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A project work done in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of Degree BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING By ROSHNI UPPALA (Regd No. 1210508253) Under the Guidance Of Sri.CH.DAS PRAKASH M.Tech Assistant Professor



This is to certify that the project work entitled WIRELESS SPEED AND DIRECTION CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING RF TECHNOLOGY is a bonafide work of ROSHNI UPPALA , Regd. No. 1210508253, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree, Bachelor of technology in Electrical &Electronics Engineering during the year 2011-2012.

( Sri.Ch.Das Prakash ) Project guide

( Prof.K.S.Linga Murthy ) Head of the Department

I express my deep sense of gratitude and respect to our beloved Prof. K.S.Linga Murthy , Head of the Department, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Gitam Institute of Technology, GITAM University for his valuable guidance and cooperation throughout my project.

I am deeply indebted to my project advisor Sri.Ch.Das Prakash, Asst.Professor, for his constant support, guidance in completion of my project work and I wish to express our deepest gratitude for his valuable advice, personal attention and continuous encouragement throughout my bachelor program.

I also express our profound thanks to the Principal and management of Gitam University for their suggestions and cooperation in carrying out this project work.

I express my thanks to all teaching and non-teaching staff of Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering for providing a great assistance in accomplishment of my project.

Lastly but not the least thanks must go out to my family members for their tireless support and encouragement and I thank one and all who supported us directly or indirectly in completing this project successfully.

( ROSHNI UPPALA ) 1210508253


The main idea of developing this project is for providing an efficient and simple method for the control of speed and direction of DC motor using RF (Radio Frequency) technology. Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not physically connected. Distances can be short, such as a few meters for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers. Among the various wireless technologies like IR (Infra Red), Bluetooth and WLAN, we have chosen RF technology, the main reason being it has a very long range of 3 KHz-300GHZ. It is also not affected by any obstructions. Commercial applications for wireless are door announcers, security and access systems, gate control, remote activation, score board and paging systems.

This project uses RF modules, STT-433 MHz Transmitter, STR-433 MHz Receiver, HT640 RF Encoder and HT648 RF Decoder. Four switches are provided at the transmitter end, to control the speed and direction of the dc motor which is connected at the receiver side. Two push-to-on switches are provided for increasing / decreasing the speed of the motor. Two more push-to-on switches are provided to rotate the motor in Clock wise / Counter clock wise direction.

LIST OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Chapter 2: WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 2.1: Radio frequency technology 2.1.1: Description 2.1.2: Properties of RF 2.1.3.Advantages and Disadvantages Chapter 3: DC MOTOR 3.1: Basic operation of DC Motor 3.2: Speed control methods 3.3: Specifications of the DC Motor 3.4: Geared DC motor Chapter 4: CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 4.1: Circuit Schematic diagram

4.2: Circuit operation 4.3: Circuit components 4.4: Component description 4.5: Operating procedure Chapter 5: RESULTS AND FUTURE SCOPE Chapter 6: CONCLUSION Chapter 7: REFERENCES




Almost all the machine in industries operated using electrical motors. Among them most of motors are DC motors. DC series motor is specially used for traction, electric locomotive, trolley systems, cranes and conveyor belt. All these works require frequent speed control for preparation of job. We could gear the motor for the proper speed, but this is usually beyond the scope of what we can accomplish in the basement workshop. Or, we could measure the current that the motor draws, and determine a series resistor value (...remember Ohm's law !) to insert to "drop" the motor supply voltage and slow the motor down. The problem with that approach is that if the load on the motor increases, the motors operating current also increases, creating a larger voltage "drop" across that series resistor and supplying less voltage tothe motor terminals when it is needed most. This

"vicious circle" usually results in the motor stalling at high load conditions. So what we need is a controller that will give the motor a "kick" of full supply voltage for a variable amount of time to achieve the proper speed without the series droppingeffect. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) wave can be used to control the speed of the motor.



Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote

control) or long (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications). Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones. Wireless operations permits services, such as long-range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi opened the way for modern wireless communications by transmitting the three-dot Morse code for the letter S over a distance of three kilometers using electromagnetic waves. From this beginning, wireless communications has developed into a key element of modern society. From satellite transmission, radio and television broadcasting to the now ubiquitous mobile telephone, wireless communications has revolutionized the way societies function.

Wireless communications and the economic goods and services that utilise it have some special characteristics that have motivated specialised studies. First, wireless communications relies on a scarce resource namely, radio spectrum. Second, use of spectrum for wireless communications required the development of key complementary technologies; especially those that allowed higher frequencies to be utilised more efficiently. Finally, because of its special nature, the efficient use of spectrum required the coordinated development of standards. Those standards in turn played a critical role in the diffusion of technologies that relied on spectrum use. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry

to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF),acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances. Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used to meet many needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location. Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations justify the use of wireless technology:

To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling, To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure, To link portable or temporary workstations, To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or To remotely connect mobile users or networks. The term "wireless" came into public use to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver (a dual purpose receiver and transmitter device), establishing its usage in the field of wireless telegraphy early on; now the term is used to describe modern wireless connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet. It is also used in a general sense to refer to any type of operation that is implemented without the use of wires, such as "wireless remote control" or "wireless energy transfer", regardless of the specific technology (e.g. radio, infrared, ultrasonic) used.

PRINCIPLES OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS : Wireless communications begin with a message that is converted into an electronic signal by a device called a transmitter. There are two types of transmitters: analog and digital. An analog transmitter sends electronic signals as modulated radio waves. The analog transmitter modulates the radio wave to carry the electronic signal and then sends the modified radio signal through space. A digital transmitter encodes electronic signals by converting messages into a binary code, the series of zeros and ones that are the basis of all computer programming. The encoded electronic

signal is then sent as a radio wave. Devices known as receivers decode or demodulate the radio waves and reproduce the original message over a speaker. Wireless communications systems involve either one-way transmissions, in which a person merely receives notice of a message, or two-way transmissions, such as a telephone conversation between two people. An example of a device that only receives one-way transmission is a pager, which is a high-frequency radio receiver. When a person dials a pager number, the pager company sends a radio signal to the desired pager. The encoded signal triggers the pagers circuitry and notifies the customer carrying the pager of the incoming call with a tone or a vibration, and often the telephone number of the caller. Advanced pagers can display short messages from the caller, or provide news updates or sports scores. Two-way transmissions require both a transmitter and a receiver for sending and receiving signals. A device that functions as both a transmitter and a receiver is called a transceiver. Cellular radio telephones and two-way radios use transceivers, so that back-and-forth communication between two people can be maintained. Early transceivers were very large, but they have decreased in size due to advances in technology. Fixed-base transceivers, such as those used at police stations, can fit on a desktop, and hand-held transceivers have shrunk in size as well. Several current models of handheld transceivers weigh less than 0.2 kg (0.5 lb). Some pagers also use transceivers to provide limited response options. These brief return-communication opportunities allow paging users to acknowledge reception of a page and to respond using a limited menu of options.


1. Infrared Wireless Transmission- "Transmission of data signals using infrared-light waves".

These infrared-light waves are at a frequency too low for human eyes to receive and interpret. Infrared ports can be found in digital cameras, laptops, and printers as well as wireless mice.
2. Broadcast Radio- a wireless transmission medium that sends data over long distances

(regions, states, countries) at up to 2 megabits per second (AM/FM Radio)

3. Microwave Radio- Transmission of voice and data through the atmosphere as super high-

frequency radio waves called microwaves. These frequencies are used to transmit messages between ground-based stations and satellite communications systems.
4. Communications Satellites- are microwave relay stations in orbit around the earth.


1. Broadcasting services: including short wave, AM and FM radio as well as terrestrial


2. Mobile communications of voice and data: including maritime and aeronautical mobile for

communications between ships, airplanes and land; land mobile for communications between a fixed base station and moving sites such as a taxi fleet and paging services, and mobile communications either between mobile users and a fixed network or between mobile users, such as mobile telephone services

3. Fixed Services: either point to point or point to multipoint services

4. Satellite: used for broadcasting, telecommunications and internet, particularly over long

distances .

5. Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by business, industrial and Public Safety entities

6. Consumer Two Way Radio including FRS (Family Radio Service), GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios.

7. Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios.

8. Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications,

both personal and business.

9. Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and

ships, and pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth.

10. Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and

printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless.

11. Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell


12. Satellite television: allows viewers in almost any location to select from hundreds of


13. Wireless gaming: new gaming consoles allow players to interact and play in the same game

regardless of whether they are playing on different consoles. Players can chat, send text messages as well as record sound and send it to their friends.

14. Security systems: Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired

implementations in security systems for homes or office buildings.

15. Television remote control: Modern televisions use wireless (generally infrared) remote

control units. Now radio waves are also used.

16. Cellular telephony (phones and modems): These instruments use radio waves to enable the

operator to make phone calls from many locations world-wide. They can be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the equipment that is required to transmit and receive the signal that is used to transfer both voice and data to and from these instruments.

17. Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi (for wireless fidelity) is a wireless LAN technology that enables laptop PCs,

PDAs, and other devices to connect easily to the internet. Technically known as IEEE 802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi is less expensive and nearing the speeds of standard Ethernet and other common wire-based LAN technologies

18. Wireless energy transfer: Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is

transmitted from a power source to an electrical load thatdoes not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires.


1. Anywhere, Anytime Work 2. Through wireless communication, working professionals and mobile workers can work and access the Internet just about anywhere, anytime without the hassles of wires and network cables. 3. Enhanced Productivity 4. Workers, students, professionals and others need not be constrained by wired Internet connections or dial-up connectivity. Wireless Internet connectivity options ensures that work and assignments can be completed anywhere and enhance overall productivity of all concerned. 5. Remote Area Connectivity 6. Workers, doctors and other professionals working in remote-location hospitals and medical centers can keep in touch with anyone through wireless communication. Non-profit organization volunteers working in remote and underserved areas can stay connected to the outside world with the help of wireless communication. 7. On-Demand Entertainment Bonanza 8. For those unable to keep away from their daily soap operas, reality-programs, online TV shows and Internet surfing or download activities, wireless communication ensures an entertainment bonanza on--demand and anytime. 9. Emergency Alerts 10. Through wireless communication, many emergency situations and crisis situations can be addressed quickly. Help and other assistance can reach affected areas quickly through early alerts and warnings provided with the help of wireless communication.


1. Wireless communications are limited by the range of the transmitter

2. Cost of wireless communication system and components are high 3. When transmitting data, users must sometimes send smaller bits of data so the information moves more quickly. The size of the device that's accessing the information is also still an issue. 4. Many applications need to be reconfigured if they are going to be used through wireless connections. 5. Most client/server applications rely on a persistent connection, which is not the case with wireless. 6. Since radio waves travel through the atmosphere they can be disturbed by electrical interferences (such as lightning) that cause static.


RF refers to radio frequency, the mode of communication for wireless technologies of all kinds, including cordless phones, radar, ham radio, GPS, and radio and television

broadcasts.RF technology is so much a part of our lives we scarcely notice it for its ubiquity. From baby monitors to cell phones, Bluetooth to remote control toys, RF waves are all around us. RFwaves are electromagnetic waves which propagate at the speed of light, or 186,000 miles per second (300,000 km/s). The frequencies of RF waves, however, are slower than those of visible light, making RF waves invisible to the human eye. Radio frequency (RF) is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz. This range corresponds to frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, it usually refers to oscillations in electrical circuits or electromagnetic radiation.

The frequency of a wave is determined by its oscillations or cycles per second. One cycle is one hertz (Hz); 1,000 cycles is 1 kilohertz (KHz); 1 million cycles is 1 megahertz (MHz); and 1 billion cycles is 1 gigahertz (GHz).

2.1.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF RF: Radio frequency (abbreviated RF) is a term that refers to alternating current (AC) having characteristics such that, if the current is input to an antenna, an electromagnetic (EM) field is generated suitable for wireless broadcasting and/or communications. These frequencies cover a significant portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, extending from nine kilohertz (9 kHz),the lowest allocated wireless communications frequency (it's within the range of human hearing), to thousands of gigahertz(GHz). When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, it gives rise to an electromagnetic field that propagates through space. This field is sometimes called an RF field, in less technical jargon it is a "radio wave." Any RF field has a wavelength that is inversely proportional to the frequency. In the atmosphere or in outer space, if f is the frequency in megahertz and s is the wavelength in meters, then s = 300/f

The frequency of an RF signal is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the EM field to which it corresponds. At 9 kHz, the free-space wavelength is approximately 33 kilometers (km) or 21 miles (mi). At the highest radio frequencies, the EM wavelengths measure approximately one millimeter (1 mm). As the frequency is increased beyond that of the RF spectrum, EM energy takes the form of infrared (IR), visible, ultraviolet (UV), X rays, and gamma rays. Many types of wireless devices make use of RF fields. Cordless and cellular telephone, radio and television broadcast stations, satellite communications systems, and two-way radio services all operate in the RF spectrum. Some wireless devices operate at IR or visible-light frequencies, whose electromagnetic wavelengths are shorter than those of RF fields. Examples include most television-set remote-control boxes some cordless computer keyboards and mice, and a few wireless hi-fi stereo headsets.

2.1.2. PROPERTIES OF RF: Electrical currents that oscillate at RF have special properties not shared by direct current signals. One such property is the ease with which it can ionize air to create a conductive path through air. This property is exploited by 'high frequency' units used in electric arc welding. Another special property is an electromagnetic force that drives the RF current to the surface of conductors, known as the skin effect. Another property is the ability to appear to flow through paths that contain insulating material, like the dielectric insulator of a capacitor. The degree of effect of these properties depends on the frequency of the signals. Electric currents that oscillate at radio frequencies have special properties not shared by direct current or alternating current of lower frequencies. The energy in an RF current can radiate off a conductor into space as electromagnetic waves (radio waves); this is the basis of radio technology.
RF current does not penetrate deeply into electrical conductors but flows along their

surfaces; this is known as the skin effect. For this reason, when the human body comes in contact with high power RF currents it can cause superficial but serious burns called RF burns. RF current can easily ionize air, creating a conductive path through it. This property is exploited by "high frequency" units used in electric arc welding, which use currents at higher frequencies than power distribution uses. Another property is the ability to appear to flow through paths that contain insulating material, like the dielectric insulator of a capacitor. When conducted by an ordinary electric cable, RF current has a tendency to reflect from discontinuities in the cable such as connectors and travel back down the cable toward the source, causing a condition called standing waves, so RF current must be carried by specialized types of cable called transmission line.




Directly converted

audible to

when sound, with

communication submarines SUPER FREQUENCY LOW 30-300Hz 1000km-10,000km Directly converted power grids ULTRA FREQUENCY LOW 300-3000Hz 100km-1,000km Directly converted audible to audible to sound,

when AC

when sound,

communication with mines. VERY FREQUENCY LOW FREQUENCY 30-300KHz 1km-10km LOW 3-30Khz 10km-100km Directly audible when

converted to sound. AM Broadcasting

navigational beacons. MEDIUM FREQUENCY 300-3000KHz 100m-1km Navigational beacons, AM broadcasting maritime and aviation communication. HIGH FREQUENCY 3-30MHz 10m-100m Shortwave, amateur radio,

citizens band ratio VERY FREQUENCY ULTRA FREQUENCY HIGH 3003000MHz 10cm- 100cm HIGH 30-300MHz 1m-10m FM broadcasting television., aviation, GPR Broadcasting telephones, entry for television, wireless automobiles,

mobile telephones, cordless networking, remote keyless microwave ovens, GPR.


HIGH 3-30GHz


Wireless networking, satellite links, satellite openers. microwave television, links, door


1 mm-10mm

Microwave data links, radio astronomy, remote sensing advanced weapons systems.


ADVANTAGES: 1. No line of sight is needed. 2. Not blocked by common materials: It can penetrate most solids and pass through 3. Longer range. 4. It is not sensitive to the light. 5. It is not much sensitive to the environmental changes and weather conditions. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Interference: communication devices using similar frequencies - wireless phones, scanners, wrist radios and personal locators can interfere with transmission. 2. Lack of security: easier to "eavesdrop" on transmissions since signals are spread out in space rather than confined to a wire. 3. Higher cost than infrared. 4. Federal Communications Commission(FCC) licenses required for some products.
5. Lower speed: data rate transmission is lower than wired and infrared transmission.




An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Principles of operation In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. rotational motion. Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization). Internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that BEAMers will see), the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator.

The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.

Figure 1: Force in DC Motor

Figure 2 : Magnetic Field in DC Motor

Figure 3 : Torque in DC Motor

Figure 4 : Current Flow in DC Motor

The direct current (DC) motor is one of the first machines devised to convert electrical power into mechanical power. Permanent magnet (PM) direct current convert electrical energy into mechanical energy through the interaction of two magnetic fields. One field is produced by a permanent magnet assembly, the other field is produced by an electrical current flowing in the motor windings. These two fields result in a torque which tends to rotate the rotor. As the rotor turns, the current in the windings is commutated to produce a continuous torque output. The stationary electromagnetic field of the motor can also be wire-wound like the armature (called a

wound-field motor) or can be made up of permanent magnets (called a permanent magnet motor). In either style (wound-field or permanent magnet) the commutator. acts as half of a mechanical switch and rotates with the armature as it turns. The commutator is composed of conductive segments (called bars), usually made of copper, which represent the termination of individual coils of wire distributed around the armature. The second half of the mechanical switch is completed by the brushes. These brushes typically remain stationary with the motor's housing but ride (or brush) on the rotating commutator. As electrical energy is passed through the brushes and consequently through the armature a torsional force is generated as a reaction between the motor's field and the armature causing the motor's armature to turn. As the armature turns, the brushes switch to adjacent bars on the commutator. This switching action transfers the electrical energy to an adjacent winding on the armature which in turn perpetuates the torsional motion of the armature. Permanent magnet (PM) motors are probably the most commonly used DC motors, but there are also some other type of DC motors(types which use coils to make the permanent magnetic field also) .DC motors operate from a direct current power source. Movement of the magnetic field is achieved by switching current between coils within the motor. This action is called "commutation". Very many DC motors (brush-type) have built-in commutation, meaning that as the motor rotates, mechanical brushes automatically commutate coils on the rotor. You can use dc-brush motors in a variety of applications. A simple, permanent-magnet dc motor is an essential element in a variety of products, such as toys, servo mechanisms, valve actuators, robots, and automotive electronics. There are several typical advantages of a PM motor. When compared to AC or wound field DC motors, PM motors are usually physically smaller in overall size and lighter for a given power rating. Furthermore, since the motor's field, created by the permanent magnet, is constant, the relationship between torque and speed is very linear. A PM motor can provide relatively high torque at low speeds and PM field provides some inherent self-braking when power to the motor is shutoff. There are several disadvantages through, those being mostly being high current during a stall condition and during instantaneous reversal. Those can damage some motors or be problematic to control circuitry. Furthermore, some magnet materials can be damaged when subjected to excessive heat and some loose field strength if the motor is disassembled. High-volume everyday items, such as hand drills and kitchen appliances, use a dc servomotor known as a universal motor. Those universal motors are series-wound DC motors, where the stationary and rotating coils are wires in series. Those motors can work well on both AC and DC

power. One of the drawbacks/precautions about series-wound DC motors is that if they are unloaded, the only thing limiting their speed is the windage and friction losses. Some can literally tear themselves apart if run unloaded. A brushless motor operates much in the same way as a traditional brush motor. However, as the name implies there are no brushes (and no commutator). The mechanical switching function, implemented by the brush and commutator combination in a brush-type motor, is replaced by electronic switching in a brushless motor. In a typical brushless motor the electromagnetic field, created by permanent magnets, is the rotating member of the motor and is called a rotor. The rotating magnetic field is generated with a number of electromagnets commutatated with electronics switches (typically transistors or FETs) in a right order at right speed. In a brushless motor, the trick becomes to know when to switch the electrical energy in the windings to perpetuate the rotating motion. This is typically accomplished in a brushless-type motor by some feedback means designed to provide an indication of the position of the magnet poles on the rotor relative to the windings. A hall effect device (HED) is a commonly used means for providing this positional feedback. In some applications brushless motors are commutated without sensors or with the use of an encoder for positional feedback. A brushless motor is often used when high reliability, long life and high speeds are required. The bearings in a brushless motor usually become the only parts to wear out. In applications where high speeds are required (usually above 30,000 RPM) a brushless motor is considered a better choice (because as motor speed increases so does the wear of the brushes on traditional motors). A brushless motor's commutation control can easily be separated and integrated into other required electronics, thereby improving the effective power-to-weight and/or power-to-volume ratio. A brushless motor package (motor and commutation controller) will usually cost more than a brush-type, yet the cost can often be made up in other advantages. For example, in applications where sophisticated control of the motor's operation is required. Brushless motors are seen nowadays in very many computer application, they for example rotate normal PC fans, hard disks and disk drives. Sometimes the rotation direction needs to be changed. In normal permanent magnet motors, this rotation is changed by changing the polarity of operating power (for example by switching from negative power supply to positive or by inter-changing the power terminals going to power supply). This direction changing is typically implemented using relay or a circuit called an H bridge. There are some typical characteristics on "brush-type" DC motors.

When a DC motor is straight to a battery (with no controller), it draws a large surge current when connected up. The surge is caused because the motor, when it is turning, acts as a generator. The generated voltage is directly proportional to the speed of the motor. The current through the motor is controlled by the difference between the battery voltage and the motor's generated voltage (otherwise called back EMF). When the motor is first connected up to the battery (with no motor speed controller) there is no back EMF. So the current is controlled only by the battery voltage, motor resistance (and inductance) and the battery leads. Without any back emf the motor, before it starts to turn, therefore draws the large surge current. When a motor speed controller is used, it varies the voltage fed to the motor. Initially, at zero speed, the controller will feed no voltage to the motor, so no current flows. As the motor speed controller's output voltage increases, the motor will start to turn. At first the voltage fed to the motor is small, so the current is also small, and as the motor speed controller's voltage rises, so too does the motor's back EMF. The result is that the initial current surge is removed, acceleration is smooth and fully under control. TYPES OF DC MOTORS:
1. Shunt Wound DC Motors

Shunt wound DC motors provide medium starting torque, 125% to 200% full load, and are capable of delivering 300% of full load torque for short periods. With excellent speed control, shunt wound motors generally drive loads requiring speed control and low starting torque. Some applications include fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps, conveyors, elevators, printing presses, woodworking machines, and metalworking machines. There are two basic types of shunt wound DC motors. Self-excited shunt wound motors have a shunt field and armature connected to the same power supply. In separately excited shunt wound motors, shunt field and armature connect to separate power supplies.
2. Series Wound DC Motors

A series wound DC motor has its armature and field connected in a series circuit. These type motors normally drive loads that require high torque and do not require precise speed regulation. Series DC motors are ideal for traction work where the load requires a high

breakaway torque. Such are locomotives, hoists, cranes, automobile starters, or oil drilling rig applications. Starting torque developed in series motors normally ranges between 300% and 375% of full load, but attain 500% of full load torque. These motors deliver this high starting torque because their magnetic field operates below saturation. An increase in load results in an increase in both armature and field current. As a result, the armature flux and field flux increase simultaneously. Since the torque developed in DC motors is dependent upon the interaction of armature and field flux, torque increases by the square of current increase. Speed regulation in series motors is inherently less precise than in shunt motors. If motor load diminishes, current flowing in both the armature field circuits reduces as well, effecting a reduction in flux density. This results in a greater increase in speed than realized in shunt motors. Removal of mechanical load from series motors results in indefinite speed increase whereby centrifugal forces generated by the armature eventually destroy the motor.

3. Compound Wound DC Motors Whenever an operation requires speed regulation characteristics unavailable in series or shunt motors, compound wound motors perform well. With medial starting torque capability, between 180 and 260% of full load, they deliver constant operating speeds under any percentage of full load.This characteristic is a result of placing part of the field circuit in series with that of the armature. When under load, increased series winding current raises the level of field flux. Enlarged field flux in compound wound motors yields

greater reduction in speed than in a shunt motor. The compound wound DC motor comprises both series and shunt windings. The shunt winding connects in parallel with armature and series windings. Some associated applications include punch presses, shears, crushers, and reciprocating compressors.

4. Permanent Magnet DC Motors Permanent magnet motors are well fit for use where response time is a factor. Their speed characteristics are similar to those of shunt wound motors. Built with a conventional armature, they use permanent magnets rather than windings in the field section. DC power is supplied only to the armature. Permanent magnet motors are not expensive to operate since they require no field supply. The magnets, however, lose their magnetic properties over time, and this effects less than rated torque production. Some motors have windings built into the field magnets that remagnetize the cores and prevent this from happening. Automobiles have installed DC permanent magnet motors that control power seats, windows, and windshield wipers. DC permanent magnet motors produce high torque at low speed, and are self-braking upon disconnection of electrical power. Permanent magnet motors cannot endure continuous operation because they overheat rapidly, destroying the permanent magnets.

5. Universal DC Motors: Universal motors seldom exceed one horsepower, and do not run at constant speeds. The speed of a universal motor varies with its load. Among the applications using these motors are vacuum cleaners, food mixers, portable drills, portable power saws, and sewing machines. In most cases, little more than a few hundred rpm is reached with heavy loads. When the motor operates with no load, the speed may attain 15,000 rpm. The universal series motor differs in design from a true induction motor. The rotor of a universal motor is made of laminated iron wound with wire coils. The ends of the coils, or loops, connect to a commutator. Electric current in the motor flows through a complete circuit formed by the stator winding and rotor winding. Brushes ride on the commutator and conduct the current through the rotor from one stator coil to the other. Directed by these brushes the rotor current interacts with the magnetic field of the stator causing the rotor to turn. When the direction of current flow changes in the stator, it changes in the rotor. Since the magnetic field is reversed, the rotor continues to turn. Universal motors have series wound rotor circuitry similar to that of DC motors. They have high starting torque and high starting current. The name universal derives from the motor's capability of operating on either AC or DC power sources. Universal, variable speed motors slow down with increased loads. High horsepower-to-size ratio is characteristic of their design. Due to the brush/commutator setup, universal motors require more maintenance than other motor designs.


Basically, there are three ways to vary the speed of DC motors: 1. With the use of mechanical gears to achieve the desired speed. 2. Reducing the motor voltage with a series resistor. However this is inefficient ( energy wasted in resistor) and reduces torque. The current drawn by the motor increases as the load on the motor increases. More current means a larger voltage drop across the series resistor and therefore less voltage to the motor. The motor now tries to draw even more current resulting in the motor stalling. 3. By applying the full voltage supply to the motor in bursts or pulses, eliminating the series dropping effect. This is called the pulse width modulation ( PWM) . shorter pulses means the motor runs slowly, longer pulses make the motor run faster.


DC Micro Motor RF-500TB Technical Parameter

Voltage Model Operating Range RF500TB- 1.5-6 12560 6V Nominal


At Maximum Efficiency Output


Speed CurrentSpeed CurrentTorque r/min A r/min A

Torque Current Power g.cmmN.mW g.cmmN.mA 60 5.88 0.35

2700 0.020 2200 0.070 10 0.98 0.23

A small motor (ac induction, permanent magnet dc, or brushless dc) designed specifically with an integral (not separable) gear reducer (gearhead). The end shield on the drive end of the motor is designed to provide a dual function. The side facing the motor provides the armature/rotor bearing support and a sealing provision through which the integral rotor or armature shaft pinion passes. The other side of the end shield provides multiple bearing supports for the gearing itself, and a sealing and fastening provision for the gearhousing. This construction provides many benefits for a user and eliminates the guesswork of sizing a motor and gear reducer on your own.

Gear motors are complete motive force systems consisting of an electric motor and a reduction gear train integrated into one easy-to-mount and -configure package. This greatly reduces the complexity and cost of designing and constructing power tools, machines and appliances calling for high torque at relatively low shaft speed or RPM. Gear motors allow the use of economical low-horsepower motors to provide great motive force at low speed such as in lifts, winches, medical tables, jacks and robotics. They can be large enough to lift a building or small enough to drive a tiny clock. Operation Principle Most synchronous AC electric motors have output ranges of from 1,200 to 3,600 revolutions per minute. They also have both normal speed and stall-speed torque specifications. The reduction gear trains used in gear motors are designed to reduce the output speed while increasing the torque. The

increase in torque is inversely proportional to the reduction in speed. Reduction gearing allows small electric motors to move large driven loads, although more slowly than larger electric motors. Reduction gears consist of a small gear driving a larger gear. There may be several sets of these reduction gear sets in a reduction gear box. Speed Reduction Sometimes the goal of using a gear motor is to reduce the rotating shaft speed of a motor in the device being driven, such as in a small electric clock where the tiny synchronous motor may be spinning at 1,200 rpm but is reduced to one rpm to drive the second hand, and further reduced in the clock mechanism to drive the minute and hour hands. Here the amount of driving force is irrelevant as long as it is sufficient to overcome the frictional effects of the clock mechanism Torque Multiplication Another goal achievable with a gear motor is to use a small motor to generate a very large force albeit at a low speed. These applications include the lifting mechanisms on hospital beds, power recliners, and heavy machine lifts where the great force at low speed is the goal. Motor Varieties Most industrial gear motors are AC-powered, fixed-speed devices, although there are fixed-gearratio, variable-speed motors that provide a greater degree of control. DC gear motors are used primarily in automotive applications such as power winches on trucks, windshield wiper motors and power seat or power window motors. Many Applications What power can openers, garage door openers, stair lifts, rotisserie motors, timer cycle knobs on washing machines, power drills, cake mixers and electromechanical clocks have in common is that they all use various integrations of gear motors to derive a large force from a relatively small electric motor at a manageable speed. In industry, gear motor applications in jacks, cranes, lifts, clamping, robotics, conveyance and mixing are too numerous to count. Gearmotor Benefits:

Using the right sized motor and gearhead combination for an application

helps to prolong gearmotor life and allows for optimum power management and power utilization. Traditionally, design engineers oversized motors and gearheads to add safety factors Bodine factory matched gearmotors consistently deliver rated performance.

Quieter operation due to integral castings and integral pinion, ground or

hobbed on the armature or rotor shaft. Fewer parts requiring assembly resulting in near perfect alignment of the rotor, pinion and geartrain.

Minimum risk of lubricant leakage, because of O-ring and lip seal

construction. The design can be more compact and the lubrication can be controlled better (for various mounting configurations).

Gearmotors eliminate the need for motor/gearhead couplings

and eliminate any potential bearing alignment problems, common when a motor and gearhead are bolted together by an end-user (separable gearheads). Misalignment can result in bearing failure due to fretting corrosion.

Separable motor and gearhead solutions make more sense in larger integral

horsepower (>1 HP) applications. For example, when a 100-pound motor is mounted to a 500-pound gearhead.







Step down T/F

Bridge Rectifier

Filter Circuit

Regulato r

Power supply to all sections

This section consists of the rectifier, filter and voltage regulator. Rectifier:

The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. Filter: Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 is used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05 represent the required output voltage levels.

The power supply board initially has the 230v/9v transformer. Single phase ac supply of 230v is taken and given to the center tapped transformer. This transformer steps down the voltage to 9v AC. The 9 volts AC voltage is converted to dc voltage by a bridge rectifier. The terminals 1 and 3 are given to the transformer and terminals 2 and 4 give the dc voltage. The dc voltage obtained is about 12v which contains ripples. So to remove such disturbances, ripples a capacitor of 1000 micro farad , 35v rating is used which filters them out and gives pure 9v dc supply. This capacitor also helps in maintaining a constant voltage input to the regulator. Then a voltage regulator is used to get a 5v dc supply. The complete system voltage is maintained at 5v dc.


This section consists Encoder HT640, RF Transmitter -434 Mhz, 9v battery, voltage regulator, switches, antenna. The switches are placed at the encoder side. The encoder converts digital to analog signal and is given to the transmitter. The transmitter sends this analog information through electromagnetic waves ( radio frequency ) to the receiver section. The receiver section receives this data through the receiver. The power supply to the transmitter section is a 9v battery. The switches used here are manually operated. SW-1 represents forward direction control switch, SW-2 represents reverse direction control switch, SW-3 represents high speed control switch, SW-4 represents medium speed control switch. The switches used here are four-legged. RECEIVER SECTION : Block diagram :

The receiver section consists of the HT648L decoder, receiver STT-433 MHz, supply 5v. The supply of 5v is taken from the power supply section. The decoder decodes the analog signal to the digital signal and this data is collected for the driver circuit. Here the data is initially received by the receiver STT-433 MHz. The data from the decoder is received by the resistors ( 1Kohm ) and then depending on the activation of the particular transistor , that particular relay gets activated. The transistors used here is BC 547. LEDs are also used on the board to notify the operation on the board.

S.NO. EQUIPMENT 1. 2. 3. Transformer Diodes Capacitor RANGE/TYPE 23OV/ 9V QUANTITY Center 1 8 1

tapped transformer IN 4007 1000 microF, 35V

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Voltage regulator Relays Transistors Encoder Decoder LEDS Resistors

LM 7805 2CO BC547 HT640 HT648L 15k/2W 33K/2W

2 4 5 1 1 9 11 3 4 1 1 pair 1 5 1

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Switches DC Motor Transmitter , receiver Antenna PCB Cardboard

STT-433 MHz


The 78XX (sometimes LM78XX) is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator integrated circuits. The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx line are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit.

78xx ICs have three terminals and are commonly found in the TO220 form factor, although smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are available. These devices support an input voltage anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage, up to a maximum of 35 or 40 volts, and typically provide 1 or 1.5 amperes of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating). Advantages

7805 ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant, regulated source of power, making them easy to use, as well as economical and efficient uses of space. Other voltage regulators may require additional components to set the output voltage level, or to assist in the regulation process. Some other designs (such as a switching power supply) may need substantial engineering expertise to implement.

7805 ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too much power. They have protection against overheating and short-circuits, making them quite robust in most applications. In some cases, the current-limiting features of the 7805 devices can provide protection not only for the 7805 itself, but also for other parts of the circuit.


The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some minimum amount (typically 2 volts). This can make these devices unsuitable for powering some devices from certain types of power sources (for example, powering a circuit that requires 5 volts using 6-volt batteries will not work using a 7805).

As they are based on a linear regulator design, the input current required is always the same as the output current. As the input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage, this means that the total power (voltage multiplied by current) going into the 78xx will be more than the output power provided. The extra input power is dissipated as heat. This means both that for some applications an adequate heat sink must be provided, and also

that a (often substantial) portion of the input power is wasted during the process, rendering them less efficient than some other types of power supplies. When the input voltage is significantly higher than the regulated output voltage (for example, powering a 7805 using a 24 volt power source), this inefficiency can be a significant issue.

Even in larger packages, 78xx integrated circuits cannot supply as much power as many designs which use discrete components, and are generally inappropriate for applications requiring more than a few amperes of current.


TRANSMITTER : The transmitter module used here is the RF TRANSMITTER STT-433MHz. The STT-433 is ideal for remote control applications where low cost and longer range is required. The transmitter operates from a1.5-12V supply, making it ideal for battery-powered applications. The transmitter employs a SAW-stabilized oscillator, ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance. The manufacturing-friendly SIP style package and low-cost make the STT-433 suitable for high volume applications. Features 433.92 MHz Frequency Low Cost 1.5-12V operation Small size

PIN DESCRIPTION : GND Transmitter ground. Connect to ground plane DATA Digital data input. This input is CMOS compatible and should be driven with CMOS level inputs. VCC Operating voltage for the transmitter. VCC should be bypassed with a .01uF ceramic capacitor and filtered with a 4.7uF tantalum capacitor. Noise on the power supply will degrade transmitter noise performance.

ANT 50 ohm antenna output. The antenna port impedance affects output power and harmonic emissions. Antenna can be single core wire of approximately 17cm length or PCB trace antenna.


The data is received by the RF receiver from the antenna pin and this data is available on the data pins. Two Data pins are provided in the receiver module. . PIN DESCRIPTION :Description ANT Antenna input GND Receiver Ground. Connect to ground plan VCC (5V) VCC pins are electrically connected and provide operating voltage for the receiver. VCC can be applied to either or both. VCC should be bypassed with a .1F ceramic capacitor. Noise on the power supply will degrade receiver sensitivity

DATA Digital data output. This output is capable of driving one TTL or CMOS load. It is a CMOS compatible output. IV. DECODER :

Features Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V. Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology. Low standby current.

Capable of decoding 18 bits of information. Pairs with HOLTEKs 318 series of encoders. 8~18 address pins. 0~8 data pins.

HOW DOES THE DECODER WORK? The 3^18 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are paired with the 3^18 series of encoders. For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder pair with the same number of address and data format should be selected. The 3^18 series of decoders receives serial address and data from that series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF medium. A signal on the DIN pin then activates the oscillator which in turns decodes the incoming address and data. It then compares the serial input data twice continuously with its local address. If no errors or unmatched codes are encountered, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. That will last until the address code is incorrect or no signal has been received. The 3^18 decoders are capable of decoding 18 bits of information that consists of N bits of address and 18N bits of data.



HOW DOES THE ENCODER WORK? The 318 (3 power of 18) series of encoders begins a three-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable (TE for the HT600/HT640/HT680 or D12~D17 for the HT6187/HT6207/HT6247, active high). This cycle will repeat itself as long as the transmission enable (TE or D12~D17) is held high. Once the transmission enable falls low, the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops as shown below.

Address/data programming (preset) The status of each address/data pin can be individually preset to logic high, logic low, or floating. If a transmission enable signal is applied, the encoder scans and transmits the status of the 18 bits of address/data serially in the order A0 to AD17.

Transmission enable For the TE trigger type of encoders, transmission is enabled by applying a high signal to the TE pin. But for the Data trigger type of encoders, it is enabled by applying a high signal to one of the data pins D12~D17.



A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays".

BASIC DESIGN AND OPERATION: A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB. When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable contact(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively, a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to the end of the solenoid, creating a small out-of-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.

A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other solid-state switching device, activated by the control signal, to switch the controlled load, instead of a solenoid. An optocoupler (a light-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor) can be used to isolate control and controlled circuits. TYPES OF RELAYS : 1. Latching Relay Latching relays are also called impulse relays. They work in the bistable mode, and thus have two relaxing states. They are also called keep relays or stay relays because as soon as the current towards this relay is switched off, the relay continues the process that it was doing in the last state. This can be achieved only with a solenoid which is operating in a ratchet and cam mechanism. It can also be done by an over-centre spring mechanism or a permanent magnet mechanism in which, when the coil is kept in the relaxed point, the over-centre spring holds the armature and the contacts in the right spot. This can also be done with the help of a remanent core. In the ratchet and cam method, power consumption occurs only for a particular time. Hence it is more advantageous than the others. 2. Reed Relay These types of relays have been given more importance in the contacts. In order to protect them from atmospheric protection they are safely kept inside a vacuum or inert gas. Though these types of relays have a very low switching current and voltage ratings, they are famous for their switching speeds. 3. Polarized Relay This type of relay has been given more importance on its sensitivity. These relays have been used since the invention of telephones. They played very important roles in early telephone exchanges and also in detecting telegraphic distortion. The sensitivity of these relays are very easy to adjust as the armature of the relay is placed between the poles of a permanent magnet.

4. Buchholz Relay This relay is actually used as a safety device. They are used for knowing the amount of gas present in large oil-filled transformers. They are designed in such a way that they produce a warning if it senses either the slow production of gas or fast production of gas in the transformer oil. 5. Overload protection Relay As the name implies, these relays are used to prevent the electric motors from damage by over current and short circuits. For this the heating element is kept in series with the motor. Thus when over heat occurs the bi-metallic strip connected to the motor heats up and in turn releases a spring to operate the contacts of the relay. 6. Mercury Wetted Relay This relay is almost similar to the reed relay explained earlier. The only difference is that instead of inert gases, the contacts are wetted with mercury. This makes them more position sensitive and also expensive. They have to be vertically mounted for any operation. They have very low contact resistance and so can be used for timing applications. Due to these factors, this relay is not used frequently. 7. Machine Tool Relay This is one of the most famous industrial relay. They are mainly used for the controlling of all kinds of machines. They have a number of contacts with easily replaceable coils. This enabkes them to be easily converted from NO contact to NC contact. Many types of these relays can easily be setup in a control panel. Though they are very useful in industrial applications, the invention of PLC has made them farther away from industries. 8. Contacor Relay This is one of the most heavy load relay ever used. They are mainly used in switching electric motors. They have a wide range of current ratings from a few amps to hundreds. The contacts of these relays are usually made with alloys containing a small percentage of silver. This is done so as

to avoid the hazardous effects of arcing. These type of relays are mainly categorized in the rough use areas. So, they produce loud noises while operated and hence cannot be used in places where noise is a problem. 9. Solid State relay SSR relays, as its name implies are designed with the help of solid state components. As they do not have any moving objects in their design they are known for their high reliability. 10. Solid State Contactor Relay These relays combine both the features of solid state relays and contactor relays. As a result they have a number of advantages. They have a very good heat sink and can be designed for the correct on-off cycles. They are mainly controlled with the help of PLC, micro-processors or microcontrollers.


De-spiking Diode Relays

A diode in the reverse-biased position is connected in parallel with the relay coil. As there is no flow of current due to such a connection, an open circuit of the relay will cause the current to stop flowing through the coil. This will have effect on the magnetic field. The magnetic field will be decreased instantly. This will cause the rise of an opposite voltage with very high reverse polarity to be induced. This is mainly caused because of the magnetic lines of force that cut the armature coil due to the open circuit. Thus the opposite voltage rises until the diode reaches 0.7 volts. As soon as this cut-off voltage is achieved, the diode becomes forward-biased. This causes a closed circuit in the relay, causing the entire voltage to pass through the load. The current thus produced will be flowing through the circuit for a very long time. As soon as the voltage is completely drained, this current flow will also stop. Take a look at the figure given below.

FIG: De-spiking Resistor Relays

A resistor is almost efficient as that of a diode. It can not only suppress the voltage spikes efficiently, but also allows the entire current to flow through it when the relay is in the on position. Thus the current flow through it will also be very high. To reduce this, the value of the resistance should be as high as 1 Kilo Ohm. But, as the value of the resistors increases the voltage spiking capability of the relay decreases. Take a look at the circuit diagram below to understand more.


RELAY USED IN THIS PROJECT: The relay used in this project is a 2 CO electromechanical relay.

Main features : 1. 92/8 gold silver alloy on silver palladium contact type is suitable for low level switching application. 2. Small size and light weight can provide high density. 3. 2.54mm terminal pitch 4. Low coil power consumption of GS-T Type and high coil power consumption of GS-D type are available. 5. Plastic epoxy resin sealed type for washing procedure.

Applications: Telecommunications, domestic appliances, office machine, audio equipment, remote control, etc. Specifications: 1. Contact resistance.. 100mohm 2. Operate time GS-D 6msec , GS-T 8msec 3. Release time 4msec 4. Insulation resistance.. 100megaohm 5. Weight.. about 4.8 g

1. Initially the 230v AC supply is given to the center tapped transformer. 2. The bridge rectifier gives an output of 9v dc after filtering out the ripples. 3. The voltage regulator further gives 5v dc supply to the entire set-up. 4. A battery of 9v is attached to the transmitter section.
5. Suppose we want the motor to rotate in forward direction with high speed then the SW-1

and SW-3 is pressed manually. 6. We see that the transmitter transfers the data to the receiver section through electromagnetic waves and the receiver obtains this data. 7. We see that the relay transistor 1 gets activated and so the relay one gets activated. 8. Suppose we want the motor to rotate in reverse direction, the SW-2 and SW-3 are pressed. 9. Incase we want the motor to rotate with a medium speed in forward direction then SW-1, SW-3,SW-4 is pressed. 10. Accordingly we see the motor rotating in forward, reverse directions with medium and high speeds.








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1. Radio Frequency Applications By Morris Hamington 2. Working with Radio Frequency By Cruis Leanardo


4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10. Electronics for you magazine 11. Electrikindia magazine 12. Go Wireless magazine