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TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

A PROJECT REPORT ON

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

SUBMITTED TO:
MS.TARUNA BHASIN LECTURER MGMT. DEPT

SUBMITTED BY:
NEHA THAKUR MBA II (B)

AMRAPALI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND COMPUTER APPLICATION


Shiksha Nagar, Lamachaur, Haldwani (Affiliated to Uttarakhand Technical University) Dehradun

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thanks to all whom in some way or the other helped and guided me in the due course of the completion of this project work. It was indeed impossible for me to accomplish to this task without the timely accelerating encouragement and exuberant support .it will be unfair to mention the name of those who directly or indirectly helped me to make it a success. It goes beyond words to express my special thanks to Ms. Taruna Bhasin, who despite of her busy schedule for providing information which I required for my project.

NEHA THAKUR MBA II (B)

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

DECLARATION

I, Neha Thakur, Student of IInd Semester (MBA) Amrapali Institute declare that the project on TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION is the result of my own efforts and it is based on data collected and guidance given to me.

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION EMPLOYEE COUNSELLING - WHATS INVOLVED INGREDIENTS OF COUNSELLING WHEN COUNSELLING IS NEEDED THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF COUNSELLING HURDLES FACED FOR COUNSELING AT WORKPLACE BENEFITS OF COUNSELLING BASIC REQUISITES OF EMPLOYEE COUNSELLING TYPES OF COUNSELING IMPLEMENTATION OF WORKPLACE COUNSELLING MODELS OF WORKPLACE COUNSELLING COUNSELING TECHNIQUES ORGANIZATION IMPACT ON COUNSELLING COUNSELLING IMPACT ON ORGANIZATION CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

INTRODUCTION

What is counselling? Counselling, according to Brammer and Shostrom is defined as a way of relating and responding to another person so that he/she is helped to explore his thoughts, feelings and behaviour to reach a clear self-understanding. Also, the person is helped to find and use his/her strengths to be able to cope more effectively with making appropriate decisions, or taking appropriate action. 2 Makinde (1983) also looks at counselling and defines it as an integrative process between a client, who is vulnerable and who needs assistance, and a counsellor who is trained and educated to give this assistance. The goal of the interaction is to help the client learn to deal more effectively with him/herself and the reality of his environment. People who are in a position to counsel in the work place could be co-workers who would function as peer counsellors, supervisors and managers who would counsel their own staff and staff members like the human resources manager and the training manager who could counsel any staff member because of the uniqueness of their positions. In addition, directors or senior managers are well placed to counsel members of the management staff. Employee counselling can be explained as providing help and support to the employees to face and sail through the difficult times in life. At many points of time in life or career people come across some problems either in their work or personal life when it starts influencing and affecting their performance and, increasing the stress levels of the individual. Counselling is guiding, consoling, advising and sharing and helping to resolve their problems whenever the need arises.Technically, Psychological Counselling, a form of counselling is used by the experts to analyze the work related performance and behaviour of the employees to help them cope with it, resolve the conflicts and tribulations and re-enforce the desired results.

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

Employee counselling is a psychological health care intervention which can take many forms. Its aim is to assist both the employer and employee by intervening with an active problem-solving approach to tackling the problems at hand. The costs to industry and commerce each year associated with employees poor psychological health are enormous. A significant proportion of the Gross National Product (GNP) of industrialized countries is lost each year through illhealth, particularly in respect of stress-related illness. These costs increase substantially when lost productivity resulting from stress-related inefficiency and incompetence is taken into account. Stress-related incompetence is not inevitable though. Employee counselling can do much to prevent the negative effects of stress at an individual level and ultimately at an organizational level. Few organizations can now afford to ignore the consequences associated with employees psychological health.

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

EMPLOYEE COUNSELLING - WHATS INVOLVED

Employee counselling gives individuals a valuable opportunity to work through problems and stresses in a strictly confidential and supportive atmosphere. Counselling provides access to several basic forms of helping: giving information, direct action, teaching and coaching, advocacy, and providing feedback and advice, for example. Typically, counselling involves the individual employee meeting with a psychological adviser, usually on a one-on-one basis. It is not uncommon for the individual employee and counsellor to meet one or twice a week for several weeks. However, the number and frequency of meetings required will depend upon the nature of the perceived difficulty and the nature of the intervention needed. The focus of counselling sessions is to encourage discussion of personal and work-related difficulties. This is often followed by the adoption of an active problem-solving approach to tackle the problems at hand. The specific aims of employee counselling are to:

Explore and find the key sources of difficulty. Review the individuals current strategies and styles of coping. Implement methods of dealing with the perceived problem, thereby alleviating the issue. Often, this step may involve also improving interpersonal relations at work and/or improving personal performance. Evaluate the effectiveness of the chosen strategies.

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

INGREDIENTS OF COUNSELLING

Counselling of staff is becoming an essential function of the managers. The organisation can either take the help of experienced employees or expert, professional counselor to take up the counselling activities. Increasing complexities in the lives of the employees need to address various aspects like: Performance counselling: Ideally, the need for employee counselling arises when the employee shows signs of declining performance, being stressed in office-hours, bad decision-making etc. In such situations, counselling is one of the best ways to deal with them. It should cover all the aspects related to the employee performance like the targets, employee's responsibilities, problems faced, employee aspirations, inter-personal relationships at the workplace, et al. Personal and Family Wellbeing: Families and friends are an important and inseparable part of the employee's life. Many a times, employees carry the baggage of personal problems to their workplaces, which in turn affects their performance adversely. Therefore, the counselor needs to strike a comfort level with the employees and, counselling sessions involving their families can help to resolve their problems and getting them back to work- all fresh and enthusiastic. Other Problems : Other problems can range from work-life balance to health problems. Counselling helps to identify the problem and help him / her to deal with the situation in a better way.

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

WHEN COUNSELLING IS NEEDED

Perhaps if self-discovery were a regular part of our educational process there would be less need for counsellors. Today that is not the case, and many individuals at some stage in their life fall into such a state of insecurity, selfdoubt and depression that they cannot emerge without the skilled help of another. Counselling is especially needed at times of crisis or change, such as severe or traumatic accident, bereavement, disablement, life-threatening illness, loss of employment or of home, marital difficulties or other broken relationships which disrupt the previous pattern of life. People may find themselves unable to respond adequately to such situations or to adapt their mode of life to the changed circumstances. Other groups with particular counselling needs include young adults in the transition from school or college to the world of work; the socially disadvantaged; delinquents and drug addicts; immigrants and refugees; the elderly and the terminally ill. There are many situations in the workplace when counselling might be called for: Some of these problems arise outside the work place. They can be personal problems such as sexual behaviour that might pose a high risk for HIV/AIDS, or addiction to drugs or alcohol. They may be related to family issues: money problems, sickness and death in the family causing grief or trauma. They may also be issues related specifically to the work place, such as matters like career development, discipline, performance, relating to customers or clients, promotion, redeployment, transfers, redundancies, retirement, etc. There might be problems individuals have in relating to others in the work place, either as individuals or as part of a team. Other problems may lie in relating to customers, to bosses or to those in authority in general. Bosses might also have problems in relating to their juniors.

TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING IN AN ORGANIZATION

THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF COUNSELLING

The term counselling has many meanings according to its national and professional context. None the less it is possible to identify a definition which encompassesth is diversity. Counselling may be described as a method of relating and responding to others with the aim of providing them with opportunities to explore, to clarify and to work towards living in a more personally satisfying and resourceful way. Counselling may be applied to individuals, couples, families or groups and may be used in widely differing contexts and settings.

HURDLES FACED FOR COUNSELING AT WORKPLACE

The biggest bottleneck in employee counselling at the workplace is the lack of trust on the employee's part to believe in the organisation or his superior to share and understand his problems. Also, the confidentiality that the counselor won't disclose his personal problems or issues to others in the organisation. Time, effort and resources required on the part of the organisation are a constraint.

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BENEFITS OF COUNSELLING

The main benefit of counseling is that it helps you to have a life which you can more fully enjoy and appreciate. It can help you to become the sort of person you want to be. It can also help you to more deeply enjoy your important relationships. You might use therapy to:

feel better about yourself. feel more at peace, more comfortable, or more secure in the world. feel more successfully (and more joyfully) connected with others (including your spouse/partner). reduce stress (which promotes physical health too). work through problems with a skilled, and compassionate professional. identify your goals. (those which can support the kind of life you would like to have)

learn new behaviors and/or responses which can help you to achieve your goals. establish ways and techniques for reaching your goals. understand your own thoughts, feelings, and responses better. understand your loved ones better. have a safe and friendly ear; someone to use as a sounding board. speak with a skilled and interested professional about your fears and perceptions. talk with a compassionate professional about troubling or private concerns. work towards greater self-fulfillment and self-mastery.

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BASIC REQUISITES OF EMPLOYEE COUNSELLING

Employee Counselling needs to be tackled carefully, both on the part of the organisation and the counselor. The counselling can turn into a sensitive series of events for the employee and the organisation; therefore, the counselor should be either a professional or an experienced, mature employee. The counselor should be flexible in his approach and a patient listener. He should have the warmth required to win the trust of the employee so that he can share his thoughts and problems with him without any inhibitions. Active and effective listening is one of the most important aspects of the employee counselling. Time should not be a constraint in the process.

The counselor should be able to identify the problem and offer concrete advice. The counselor should be able to help the employee to boost the morale and spirit of the employee, create a positive outlook and help him take decisions to deal with the problem.

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TYPES OF COUNSELING

The main types of counselling are:


cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and other types of talking therapies, such as group therapy and relationship therapy.

These therapies are discussed in more detail below.

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy that may retrain a persons way of thinking to help them to deal with stressful situations. CBT is used to help solve a number of problems such as:

depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), managing long-term illness, eating disorders, and schizophrenia.

CBT was developed from two earlier types of psychotherapy:


Cognitive therapy: designed to change a persons thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Behavioural therapy: designed to change a person's actions.

CBT is a talking therapy that is based around the idea that the way a person thinks about a situation affects the way that they act. In turn, a persons actions influence the way they think and feel. It is therefore necessary to change both the act of thinking (cognition) and behaviour at the same time.
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Psychodynamic therapy During psychodynamic therapy, a therapist will help a person consider how their personality and life experiences influence their current thoughts, feelings, relationships and behaviour. This understanding enables them to deal with difficult situations more successfully. Psychodynamic therapy can be used to help treat:

depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), long-term physical health problems, eating disorders, and addictions.

It recommends psychodynamic therapy for people with depression and other complex illnesses. Psychodynamic therapy is available privately and on the NHS in some areas. It usually lasts between several months and several years, but shorter courses are also available.

Humanistic therapy Humanistic therapies take a holistic approach to a persons problem in order to help them develop to their full potential and live life to the full. To achieve this, humanistic therapies incorporate the body, mind, emotions, behaviour and spirituality. In addressing the problem, they also look at other people, including family, friends, society and culture. Humanistic therapies are often used to treat problems such as depression, anxiety and addiction. It recommends this type of therapy for children and young people with mild depression, and for some cases of schizophrenia. Humanistic therapies are available both privately and on the NHS and, depending on the problem, can be either short- or long-term, although they usually last for at least several months.

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OTHER TALKING THERAPIES

Group therapy The aim of group therapy is to help people find solutions to their problems by discussing them in a group setting. Sessions are led by a facilitator who helps by directing the flow of conversation.

Relationship and family therapy Relationship therapy is where couples who are having difficulties in their relationship work with a therapist to try to resolve their problems. Family therapy is similar but involves a therapist working with a family that is having problems.

Interpersonal therapy Interpersonal therapy focuses on how a persons mood can influence the way that they relate to others who are close to them

Mindfulness-based therapies Mindfulness-based therapies combine talking therapies with meditation. They are used to make positive changes by helping a person to reduce stress and cope with problematic thoughts and feelings.

Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) is a treatment method that uses eye movements to stimulate the brain. EMDR has been shown to make distressing memories feel less intense. EMDR can be used to treat a number of traumas, such as addictions, accidents and injuries, phobias, and sexual, physical or emotional abuse.

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Motivational counselling Motivational counselling involves talking about issues and problems that could prevent a person from achieving their goals and ambitions. It recommends this type of counselling for people who have a mental health problem, or a problem with alcohol or substance misuse.

Telephone counselling Telephone counselling, such as the service provided by the Samaritans, enables you to talk to a therapist without having to meet them face-to-face. It may be available through charities or your employer. Alternatively, you may be able to receive counselling by email or on the internet.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF WORKPLACE COUNSELLING

Setting up and maintaining a counselling service in the workplace needs careful planning. Without carefully thought-through decisions on policy, procedures and marketing, problems will inevitably arise. EAPs generally do not fail because of clinical incompetence. Failures are more due to issues of administration, politics or lack of sufficient evaluation. Invariably failure could be traced to initial program implementation process.

Six stages The steps and guidance for setting up counselling service in workplace are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Preparation for counselling Assessing workplace counselling Contracting for workplace counselling Introducing counselling into organizations Terminating the relationship between organization and provider Evaluating workplace counselling

1. Preparation for counselling It is essential that both an organization and a counselling provider have a number of facilities organized in advance.

1.1. The organization An organization which is planning to introduce workplace counselling service should begin by thinking through carefully what it wants. The following list can help in the decision process.

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1. Setting up a small, representative team to steer the discussions and negotiations for providing a suitable counselling service. This group should be representative, covering all parts of the workforce. 2. Engaging an independent consultant to work with the team. The consultant provides basic education on counselling, if necessary. 3. Finding out the organization needs of counselling, like facilities, budget etc. Should counselling service contribute to organization support and change? Would counselling provision remain congruent with prevailing management practices? 4. Reviewing cost of counselling. 5. Checking on commitment of the organization; like support from key people from management, unions, all departments etc. This will ensure that counselling service has a chance of success. 6. Drawing up a list of potential counselling service providers. 7. What will be the required provisions of EAP? Counselling, advice, welfare, information giving etc. Now the organization has a clear concept of what it wants and where it is headed.

1.2. The counselling provider The counselling provider needs to have a policy statement outlining their purpose, the provisions they offer, restrictions & limitations, cost & finance, contract etc.

2. Assessment 2.1. Assessing workplace counselling This is a crucial stage in setting up counselling in an organization. The counselling provision should be tailor-made to suit size, culture, the nature of work of the organization, its location, its particular workforce. From the following list the organizations can derive the right kind of counselling for them:

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Who or what has driven the initiative? What does senior management want from the provision? What does the human resources function want from the provision? What do individual employees, including management, want from the provisions for themselves? 5. For each of the above three interest groups, what are the priorities? 6. What structure or support systems are already in place? 7. What are the logistical and economic constraints? 8. What level of quality assurance is required, and how will quality be monitored? 9. How will the program be marketed? 10.How will the program be evaluated? 11.How will the program fit in with the organizations culture? 2.2. Assessing the organization Assessing the organization in a number of areas is as follows: 1. What is the organization culture and how does it respond to the concept of counselling? 2. What are the counselling needs of employees? 3. Why is the organization looking for counselling just now? 4. How does the organization understand counselling? 5. How committed to counselling provision are the top people? 6. What facilities will be provided for counselling? 7. Who is the organizational contact with the counselling service? 8. How will counselling be integrated with the organization? 2.3. Assessing the counselling provision As counsellors want to assess the organization and its readiness for a counselling service, so organizations will want to assess the group the counsellors who will provide the counselling. Assessing the counselling provider in the following areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How many counsellors are available and what is their availability? What are their qualifications? Do counsellors have experience of working in organizations? Are qualifications uniform or diverse? What are the value systems of counsellors and are they uniform or diverse?
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3. Contracting for workplace counselling The assessment stage allows both participants to find out information about each other and make initial judgments about suitability. The next stage is to draw up a more formal contract or agreement that covers roles and responsibilities as well as the practicalities of working together.

4. Introducing counselling into the workplace Contracting to bring counselling provisions into the workplace, however, is only the beginning: the real hard work starts in working out and implementing a strategy for introducing counselling to the organization. Two key areas are managing the counselling process and publicizing the counselling service.

5. Terminating counselling with an organization Contracts are either renewed or ended.

6. Evaluating workplace counselling The feedback and evaluation process is undertaken.

The first step Once organization understands different stages of counselling implementation, it takes the initial move of appointing an EAP consultant. The EAP consultant starts with the following exercise and completes in the shortest agreed time frame. Educate the top management and interest groups Do a need analysis Do a stress audit Define and agree on the scope and expectation

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Organizational climate The organization with compatible counselling provision should possess the following characteristics: Full support and visible commitment from both top management and unions Integration with good management and personnel practices A willingness to deal also with the environmental sources of stress Integrated initiatives in counselling skills training for internal counsellors Training for them to confront and deal with problems as they arise A statement of policy and procedure from management and full information about the service to each employee The appointment of one individual within the organization with clear accountability for the proper management and resourcing of EAP

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MODELS OF WORKPLACE COUNSELLING

The different models of workplace counselling are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Counselling-orientation model Brief-therapy model Problem-focused model Work-oriented model Manager-based model Externally based model Internally based model Welfare-based model Organizational-change model

1. Counselling-orientation model In this model counselling approach is the key factor. Counsellors subscribe to their training and use the same approach for working with organizational clients. The different orientations are: cognitive-behavior therapy, psychodynamic, rational emotive behavior therapy, transactional analysis, Carl Rogers person-centered counselling, Gestalt model or Carl Jung perspective. In this model counsellors main interest is still focused almost exclusively on individuals and the organizational dimensions of counselling work are largely ignored.

2. Brief-therapy model Brief-therapy is the norm in employee counselling. The work of an EAP counsellor is that of crisis intervention, assessment and short-term counselling of the individual clients. Economics and time factors make brief-therapy (also called focused counselling) a good choice for many organizations.

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3. Problem-focused model Problem-focused model of counselling sees the counsellors role as helping individuals to work with the immediate problems they bring. This is a five-stage model also called as life-skills counselling. Nelson-Jones developed and called it DASIE model.

D - Develop the relationship, identify and clarify problems A - Asses problems and redefine in skill terms S - State working goals and plan interventions I - Intervene to develop self-helping skills E - End and consolidate self-helping skills

4. Work-oriented model Work-oriented model of counselling is centered solely on issues blocking an individual in his or her work. Counselling confines itself to the issues interfering with effective employment. Criteria of counselling are performance and productivity, fix the performance problem and fix it fast! The role of the counsellor is to get the employee fit and ready for work. This is not the place to help the client self-actualize or work on personal problems not related to the workplace.

This is an attractive counselling model for organizations that want value for money and want to think that time spent in counselling is for the welfare of the organization through the individual.

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5. Manager-based model Some organizations view managers as quasi-counsellors for their staff. Managers spent much of their time working with and managing people. Training in counselling skills can help the managers to recognize what are all happening, why it is happening, the limitations, the challenges and opportunities around inter-personal and communication functions among employees.

6. Externally based model Externally based models of counselling are those brought in, and bought in, from outside the organization. The format used can be any of the above models or a mixture of them.

The strengths of external counselling services: Not part of politics of the organization Can challenge what is taken for granted within the company Can offer training as well as counselling Can offer clear confidentiality Can provide range of services Can offer a number of counsellors with different skills and backgrounds The organization is not responsible for malpractice of counsellors 7. Internally based model In-house counselling is the norm in a number of companies. A part-time or fulltime counsellor or some times a team of counsellors is employed to work with employees. The counselling service can be part of an already existing department or an independent unit. Sometimes internal and external counselling can work in tandem.

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8. Welfare-based model This is a traditional model where welfare officers performed the role of a social worker, with limited counselling service. Welfare officers fulfill several tasks like: befriending, information-giving, advocate, home-visiting during sickness, giving legal and financial advice, advising on a range of topics and counselling.

9. Organizational-change model The result of individual / group counselling will spur personality change at the employee level. This transition is a valuable asset to the organization. Some organizations seamlessly integrate counselling into their growth & development.

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COUNSELING TECHNIQUES

A Toolbox of Counseling Techniques Since we all have our own unique ways of seeing the world, ourselves, and other people it's best for a therapist to have a toolbox of skills and interventions. Equipped with appropriate tools, the therapist and client can devise a plan best suited for the person and their issues. I have a friend who likes to say ..."If all you have is a hammer, then everything begins to look like a nail." Below are summaries of the primary approaches I draw from in creating individualized treatment plans. They are all suited to the creation of efficient and effective changes in the neural networks of the Internet of the Mind - My map of the world. I do not intend to go into the theory of each approach but simply to outline a summary of them.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a counseling technique deals with limiting beliefs. Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck are widely known as the pioneers of CBT. They have their own variations in the theory and practice of CBT. Again it is not my intent to go into the theory of CBT, but to simply introduce you to the basics and provide some insight into how it may apply to changing our neural pathways.

Gestalt Psychology Gestalt Psychology presupposes that people are born with the resources and ability to enjoy rewarding contact with others, and lead a satisfying and creative life. However, often during childhood...and sometimes later...something interrupts normal developmental processes and the person gets stuck in fixed patterns and beliefs about themselves that get in the way. Gestalt aims to investigate and uncover how these patterns (neural networks) are still active and holding the person back or stopping them from getting what
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they want from life. The "Father of Gestalt Therapy" was Frederick "Fritz" Perls. Family Systems Theory Family Systems Theory has generated many counseling techniques for understanding and healing children of less-than-nurturing families - whether they be adult-children or children currently living in such families. The lessons learned in the incredible amount of data gathered through research done on families of alcoholism has created a wealth of interventions and knowledge. Because of this whole families are now recovering to "stop the cycles" of shame and abandonment from being passed on to the next generation. The family is the original group from which people learn patterns of behavior (neural networks) which they re-enact in other groups later in life. Individuals are programmed with family rules, roles, behaviors, and beliefs that form their original neural networks. Pioneered by "The Mother of Family Therapy" - Virginia Satir - Family systems therapy focuses on becoming conscious of subconscious dysfunctional patterns and learning new ones to improve a person's life and relationships.

Hypnotherapy There is no shortage of arguments about the nature of hypnosis, especially as a counseling technique. These debates range from the position that there is no such thing as hypnosis to it's all hypnosis. From my own studies and experiences I take these positions; that no one can be "hypnotized" unless they allow it and, indeed, actively participate in the process and that pretty much everything we learn is through a hypnotic process. Suffice it to say that hypnotherapy involves "getting beyond the radar" of ones conscious mind and into the subconscious mind (SCM). Hypnosis is used as a tool in therapy and is not usually experienced as one might imagine. For example, a person is usually fully aware of the process even though the subconscious mind is in the forefront. Once there, no changes can be made that do not sound acceptable to the SCM. If a suggestion is given, either directly or indirectly - through the use of metaphor - which does not fit the value system of the participant it will simply not be accepted. My particular method of Hypnotherapy is Ericksonian which was the style created by the master
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hypnotherapist Milton Erickson. He was widely considered to be the one of the best therapists of all time. Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Neuro-Linguistic Programming is literally a storehouse of extremely effective counseling techniques. NLP was created in the early seventies by John Grinder, a linguist and Richard Bandler, a computer programmer. Bandler and Grinder believed that if one person could do something then anyone could learn to do it through the use of "modeling". Modeling is breaking a behavior down to its smallest elements, learning them, and then recreating the pattern by systematically and congruently emulating those elements. In essence, the modeler "becomes" the person being modeled. Bandler and Grinder developed a whole host of interventions through the modeling of Perls, Satir, and Erickson. They spent time with each other these master's, broke down their patterns and recreated many of their results. Their skills with linguistics and computer programming aided them greatly in this process. NLP is growing and has come a long way, but has yet to achieve the full-fledged status as a stand alone field of practice. Bandler once said that the growth and development of NLP has "...left a multitude of interventions is its wake".

Transactional Analysis (TA) Transactional Analysis (TA) is a counseling technique that deals with ego-states and the role these ego-states play in how we interact with each other and the world in general. Ego-states are the equivalent of what we refer to as neural networks. In TA theory, each person has three ego-states (or neural networks), which are separate and distinct sources of behavior: the Parent ego-state, the Adult egostate, and the Child ego-state. A person can "activate" only one ego-state at a time which means they act according to the beliefs, feelings, and behaviors of that ego-state. Any person who has experienced "losing it" in an argument with their spouse can attest to what it feels like to be in the "angry child" state if they feel childish after the fight is over.

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Inner Child Therapy Inner Child Therapy evolved from Transactional Analysis, NLP, and Family Systems Therapy. In TA the Inner Child was referred to as the Adapted Child, the Natural Child, and the Little Professor. All of these terms are metaphors for what has come to be known as various fragmented parts of our self. The terms "fragmented parts" and "self" are also metaphors or symbols we use to talk about something inside of us that we cannot see - i.e., our neural networks.

Ego-State Therapy Ego-State Therapy evolved from psychoanalytic theory and the practice of hypnotherapy. Ego-State Therapy is a counseling technique that was pioneered by husband and wife duo, John and Helen Watkins, in the seventies and eighties. It's an ideal form of hypnotherapy that allows work to be done directly with neural networks while in an hypnotic state. Lasting changes often take place on a deep level.

Parts Integration Therapy Parts Integration Work, also known as Parts Work, is a counseling technique that came out of the NLP interventions that were created through modeling of Fritz Perls and Virginia Satir. Closely related to Ego-State Therapy, the term "Parts" is a metaphor for various neural networks that are also referred to as fragmented parts of of the core self. Virginia Satir used the concept of parts to work on roles in the family and held an occasional "Parts Party" in family sessions.

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ORGANIZATION IMPACT ON COUNSELLING

Organization culture Organizations, like individuals, come in all shapes and sizes, with different cultures and a multiplicity of ways in which they structure their lives. Different cultures reflect the contrasting ways in which organizations manage their internal and external relationships. Organizational culture is about the ecology, the ethos, the personality, the atmosphere of a company. It is reflected in the way we do things around here and encompasses values, beliefs and attitudes that are shared by the members of the organization. There is also a shadow side of the organization where a whole domain of invisible network exists. These networks facilitate informal communication, relationships, decisions and are often as powerful as the formal channels. Effective managers know and manage the shadow side as well as the formal side of organizations. Organizational culture is a powerful influence on its members.

Understanding the culture of an organization gives valuable insights into why individuals act the way they do, the norms that dictate behavior, and also help us devise interventions to help people who become ill, mentally or physically. It may be that organizational culture demands behavior from people that makes them ill.

Like individuals are classified into types (e.g. introvert, extrovert), organizations are also classified by culture. One of the approaches is as follows:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Role culture Achievement culture Power culture Support culture

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Role culture In role organization people take on roles and see others in role terms. Because people are defined in terms of their roles and responsibilities, these organizations tend to be somewhat hierarchical with rules and regulations to maintain roles. Authority exists to make sure that people maintain their roles, stay within them, sort out role conflicts, and principally ensure that the roles are geared towards the specific aim of the organization. The degenerate form of role culture exists where the individuals are sacrificed to the organization. There is such an emphasis on role that roles become artificial rather than personal and/or real. Counselling perspective: Role cultures may introduce counselling but will tend to see it as a fix-it operation where individuals out of role can be helped to return to full role operations. Unfortunately, counselling can be viewed as punitive within role organizations and may be used by managers to sort out their troubled or troubling employees. Because role organizations tend to be rational in their approach there may be little time for or appreciation of emotion/feeling. Counselling will be seen as problem-solving, is likely be shortterm and may be cognitive-behavioral.

Achievement culture The achievement culture concentrates on the work to be done rather than roles. People will cross roles to get the job done. Individuals are driven and motivated by their enthusiasm for the job. The organization culture is collaborative, exciting, creative, dynamic and sometimes chaotic. Rules and policies are constantly under review. Counselling perspective: Despite their supportive and friendly atmosphere, achievement organizations find it difficult to cope with counselling. For them weakness is unacceptable, and whereas they stress the importance of the individual over the organization, it tends to be the healthy and working individual. As soon as individuals fall behind in the rapid, hectic world of marketplace, there is a tendency to send them off to have them sorted out.

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Achievement organizations tend to move towards external counselling provision which keeps counselling at a distance. Power culture The power culture is one where dominance rules, where strength and control are cherished values. Usually hierarchical and handle individuals without feeling. Motivation is seen as extrinsic. They are patriarchal, protective as well as demanding. The strength of power cultures is their ability to get things done. They protect employees and reward them well. They view individuals as weak. They can be punitive and can sacrifice individual to the organization. Counselling perspective: Counselling may be introduced to power organizations as a way of helping weaker employees manage their jobs.

Support culture The support culture organization stresses the value of relationships, mutuality, communication and looking after its people. The emphasis is on collaborative work and rewards tend to be intrinsic: e.g. the satisfaction of working in the organization. Individuals are trusted to do their work, and support systems are in-built to help employees do their jobs well and reduce stress. Training is part of the job and employees are expected to be continually developing. The strong support culture cares for its employees deeply and recognizes that they are best assets of the company. Counselling perspective: Counselling services are seen as a natural part of support cultures. People are expected to have personal and work-related problems and need a forum where they can work with these. Organization takes counselling service as part of the skills within the organization. Does formal counselling service have a role here? Sometimes specialist services like AIDS, family counselling etc. are added.

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COUNSELLING IMPACT ON ORGANIZATION

Counselling can itself be a source of organizational change. Rather than being just an appendage to a company, counselling can bring the values, the energy of change, the vitality of acceptance, a realization of who we are and what we can be, to the very dynamics of workplace life. Counselling values are about the importance and process of change, how people are empowered to manage their lives, how social responsibility is build into life, and how decisions can be made. Counselling can influence organizational culture to work towards the ideal strong and adaptive culture that serves the company. Having counselling service available in the workplace means that problems can be dealt with fairly quickly and can be worked through in the very environment from which they often emerge.

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CONCLUSION

Counselling can go a long way in helping the employees to have better control over their lives, take their decisions wisely and better charge of their responsibilities, reduce the level of stress and anxiety. Counselling of employees can have desirable consequences for the organisation. It helps the organisation when the employees know that the organization cares for them, and build a sense of commitment with it. It can prove to be of significant help to modify the behaviour of the employees and more so to re-enforce the desired behaviour and improve and increase the employee productivity.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS REFERENCES:

Workplace Counselling, Michael Carroll, Sage Publication. Handbook of Counselling in Organizations, Michael Carroll, Michael Walton, Sage Publication. The Skilled Helper, Gerard Egan, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

INTERNET REFERENCES:

www.smartmanager.com www.wikipedia.org www.humannatureatwork.com www.cbsnews.com www.philforhumanity.com humanresources.about.com

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