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A technical traning report on



Varanasi 221004




submitted by




1. Acknowledgment 2. Preface 3. Introduction 4. Brief History 5. Product EMD WDP4 6. Manufacturing Process Engine Division Vehicle Division Block Devision 7. Workshops LMS ET TMS LAS 8. Orginizational Strength 9. Our Quality Policy 10. Environmental/ Societal Orientation


I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during making of this reporte.

My deepest thanks to Lecturer, Mr.Y.S.Rajput the Guide of the reporte for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care.

I express my thanks to the Lecturer Mr.D.P.Singh & HOD of departement, Dr.B.K.Singh, for extending his support.

My deep sense of gratitude to Traning incharge Mr.S.K.Singh support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people for their support.

I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this reporte would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.

The objectives of the practical training are to learn something about industries practically and to be familiar with the working style of a technical person to adjust si mply

according to the industrial environment.

It is rightly said practical life is far away from theoretical one We learn in class roo m can give the practical exposure or real life experience personality of no doubt they help in i mproving the

the , b ut the practical exposure in the field will run of life and will be ab le to

help the st udent in long

imp lement the theoretical knowledge.



o f academic syllabus of four year degree is required to

course in Mechanical Engineering every student undergo a practical training.

I am st udent of third year mechanical and this report is written on the basis of practical knowled ge acquired by me d uring the period on the basis of practical knowled ge acquired by me d uring the period of practical training taken at Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi.

Diesel Locomotive Wo rks (DLW) is production unit under the ministry of railways. This was setup in collaboration with American locomo tive co mpany (ALCO) USA in 19 61 and the first locomotive was rolled out in 196 4. This unit produces diesel electro nic locomotives and DG sets for Indian railways and ot her customers in India and Abroad. Subseq uent ly a contract for transfer of techno lo gy of 4000 HP Microprocessor Controlled AC/AC Freight (GT 46 MAC) / passenger (GT 46 PAC) locomot ives and family of 71 0 engines has been signed with electro motive divisio n of general mo tors of USA for manufacture in DLW. the prod uction of these loco motives has now started and thus DLW is the only manufacturers of Diesel Electric Locomo tives wit h both ALCO and General motors technologies in the world.

Brief History
The Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) in Varanasi, India, is a production unit owned by Indian Railways, for which it manufactures diesel-electriclocomotives and spare parts. Founded in 1961, the DLW rolled out its first locomotive three years later, on January 3, 1964. It manufactures locomotives which are variants based on the original ALCO designs dating to 1960s and the GM EMD designs of the 1990s. DLW has an annual production capacity of 150 locomotives and plans to increase it to 200 based on the current demand. DLW locomotives have power outputs ranging from 2,600 horsepower (1,900 kW) to 4,000 horsepower (3,000 kW). Currently DLW is producing EMD GT46MAC and EMD GT46PAC locomotives under license from Electro-Motive Diesels (formerly GM-EMD) for Indian Railways. Varanasi, one of the oldest populated cities in the world and has a promising place in the international ground both as a hub of traditions and technology. One side the humming of divine and holy bells of the temples brings the city to life; on other side Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) Varanasi is one of the largest industrial unit in eastern part of the

nation. DLW catch the attention of lot of foreign tourist students to observer on going amazing locomotive manufacturing process in Varanasi. Diesel Locomotive works Varanasi is located at the North end of the city and about 8 Km away from the Holy River Ganges Ghats. DLW is an ISO 9002, ISO 14001 & OHS 18001 Certified Organisation .

Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi (DLW) is one of the main manufacturing units run by the Indian Railways. This manufacturing unit came into existence in year 1961, as a Green Field Project in industrial association with ALCO, USA. This unit generate all the Diesel Electric Locomotives. In year 1964, the first locomotive was manufactured and it was devoted to the country. Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi produces only Electric Diesel locomotives and auxiliary parts of locomotives. However it is an Indian corporation but it has supplied locomotives to some foreign countries also, includes Angola, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Tanzania.Engine section manufacture more than 2000 machinery, which comprise ALCO turbo superchargers, cylinder heads, connecting rods, camshafts, lubricating oil pumps, chrome plated cylinder liners and Vehicle section of DLW unit works on different fields that include Currently, Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi constructs locomotives and DG sets. In locomotives section, again it manufactures two different types of products, one is EMD and another is ALCO.

August January January 1961 DLW set up as a green field project in technical collaboration with ALCO, USA for manufacture of Diesel Electric Locomotives 1964 First Locomotive rolled out and dedicated to the Nation 1976 Entered Export market, first locomotive exported to Tanzania

December 1977 First Diesel Generating Set commissioned October March 1995 The Transfer of Technology agreement was signed 2002 The first indigenous EMD WDG4 freight loco manufactured

November 2002 3600 HP Engine produced March 2003 The first indigenous passenger version of EMD loco WDP4 manufactured

September 2003 Development of 16 cylinder 3300 HP Power upgraded DLW engine, WDM3D locomotive 2006 5000th locomotive produced

November 2006 DLW manufactured first WDG4 locomotive equipped with IGBT based converter March April March 2007 First WDP4 locomotive equipped with IGBT based converter 2007 DLW has successfully switched over to use of microprocessor based control system on all its locomotives.

2009 257 locomotives manufactured in 2008-09, highest ever locomotive production

November 2009 5690 locomotives upto 30th Nov2009(including 348 EMD locos)


WDG4 - 4000 HP GOODS LOCOMOTIVE Broad Gauge freight traffic Co-Co diesel electric locomotive with 16 Cylinder 4000 HP engine, AC-AC transmission,

microprocessor controlled propulsion and braking with high traction First turned out in 1999 with transfer of technology from General Motor (USA), this locomotive has exceptional fuel efficiency and very low maintenance requirements. It is specifically designed for heavy haul freight traffic requirements of Indian Railways for the 21st Century. The heart of loco Traction Control Converter uses the GTO devices (obsolete technology). Now the IGBT devices, has been introduced from Oct?2006. It is the latest technology and will be cost effective. .

The locomotive power has been upgraded to 4500 BCV and the first Loco (Loco No 12114) was manufactured in May?07

Diesel Engine


16 Cylinder 710 G3B, 2

Electrical AC-AC 6 Traction motor ( 3 in

stroke, turbocharged ? after cooled

Fuel Efficient Engine Injection System ? Direct

parallel per bogie)

Suspension ? Axle hung /

Unit Injector

taper roller bearing

Governor ? Woodward Compression Ratio- 16:1 Lube Oil Sump Capacity ?

Gear Ratio ? 90:17

950 Lts


High adhesion System

Electronic Air Brake ( KNORR-NYAB-

HTSC ( High Tensile Steel Cast) truck of bogie

Computer Controlled Braking) Adhesion ? 0.42 brake

Air , hand , dynamic

Pure air brake

General Characteristic

Installed Power Axle Load Gauge Wheel arrangement Wheel diameter Height Width Overall Length (Over

4000 HP 21 T 1676 mm Co-Co 1092 mm 4201 mm 3127 mm 19964 mm 126 T 54 T 100 Kmph 6000 lts EM 2000 with SIBAS-

Buffer Beam)

Weight Max tractive effort Maximum speed Fuel tank capacity Locomotive Control

16 Traction Control



4000 HP PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE State-of-Art, Microprocessor controlled AC-AC, Passenger Locomotive Powered with 16-710G3B 4000HP Turbo charged Two stroke engine. Fabricated rigid design Under frame, two stage suspension, High Traction High Speed 3 axle (HTSC) light weight cast truck frame attribute to high adhesion performance. First turned out in 2003, this locomotive has exceptional fuel efficiency and very low maintenance requirements. It is specifically designed for heavy haul passenger traffic requirements for Indian Railways. The WDP4 fleet is being upgraded by provision of hotel load feature along with power upgradation to 4500 HP. The prototype will be manufactured in the year 2007.

Diesel Engine
16 Cylinder 710 G3B, 2 stroke, turbocharged ? after cooled Fuel Efficient Engine Injection System ?

Electrical AC-AC 4 Traction motor ( 3 in

parallel per bogie) Suspension ? Axle hung

Direct Unit Injector ? 1073 Lts Governor ? Woodward Compression Ratio- 16:1 Lube Oil Sump Capacity

/ taper roller bearing Gear Ratio ? 77:17

High adhesion HTSC ( High Tensile Steel Cast) truck or bogie Adhesion ? 0.42

System ( Electronic Air Brake KNORR-NYAB-Computer

Controlled Braking) brake with Air , hand , dynamic fully blended with

automatic brakes Pure air brake

General Characteristic
Installed Power Axle Load Gauge Wheel arrangement Wheel diameter Height Width Overall Length 4000 HP 19.5 T 1676 mm A-A-I I-A-A 1092 mm 4201mm 3127 mm 19964 mm 117 T 27 T 160 Kmph 4000 lts EM 2000 with

(Over Buffer Beam) Control Weight Max tractive effort Maximum speed Fuel tank capacity Locomotive

SIBAS-16 Traction Control





TECHNICAL INFORMATION 1350 HP Locomotive having fabricated cape gauge Co-Co bogie. hese locomotives have been supplied to Angola and Sudan.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Overall Length Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed 18: 93 90 Kmph 921 mm 1067 mm Cape gauge 72 t 15600 mm Co Co

Diesel Engine

Type : ALCO 251 D 6 Cyl. in line.

HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity

1350 Electrical AC/DC 28LAV-1 system Air, dynamic, parking Air & Vacuum 3000 Litres


TECHNICAL INFORMATION 2300 HP Main Line Locomotive, having fabricated cape gauge Co-Co bogies. These are provided with two drivers cabs, one at each end. These locomotives have been supplied to Angola and Sudan.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Overall Length Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine Type : ALCO 251-B 12 Cyl. V- Engine HP Transmission 2300 Electrical AC/DC 1067 mm Cape Gauge 102 t 17620 mm 921 mm 18 : 93 100 Kmph Co-Co

Brake Loco Train

IRAB-1 Air, Dynamic, parking Air


TECHNICAL INFORMATION 2300 HP Main Line Locomotive, having fabricated meter gauge Co-Co bogies. These are provided with two drivers cabs, one at each end. These locos have been supplied to Malaysia, Senegal and Mali.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Overall Length Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine Type : ALCO 251-B 12 Cyl. 18 : 93 100 Kmph 921 mm 1000 mm Meter Gauge 102 t 17620 mm Co-Co

V- Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity 2300 Electrical AC/DC IRAB-1 Air, Dynamic, parking Air 3000 Litres


TECHNICAL INFORMATION ( Provisional Specifications) 3000 HP Micro Processor Controlled, Main Line, Cape Gauge Locomotive with improved Cab, under development for Mozambique Railway.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Overall 1067 mm Cape Gauge 114 t 18632 mm Co-Co

Length Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine Type : ALCO 251-C 16 Cyl. V- Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity 3000 Electrical AC/DC IRAB-1 Air, Dynamic Air 6000 Litres 19 : 92 100 Kmph 1000 mm



1350 HP Locomotive having cast / fabricated meter Gauge CoCo bogie. Such locomotives have been supplied to Vietnam and Myanmar.

Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Overall Length Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine HP Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity

Co Co

1000 mm 72 t 15600 mm

965 mm

18: 93 96 Kmph

ALCO 251 D 6 Cyl. in line. 1350 Electrical AC/DC IRAB ? 1 system / 28LAV-1 Air, dynamic, parking Air / Dual (Air and Vacuum) 3000 Litres


TECHNICAL INFORMATION Diesel Electric main line, heavy duty goods service locomotive, with 16 cylinder ALCO engine and AC/DC traction with micro processor controls.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length over Buffers Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Min radius of Curvature Maximum Speed 105 Kmph 1092 mm 18 : 74 117 m 1676 mm 123 t 19132 mm Co-Co

Diesel Engine Cyl.- V HP Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity

Type : 251 B,16

3100 IRAB-1 Air, Dynamic Air 6000 litres


TECHNICAL INFORMATION Diesel Electric Locomotive with micro processor control suitable for main line mixed Service train operation.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Max. Axle 1676 mm 117 t 19.5 t Co-Co

Load Length over Buffer Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed Diesel Engine Type : 251 B-16 Cyl. ?V? type (uprated) HP 3300 HP (standard UIC condition) Transmission Brake Loco Train Fuel Tank Capacity Electric AC / DC IRAB-1 system Air, Dynamic, Hand Air 5000 litres 18 : 65 120 Kmph 1092 mm 18650 mm


TECHNICAL INFORMATION A heavy duty shunting Diesel Electric Locomotive for main line and branch line train operation. This locomotive is very popular with Steel Plants and Port Trusts.
Wheel Arrangement Track Gauge Weight Length over Buffer Wheel Diameter Gear Ratio Maximum Speed 74 : 18 50 Kmph 1092 mm 1676 mm 113 t 17370 mm Co-Co

Diesel Engine HP

Type : 251 D-6 Cyl. in-line 1350 / 1120 HP (std.)

Engine Division
COMPONENT MACHINING Over 2000 components are manufactured inhouse at DLW. These include ALCO turbo superchargers, lubricating oil pumps, cam shafts, cylinder heads, chrome plated cylinder liners, connecting rods and various gears. Our well-equipped Machine Shops have dedicated lines for operations like turning, milling, gear hobbling, drilling, grinding and planning etc. In addition, DLW is equipped with a variety of special purpose machines and a large number of state-of-the-art CNC machines to ensure quality and precision. Associated manufacturing processes like heat treatment and induction hardening are also carried out in-house. A completely new Chrome Plating Shop for Cylinder Liners has been set up with modern infrastructure like fume extraction system and Programmable Logic Controlled material movement system.

Engine Assembly & Testing Pre-inspected engine block, crankshaft, camshafts, cylinder liners, pistons, connecting rods, cylinder heads, exhaust manifold, turbo-supercharger and all related piping is used in assembly of engine. Electrical machines like traction alternator, auxiliary generator and exciter are thereafter coupled on the engine. The complete power pack with electrics are tested on Computerised Engine Test Beds to verify horsepower output. Vital parameters of engine are checked to assure the quality of product. Only after the engine parameters are found perfect the power packs are cleared for application on locomotives.

Vehicle Division

Component Fabrication
Precision cutting and forming of sheet metal is utilised for manufacture of superstructures including drivers cab, engine hoods, and compartments for housing electrical equipment. All activities connected with pipes like pickling, bending, cutting, forming and threading of pipes of various sizes are undertaken in another well-equipped work area. All electrical equipment is assembled in the fabricated control compartments and driver?s control stands is done in another work


Under frame Fabrication Under-frames are fabricated with due care to ensure designed weld strength. Requisite camber to the under-frame is provided during fabrication itself. Critical Welds areas are tested radio-graphically. Welder training and their technical competence are periodically reviewed. EMD under-frame is fabricated using heavy fixtures, positioners to ensure down hand welding. Fixtures are used to ensure proper fitting of components and quality welding in subsequent stages.

BOGIE MANUFACTURING Special purpose machines are utilised for machining cast and fabricated bogie frames. Axle and wheel disc machining is undertaken on sophisticated CNC machines. Inner diameter of wheel discs are matched with the outer diameter of axles and assembled on wheel press. The complete truck (bogie), including bogie frames, wheels and axles, brake rigging and traction motors are assembled which is ready for application to locomotive.

LOCOMOTIVE ASSEMBLY Tested engines are received from Engine Division. Similarly under-frames are received from Loco frame Shop and Assembled trucks from Truck Machine Shop. Superstructures and contractor compartments are received from

respective manufacturing and assembly shops of Vehicle Division. Important alignments like crank shaft deflection, compressor alignment and Eddy Current clutch/radiator fan alignment are done during assembly stage. Electrical control equipments are fitted and control cable harnessing is undertaken. The complete locomotive is thus assembled before being sent onwards for final testing and painting. all locomotive systems are rigorous tested as per laid down test procedures before the locomotive is taken up for final painting and dispatch.

Block Division
Flame Cutting of Components

Steel plates are ultrasonically tested before being precision cut by numerically controlled flame cutting machines, Plasma Cutting Machine. Components are straightened and machined prior to fitting & tacking on fixture designed specially for engine block fabrication to ensure close tolerance on engine block.

Fabrication of Engine Block Components after flame cutting and various machining operations are fit and tack welded before taking on rollovers. Heavy Argon-CO2 welding is done on these rollovers. High quality of welding is done by qualified welders. Weld joints are subjected to various tests like ultrasonic, Xrays, Visual etc.

Down-hand welding is ensured using specially designed

positioners. Fabrication of engine block is completed by submerged arc welding using semiautomatic welding machines. Special fixtures are used for making downhand welding possible in inaccessible areas. Critical welds are subjected to radiographic examination. All welders are periodically tested and re-qualified for the assigned. After complete welding weldment is stress relieved and marking is done for subsequent machining.

Portal Milling Machine

Engine block machining is done on Portal Milling Machine which is a 5 axis CNC machine with SIEMENs 840-D state of art system control with dedicated tool management system. This machine performs milling, drilling, tapping and boring operations in single setting. The machine accuracy of 10 micron enables adhering to the tolerance required on engine block.

Angular Boring Machine Angular boring "V" boring is done of special purpose machine. This special purpose machine has two high precision angular boring bars.

WORKSHOP Light Machine Workshop(LMS) Engine Testing(ET) Truck Machine Shop(TMS) Loco Assembly Shop(LAS)

This shop deals with the matching of vario us small co mpo nents required fo r the power pack unit such as, cam shaft, co nnecting rod, liners, gears levers, F.P. Support, Piston pin, nuts and bo lts bushes, various shafts etc.

The light machine shop divided into the following section: Econometric section Grinding section Gear section Cam shaft sect ion A.T.L. section Belching section Connect ing rod section . Lathe section Liners section Drilling section Milling section

Organizational Strength
A flagship production unit of Indian Railways offering complete range of products in its area of operation with annual turnover of over 2124 Crore. State of the art Design and Manufacturing facility to manufacture 200 locomotives per annum with wide range of related products viz. DG Sets, Loco components and sub-assemblies. Supply of spares required to maintain Diesel Locomotives and DG sets. Unbeatable trail-blazing track record in providing cost-effective, eco-friendly and reliable solutions to ever increasing transportation needs for over four decades. Fully geared to meet specific transportation needs by putting Price - Value - Technology equation perfectly right. A large base of delighted customers among many countries viz. Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Angola, to name a few, bearing testimony to product leadership in its category.

Our Quality Policy

Quality, Environment, Health & Safety Policy Diesel Locomotive Works is a Production Unit of Indian Railways, manufacturing Diesel-electric Locomotives, Diesel Generating sets and their spares for Indian Railways, Non-Railway Customers and exports.

We are committed to achieve excellence by: Continual improvement of the Quality, Environmental and Health & Safety - at- work place performance. Preventing pollution by all means including minimizing resource consumption and waste generation using cleaner technologies, material substitution and process changes. Preventing all injuries and loss of property including environmental performance through continuous safety inspections. Striving for compliance with all applicable Environmental and Health & Safety legislations. Striving for "Right first time" and safe working practice through system improvement and training. Enhancing Customer Satisfaction through improvement in reliability and performance of products. Preventing all employees from occupational diseases and health hazards. We shall: Set objectives & targets and periodically monitor their progress through internal audit and management review. Communicate Quality, Environment and Health & Safety policy to the employees and to make it available to the public on demand.

Environmental/Societal Orientation
Environmental Management A healthy and congenial environment alone can produce and promote healthy citizens we firmly believe. In order to have a clean and green DLW, we have a well defined integrated environmental policy. This promotes an ever motivated work-force, giving rise to products of International standard.

Environmental Objectives: Reduction in Resourceconsumption Reduction in Fire Emergencies -10% every year Improvement in Emergency preparedness Monitoring of water & ambient air periodically Sewage Treatment Plant: STP is mainly concerned with the treatment of domestic and industrial sewage. The treated water is used for irrigation purpose up to nearby Lohta farm and kitchen gardening at DLW premises.The digested sludge is sent to sludge drying beds, later to be used as manure. Methane gas mainly produced from the digester is collected in the gas holder and supplied to the canteen. Industrial Effluent Treatment Plant: IETP does the job of treatment of industrial effluent which mainly contains oil and grease . The treated water is sent to nearby villages for farming and kitchen gardening at DLW.

Chromium Treatment Plant:

CTP deals with the treatment of effluents from CRP shop (Chrome Plating Shop). This has varying concentration of hexavalent chromium. This hexavalent chromium is converted into trivalent chromium in acidic condition and is precipitated. This sludge, after drying in the form of cakes, is stored in a covered tank made of concrete. Water after treatment is used for irrigation in nearby villages.

Occupational Health & Safety Management: DLW is OHSAS-18001 certified since September, 2005. OHSAS formulates the work-procedures, defines hazards, assesses the risks involved therein and generates awareness regarding use of personal protective equipments at workplace. This enhances safety at workplace, reduces chances of accidents and makes workers more confident leading to increase in productivity. OHS Objectives: Reduction in HOD cases -10% every year Improvement in use of PPEs (100%) Recharging of Ground water