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HEALTH CONDITIONS IN PAKISTAN

SEMINAR IN ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

Out line
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Introduction

Health Determinants
Politico-Administrative Aspects of Health Health Care Conditions in Pakistan Health Indicators Health Expenditures Health Facilities Health Performance 2010-2011

Major Issues of Health Care in Pakistan


Suggestions to resolve the Health Issues Conclusion
Health Conditions in Pakistan

Introduction
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Definitio n

a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1946) The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combinations of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the health triangle
Health Conditions in Pakistan

Health is not just a state, but also a resource for everyday life Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities. Good health is identified as a vital component of a good quality of life Access to good health is recognized as a basic human need and a fundamental human right
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A healthy population is more productive and efficient component of the society Promoting and Protecting health is essential to human welfare and sustained economic development Ill health is an important factor that forces the poor to remain poor. If they make a little bit of money, one episode of illness can wipe them out.
Health Conditions in Pakistan

Health Care
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the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers. refers to the work done in providing primary care, secondary care and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

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Determinants of health
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Income and social status

Healthy child development

Education and Literacy

Health care services

Social Environments

Physical Environments

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Personal health practices and coping skills

Social Support Networks

Biology and genetics

Employment and working conditions

Gender

Culture

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Politico-Administrative Aspects of Health


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After 18th amendment in constitution of Pakistan, health is now subject of provincial government There is a window of opportunity to make drastic improvements in the health sector after its devolution to provinces Still there are different administrative issues regarding pay structure and working conditions of medical staff Outspread of epidemic diseases like dengue fever have forced government to take some serious steps
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Health issues have become highly sensitized due to globalization and mass media Faced with precarious economic situation characterized by heavy external debt and faltering productivity, Pakistans room to maneuver with health sector reform is quite limited.

Health Conditions in Pakistan

Health Indicators of Pakistan


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Life Expectancy is 67.2 years Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 is 63.3 Mortality Rate under 5 per 1000 is 89 Population Growth is 2.1% per annum HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% HIV/AIDS - people living with 98,000 HIV/AIDS - deaths: 5,800

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Health Indicators Comparison


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Despite the fact that Pakistan has made progress during last couple of years towards achieving these health targets yet the pace has been sluggish. Pakistan still suffers from a high infant and maternal mortality, a double burden of diseases, and inadequate health care facilities with high population growth. Mortality, morbidity and slow progress of indicators in the maternal and child health are major concerns in the progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goals.
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However, life expectancy at birth is a good indicator of health and here Pakistan has done better. The average life expectancy at 67.2 years estimated for 2010 well comparable with Bangladesh, Nepal and Thailand the mortality rate for children under age five and infant mortality still remains high due to birth related problems, immunizable diseases, malnutrition and unhealthy dietary habits and low female literacy rate.
Health Conditions in Pakistan

Health Expenditures
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The governments health budget has been progressively increasing over the last several years. The share of health expenditure in total expenditures/GDP is the most significant variable affecting health status in a country. Its ratio to GNP/GDP remained more or less static at around 0.5-0.7 percent. comparison of last several years shows a major dominance of non development budget.

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Health Conditions in Pakistan

Healthcare facilities in Pakistan


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The health care personnel-doctors, dentist, nurses and paramedics etc. in public sector have also increasing considerably over time in the country. Till 2010, there are 144,901 physicians, 10,508 dentists, 73,244 nurses, and 27,153 midwives there are 972 hospitals in the country with total of 104,137 hospital beds, 4,842 dispensaries and 5,344 basic health units(BHUs) the population versus health facilities ratio works out 1,222 person per doctor and availability of one dentist for 16,854 people and one hospital bed for 1,701 people
Health Conditions in Pakistan

Health Performance 2010-2011


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Health Conditions in Pakistan

Health Performance 2010-2011


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Targets for the health sector during 2010-11 included establishment of 15 Rural Health Centers (RHC), 40 Basic Health Units (BHUs) and up-gradation of 45 existing RHCs and 900 BHUs. The manpower target included the addition of 5000 new doctors, 450 dentists, 3500 Nurses, 5500 paramedics and 500 traditional birth attendants. Under the preventive program, about 8.5 million children were targeted to be immunized and 25 million packets of ORS were to be distributed during 2010-11.
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Till date 4500 HIV positive cases have been reported to the National and Provincial AIDS Control Programs including 3050 full blown AIDS cases. Around 1030 are receiving free treatment through 12 AIDS Treatment Centers. Total number of TB cases reported are 62,321. Whereas the absolute number of cases is 209,714 up to the third quarter of 2010 and the treatment success rate remained 91 percent. The percentage of TB case-detection rate is 81 percent and cure rate is 74 percent.
Health Conditions in Pakistan

Major Health Programmes


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Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) Malaria Control Programme National T.B. Control Programme (NTCP) National Programme for Prevention and Control of Blindness National Programme for Family Planning (FP) & Primary Health Care (PHC)

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National Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Programme (MNCH Programme) Cancer Treatment Programme Drug Abuse Control

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Factors Causing Poor Health in Pakistan


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Poverty

Population Explosion

Illiteracy

Unhealthy Health Policy

Natural Catastrophes And Calamities

Gender Discrimination

Lack Of Awareness Among Masses

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Uncontrolled Industrialization

Lack Of Medical Research And Development

Inadequate Medical Facilities

Uncontrolled Urbanization

No Clean Drinking Water And Contaminated Food

Unhygienic Habitation

Poor Sanitation And Sewerage Conditions

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How to cope with the Health Issues


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Paradigm shift: from providing health care to producing health Regionalization of Health Care Services Control population Increase literacy rate Increase in budget spending on health Corruption control in the public health projects Public-private partnership for provision of medical facilities to the people Take measures to spread awareness regarding importance of health among the masses
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Implement environment-friendly measures to curb pollution promote health education and awareness Encourage medical research and development at public and private level Check growth of substandard private hospitals and clinics and quackery Bring health reforms and ensure their successful implementation Make drug control department efficient and effective
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Facilitate existing brains in the medical field by providing them adequate pay structure with incentives Use information technology to facilitate far areas and a large portion of the population Contracts with the developed countries to exchange human resource and knowledge Promote hygienic and simple lifestyle and cleanliness

Health Conditions in Pakistan

Conclusion
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Health needs devotion at both government and public level. A single sided attempt by the government is not adequate until people themselves do not have awareness regarding significance and value of health Although performance in the health sector is very disappointing but a combined effort by all actors of society could accelerate progress in health and could result into a safe and healthy Pakistan

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There can be no real growth without healthy populations. No sustainable development without tackling disease and malnutrition. No international security without assisting crisis-ridden countries. And no hope for the spread of freedom, democracy and human dignity unless we treat health as a basic human right.

- Gro Brundtland -

Health Conditions in Pakistan

References
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Economic Survey of Pakistan 2010-2011 A.Islam. Health Sector Reform in Pakistan: Future Directions. http://www.who.int/en/ An Introduction to Health Planning in Developing Countries assessed at http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/4/local/backmatter.pdf http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS01 40-6736%2805%2971146-6/fulltext
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