional. See also legislative veto. 948. Ward a large district comprised of several adjoining precincts. 949. Warrant a court order signed by a judge used to justify a search of a specific place or conduct an arrest of an individual suspected of being involved in a crime. 950. Watchdog - The job of monitoring the government and its officials. 951. Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 - A law intended to clean up the nations rivers and lakes. It requires municipal, industrial, and other polluters to secure permits from the Environmental Protection Agency for discharging waste products into waters. According to the law, polluters are supposed to use the best practicable [pollution] control technology. 952. Watergate - the events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment. 953. Wealth - The amount of funds already owned. Wealth includes stocks, bonds, bank deposits, cars, houses, and so forth. Throughout most of the last generation, wealth has been much less evenly divided than income. 954. Whip (Majority/Minority) Party leaders who work with the majority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party. 955. White primary- One of the means used to discourage African-American voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. The Supreme Court declared white primaries unconstitutional in 1941. See also grandfather clause and poll taxes. 956. Winner-take-all system- An electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies. In American presidential elections, the system in which the winner of the popular vote in a state receives all the electoral votes of that state. Compare with proportional representation. 957. Workers compensation payments people unable to work as a result of job-related injury or ill health receive. 958. World Bank it is one of the worlds largest sources of development assistance with helping the poorest people and the poorest countries. 959. World Health Organization (WHO) an international organization committed to assisting underdeveloped nations combat health related issues including simple childhood diseases and epidemics. 960. Writ of certiorari- A formal document issued from the Supreme Court to a lower federal or state court that calls up a case. Four Supreme Court justices must agree to hear a case to get it on the docket
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961. Writ of Habeas Corpus A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody. 962. Zoning the means a local government uses to regulate the way land and buildings may be used in order to shape community development. 963. Zoning Board a government agency that regulates the way land and buildings may be used in order to shape community development. 964. Zurcher v. Stanford Daily - A 1978 Supreme Court decision holding that a proper search warrant could be applied to a newspaper as well as to anyone else without necessarily violating the First Amendment rights to freedom of the press.

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