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REYNOLDS APPARATUS Aim To study different types of flow and to determine the Reynolds number.

Theory In Reynolds experiments, the ration of inertial to viscous forces was observed to be dimensionless and related to viscosity, average pipeline velocity and geometrically similar boundary conditions. For a homogeneous Newtonian fluid, this dimensionless ration is Re expressed as Re V D For, NRe < 2100 Laminar flow NRe > 4000 Turbulent flow 2100< NRe <4000 - Transition flow Depending on the relative magnitudes of viscous and inertial forces, flow can occur in two different manners. A stream line flow is defined as a line, which lies in the direction of flow at a given instant. For lower Reynolds number streamline flow or laminar flow occur. As Reynolds number increases, eddies are generated and flow becomes turbulent. Procedure Clean the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust. Close the drain valves provided. Close flow control valve at the end of test section ie glass tube. Fill sump tank with clean water and ensure no foreign particles are there. Prepare a dye solution (KMnO4) in clean water in a separate vessel. Close the control valve for dye, given on the P.V. tubing. Put this section in dye vessel after ensuring no foreign particles. Regulate minimum flow rate with the help of dye through capillary so that a fine = = = = = DV/ (dimensionless) density of fluid (kg/m3) Velocity of fluid (m/s) Diameter of glass tube (m) Viscosity of fluid (NS/m2)

color thread is observed indicating laminar flow. Increase the flow through glass tube and observe the color threads, if it is still straight the flow still remains to be in laminar flow and if waviness starts, it is indication of non laminar flow. Measure flow rate using measuring cylinder and stop watch. Table 1: Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 18 19 20 Volume of water Time collected,Vo (ml) taken, s Discharge, Q m3/s Velocity, m/s Reynolds Actual Number, flow NRe type Observed type of flow

Given Data: Diameter of pipe = 0.079m MODEL CALCULATION: Discharge = RESULT The variation of Reynolds number for laminar, transition and turbulent flow has been studied using Reynolds apparatus. REASONING PITOT TUBE APPARATUS Velocity = NRe = Area = 0.0049m2

Objective: To measure the velocity of flow at a given point in a pipe. Aim (1) To find the co-efficient of pitot tube (2) To find the point velocity at the centre of a tube for different flow rates. (3) To plot velocity profile across the cross section of pipe. Introduction It is a device used for measuring the velocity of flow at any point in a pipe. It is based on the principle that if the velocity of flow at a point becomes zero, there is increase in pressure due to the conversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy. The pitot consist of a capillary tube bent at right angle. The lower and which is bent through 900, is directed in the upstream direction the liquid rises up in the tube due to conversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy. The velocity is determined by measuring the rise of liquid in the tube. Theory When a pitot tube is used for measuring the velocity of flow in a pipe or other closed conduct the Pitot tube may be inserted in the pipe as shown in fig. Since a pitot tube measures the stagnation pressure head at its dipped end, the pressure head may be determined directly by connecting a suitable differential manometer between the Pitot tube and pressure taping at the pipe surface. Consider two point s (1) and (2) at the same level in such a way that point (2) is just at the inlet of the h pitot tube and point(1) is far away from the tube. At point (1) the pressure is P, and the velocity of the stream, is V1 . However at point (2) called stagnation point the fluid is brought to rest and the energy has been converted to pressure energy. There fore the pressure at (2) is P 2, the velocity V2 is zero and since (1) and (2) are in the same horizontal plane so Z1 = Z2 Applying Bernoullis equation at points (1) and (2)

P1 +

v12

P2

v22

W V12 2g =

2g P2 W

W P1 W

2g V2 = 0

V1 = 2g (P2 P1) W V1 = (2gH) DESCRIPTION The apparatus consists of a pitot tube made of copper and fixed below a pointer gauge. The pointer gauge is capable to measure the position of pitot tube in transparent test section. The pipe has a flow control valve to regulate the flow. A manometer is provided to determine the velocity head. A pump is provided to calculate the water. Discharge is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch. UTILITIES REQUIRED (1) Water supply (2) Drain (3) Electricity
(4) Floor area

0.5 KW, 220 VAC, Single phase 1.5 0.75 m

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Clean the apparatus and make tank free from dust. Close the drain valves provided Fill sump tank th with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. Close all flow control valves given on water line and open by-pass valve. Close all pressure taps of manometer connected to manometer. Ensure that on/off switch given on the panel is at off position.

Now switch on the main power supply. Switch on the pump. Operate the flow control valve to regulate the flow of water through orifice. Open pressure taps of manometer of related test section. Now open the air release valve provided on the manometer, slowly to release the air from the manometer. When there is no air in the manometer, close the air release valve. Adjust water flow to desired rate with the help of control valve. Set the Pitot tube at the centre of test section. Record the manometers reading and measure the discharge with the help of measuring tank and stop watch. Now move the Pitot tube up & down at the same flow rate and note the manometer readings to find out the velocity at different points in pipe. Calculate the coefficient of Pitot tube from actual and theoretical velocities and plot the velocities at different points inside the pipe. Repeat the same procedure for different flow rates of water, operating control valve and by-pass valve.

CLOSING PROCEDURE When experiment is over, first of all close all pressure taps of the manometer. Switch off pump Switch off power supply to panel Drain water from all tanks with the help of given drain valves

FORMULA USED
a) Discharge

Q=AR t100 b) Actual velocity

(m3/s)

Va= Q/a (m/s)

c) Theoretical velocity Vth = (2gH), m/s H =h/100(m/w -1) , m d) Co efficient of pitot tube Cv = Va/Vth e) Velocity at any point V=Cv * (2gH), m/s Nomenclature A=Area of measuring tank, m2 a=Cross section area of test section, m2 Cv=coefficient of pitot tube g=acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 h=manometer reading, cm H=pressure head in meter of water, m Q=Discharge, m3/s R= Rise of water level in measuring tank,cm m=Density of manometer fluid(CCl4)Rg/m3 w= Density of water, Rg/m3 t=time taken for R, sec V=Velocity at any point, m/s Va=Actual velocity of fluid, m/s Vth=Theoretical velocity of fluid, m/s Given Data: Area of the discharge tank= 0.1m2 Area of the pipe = 0.0006157m2 (water) = 1000 kg/m3 (manometer liquid) = 1590 kg/m3 g = 9.81 m/s2 Tabular Column: To calculate the coefficient of velocity of pitot tube

Sl N o: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

h(cm)

Manometer Reading (cm) R1 R2 R

t(s)

To calculate coefficient of velocity of Pitot tube Sl No : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. H(m) Q(m3/s) Va(m/s) Vth(m/s) CV

To plot velocity profile Sl No: Position Head, H Velocity ,V Manometer readings for pitot tube readings above centre 8 mm 6 mm 4 mm 2 mm at center Manometer readings for pitot tube readings below the center 0 position -2 mm -4 mm -6 mm -8 mm

MODEL CALCULATION: a) Discharge Q= Va= Vth = (2gH) H = h/100(m/w -1)


d) Co efficient of pitot tube b) Actual velocity c) Theoretical velocity

Cv =

e) Velocity at any point V= Cv * (2gH)

RESULT 1. The coefficient of pitot tube =


2. The point velocity at the centre of tube for different flow rates has been measured and the

velocity profile across the cross section has been plotted.

REASONING

VERIFICATION OF BERNOULLIS THEOREM Aim

To verify Bernoullis equation experimentally, to calculate the total energy at different points and to plot the graph between total energy vs distance. Theory This is the energy equation and based on the law of conservation of energy. This equation states that at two sections of flow field the total energy remains the same; provided that there is no loss or gain energy between the two sections. This equation is valid only for steady flow. This eqn. expressed as: E = P1/ g + V12/2g + Z1 = P2/g + V22/2g + Z2 If Z1 = Z2, E =P1/g + V12/2g = P2/ g + V22/2g PROCEDURE
a) Ensure that all on / off switches given on the panel are at of position.

b) Close all the drain valves provided.


c) Fill sump tank 3/4 th with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there.

d) Close flow control valve given at the end of test section. e) Open by-pass valve given on the water supply line. f) Now switch on the main power supply. g) Switch on the pump. h) Partially close by-pass valve to allow water to fill the over head tank. i) Wait until over flow occurs from over head tank. j) Regulate the flow of water through the test section with the help of test section. k) Ensure that over flow still occurs; if not partially close the by-pass valve to do so. l) Measure pressure head by piezometer tubes. m) Measure flow rate of water using measuring tank and stop watch. n) Repeat (j) to (m) for different flow rate of water. CLOSING PROCEDURE a) When experiment is over, switch of pump. b) Switch of power supply to panel.

c)

Drain water from all tanks with the help of given drain valves.

FORMULAE USED Total energy, Discharge Q = AR t 100 Kinetic energy = V2/2g OBSERVATION Tube No: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cross section area, a(m2) 4.91 x 10-4 3.14 x 10-4 1.77 x 10-4 0.785 x 10-4 1.77 x 10-4 3.14 x 10-4 4.91 x 10-4 Distance from referred point, S(m) 0.04 0.0785 0.092 0.1105 0.1358 0.1562 0.1915 (m3/s) E =P/g +V2/2g +Z (m) Velocity of fluid, V = Q/a m/s

Sl No: 1 2 3 4 5

Manometer Readings (cm) R1 R2 R

T(s) 1

Height at piezometric tube no: h(cm) 2 3 4 5 6 7

Tube Q(m3/s) No:

Velocity (m/s)

Z(m)

Pressure energy, P/

Kinetic energy,

Total Energy

g=h (m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

V2/2g (m)

(m)

MODEL CALCULATION Discharge Q= Velocity V1 = Q/ a1 Pressure Energy = Kinetic Energy = Total Energy E = NOMENCLATURE = Density of fluid, kg/m A = Area of measuring tank, m2 a = Cross section area at test point, m E = Total energy, g = Acceleration due to gravity, m/s h = Pressure head, mm of water P = Pressure of fluid Q = Discharge through the test section, m3/s R = Rise of water level in measuring tank, cm R1 = Final height of water in measuring after time t1, cm R2 = Initial height of water in measuring tank, cm T = Time taken in seconds V = Velocity of fluid (m/s) Z = Potential energy per unit weight or potential head RESULT

a) The Bernoullis theorem was experimentally verified b) The graph between pressure energy, kinetic energy and total energy Vs distance was plotted. REASONING

DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT OF VENTURIMETER AND ORIFICEMETER

AIM To demonstrate the use of venturimeter and orifice meter as flow meters and to determine the coefficient of discharge Cd for venturimeter and orifice meter. THEORY Venturimeter A venturimeter consists of 1) An inlet section followed by a convergent cone. 2) A cylindrical throat 3) A gradually divergent cone The inlet section of venturimeter is of same diameter as that of the pipe, followed by a convergent cone. The convergent cone is a short pipe which tapers from original size of the pipe to that of the throat of the venturimeter. The throat of the venturimeter is a short parallel side tube having its cross-sectional area smaller than that of the pipe. The divergent cone of the venturimeter is a gradually diverging pipe with its cross sectional area increasing from that of the throat to original size of the pipe. At inlet section and throat of the pipe, pressure taps are provided. Orificemeter An orificemeter consists of a flat circular plate with a circular hole called orifice with pipe axis. SPECIFICATION Venturimeter: Material clear Acrylic compatible to 1n pipe Orificemeter: Material clear Acrylic compatible to 1n pipe Water- circulation: FHP PUMP Flow measurement: Using measuring tank with piezometer, capacity 25 Ltrs. Sump tank: Compatible capacity, material SS Control panel comprises of: Standard make on /off switch, mains indicator etc. Tanks made of stainless steal. PROCEDURE

Clean the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust. Close the drain valves provided. Fill sump tank with clean water and ensure no foreign particles are present. Open the by-pass valve. Close all pressure taps of manometers connected to venturimeter and orificemeter. Switch on the pump. Operate flow control valve to regulate the flow. Now release the air valve provided on DPTO to release air from the manometer and then close it. Measure the discharge using stop watch and measuring tank. Repeat steps for different flow rates. After experiment is over for one rest section. Repeat the same for the next section. FORMULAE USED Actual discharge Theoretical discharge Qt = a1 a2 (2gH) (a12 a22) Coefficient of discharge, Loss of head, Given Data: Area of the discharge tank A = 0.1m2 Diameter of the pipe section d1 = 0.028m Diameter at the orifice section d2 = 0.014m Diameter at the throat section d2 = 0.014m OBSERVATION Venturimeter Sl No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 h(m) Manometer Reading R1(cm) R2(cm) R(cm) T(s) H = h/1000 Cd = Qa/Qt m of water m3/s Qa = AXR m3/s t X 100

Orificemeter

Sl No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

h(m) R1(cm)

R(cm) R2(cm)

R(cm)

T(s)

CALCULATION Venturimeter Sl No: H(m) Qa(m3/s) Qt(m3/s) Cd

Orificemeter Sl No: H(m) Qa(m3/s) Qt(m3/s) Cd

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT 1) The coefficient of discharge Cd = Cd = (venturimeter) (orificemeter)

2) Graph between Qt Vs Qa and H Vs Qa has been plotted.

REASONING

FLOW THROUGH ORIFICE AND MOUTH PIECE

AIM 1) To study the flow through orifice and mouth piece. 2) To determine the coefficient of discharge. 3) To determine the coefficient of velocity. THEORY Orifice When a liquid flows from a vessel or a tank through an orifice it changes its direction. Due to the change of direction the jet is acted up by lateral or side force which gradually reduces its area up to certain section. This area does not reduce further beyond. With it causes and stream line, first become parallel known as Vena contracta. Mouth piece A short piece of length about three times of its diameter connected to the face of the orifice is known as a mouth piece; in what follows it will be proved that under a given head the rate of discharge through a mouth piece will be more than that through the orifice of the same diameter the reason being that while entering in to the mouth piece the liquid yet a vena contracta. Due to the increase in the velocity of liquid, pressure decreases. The pressure at vena contracta is less than at the atmosphere. This may be verified by applying Bernoullis Theorem at the outlet and at the vena contracta. Coefficient of viscosity It is defined as the ratio between the actual velocity of jet of liquid at vena contracta and the theoretical velocity of the jet. It is denoted by Cv and Cv is given by Cv= Actual velocity of jet at vena contracta Theoretical velocity Cv= Va/ (2gH) Coefficient of discharge It is defined as the ratio of the actual discharge from an orifice to the theoretical discharge. It is denoted by Cd. If Qa is the actual discharge and Qt is the theoretical discharge then, Cd = Qa/Qt .

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE a) Clean the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust. b) Close the drain valves provided. c) Fill the sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. d) Close all flow control valves given on the water line. e) Open the by-pass valve. f) Fix desired test piece at testing section. g) Ensure that all ON/OFF switches given on the panel are at OFF position. h) Now switch on the main power supply. i) Switch on the pump. j) Open the flow control valve to regulate the flow of water on the measurement tank. k) Adjust the read of water in the tank with the help of given flexible varying head system in the centre of the tank.
l) Now the pointer gauge at vena contracta observes water coming out from the tank.

m) Record the pointer gauge reading. n) Measure the flow of water discharged through desired test section using stop-watch and measuring tank. o) Repeat the experiment for different water reads. p) When the experiment is over for one desired test piece first open the by-pass valve fully. q) Then close the flow control valve
r) Drain the variable head tank in sumo tank by means of given drain valve.

s) Change second test piece. Closing procedure a) Switch off the pump b) Switch off power supply to panel c) Drain water from all tanks with the help of given drain valves. FORMULAE USED ) Coefficient of velocity Cv = V/2gh = x/4yh

) Actual discharge Qa= A*R/(t*100) m3/s ) Theoretical discharge, Qt=a*(2gH) ) Coefficient of discharge, Cd = Qa/Qt

Orifice Sl No: Height of water in tank, H(cm) x(cm) Y(cm) Time taken, t(s) Piezometric reading R1 R2 R(cm)

Mouth piece Sl No: Height of water in tank, H(cm) x(cm) Y(cm) Time taken, t(s) Piezometric reading R1 R2 R(cm)

CALCULATION Orifice S H(m) l N o : Qa(m3/s) Qt(m3/s) Cd Cv V=Q/a (m/s)

Mouth piece S H(m) Qa(m3/s) Qt(m3/s) Cd Cv V=Q/a

l N o :

(m/s)

Given Data: Area of the discharge tank A = 0.1m2 Area at the orifice and mouthpiece opening a = 7.853 x 10-5 m2 MODEL CALCULATION Actual discharge = Theoretical discharge = Coefficient of discharge = Coefficient of velocity = Velocity = RESULT a) The flow characteristics have been studied and the coefficient of discharge and coefficient of velocity for mouth piece and orifice have been found out. b) The coefficient of discharge for orifice , Cd= Mouthpiece, Cd = The coefficient of velocity for Orifice, Cv = Mouthpiece Cv= REASONING DISCHARGE OVER THE NOTCHES AIM To study the discharge over different types of notches.

To determine the coefficient of discharge through different types of notches. a) Rectangular notch
b) V-notch-450 c) V-notch-600

THEORY Coefficient of discharge The ratio of actual discharge over a notch to the theoretical discharge is known as the coefficient of discharge. Mathematically, the coefficient of discharge is Cd=Actual discharge/Theoretical discharge Discharge over a trapezoidal notch Qa = Cd * [2/3*L* (2g) H3/2+8/15* Discharge over a triangular notch Qa=Cd [8/15* /2 (2g) * (H)5/2] /2 * (2g) *(H) 5/2]

Discharge over a rectangular notch Qa=Cd [2/3 * L* (2g) *H3/2] EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Starting procedure
a) Clean the apparatus and make free from dust

b) Close the drain valves provided c) Close the flow control valve provided first water line d) Open by-pass valve e) Fix desired notch on the flow channel f) Fill sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. g) Ensure that ON/OFF switches given on the panel ate at OFF position. h) Now switch on the main power supply i) Switch on the pump j) Record crest height for notch k) Regulate flow of water through channel with the help of pointer gauge l) Record the height of water level in the channel with the help of provided drain valves.

CLOSING PROCEDURE a) When experiment is over, switch off the pump. b) Switch off power supply to panel. c) Drain water from all three tanks with the help of provided drain valves. FORMULAE USED a) Actual discharge Qa = A X R/(t x 100) b) Head over crest H = h-hc/100 c) Theoretical discharge over triangular notch Qt = [8/15* /2 (2g) * (H)5/2]

d) Theoretical discharge over rectangular notch Qt = 2/3 * L* (2g) *H3/2] e) Coefficient of discharge Cd = Qa/Qt For rectangular Notch, L =6.5 cm Observation: V- Notch, ho=5.4 cm Sl No: h(cm) t(s) R1(CM) R2(cm) R(cm)

Trapezoidal notch, ho = 5.4 cm Sl No: h(cm) t(s) R1(CM) R2(cm) R(cm)

V-Notch Sl No: H(m) Qa(m3/s) Qt(m3/s) Cd ln Qt ln H

Trapezoidal Notch Sl No: H(m) Qa(m3/s) Qt(m3/s) Cd ln Qt ln H

MODEL CALCULATION RESULTS 1) The coefficient of discharge has been found and is Cd for V notch (angle = Cd for Rectangular notch = From the graph of ln v/s lnH was plotted in which, slope n and intercept k are found and )=

equation for discharge for V notch and trapezoid notch are as follows
1) V notch = Q = kHn = 2) Rectangular notch Q = kHn =

REASONING LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FRICTION

1. OBJECTIVES To study the losses due to friction in pipe lines 2. AIM To determine the friction factor for Darcy-Weisbach equation 3. INTRODUCTION When a fluid is flowing through a pipe , the fluid experiences due to which some of the energy of fluid is lost. This loss of energy in the pipelines comes under major energy losses and minor energy losses. In long pipelines the friction losses are much larger than the minor losses and hence, the latter are often neglected. The losses due to friction in pipelines are known as major energy losses. The friction in pipeline due to a viscous drag between the stream bands of fluid. The stream bands of adjacent to the solid surface are always at rest relative to the wetted surface. The viscous drag is due to the molecular attractions between the molecular of the fluid. 4. THEORY It is found that the total friction resistance to fluid flow depends on the following: a) b) C) d) e) the area of the wetted surface The density of the fluid The surface roughness it is independent of the fluid pressure It increase with the square of the velocity

The loss of head in pipe due to friction is calculated from Darcy-Weisbach equation which has been given by: .hf = 4f LV2/2gd .hf =Loss of head due to friction .f = Co-efficient of friction L = Distance between pressure point V=Mean velocity of fluid .d= diameter of pipe .g= Acceleration due to gravity 5. DESCRIPTION The apparatus consist of two pipes of different diameter for which common inlet connection is provided with control valve to regulate the flow ,near the down stream end of the pipe .pressure taping are taken at suitable distance apart between which a manometer is provided to study the pressure loss due to the friction . Discharge is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch.

6. UTILITIES REQUIRED (a) Power supply: single phase ,220volts,50Hz, 5amp with earth (b) Water supply (c) Drain (d) Space required: 1.6m x0.6m 7. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Starting procedure (a) clean the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust (b) Close the drain valve provided (c) Fill sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there (d) Close all flow control valves given on the water line and open by- pass valv e (e) Close all pressure taps of manometer connected to pipes (f) Ensure that On/Off switch given on the panel is at off condition (g) Now switch on the main power supply (h) Switch on the pump (i) Operate the flow control valve to regulate the flow of water in the desired test section (j) Open the pressure taps of manometer of related test section ,very slowly to avoid the blow of water on manometer fluid (k) Now open the air release valve provided on the manometer ,slowly to release the air in manometer . (l) When there is no air in the manometer ,close the air release valve (m) Adjust water flow rate in desired section with the help of control valve (n) Record the manometer reading (o) Measure the flow of water ,discharged through desired test section,using stop watch and measuring tank (p) Repeat same procedure for different flow rates of water ,operating control valve and by pass valve (q) When experiment is over for one desired test section ,open the by pass valve fully. then close the flow control valve of running test section and open the control valve of secondly desired test section . (r) Repeat the same procedure for selected test section and so on. 8. SPECIFICATION: Pipes (2 nos) : Material GI of &3/4 diameter Pipe test section: length 1.5m for3/4 pipe 1m for pipe Water circulation: FHP Pump Flow measurement: Using measuring tank with piezometer, capacity 25 ltrs Sump tank : Capacity 50ltrs Stop watch : electronic Control panel comprises of: Standard make on /off switch, main indicator, etc Tanks made of stainless steel The whole set up is well designed and arranged in a good quality painted structure

9. FORMULAE (a) Head losses , H =h/1000, m of water (b) Co- efficient of Friction: .f = hf 2gd / 4LV2 (c) Discharge Q= AxR / (t x 100) m3/s (d) Velocity of fluid V =Q/A m/s OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS DATA: A = 0.1m2 .g = 9.81m/s2 .m = 13600kg/m3 . w = 1000 kg/m3 .d = 0.022m (for pipe 3/4) = 0.016m (for pipe 1/2) .a = 3.800 x 10-4m2(for pipe 3/4) = 2.0106 x 10-4m2(for pipe 1/2) = 1.5m (for pipe 3/4) = 1m (for pipe 1/2) OBSERVATION TABLE: S.No h(mm of water) R (cm) t(sec)

CALCULATION TABLE: S.No hf ( m )

Q (m3/s)

V (m/s)

NOMENCLATURE A =Area of measuring tank, m2

a d= f g= h= hf L Q= R= t= V= m= w=

=Cross sectional area of pipe, m2 Inside diameter of pipe, m =Coefficient of friction Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 Manometer reading, cm =Head loss in m of water =Distance between pressure tapings, m Discharge, m3/s Rise of water level in measuring tank (cm) Time taken for R (sec) Velocity of fluid ,m/s Density of manometer fluid (Hg) kg/m3 Density of water,kg/m3

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT REASONING

LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FITTINGS

1. OBJECTIVES To study the losses due to friction in pipe lines 2. AIM To determine the friction factor for Darcy Weisbatch equation 3. INTRODUCTION When a fluid flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some resistance due to which some of the energy of fluid is lost. This loss of energy in the pipelines comes under major energy losses and minor energy losses . in long pipe lines the friction losses are much larger than the minor losses and hence , the latter are ofen neglected. The losses due to friction in pipeline known as major energy losses. The friction in the pipeline due to a viscous drag between the stream bands of fluid. The stream bands of adjacent to the solid surface. The viscous drag is due to the molecular attractions between the molecular of the fluid. 4. THEORY It is found that the total friction resistance to fluid flow depends on the following: a) the area of the wetted surface b) the density of the fluid c) the surface roughness d) it is independent to the fluid pressure e) it increase with the square of the velocity the loss of head in pipe due to friction is calculated from Darcy-Weisbatch equation . which has been given by :

hf = 4f LV2 / 2 g d hf = loss of head due to the friction f = co-efficient of friction L = distance between pressure point V = mean velocity of fluid d = diameter of pipe g = acceleration due to gravity 5. DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consist of two pipes of different diameter for which common inlet connection is provided with control valve to regulate the flow, near the down stream end of the pipe. Pressure tapings are taken at suitable distance apart between which a manometer is provided to study the pressure loss due to the friction. Discharge is measured with the help of measuring tank and stop watch. 6. UTILITIES REQUIRED a) power supply: single phase, 220 volts, 50 Hz , 5 Amp with earth b) water supply c) Drain d) Space required : 1.6 m x 0.6 M 7. EXPEREMENTAL PROCEDURE Starting procedure a) clean the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust b) close the drain valves provided c) fill sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there d) close all flow control valves given on the water line and open By-pass valve. e) Close all pressure taps of manometer connected to pipes f) Ensure that On/Off switch given on the panel is at OFF position g) Now switch on the mail power supply h) Switch on the pump i) Operate the flow control valve to regulate the flow of water in the desired test section j) Open the pressure taps of manometer of related test section, very slowly to avoid the blow of water on manometer fluid k) Now open the air release valve provided on the manometer, slowly to release the air in manometer l) When there is no air in the manometer , close the air release valves m) Adjust water flow rate in desired section with the help of control valve n) Record the manometer readings o) Measure the flow of water, discharged through desired test section, using stop watch p) Watch and measuring tank q) Repeat same procedure for different flow rates of water, operating control valve and Bypass valve. r) When experiment is over for one desired test section, open the By-pass valve fully. Then close the flow control valve of running test section and open the control valve of secondly desired test section s) Repeat the same procedure for selected test section and so on.

Closing procedure a) b) c) when experiment is over , close all manometer pressure taps first switch off pump Switch off power supply to panel

8..SPECIFICATION Sudden enlargement Sudden contraction Bend Elbow Ball valve Gate valve Water circulation Flow measurement : : : : : : : : from 15mm to25mm From 25mm to 15mm FHP Pump Using measuring tank with piezometer, Capacity25 ltrs Sump tank Stop watch Control panel : : : Capacity 50 ltrs Electronic Standard make on /off switch ,mains indicator ,etc The whole set up is well designed and arranged in a good quality structure 9.FORMULAE (a) Discharge : painted

Q = A x R / t x 100 (b) Velocity V1 = Q/a1

V2 = Q/a2 (c) Loss Coefficient (for contraction ) KL = hL 2g / V12 (d)Loss coefficient (for expansion) KL (e) Loss of head H = h/1000,m of water (f)Loss coefficient for pipe fittings KL = hL 2g / V12 = hL 2g / (V2 - V1)2

10.OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS DATA: A g = 0.1 m2 = 9.81m/s2

d = 0.016m & 0.028m a1=2.0106x10-4m2 a2=6.157x10-4m2 OBSERVATION TABLE: S.No h(mm of water) R(cm) t(sec)

CALCULATION TABLE: Sl No Q m3/s V1 m/s V2 m/s hL m KL

11. A a1 a2 d g h hL KL Q R t V1 V2 m w

NOMENCLATURE: = Area of measuring tank,m2 = Cross sectional area of small dia .pipe m2 = Cross sectional area of large dia .pipe m2 = Diameter of pipe =Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 = Manometer reading, cm = head loss ,m of water = Loss coefficient = Discharge, m3/s = Rise of water level in measuring tank, cm = Time taken for R (sec) = Velocity of fluid in pipe of small diameter, m/s = Velocity of fluid in pipe of large diameter, m/s = Density of manometer fluid (Hg) kg/m3 = Density of water, kg/m3

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT

REASONING PRESSURE DROP THROUGH A PACKED BED

AIM To study the pressure drop through a packed bed To determine the pressure drop per unit length of bed To plot modified Reynolds no. vs. modified friction factor on a log log plot INTRODUC TION Packed bed provides a large surface area of contact between two fluids and is thus extensively used in distillation, extraction, absorption etc.As the fluid passes through the bed, it does so through the voids present in the bed. the void form continuous channels through out the bed. The flow may be laminar through some channels THEORY Friction factor is given by Kozeny-Carman equation . f = P/l x 3/(1- ) x VP/ SPV2 = Function of (Re)m .(i) For spherical particles, VP /SP = DP and for non spherical particle . f = P/ V2 x s DP 3 / l (1- )

Where DP is the equivalent diameter and s is the sphericity of the particle defined as s = 6 VP / DPSP VP is the volume of one particle and SP is surface area .Ergun has derived a packed bed for spherical particles, P 3DP / l (1- ) V2 = f = 150(1- ) / V DP +1.75

Modified Reynolds no (Re)m is defined as VP V / SP (1- ) DESCRIPTION =(Re)m = DP s V / (1- )

The apparatus consist of a glass column packed with rasching glass packing and the water flow through rotameter, fitted in pipe line .The pump takes the water and passes to the column and discharge is controlled by using the ball valveand gate valve. pressure tapping are taken out from inlet.discharge is measured with the help of rotameter. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Allow the water to flow down from the bottom to top in the packed bed Regulate flow of water by means of valves Record the flowrates of water from rotameter Note the pressure drop across the bed using manometer Repeate the same procedure at different flow rates of water.

FORMULAE
1. 2. 3. 4.

Surface area SP = LP (do+di)+2 /4(do2+di2) Volume VP = /4(do2+di2) LP Sphericity of particle s = 6 VP / DPSP Discharge of water Q =FW x 10-3 /3600 Velocity of water v = Q/A Modified (Re)m = DP s V / (1- ) Erguns friction factor fr = 150/ Re fr =150/ (Re)m +1.75 ((Re)m> 1000)

5.
6. 7.

8. 9.

experimental friction factor f p = P s DP 3 / V2l (1- ) pressure drop per unit length of bed P /l = h x (0.8853) (N/m2)

DATA D = 0.05m SP=4.95 x10-4 m3 g = 9.81m/s2 = 1000kg/ m3 DP= 0.00847m A= 1.964 x 10-3 m2 do = 0.009m di = 0.006m LP=0.009m L = 0.36m

=0.66 = 8.29 x 10-4 Ns/ m2 OBSERVATION Sl No Rotameter reading LPH 1 2 3

s=0.455

Full length h (mm) Forward Reverse

Half length h(mm) Forward Reverse

8 9 10

CALCULATION TABLE Sl No Q V m/s Re fr Fp(half) Fp(full) P/l(half) P/l(full)

MODEL CALCULATION

RESULT

Pressure drop per unit length of the bed was calculated Plotted the log log graph for friction factor and modified Reynolds number REASONING

FLUIDISED BED APPARATUS

AIM To study the flow through fluidized bed and tom determine pressure drop per unit length of bed. THEORY Fluidization is one of the methods available for contacting granular solids with fluids. A fluidized bed provides a higher interfacial surface area of contact of higher transfer rates .When a fluid is passed upward through bed of solids ,there will be certain pressure drop across the bed to maintain the fluid flow .Depending up on the bed geometry , fluid velocity and particle characteristics the following phenomenon occurs with gradual increase in fluid velocity . At law velocities there is a pressure drop across the bed but the solid bed is static (curve AB) as the fluid velocity is reached the bed starts expanding .At this point the pressure drop across the bed equals to the mass per unit area of the bed .This point is known as point of incipient fluidization .Once the particle are separated , pressure require to maintain fluidization is less. As the velocity is further increased ,the pressure drop remains constant until the bed assume a loosest form of packing If froudes number , f >1 aggregative fluidization .f < 1 particulate fluidization Pressure drop across a fixed bed is given by Erguns equation P Dp/ L(1-)V2 = 150 (1-)/ DpVp ------------------1

. =ZA WS/ /ZA= 1- WS/ZA At the onset of fluidization pressure drop across the bed equals the weight or bed per unit area of cross section. P/z = (p- )( 1-)-----------------------3 From equation 1 and 3 The minimum fluidization velocity Vmf = Dp2g (p- ) 3mf / 150(1- mf ) Fluidization efficiency = GF-Ge/ Ge

Porosity of static bed Take some solids in a granulated cylinder and note its initial volume (v1). Add a known volume (v2) of water & note the final volume. The porosity of static bed is given by, 0 =V1+V2-V3/V1 PROCEDURE Note height of bed in column .start with minimum flow of water in the column at a constant rate .Note the flow rate ,bed height(z) and pressure drop across the column after the steady state is reached .Gradually increase the flow rate of water steadily and repeat the above step for 8-10 different rate of flow continue till the bed is fluidized and finally becomes turbulent.(ie, there is no appreciate change in pressure drop indicated by manometer .)Now decrease the flow rate back to zero and record the same data. FORMULAE Velocity of water =v = Q x 10-3/3600A Pressure drop per unit length of bed P/Z = h x 9.81N/m3 Porosity of fluidized bed = 1-z0/z1 (1- 0) Wen and Yu equation (NRe)mf =(A2+BNar)1/2-A Nar = (dp) 3 x H2O (P- H2O) /H2O2 OBSERVATION SL Q (LPH) No 1 2 3 9 10 Forward Z(cm) h(mm) Z(cm) reverse h(mm)

CALCULATION TABLE Sl No Flow Height(10-2m) V m/s rate Q m3/s forward reverse 1. Pressure drop, Porosity () NRe P/z (N/m2) forward reverse forward reverse

RESULT Minimum fluidization velocity from Pressure drop curve for forward = Minimum fluidization velocity from Pressure drop curve for reverse = Minimum fluidization velocity from porosity graph Minimum fluidization velocity from Wen & Yu equation REASONING = = m/s m/s

DRAG COEFFICIENT AIM

To study the drag coefficient of a falling sphere for the given fluid To determine the settling velocity of particle for the given fluid To plot graph for logarithmic Reynolds number vs logarithmic CD To verify the stoks law

THEORY When a sphere falls through a liquid at terminal settling velocity , the drag coefficient can be determined as a function of NRe .At law NRe , Stokes law prevails as the initial forces are negligible and drag is a function of viscosity When the particle is at a sufficient distance from the boundary of the containers and from all other particle (no particle or solid boundary should be either 20 times the diameter of the particle ), so that is motion is not affected by them,the process is called free settling .Now the forces acting on the particle are the gravitational force, buoyant force and the drag force .The resultant force on the particle is equal to fg-fb- fd.At terminal settling velocity ,the resultant force are equal to zero. CD = 4 DP (lp-l1)g / 3Ut2 l1 Ut = g DP2 (lp-l1) / 18 At low Reynolds no ie, NRe<1, fd.= 3UtDP, This is stokes law,in this range , CD = 24/ NRe ie , is a graph of log CD vs log NRe will be a straigtht line with slope 1 PROCEDURE The equipment consist of two long columns filled with glycerin solution and gingelly oil . Two points are marked in the column , one near the top ( at a distance of about 20 cm from the top) and the other near the bottom .It is assured that by the time a particle reaches the first mark it would have reached terminal velocity . The distance between the marks is measured A spherical particle is taken and its diameter is measured using screw gauge. The particle 1 is first dropped at the center of the column with zero velocity and the time taken to travel the distance is noted. The experiment is repeated with particles of different diameter and material. The same procedure is repeated for the fluid in the second column. The observations are tabulated and log CD vs log NRe is plotted. Precautions should be taken that the particle should have no initial velocity and the particle should be dropped exactly at the centre of the column.

FORMULAE

UF =Height /time taken (m/s) NRe = (DPUt l1) /1 Ut = g DP2 (p- 1) / 18 CD = 4 DP (p- 1)g / 3Ut2 l1 Dp diameter of the spherical particle, m Ut Terminal settling velocity, m/s l - Viscosity of the fluid, Nm/s2 p density of the particle ,kg/m3 1 density of the fluid, kg/m3 g- Gravity force, m/ s2 fD Drag force DATA Viscosity of glycerin =1.25 poise =1.25 kg/ms Viscosity of gingelly oil = 8.5 poise = 0.85 kg/ms Density of glycerin = 1261 kg/m3 Density of gingelly oil OBSERVATION
Sl no. Gingelly oil Spherical particle Diameter of Density used(Glass beads) particle, m particle, kg/m3 1 2 3 4 of Distance Time taken, travelled by the s particle, m

= 920 kg/m3

5 Glycerine 1 2 3 4 5

CALCULATION TABLE MODEL CALCULATION Sl no. Spherical particle used (Glass beads) 1 2 3 4 5 Glycerine 1 2 3 4 5 Exp Velocity, Predicted V=Distance/ti velocity, me, m/s m/s NRe CD Log NRe Log CD

Gingelly oil

RESULT

1. Slope of logarithmic Reynolds number vs logarithmic CD(gycerine) is = 2. Slope of logarithmic Reynolds number vs logarithmic CD(oil) is =

3.

Stokes law is verified.

REASONING