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SWEDISH GRAMMAR

EDW.
J.

VICKNER

A

BRIEF

SWEDISH GRAMMAR
BY

EDW.

J.

VICKNER, M.

A.,

PH. D.

PROFESSOR OP SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES,
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

REVISED EDITION

ROCK ISLAND,
1914

ILL.

AUGUSTAN A BOOK CONCERN

COPYKIGHT, 1912, BY AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN.

COPYRIGHT, 1914,

BY

AUGUSTANA BOOK CONCERN.

ROCK ISLAND,

ILL.

AUOU6TAN4 BOOK CONCERN, PRINTERS AND BINDERS.

It lays no claim to be a compendium of all forms and usages of either the spoken or written language. and be hoped that less form irksome to the of exercise will prove student than the more interesting and form that consists of de- tached sentences. moreover. able attention to idiomatic expressions. The fact that each lesson thus contains words which are associated with one another in common an acquisition of conuse will undoubtedly encourage This form of nected phrases rather than mere words. exercise. The introduction of Swedish into numerous high schools and universities in this country has created a demand for a book which speaking students not only assist the exclusively Englishto attain a fair reading and speaking knowledge of modern Swedish but which may also meet the demand of American born students of Swedish descent may more complete knowledge of the lanThe consideration that the majority of the students who will use his book are already more or less conversant with Swedish has led the author to make the lessons longer and the exercises rather more advanced than is the case in most beginners' books. and to devote considerdesire to gain a who guage of their fathers. The this exercises have been to made continuous wherever it is to it was found practicable do so.PREFACE. The cause and aim of this book is to present in a clear and concise way the commonplace facts and principles of the Swedish language. facilitates a m-ethod which the author . to make the vocabularies unusually voluminous.

suggest that two hours be devoted to each lesson. During the first hour the gram- matical part should be thoroughly discussed. the author would. treatment of pronunciation and accent. transla- tion of the English portion. and the Swedish portion of the exercise thoroughly practiced. the teacher supplementing the examples given as illustrations. a correct Swedish pronunciation and especially a mastery of the musical . lends itself to conversaThe vocabulary has been carefully selected from the language of everyday life and the phrases of the Swedish exercises are of a colloquial and idiomatic charfeels confident that his grammar tional practice. which in all languages and especially in Swedish constitute one of the chief difficulties which confront the learner. The* conversational exercises are not intended to be exliaustive but suggestive for further drill. intended for class use and much is therefore left to the instructor to supplement. that of requiring the student to reproduce the The author contents of the exercises in his own words.IV from his experience in the class room has found of great value for the attainment of a correct pronunciation and fluency. The author's especially the musical. Moreover. which is one of the peculiarities of Swedish. acter. Unusually ample space has been accorded the treatment of the prepositions. may The perliaps evoke criticism by reason of its limitations of space in an elementary book forbid The booJc is chiefly entering into minute details. and to conversation. the second hour should be devoted to a rapid review. however. The value of the conversational method cannot be overestimated. In the method employed the teacher will naturally be guided by his own judgment and the character of his class. brevity.

J.accent. Augustana College. . A. Stomberg. can be acquired only by constant desires to imitation and practice. E. Rock Island. for his extremely valuable services in revising the manuscript. or intonation. University of Minnesota. for much valuable advice and encouragement. VlCKNER. and to Professor Jules Mauritzson. In conclusion the author acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor A.

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VIII. 1 12 13 Punctuation Syllabication 14 PART II. The Consonants. tive. 92 . Nouns: Irregularities in Declension Declension of Proper Names Genitive Case X. PAGE The Alphabet Pronunciation: Quantity. Unreal Conditions Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives Position of Adverbs . LESSON I. VII. 25 29 Third Declension V.. ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION. XV. Definite Articles: III. The Verb: First Conjugation 33 38 VI. Prepositive. Second Conjugation Inflection of Nouns: Fourth Declension jectives: Ad43 Indefinite Declension Nouns: Fifth Declension Adjectives: Definite Declension Use of Prepositive Definite Article 49 55 62 67 73 79 86 IX.. XII. Genders Articles Verbs 15 20 II.. Postpositive. The XI. Imperative The Verb: Fourth Conjugation The Verb: Subjunctive The Verb: .Irregularities. Accentuation Capitalization 1 The Vowels. THE PARTS OP SPEECH. XIV. XIII. PART I... Verb: Third Conjugation Pronouns: Personal The Verb: Future and Future Perfect IndicaPronouns: Reflexive. Inflection of Nouns: First and Second Declen- sion IV.CONTENTS.

Verb: Verb: Verb: Verb: Pronouns: Pronouns: The Verb: finitive 123 Pronouns and Adjectives 131 Present and Past Participle Impersonal Verbs. PAGE 98 The Verb: Passive Voice The Verb: Passive with Auxiliaries: Deponents 105 XIX. XXXV. XXI. Expressions of date and Cardinals time Uses Prepositions: Uses Prepositions: Uses Prepositions: Uses Adverbs: Uses Prepositions: 193 201 208 214 220 226 233 239 XXXIV. XXVII. XXIII. XXVIII. Pronouns: Demonstrative The Verb: Verb Compounds Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives tive Ill 117 XX. Numerals: and Ordinals. XXXVI. Expres186 sions of time. XXXVIII. XVIII. XXXI. and price Numeral Formations. Uses of 168 XXIX. XXII. XXXII. measure. Rela- XXIV.VIII LESSON XVI. The The The The XXV. Comparison Adjectives: Comparison Adjectives: 176 Adverbs: Compari181 son XXX. XXXVII. Conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions: Subordinating Interjections XXXIX. XXVI. XVII. 246 Appendix: Use of the Articles Rules of Gender Notes on Inflection of Nouns Irregularities in Conversational Pronunciation Irregularities in Conversational Gram- mar Strong and Irregular Verbs: Principal Parts 248 253 254 258 280 301 305 Vocabulary : Swedish-English English-Swedish of Subjects Condensed Index Swedish National Songs . XXXIII. Reflexive Verbs 137 144 Modal Auxiliaries Modal Auxiliaries 150 Indefinite 157 163 In- Indefinite Tenses of Indicative.

The Alphabet.BRIEF SWEDISH PART I. The Swedish alphabet NAMES is as follows: CHARACTERS CHARACTERS A E F I B b e f a ah Cc D d H J Gg i h K L 1SI j k 1 Mm n o . 1. GRAMMAR ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION.

sirup. to kindle. The 2. sentence. hence comparisons between Swedish and English are only approximate. to fall. The short consonant sound is generally indicated by a single consonant. QUANTITY. The long and the short vowel sounds are indicated in the same manner in writing. NOTE. m . 3. to travel hdla. mor'gon. eld. morning. error grdl. ' hem. allt. following rules will serve as a guide in determining the quantity of the vowels: A vowel is long in an accented syllable when (a) followed by a short consonant sound fara. friend. chapter shall be studied in advance. m . virtue. In unaccented syllables both the vowel sound (c) and the consonant sound are short: si rap. the long by two or more consonants. folia. come man. tall'rik. plate. The quantity of Swedish sounds is either long or short. quarrel dra. fall. supplemented by such help as may be rendered by the teacher. especially a double consonant. is not doubled kom. (b) A vowel is short in an accented syllable when by a long consonant sound: andas. van. to followed breathe. should be made to the discussion of the sounds given below. . cave fel. Sometimes the long consonant sound in an accented syllable is indicated by a single consonant. The study of the Gram mar proper should begin as soon as possible. and constant reference. tanda. honor. With a few exceptions at the end of a word or syllable.2 PRONUNCIATION. . It must be borne in mind that the sounds of any two languages hardly ever correspond exactly. dygd. man . (d) A final accented vowel is always long. notably in the case of and n: dom. : : . fire. For practical purposes the consonants offer no peculiar difficulties as regards length. 2. everything.

tacka. e. no one. (b) like short a (see 11. 3 THE VOWELS. like oo in moon. you. fir a. ned. mest. home. (1) : . herr. only in the case of e in unaccented endings such as -en. to silver. salt. REMARK. viska. -el. No vowel is silent. a. the. When grade. long this sound varies between and the sound of o in foreign this o-sound is prolonged fader. -er. shoe. (2) When short it is qualitatively the same as 6. misfortune. most. sko. ila. The exact sound is that of the German long e in mehr: ek. Avoid a as in fall. father grad. salt. to lead. that. vecka. to thank. o has When proximately a. oak. to speak. (2) When short like the first a in aha: ore. 4. with the lips so constricted ("rounded") as to be nearly closed: olycka. silver. to hurry. The vowels must receive full and distinct utterance in all positions. : same fire. time. 7. tola. (2) When short it is (a) qualitatively the eld. ingen. Mister (avoid e as in her). down. ni. malm. sopa. mine. (avoid i as (1) two sounds: (a) apThe exact sound is formed by the tongue position for the Swedish long long. me. i. to celebrate. o. leda. error. week. stirra. the sound of a in far when NOTE. fel. -et. (1) When : when whisper. to stare. and -e is there a tendency towards slurring. (1) When long this sound is an approximation to the sound of a in day without the vanish. . as when long: hem. 5. tid.PRONUNCIATION. den. long: min. in stir). 2) long like i in machine (avoid diphthong) mig.

(b) like oo in moon shortened: ost. 11. open o (see 7. yr. yellow. also. fyra. u. mjuk. soft. like wound. kropp. It is approximately that of u in value : (without the introductory consonantal ^/-sound) under. rysa. (b) like o in hope (avoid diphthong). lasa. kol. atta. 2) to hold. gold. out. court. . Round the lips as if to pronounce u in rude.4 PRONUNCIATION. kal. (1) When long approximately like a in care (avoid the diphthong) : dra. (2) When short it has two sounds: (a) like the first o in oho! or like o in oil: om. dizzy. honor. new. to shudder. to read dta. ros. jam. aunt. holla. It is either Ex. 10. flower moster. 9. hopp. to a. to fill. . dllon. long like o in hope (avoid the year. a. many. to eat dven. : : yttra. : short manga. even. ut. four. rose. body. kunna. sara. (short) sylt. fylla. cabbage. cheese blomma. ny. This sound is identical with the Swedish long a (see 10. Robert. to utter. guld. hope. y. (1) : When diphthong) ar. . 8. duka. (1) The sound of long u is produced by the tongue position for Swedish long e (see 5. (long) long or short. (2) The sound of short u is more open than that of long u. eight. Y is identical in sound with German u and French u in une. if. (2) When acorn. ga. short fall. . to set the table. under. 1) with the lips so extremely constricted (rounded) as to be nearly closed: gul. 1) hov. then pronounce ee in seen. to go. to sweep. coal. hem. : . to be able.

or o to 6. (short) foil. 6 are called soft vowels. long and quite open . 12. to hear. rok. just. journal' (shurnal') sounds like oi in the word Preussen. dorr. ga. Ex. 6. young. door. gdngse. inflection and a tional to d. over. langd. angel. dnder. fell. oppen. length. still more open. long and close . These exceptions are neither many nor important. book. and its deriva. eu. backer. then pronounce the Swedish long e (see 5. which in English is very often referred to under its German name umlaut. over. especially rr . duck. : : NOTE. lang. y. (long) oga. eye. 13. ou in a few eu French words sounds like u short. smoke. to short like e in met: an. long. is a process of considerable importance in Swedish 14. Ex. angel. to go. eye. long and close . pi. current. (2) 5 When men. GENERAL OBSERVATION. hora. sot. tives. sweet. o. There are a few exceptions in words of foreign origin. or Thus a change from a u to y. and derivation. fair. long. 1). than. put. d is identical with German 6 and French Round the lips as if to sound o in so. u like y in a few French words: juste (shyst). This vowel has a tendency to become more open when short and also . yet. Prussia. pi. bok. . The vowels a. yngre. backer. It is long or short.PRONUNCIATION. occurs in the inflecforms of many words and in derivatives. before r. ung. thus. lang.: and. books. stalla. Vowel modification. comparative langre. a are called hard vowels. man. A vowel is usually pronounced as it is written. d. and e. i. in soft (the neuter form of sot) the o is short and slightly open oga. open. comp. u.

ondt (old form) either silent or . power folia. charming. in the middle of a word except where v begins the succeeding member of a compound. cigarf'. godt (old form) of ond. twelve. neuter of god. and the consonants. tagit. NOTE. (1) Like English g in go before the hard a. u. g. deep. taken. to f. Consonants not discussed here have the same sound as in English. mirror. and in final positions. and also before the soft vowels e and i in unaccented endings. sound with English /: frdga. 6 in accented syllables of native words and after I and . o. (3) Ch has the sound of sj (26) in a few words charmant. y. c. evil . (1) Like English s before the soft vowels cirkel. a. animal. e. cylirider. ask kraft. war. Where d according it is to the old orthography stands before in the same pronounced like t. neuter gott (new form). to hem . . 17. NOTE. d. to promise. Is identical in .6 PRONUNCIATION. NOTE. 16. u. tolf (old) : silver (new). krig. lofva (old). lova (new). except after I and r: gd. good. spegel. fotograf. and before another c or other consonant like English k: Colum- bus. (2) Like English y in year (tongue closer to the palate) before the soft vowels e. photog- rapher. Like English d. gata. . In the new orthography v has supplanted / everywhere in marking the sound of v: tolv (new). according to the new orthography (officially adopted in 1906) it is either eliminated or changed to t : ont (new form). o. street. accent'. i. THE CONSONANTS. djur. to go vowels . and y: (2) Before the hard vowels a. In accordance with the old orthography / at the end of a syllable or word (except foreign words) has the sound of v and is silent before t. syllable d. 15. i. but is silent before /: t djup. silfver (old) . chocolate. 18. of foreign origin: choklad.

generous. basket. gesture. NOTE. to favor. and before soft vowels in words of foreign origin kalla. wrinkled. m. I. archives. arkiv'. 2. r: 7 genom. in the heart. said. to correct. ball rike. earth. even. y. jag. jessamine. meat. to call kula. jdmn. NOTE. vigt (old) . and. a. k. NOTE 1. (4) Like sj (see below. kott. 21. (2) Like English ch before the soft vowels (e. brought. pack. weight. (3) to give. kylig. bragt. In some words of French origin em is sounded like the Swedish ang: cmballe'ra (angballera. . hvar. but is silent before holla. through. NOTE. gnaw. (shasmin').). wrap. except in och. emblem. (1) Like English k before consonants and hard vowels. : . NOTE. kar. 2) or English consonantal y: jord. In a few French loan words like sj: jasmin' window shade. knife. j. gynna. krigsman. K is not silent before n: kniv. jalusi' (shalusi'). now var. wedge. Like k before t and occasionally before sagt. number of loan words of French origin: generos'. chilly. emblem' (angblame). warrior. also before e and i in unaccented endings. 26) in a ra. G is not silent before n: gnaga. chain. wheel. giva. knee. throat. svalg. G before t. j: h. where. hjul.PRONUNCIATION. realm rynkig. kil. hjdrta. to hold. dear. . hel. knd. 6) except as stated above: kedja. has now generally been replaced by dress. 20. s: korg. Is strongly aspirated. i. gest. jul. gene'to inconvenience. korrige'ra. 22. drdkt (new). k: vikt (new). which occurred frequently in the old orthography. 19. now vem. Christmas. whole. dragt (old). The silent h before v in the old orthography has been dropped new: hvem. Has the same sound as in English. (3) Double k is written ck. Like g (18. who. .

27. pronounced w-ith the tip of the tongue touching the palate sort. u. shirt skjuta. murmur drna. skilja. sun. shoe. . lake sju. vagn (vangn). . 23. resa. Is strongly trilled with the tip of the tongue: arm. 3. NOTE 1. y. guilt. (2) Before the hard vowels (a. pente (pangsOi pansy. to separate. and t become supradental. sj. that is. away. hdssja. nounced. not like ng in finger: Idng. to carry. . s. rs and especially rd and : . they are pronounced with an n before. background. It must be carefully practiced with the teacher schack. reason. n. Is pronounced like s in so: sol. stj. d. bord. Before a vowel these are all pronounced with a sound that resembles English sh but is somewhat rougher. s. If g and n occurring together belong to the same radical syllable. shield. seven sjdl. The uvular r which is is made with the uvula now regarded as permissible. to shoot 26. In Has the same sound as is in English.8 PRONUNCIATION. a) sk is pronounced like the English sk: skal. Ng sounds like English ng in singer. d. rl. lugn (lungn). bort. to sing. skal. sjunga. . to intend kors. sko. ssj. stjarna. long : gang. Observe that the vowels are pronounced distinctly not blurred as in English. to travel. etc. to cover. skyla. and on like the Swedish ang: entusiasm' (angtusiasm). sj. 2. (1) Before the soft vowels (e. sk. 25. door. r. dorr. skj. sounded like the Swedish some words of French origin en ang. calm. fond (f&ngd). sys- ter. . soul skjorta. skuld. 1. In the endings -sion and -ssion the *t and ssi are sounded like sh. NOTE. star. carriage. sister. bowl. 24. before r NOTE 2. table . vibrating against the rt back of the tongue R in the combinations m. the /. cross . 6) sk has the same sound as sch. bdra. enthusiasm.. n. : . song . is not pro. shell. : skold. except at the beginning of a word gnista. arm. to run away. . hayrack. spark. fund. sch. o. as described in the preceding section (26) skena. chess sjo. skdl. i.

pork). NOTE t. 1. . generally before the *. 2. as a rule. 9 NOTE 1. origin. tar. 2. The accent-stress falls on the root syllable of all simple native words: le'va. x. . 29. In Swedish a distinction must be made between the accent-stress and the musical accent. Compound words of native whether formed of noun-\-noun. v. 33. prophecy. ACCENT-STRESS. thick . a t is . schoolhouse. and r in dissyllabic words. counter) flasket (from flask. When inserted -tion is preceded by a. z. Is always pronounced like English never like English w. tj. noun-\-suffix. and mdnniska. NOTE. sj sounded like (26) : action. 31. Like English In the ending -tion ti t in is most words. have the main stress. (saybrah) ACCENTUATION. Swedish Grammar 2 . distance. evolution. Compounds. 34. In words in -xion 32. or prefix-}verb. o. action : evolution. patient' (patsient. mo'der. ha'ge. portion' (portsjoon'). pasture. . Before e and i of an ending sk is pronounced like English sk: disken (from disk. 30. 28. (chock). Simple words. marshal. tan'ke.'-sound in pronunciation: nation' (natsjoon') motion' (motsjoon'). human being. in which sk is pronounced like sj.PRONUNCIATION. it is 1 pronounced like ksj: reflexion (rayflekshoon). Exceptions to this rule are the words marskalk.'tjdra (chairah). w. 35. also pashent') profeti'a (profetsia). Always pronounced like s in so: zebra. Is pronounced as in English. thought. on the first r syllable: skol'hus. Is pronounced like English ch: tjock. av stand. mother. share. to live. Like ts before t'a and ie in foreign words: aktie (aktsie). adjective+adjective. prefix -\- noun.

Foreign words. . -i. -ist. -ark. e-. profes'sor. or next to the last syllable: egent'lig. hostile. and ge. eatable. manat'lig.are always unaccented: beha'ga. -isk. and -ic have with a few exceptions the main on the antepenult. adjectives ending in -abel. Exceptions. ent-. doktor'ska. offent'lig. prejudice (see 211). manly. Nouns having the endings -tnno. notary.10 PRONUNCIATION. -al. to slander. professo'rer. Foreign words ending in -or shift the accent when suffixes are added : nola'rie. monthly. The following words have the main stress (b) on the penult. man'lig. to cite har'komst. to please. -to. 38. 2. 36. to discharge. Words from the Greek and the Romance languages. NOTE -itel. -ikcl. gemal'. -ik. alSo also the prefix for. slaveri' slavery. privilege. lig. bla'gul. fient'lig. last syllable: tryckeri'. stand. real. and verbs ending. Other exceptions will be indicated as they occur. descent. -cum. dok'tor. on the ultima. blue and yellow till'sta. Compound words have house. printing fishery. NOTE. public. -essa. (c) All words ending in -eri have the main stress '. Words of foreign origin tend to retain their original accent. most words: forta'la. -il. to admit an' fora. -cter. consort. ordent'lig. barmhar'tig. -ibcl. 1. garden. -ent. char- itable. in addition to the accent a strong secondary accent on the principal last member of the compound: skol'hus'. (a) The prefixes be-. fiskeri'. are generally accented on the last syllable. -ifl. ehu'ru. prat'sam. forsta'. . dokto'rer. or third syllable from the end: privilc' gium. or office. -ur. . orderly. dt'bar.is unaccented in though. to underbut fo'r'dom. especially those ending in -ant. trad'gard'. 3. . stress Nouns ending in -turn. vasent'- essential. entle'diga.in -era are accented on the penult. -aker. school- 37. talkative.

NOTE. Different approximately identical with the musical accent in English and German. the acute and the grave. since they were formerly monosyllabic or have become dissyllabic or polysyllabic by the addition of some ending. and constitutes the greatest difficulty which confronts the perhaps foreigner wishing to acquire a correct pronunciation. The acute. 40. n. The grave. or monosyllabic. Many dissyllabic and polysyllabic words have this accent. Although no rules can teach it. the following remarks may be useful : or polysyllabic. is used in words which were originally monosyllables. or the monosyllabic and the dissyllabic. which is 39. (Signs: I. tone on the first syllable and the loiv tone on the normal A . 41. or dissyllabic. Foreign loan words often receive the acute accent since this approximately resembles the musical accent employed by the mcfre important of the European languages. especially the definite postpositive article. MUSICAL ACCENT. The pitch which is usually employed lies midway between these two and may be designated as the 42. of the Swedish This accent is a peculiar feature call the highest pitch to which the unaffected pronunciation the high tone.PRONUNCIATION. low tone. We may voice rises in tone. normal word with acute accent has the normal tone). 11 sical accent. accent. and the lowest to which it falls the low tone. from the stress accent is the muThere are two kinds of musical accent in Swedish employed in single words. accent belongs in most cases to words which were originally dissyllabic (and Norwegian).

44. which we the voice then glides down to the low tone within the same syllable. -nl REMABK.: ta*la-re. Capitalization. . : -nl n ta-la. The word is intonation 43.12 CAPITALIZATION. holidays. This is originally monosyllabic. the grave accent has the the low tone on the second. (b) In the names : of certain festivals. 45. Christmas pask. and times of the year advent. speaker.: get'-ter. and the normal tone on -n I the third. A word of more than two n syllables taking n tone on the first syllable. Ex. n i n following syllable or syllables. april. Ex. producing a slightly broken intonation. Capitals are used less frequently in Swedish than in English. regard the stressed syllable as the first in applying these rules. and rises to the normal tone on the second syllable. . i i Ex. accent. Tuesday. if dissyllabic. get'- ter-na. jul. Thus Swedish uses a small initial letter in the following cases contrary to English usage In the names of the days of the week and (a) in the names of months: tisdag. practically the same as the English. gins with a tone a may designate as below the normal. : April. to speak. Ex. for: n ta'la. In the case of words which do not take the stress accent on the first syllable. The accent mark used in this book merely indi- cates the syllable to be stressed. belittle A word with grave n. Advent. Easter .

the ring that had on my . and . provided they contain a subject ret. Swedenborgian darvinist. In compound names like Forenta staterna. so also in expressions Karl den store. ni (second person singular) and its different cases are often capitalized in letters as a sign of respect. The rules of punctuation are nearly the and Swedish. only the first like word is capitalized. plural) is capitalized. professor Bjorkman. whether independent or dependent. svedenborgiansk. Charles the Great. Pacific Ocean. United States. Your Majesty (capitalization is The pronoun I (second person optional). and Stilla havet. engelsk. 47. but. Note examples in same in both English reading. In titles of only the first books and headings of chapters word. 13 In adjectives and nouns derived from proper (c) names: svensk. English. . 50. stockholmare. Punctuation. OBSERVE. inhabitant of Stockholm.PUNCTUATION. is capitalized. Bdsta Herr Professor! Dear Professor: Ers Majestat! 49. 48. as a rule. His Majesty. som jag hade pa I fing- har kommit bort. hans majestdt. Personal titles are generally not capitalized except in direct address: herr Svensson. the comma especially being used more freely. Swedish. Darwinist. The comma is generally used to set off the different clauses of a sentence. But Swedish punctuation is perhaps closer than ours. 46. predicate : ringen.

gossen och kan boy reads and the Syllabication. sjung-a. garden. the have done. tell vad du har laser. bak-om. their torn. gjort. re-gel. mar-skalk. behind. When two or more consonants occur between two vowels. 54. vax-a. the last consonant usually goes with the following vowel: fal-la. goes with the following vowel a-ra. kyrkhand-skrift. 51. Id-ra-re.?-sound (sh) : different words: hang-a. girl sews. s. . hop-pas. mycket. except x in simple words of native origin.14 SYLLABICATION. Compound words component parts: steeple. : 52. fladd-ra. A consonant between two vowels. ce-der. But sch and sk when used as signs for the are not separated but added to the following vowel mar-schera. are divided according to trdd-gdrd. sag mig. flic- me what you syr. finger has been lost. manuscript. ng is added to the preceding vowel unless n and g belong to 53.

especially persons. Formerly the distinction between the masculine and feminine genders of inanimate objects 61. 60. of the female sex. . object or neuter depends variously on terminafew practical rules for determintion or usage. Whether the name of an inanimate common A ing neuter nouns will be given in the Appendix but the best plan for the beginner is to associate the indefinite article with every noun he learns. masculine. especially persons. The Swedish language has four genders: common.PART II. is is den. They require as pronoun of reference han. 56. The neuter gender requires det as pronoun of reference. feminine. and neuter. The pro- noun of reference 59. They require as pronoun of reference hon. Feminine are generally names of living 57. Common gender comprises most names of inanimate objects which are not neuter. of the male sex. LESSON Genders. . Masculine are generally names of living beings. THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 55. beings. I. 58.

Vad blev det av den lilla vita duvan? What became of the little white dove? Hon flog sin vag. strictly observed now it is almost entirely discarded except in some dialects. when no reference is had to sex. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It flew was more away. even the higher. articles: There are three the indefinite the postpositive definite article. The indefinite article which is equivalent to the English indefinite article a or an has two forms : (1) En. which stands before the noun and is used only when the noun is qualified by an adjective. and common nouns will be referred to as gender is not deemed necessary to denote whether a noun is masculine. It Masculine. . distinction whenever necessary. It hangs on the wall in the bedroom. nouns ending in -a with plural in -or are often feminine even when they denote inanimate objects or living beings of either sex: Var dr klockan? Where Hon hanger pa vdggen i sangkamis the clock? maren. are generally regarded as common and referred to with the pronoun den. which is appended to the noun. NOTE. ARTICLES. and the independent or prepositive definite article. 57. The distinction is avoided by employing den as pronoun of reference for either. feminine. The tendency is to extend the province Thus we find that names of the common gender. or commor make such a rules given in 56. nouna. of animals. 63. which is used before all gender nouns: .16 ARTICLES. On the contrary. . and 58 will enable the student to THE 62. feminine. article.

ett barn. which are limited to the solemn style. The indefinite article corresponds in the main with that of English. you have have) de ha(va). att ha). to have. you have du har. ett oga. they have ni har. PI. 1? en man. jag har. we have Sg. you have han har. received an answer. de hade . 64. (2) Ett. a steamer. a man. jag har have a desire to read. etc. vi ha(va). jag fick svar.VERBS. I du hade ni hade han hade had. which is used before an eye. my friend is a teacher. a child. The verb att hava (short form. lust att Idsa. PRESENT INDICATIVE. my friend is a talent: ed teacher. Sg. I have / haven. As: min van dr larare. IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. (b) 65. but min van dr en begavad larare. as. It must be omitted (a) Before a predicate noun denoting profession or occupation when not qualified by an adjective. I I Also in a number of phrases. vi / haden ni hade hade. NOTE. jag hade. etc. all neuter nouns: RULE OP SYNTAX. we had. PI. a queen. en dngare. with some important deviations. he has The shorter forms of the verb hava have practically supplanted the longer forms.han. thou hast (you ni ha(va). en drottning.

Sg. are permissible. The student should be required to reproduce the contents of the exercises. Karl ar en liten gosse. NOTE. Sg.. and to children. The plural 7 is archaic except in elevated style. etc. we are you are you are han de dro. he is IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. used instead of du as the conventional In the plural it has supplanted 1 in familiar and polite address (see 142 and both (b) is Ni The singular of the verb regularly takes the place of the plural in conversation and has begun to replace the latter in the written language: thus. REMARKS ON THE The singular du is used in very familiar (a) address. A. EXERCISE I. am PL du ar. in his own words. I was. to intimate friends. you are vi dro. etc. they are dr. jag var. 1. de voro VERBS. N. Han gar i skolan och har en snail TTaii . han var 67. vi har. thou art (you are) ni dr. The verb I att vara. som (wlio) bor liirare. wherever this is practicable. we ni var I voren ni voro were. form of address. given in the vocabulary In the beginning only the third person singular of the verbs will be this form can be used in all persons and both numbers. du var PI. 66. vi voro. etc. note) (c) . i en stor 3. B. to relatives. .18 ( VEBBS. vi dr. ni dro. / dren. jag dr. ni har. 2. stad. to be. PRESENT INDICATIVE.

a. "What are 1 you writing?" 5. 2. Mary lives in a large and beautiful city." 1 1 a long Swedish present. jag kan min (my) a laxa. Var (where) bor han? 3. are not translated in interrogative and negative expresUse the simple present or imperfect. She has a mother. Vad ger han Karl ofta? 6. 5. 4. t din. B. The indefinite article before nouns shows whether they are gender nouns or neuter nouns. thy. bor. Vem (who) ar Karl? 2. 3. Use the simple progressive nor emphatic verb-forms. and then put the question to the individual student. give the class a few seconds for mental translation. The teacher should read the English sentences. Karl iir flitig "Kan du dag?" fragar 1 Karls larare." of the verb. 1. a letter en. sions. Ar hans larare snail? 5. Mary answers her (sin) mother. C. Vad fragar han Karl B. The students should not be allowed to read the translation from their papers or to translate from their books. N. 19 svar. far ofta en lang laxa. Her (hennes) mother asks her (lienne). som ar och kan sin (his) laxa. to-day an (neuter) . phrase. N. Vad (what) har han? 4. has no Do and did VOCABULARY. who is very good. one. clause. a. 4. She writes a long (langt) letter to a friend. din (your) laxa i Karl svarar: "Ja. Answer the following questions in Swedish: 1. 2. is 1. Only the indefinite gender form of the adjective is given in the first few lessons. lives ett brev. ett. or object.EXERCISE. B. The predicate precedes the subject if the clause is introduced by a modifier which may be either adverb. She a good girl. ofta ? 8. Ar Karls laxa svar? 7. "I am writing letter to a friend who lives in Stockholm. your (gender form) <lag. mycket 6. Vad svarar Karl sin larare ? WRITTEN EXERCISE.

a boy gdr. a girl flitig. his. asks far. stor. that en stad. much. her (reflexive) en skola. DEFINITE ARTICLES. know small svdr.20 en flicka. answers in . a friend en Idrare. to know one's lesson. diligent frdgar. can. ger. to attend school. 69. Definite Articles. Plural: -na (rarely -ne). has the following forms For gender nouns: : Singular: -en. his har. has /ion. The postpositive article consists of a letter or syllable suffixed to the noun. Ziifen. . which. to (at) school skriver. the post- THE POSTPOSITIVE ARTICLE. large. my en moder (mor). gets. a mother mycket. great svarar. difficult little. articles. or -n. beautiful en van. Idng. a school i skolan. receives en Idxa. long vacker. There are two definite positive and the prepositive. gives en gosse.o. LESSON The 68. a lesson min. often sin. her (possessive) i. yes Jean. he hans. and ofto. goes han. good. sin Idxa. hard. This article is always used when the noun is definite in sense. very (much) och. who. 0d i 2. writes she henne. a teacher IDIOMS: 1. a city snail. kind som. It a. II. her (objective) hennes. kunna (present kan) skolan.

. desert.: or fjaril-n. . skalder-na. 70. symmetri-en or symmetri-n. the poets brudar-na. okn-en. doctor. B. the parish. ofcen. bottn-en. EXCEPTIONS. in a consonant. . -a.DEFINITE ARTICLES. the summer. the army. the bride sol-en. Ex. IN THE PLURAL. consul. Ex. b.: arme-en orarmen. Gender nouns ending in unaccented el. -en : with gender nouns. the butterfly. skald-en. 1. the boy flicka-n. brud-en. the Other words ending in fjaril-en -I. or -or and the words konsul. -i EXCEPTIONS. . legend. Of gender nouns ending in unaccented -en only the following four take the postpositive article. (1) Ex. the legend. 2. N. -er. the girl the flower by-n. Ex. Gender nouns ending in accented -e or take either -en or -n as postpositive article. the consul. the symmetry. Ex. sockn-en. the poet the sun. is used when the noun ends . or -r take either -en or -n as postpositive article. purple. the victory.: fdgel-n. and purpur. seger-n. the brides : . article The postpositive IN THE SINGULAR. -n : is used when the noun ends in a vowel. the village. 21 For neuter nouns: Singular : -et. the bird. the desert. or -t. gosse-n. Ex. blomma-n. sommar-en or sommar-n. bottom. sagn-en. In so doing they drop the e of the ending: Gotten. . take -n as postpositive article. the bottom. Plural: -na. sdgen. . konsul-n. socken. or -en. (2) doktor-n. -na (rarely -ne) is used as postpositive article with gender nouns in the plural. parish.

the names segl-en. 2. dunder. -et is used when the noun ends in a consonant : or in an accented vowel.22 DEFINITE ARTICLES. 72. the breweries. moss-en. 2. the men. the geese. byar-na. faglar-na. 1.: segel. the 1. loss-en. IN THE PLURAL. Ex. eko-t. the party. . EXCEPTIONS: siden-et. admiration. mann-en.: bryggerier-na. or -er drop the e of the ending on taking the postpositive article. the paper. with neuter nouns of the Fifth Declension. gass-en. namn-et. 1. sail. Ex. Ex. the birds. 71. vapn-et. -na is used as postpositive article in the plural with neuter nouns of the Third Declension. the sails. Ex. the lice. weapon.: hjarta-t. the weapon. N. bo-et. papper-et. IN THE SINGULAR. the nests. Ex. -en is used as postpositive article in the plural 3. Neuter nouns ending in unaccented -el. article. dundr-et. . the is name . thunder. the silk. : beund- ran. the villages oknar-na. the heart. parti-et. the deserts. -en. namn-en. stdllen-a. -a is used as postpositive article in the plural with neuter nouns of the Fourth Declension. B. Ex. Ex. the nest . the mice. Certain nouns do not take the postpositive Abstract nouns ending in -an. the girls. segl-et. kafeer-na. flickor-na. the echo. : . EXCEPTIONS. : . - used when the noun ends in an unaccented vowel. the sail. vapen. the places bon-a. cafes. The postpositive article with neuter nouns. the thunder.

3. Foreign nouns ending in -um and -us. young lady. Hans larare sager. som ligger bakom hus Tradgard och frukt . 5. privilege. happiness. sager som ar vacker. EXERCISE A. som viixer i den (it). 3. och doktor ker lionom. muse-et. lyckan. den varma solen. Hon man. Ex. SINGULAR PLURAL Neuter All Genders Gender Nouns de det used together with the postpositive article when the noun is modified by an adjective. att gosse ar snail beso- flitig. gender. the privilege. 73. Supply the postpositive Ser ni hus hor dam -i. RULE OF SYNTAX. N. . bank gar och i ocksa ett stort (neut.: datum. men konsten dr Idng. Det tilldar pa kulle . gold. Most gender nouns ending (see 70. iigcr .: froken. But those ending in -eum or -ium drop -um and add -et. life is short but art is long. som ar atta ar gammal och (5. livet dr kort. 7. examination. .) 1ms i stad och har pengar i Hon liar en son. 2. . skola 8. as. Hon ar mycket rik. 23 in unaccented -en Ex. Nu ar han mycket sjuk. miss. B. ar fiirtrafflig. Ex. examen. privilegi-et. article in the following: ? 2. the warm sun. guldet. the museum privilegium. museum. 1. 74. . . II. ligger som kommer dar. ticle in Contrary to English usage the definite arSwedish is used with generic and abstract nouns.). : .EXERCISE. date genus. . THE PREPOSITIVE ARTICLE. Ex. For further disIt is : den cussion see 126. museum.

dead en fader. man moter. nar. fruit do'd. 6). at home (with the main stress on pa) signifies to pay a visit: ft halsudt pd' hot honom. 4. : 1. the man who owns the house on the hill? but I my No. VOCABULARY. Vad 8. meet him in the boy. there kommer. father knows him. His wife dead and he has a school old. wife ett hus. they. (A. behind en tank. and is rich. besoker. honom. old en gata. him house en hustru. street. 1 greets en dag. 3). meets ni. *halsar pd' . visits hdl'sar pd. in Swedish 3. 5. they say little 6. about her son). 7. father frukt (collective). He always salutes me when He is a very kind man. C. one. doctor ddr. people you (formal) fdrtraff'Ug. pronoun). hemma. he cannot (Jean haji inte) attend (go) for he ig sick and is at home. Beratta vad ni vet Ager damen nagot mer (anything else)? om hennes son (Tell what you know 1. (A. Translate : Do you know 2. comes en kulle. 6. det (pronoun) it en doktor. excellent nu. 5. lady den (pronoun). we called at his home. it hill kdnner. EXERCISE. Answer the following questions 2. 4. bank alltid. street now when upon ocksa. gammal. day en dam. en man. Vad ligger bakom huset? ar er (your) tanke (idea) om frukten? 9. The doctor visits him every day. knows ligger. also pd. 1 I 3. always ftofcom. Vad ligger pa kullen? Kan ni se det? Vem tillhbr det? Ax hon fattig eller rik? Vad vaxer i den? 7. lies man (indef. on. six years who attends Now *?& gatan. do not (det gor jag icJce).24 B.

owns LESSON III. Fifth Declension. Plural ending -ar. NUMBER. FIRST DECLENSION. flickornas blommor dro vackra. in and postpositive article the plural. 75. a boy's book. There are five declensions. which is formed by adding s to the nominative of the indefinite or the definite form : Ex. Fourth Declension. d. for en tradgdrd. accordto the manner of forming the nominative plural ing of the indefinite form. belongs to tiger. First Declension. Plural ending -n. each. This declension forms its plural by dropping the ending -a of the nominative singular and adding 77. garden varje. For exceptions see 130. the boy's book is here. every vaxer. In addition there are some irregular nouns which cannot be classified. the girls' flowers are beautiful. b. Plural ending -or. sees 25 ty (conj. a.: En gosses bok. grows sager. NOTE. Nouns are changed for case only in the genitive.). pengar (plur. Plural ending -er. says till'hdr (35). money rik. Inflection of Nouns. Third Declension. is -n in the singular 3 Swedish Grammar . gossens bok dr hdr. The -no.). Without plural ending. Second Declension. CASE. -or. rich ser.DECLENSION. These are : 76.

is characterized by the plural is ending 81. 79. -ning. en afton. lusta (-ar). -ling. rose. Unaccented e in the endings -e. dder.1) fdgl-ar-na . 1. -ung. Unaccented a in the ending -ar. and o and u in the words afton. This declension -ar. . en Gen. flick-or DEFINITE Sing. -ing. and unaccented -e. -el. morning. vdg. Example of the First Declension: en flicka. REMABK. toff el. morgon. an evening. devil . -er. slipper. -en. 80. flick-or-s As the genitive is will be given hereafter. postpositive definite article or -n in the singular (72) -na in the plural. Plur. -el. en fdgel PI. SECOND DECLENSION. evening djavitl. flicka-n. kolle'ga (-er). story. -er is dropped when the ending is added. 2. 78. flick-or-na-s formed regularly by the addi(without the apostrophe). en gosse. Exceptions: histo'ria {-er). wave. flicka-n-s. desire. en tion of -s flicka. a girl. also the nouns ros. Examples of the Second Declension: en fdgel. INDEFINITE Sg. are dropped before the plural ending. (b) Gender nouns ending in -dom. Plur. . a bird. INDEFINITE Sing. The -en The Second Declension comprises: Most monosyllabic gender nouns ending (a) consonant and some ending in a vowel. NOTE final in a -il.1) DEFINITE fdgel-n (73.26 DECLENSION. fagl-ar (81. a boy. The First Declension comprises all gender nouns ending in -a. colleague. -en. the nominative form only flicka-s. 82. and a few others. flick-or-na Nom. vein.

nar han blir trott? Varfor arbetar 8.1) Sg.5) afton-en aftn-ar-na EXERCISE III. 4. det mycket folk ute och gar? 7. 8. Vad hor han pa? 10. - sig pa en av 6. Exercise I. ty han ar hungrig. . ser Vad (som heter) Brown. och 2 man ej. Ar herr Yad gb'r herr Brown ensam Yad Brown? : heter (is the 3. 7. i Nar han 5. man icke? han pa? 9. ar ty det ar helgdag. in Swedish van? 4. 5. Supply the postpositive def. Vart gar han. is out walking. C.EXERCISE. B. goss-ar (81. sol folk pa gat 4. satter han parken. Vadr 3. b. ar varm. nar han ar hungrig? 11. takes a walk. Sometimes when there is always agreeable (angenamt). Herr Brown ar ute och gar 1 skiner och luft . 1. Ibland aro bans tvenne dbttrar med honom. en a/ow PI. article where there is one dash. vackert. for he is a kind and interesting man and his company 4. Vem kallar han pa? . dar. 2. aftn-ar (81. 27 Sg. . name of) er Hurudant ar vadret? Varfor (why) ar (alone) ute? 6. the proper plural ending and the postpositive article where there are two dashes : 1. J See note 3 In conversation the singular is used with a plural subject. Sedan gar 2 han en restaurang. I have a friend to whose name asks is 2. *Xr ute och gar. 2) gosse-n (72) goss-ar-na(-ne) (73. A. ser pa matsedel bestaller. Vad gor herr Brown. och flick som leka 3 hb'r pa fagl som sjunga. blir trott. 3. mycket Det ar mycket arbetar soff . He comes often me and me if . och till Han ser pa goss . 1. Answer 2. en gosse PI. When the weather is fine (vackert} I answer yes. Han satter sig kallar pa vaktmastar och vid ett bord. I will take a walk 1 2 with him.

). plays luft. bird en gosse. share en dotter. He often tells of When we 1 (sina) travels in different (olika) parts of the world. dottrar. a). -ar.) en park. along l)erdt'tar (36. seat. . I. table en del. 3. sings skiner. thereupon (adv. world 2.). -or. shines en soffa. the verb being singular in either case. at. -or. my name is Carl. Ex. air tvenne. a restaurant. sedan. about (prep. after (conj. 3 There is and there are are gd ut och gd.). -ar. interesting tired kallar pd. tells.) (prep. girl folk (collective). relates bestal'ler ett bord. -ar.) if (conj. sets ett sdllskap. not en flicka.) sig (reflexive pronoun). a). by det ar. daughter ei. boy en helgdag. att sdtta sig. works (36. itself. A. 5. . fill trans- lated VOCABULARY. together tro'tt. of fare (ett) vdder. himself a people herself. orders med. en vdrld (mute IDIOMS: 1. part. -ar. Jag Tieter Karl. 37). two en vakt'mdstare. om. are hungry (kungriga) we eat together in (pa) 2 See note 1. -ar. waiter varm. to take a walk. sjunger. Mister hungrig. intressant'. att gd ut och gd. warm by weather 1). sofa. themselves en fdgel. -or.28 arc 3 VOCABULARY. company sometimes tillsammans. (35. people ett folk. calls leker. streets many people in the down (sdtta oss) on one his 6. journey . arbetar. fdglar. to sit down. park en restaurang' restaurant en resa. seats. holiday herr. en matsedel bill vid. with (adv. hungry ibland' (adv. bench sdtter. -sedlar. we go 2 to a park and sit of the seats.

a son. -skap. -t. especially derivatives ending in -d. (b) Gender nouns of more than one syllable ending in -ad. -e. en bok. -i. -st. en byggnad. a building. a book. -het. Some nouns ending in unaccented -e. en bild PI. a notary. and a few others. singular. NOTE. en nota'rie. A 85. almost exclusively of foreign origin. an event. a doctor en nation. en doktor. 84. Examples of gender nouns of the Third Declension: en bild. bock-er son-en son-er-na bok-en bock-er-na . 29 LESSON Inflection of IV. This declension contains: (a) A large number of monosyllabic gender nouns. -ndr. DEFINITE bild-en bild-er-na bild-er Sg. a picture. -else. Nouns (Continued).DECLENSION. take -r in the plural. a nation. -na for either in the plural. en neger. (c) Most gender nouns of foreign origin. en bok PI. -e'um. . -nad. The nouns of this declension take -er in the The postpositive article is -en or -n for gender nouns and -et or -t for neuter nouns in the 83. a negro. INDEFINITE Sg. (d) (e) Neuter nouns of more than one syllable ending in -eri'. -on. son-er Sg. -um. few neuter monosyllables. en hdndelse. plural. en son PI. -ium. THIRD DECLENSION. en son.

en nota'rie notarie-r Sg. there is both a change of root vowel fot. shore . . 1). Some monosyllables take Ex. ett muse-et muse-er-na drp the ending -urn upon NOTE. bild. Foreign words ending in -eum and -turn taking the definite article and the plural ending. goat.30 Sg. fiber. ending: dekanus. foot (b) In bok. . stranderj stad. art. -el (73. professo'rer. hand. a museum. brim. is -n. 4. en nation' PL nation-er NOTE. stripe . en neger PL negr-er PL neger-n negr-er-na notarie-n notarie-r-na Sg. clension: Examples of neuter nouns of the Third Deett tryckeri'. fes'sor. . stader. get. (acute accent) : strand. The ending -us in words of Latin origin is dropped before the plural dekan-er. 86. en doktor PL doktor'-er Sg. night . ett muse'um. natt. ett tryckeri' PL tryckeri-er DEFINITE tryckeri-et tryckeri-er-na muse'um PL muse-er Sg. (a) A few monosyllables change the root vowel (14). bilder. hand. 2. dean. Give the plural of the words enumerated above (according to 14). PL byggnad-er byggnad byggnad-en byggnad-er-na hdndelse-n hdndelse-r-na Sg. INDEFINITE Sg. en DECLENSION. rot. soner. root. rand. book and a doubling of the final consonant. 5. (grave accent) : the grave accent in the plural while others take son. In addition those given in the paradigms we may note: and. (c) In not. strand. The def. and a few others the final consonant is doubled. pole. 3. a printing office. fibrer. fibre. stdng. and drop the e of the ending before the plural ending: fabel. Loan words in -or which in the singular have the accent on the syllable preceding -or shift the accent to the syllable containing -or in the plural: pro- the acute. nut. en kandelse PL hdndelse-r Sg. to doktor-n doktor' -er-na nation-en nation-er-na 1. duck. fabler. -er Gender nouns in unaccented fable.

Vad gora bonderna hela dagen? dens vanstra strand? 7. Vad ser ni i dessa (these) stader? 5.) the indefinite article en. a firebrand (also conflagration. Pa hb'jd och i sina tradgard (genpa flod 6. Decline in the indefinite and definite form.EXEECISE. 5. ett semina'rium. From (denna) you can (kan man) 2. singular and plural: (like en doktor) en professor. skog .. a duck. 3.) slatt . A. en ok' tie. (like ett kafe. a brewery. . berg man ser langt borta pa 4. a pastor. en strand. nomi- native and genitive cases. lege president. (Like en stad) en and.. the definite postending of the plural or both (at. a seminary. Omkring Punkt stad . Hurudant (how) ar land- skapet? 2. def. som gat .. On landscape. flod.. only) . Man ser . both sides there (omit) are heights and in the background beautiful (vackert) . . (Like en hdndelse) en fo'reteelse. ett: the . sing. a cafe. en brand. en rektor. a phenomenon. vackert landskap? 2. (Like ett museum] ett ) (Like en neger) en muskel. 6. or B. Answer in Swedish: 1. De aro mycvanstra strand ligga tva ruin itive. vackra ang . man mycket pa en gang. Vad flyter floden igenom (through) ? 3. Translate: see a very 1. Dessa aro gard . Vad this ser ni pa hojderna pa hill flo- D. Ar ). . positive (at 1. en pastor. C. 1. tva stad genom kyrk och dal . park . pa vilka bond bo. Huru manga stader kan ni se? 4. a shore. arbeta hela (the whole) dag sina (their) fait (these) pa 5. hus och ligga akr . Vad aro punkterna langt borta? 6. . ket intressanta. 31 EXERCISE IV. a share. also icke detta (this) se the missing ending. a muscle. . Har kan som flyter med 3. ett tryckeri) bryggen. Supply (at article. a col2.

av. -er. 5. meadow Jag tycker om att Idsa. bank. -er. to-day. to the left en dker. lander. i country landscape borta.32 VOCABULARY. by. painting. manufactures two genom (igenom) through en gang. 7. riverside en en fabriJc'. . -er. ett from. i gar. smokestack en strand. from ett fait. 9. 3. tvd. mountain (pi. a field gallery tillverkar. -ar. -ar. -er. -er. to-morrow en punkt. artist IDIOMS: 1. church en bakgrund. 4. yard. The city to ley and by these (dessa) rivers lie cities. factory river en tavla. dot en ruin. field en dngmaskin. to look at. likes vdnster. steam engine en dng. museums and I like to see a famous (beromt) picture paintings of famous (beromda) If you wish ? (vill). one time. 3. -er. height. chimney. flod. farmhouse hdr. -ar. yesterday. farmer en by. picture frdmmande. at once. lives ett land. bo). I like to read. ruin en skog. foreign frdn. They belong to a large factory where they (man) manufacture steam engines. flows ett tavelgalleri. strdnder. point. bonder. peasant. bor background berg. exports morgon. day en dal. plain en skorsten. artists. forest en sliitt. left till vdnster. tycker om'. of. -er. here en hojd. -or. 4. we shall visit (besoka vi) the museum to-morrow. Two rivers flow through the vallarge (stora) forests. away en bonde. -ar. village en dag. att se pa. 2. -ar. hill en konstndr. valley exporte'rar. 6. picture fiyter. pd en gdng. VOCABULARY. dkrar. -er. once en gdrd. off en kyrka. i dag. ett landskap. -ar. Do you see the smokestacks on the left side of the river 8. -or. -er. -er. -ar. the left has two gallery. These (dessa) steam engines are exported (translate: one exports) to foreign countries.

used as an adjective and also with the auxiliary . ind. neuter form of the past participle. 91. REMARK. ha's This conjugation the following endings: -a in the infinitive. Verbs belonging to the First.FIRST CONJUGATION. -at in the supine. V. ind. pres. The Verb. participle. plur. -aden in the archaic second pers. Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation (also called strong verbs) form their imperfect by changing the vowel of the root. 88. -ade in both numbers of the imperf. Second. -ande in the pres. without any added ending. FIRST CONJUGATION. pres. ind. and Third Conjugations (also called weak verbs) form their imperfect by adding an ending to the unchanged root. -en in the archaic second person plur. SUPINE. THE 90. -ar in the singular of the present indicative. 89. -ad in the gender -at in the form of the past participle. There are four conjugations in Swedish. it is THE PAST PARTICIPLE is a verbal adjective. 33 LESSON 87. A certain number of verbs vacillating between different conjugations are called irregular verbs. The supine has been evolved from form of the past participle and is used together with the auxiliary verb hava to form the compound perfect tenses. -a elsewhere in the plur. the neuter 92.

The pluperfect indicative is formed by combining the supine with the imperfect of hava. are expressed in the Swedish by the simple form: as. do you call ? I do not call. PRESENT INDICATIVE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Sg. am calling. 94. to verbs bliva and varda. \ \ ni k aUade . han\ hanj PL vi kalla I kallen ni kalla de kalla PL vi kallade I kalladen ni kallade de kallade (b) The perfect indicative is formed by combining the supine with the present indicative of hava. 93. pound passive of transitive verbs form the com- (see 188). Examples Sg. lade=I called. to have. ni kallar du I. kallar ni? jag kallar inte. jag] Sg. jag kal. etc. jag : PERFECT INDICATIVE PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE jag dit ft/(/ du . jag] du I.34 FIRST CONJUGATION.. to become.- ] I ] I tbb rhar kallat \hade kallat han} han} . (a) The verb att kalla. to call. do call. was calling. (b) Likewise the interrogative and negative uses of do. jag kallar=I call. (a) The simple tense in Swedish expresses also the progressive and emphatic forms of English thus. did call.

(d) All verbs having a vowel before the infinitive ending -a. hum. The present perfect and pluperfect of the verbs hava (ha). . svartna (from by svart) to grow black vidga (from vid) to widen gronska (from gron) to grow green. du I. Almost all verbs derived from other words means of a consonantal ending as. to peel. han] vi han} ha haft han haft ni ha haft de ha haft I ha varit han varit ni ha varit vi I de ha . skura. n ^ mar vant . to have. all weak verbs the stem of which ends consonant and contains one of the hard vowels to scrub a. as. haft . (b) .. . . to mala. amuse. gnola. o. to 96. in a To this conjugation belong: (a) Almost a. . vara.. u. rege'ra. . 35 kallat kallat vi ha kallat I han 2 kallat ni ha kallat de ha kallat 1 2 hade haden ni hade de hade vi I kallat kallat J Also hava. PRESENT PERFECT Sg. fria. to woo. \ 95. to correct. PI. roa. to rule korrige'ra. . to be. as. to paint. skria. as skala. (c) All verbs ending in -e'ra.FIRST CONJUGATION. m PI. du L - mar . Also haven. . to shout.

han.) (supine). borja 7.) den. Oppnade han genast? 4.) med att han hade vil och insig (supine) pa soff 1. j .) 5. 4. somn (plur. for att (in order to} studera tyska och franska. 3. ett om han amn 2 foretaga den resa utrikes. innan han oppnade dorren? 5. Nar han 3.). (pres. 2. Var .) jag pa 1 as well as the postpositive definite article and plural ending. Nar jag var hos 2 det att regna. Vi samtal om vara plan (plur. svar 2 han. "Jag har lange att tillbringa ett par ar i (had 1 to} lana 2 mig ett paraply. Notice the inverted order. "Till Frankrike och b'nsk (supine) dessa (these} land. Vad hemma? gjorde (did} ni nyligen (recently} ? 2. han] vi hade varit I haden varit ni hade varit de hade varit PI. Varfor drojde det sa lange (why did it take sucJi a long time}..) ett par for framtid . jag 1 du [. A. (in} mi. de hade haft EXERCISE V. om ar". 1. "Vart mycket. frag (impf. Vad samtalade ni om? 6. B. n^ [. Han ursakt (impf. hos min van Lindgren. Tyskland"." 8. I . made ..) innan han oppn (impf. PLUPERFECT Sg. som han sa lange hade planer (supine). . timm och jag "Ja.) pengar jag.) (impf. Stress on pa. ty en resa utrikes kost amnar du att resa?" frag svar "jag spar 2 (pres. Supply the proper endings of the verbs gar hals (impf.36 EXERCISE. knack flera (several) ganger pa dorr Jag (impf. varit . nj made haft han} vi hade haft I haden haft ni hade haft jag 1 du . sa att (so that} han maste honom. 6.

" 8. the infinitive only of the verb being given.). Carl. that. halfway hos (prep. not sin. . 5. I lent him my umbrella. . to finitive)." I said 1 he answered . a). borja. Carl is 3 father intends a very good and industrious boy and his to send him to J Germany to (for att) study German and subject of music. future fransk. 1 attend (att gd pa] a concert. 1 "You are wet. B. "Why?" I asked . "It must (matte) be rainit was my birthday. 4. He answered that he had intended to (liela kvdllen}. C. Weak verbs are designated by the number of the conjugation to which they belong. to begin birthday en dorr. but had changed his mind 2 1 "I am not quite well. It was my cousin hurried to the door and opened it. to I. Vad amnade han gora dar? Yesterday I telephoned to my friend Lindgren and asked him if he intended to stay at home all evening 2. -ar. 7. 1 Yesterday somebody (ndgon) knocked at the door. at . "Yes.VOCABULARY." ing (93. N. French f ran ska. French (lartguage) hem (adv. when the VOCABULARY. 10. -ar. Hur lang tid amnade han tillbringa i Frankrike och Tyskland ? 9. Carl. "hade dndrat is the clause 3 hans. and when 1 he went (fjick) home. 37 amnade ban foretaga sin resa utrikes? 7. for whom his 3 mother had sent to me with flowers. 1. undertake en fodelsedag. door en framtid. sin is used sig. . I 6. halvvags.). att (conj. home of. foretager). Invert. the possessor: han skickade sin son (174). and sign of the in- fo'retaga (sing. "it began to rain when I was halfway. at the house with. Carl stayed with (hos) me a couple of hours." 9." he answered 1 3. Vad gjorde han for att kimna (be able) resa om ett ar? 8.

in a year. I. II plan to rest to intend to to to to plan vat. ett par timmar. and the verbs begynna. long (en) musik'. I. skicTca. cousin en kvdll.38 SECOND CONJUGATION. synas. I. 169). I. I. 1. timna. abroad (also used as an indeclinable adjective) vart. evening telefone'ra. change wish open to send oppna. ett par. resa. om en vecka. To this conjugation the -s. in a week. sam'fala. en timme. a couple of hours paraply'. 97. krona. to be well. I. to travel andra. I. regna (rengna). whither Vila. -ar. att ma ~bra. tysk. om ett ar. to lend. 7. -er.. this class belong all verbs of stem of which ends in -k. a couple of hours. to Una.). en kusin'. I. 3. 98. skynda. reser). plane'ra. pass lange (adv. bryna. to begin. to rain (sg. knacka. to borrow spend. 2. en plan. hour ett ett couple par timmar. to converse onska. a couple of. to study I. -er. THE SECOND CONJUGATION. rona. to knock en konsert'. -p. to cost stude'ra. (Continued). concert kosta. . German (language) ut'rikes. to experience. LESSON The Verb VI. to telephone I. -t. wet I. to seem. spara. The verbs belonging Class to this conjugation are of two classes. umbrella -er. I. (also irr. next Monday.. till'bringa. om mdndag. to hurry to save I. German tyska. I. to whet. IDIOMS. I. I. to crown. -ar. music ett par.

The archaic second plural lists will hereafter for the sake of convenience be disregarded in the of verbal endings. The other endings are identical with those of Class 102. -te in the imperfect indicative. To this class belong verbs of the Second Conjugation. 99. both numbers. -ande in the present participle. Examples: . to travel att bdja. -d in the gender form of the past participle. -er in the singular of the present indicative. -t in the gender and neuter forms of the past participle. all other These verbs take : -de in the imperfect indicative. NOTE. -a in the plural of the present indicative. jag'} du ni reste \ jag] du ni ( han} han . han} vi resa I resen ni resa de resa bdjen ni bdja de bdja IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Sg. -t in the supine. 101. 100. PRESENT INDICATIVE Sg. both numbers. 39 These verbs take the following endings: -a in the infinitive. to bend. Class II. I. att resa. jag] du n reser jag] du n han\ vi bdja I PI.SECOND CONJUGATION.

to send. NOTE. not sdndt. not giftt. These are tola. Verbs in double m or n dron one of these consonants before -de. Normal and Inverted. PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE etc. instead of jag horer. . -le. (from krona (from krona. the supine sant. Normal order: First the subject with its modifiers. Second. and -t. 3. light). jag har jag jag hade rest. sanda. i. The inverted order . PERFECT INDICATIVE har rest. the object and 104. Inverted order: The subject follows the verb. bcgiinte . the past participle tand. etc. a. ORDER OF WORDS. not giftte. 6) in the stem and derived from other words by a change from hard to soft vowel: lysa (from ljus. 1. and the past participle gift. according to the new orthography. endure mala. y. 2. If not sandd. ORDER OF WORDS. full). To the Second Conjugation belong most 103. not giftt. the supine gift. jag gor. not sdndde. I hear. other adjuncts of the verb. forget. etc. to get married. and. crown). to light. jag hor. to grind gala. skylla skuld. the d and the t are dropped before a d and a t of the ending. singular thus. the verb. guilt). to crown. but retain the short sound of the vowel: begynna. Similarly three verbs ending in -I take no ending. Third. -d. instead of jag gorer. glomma. to begin. has the imperfect ffifte. 1. has the imperfect sande. jag hade bojt. verbs having a soft vowel (e. vi reste I resten ni reste de reste vi bojde I bo j den ni bojde de bojde bojt. -r If the stem of a verb of this class ends in . to accuse. . to fill. glijmt.40 PI. the stem of a verb of this conjugation ends in -nd or -t preceded by a 'consonant. fylla (from full. etc. no ending- is added in the present indicative. is required: In direct questions: Laste han boken i gar? (a) Did he read the book yesterday? 2. Gifta sig. to crow. thus. to gliimde.

for Ja. plur. . gen.). 2 Note position of 4 Swedish Grammar . Kom A. (neuter).a question Impf. if the pronoun is expressed du hit bara. plock 9. Nu behb'v han bar ha goss ty se salt (sold) fabrik . ty pastor Strom holl (preached) en ypperlig predikan. att jag promener ut blomm 8. pa (look at) de nya (plur. to hold. Nej. Jag vandr genom skog . dag? pa landet. 6. jag bar sok traff honom 3. 5. med honom om det. ty de bruka forsumma nagot (any) mal. tala amn kopa vagn och nagra par hast Jag tank han ej nagra (any). att komma hem till middag ? Det 2 tror jag. (93. Sa trakigt positive definite article . the postand the plural endings. 4. till mig. vadr 7. Har ni varit i kyrk var sa vackert. Inversion occasioned by preceding modifiers of the verb occurs only in principal clauses and in dependent clauses introduced by att. (c) In the imperative. when he came OBSERVE. yesterday he read the book da han kom. jag hb'r Ar det nagot (anything) viktigt? en vecka sedan (a week ago). han bar res stad for att traffa nagra (some) van 2. way 3 of 'asking. Det var och horde pa fagl (def. men bar ej honom annu. b). gatt (gone) ? De ha gatt som han ag till muse (del . : EXERCISE VI. talade han he spoke to me. Ni borde (ought) ha en harlig predikan. Vart for att p). Tror 1 (believe) du. 3 varit i kyrkan i dag. att ban . till 1. tyck jag. Ar herr Quist hemma i dag? Nej. adverb. of halla. 10. (you) just come here. or both.EXERCISE.) sang. phrase or clause. tva gang . 'Observe the Swedish del and inverted order. precedes the verb: i gar Idste han boken. Supply the proper endings of the verbs. 41 (b) When the object or one of the other adjuncts of the verb.) tavl som de ej i man beromm sa mycket.

Quist. 2. who seldom attends church 2 10. N. on the contrary (ddremot). VOCABULARY. lib. crowded -ar. miss forsoka. Vad har han gjort med fabrikerna. -ar. Where were you the whole day? (ingen) answered. Vem predik att de komma hem till middagen? i kyrkan C. in the forenoon forsumma. to hear -ar. I. 9. Var det mycket folk i kyrkan ? 1. cellent sermon and the church was crowded. You ought to have been (A. en hast. Answer in Swedish and supply verbal endings. 1 Use man with the active. i Vem har ni besok dag? 2. In the forenoon I visited the museum in order (A. I thought that he owned only one. Blomberg there. I saw (sag) Mr. Vad 6'nsk amna han kopa hastar och vagnar ? 5. lib. B. magnificent horse hora. Pastor Strom preached (lioll) an exto look at the new pictures. 9. He told country. afternoon pd ef'termiddagen. neglect. to praise bruJca. In the afternoon I took a walk (A. VOCABULARY. Varfor kb'p han dem ej nu ? 6. forenoon ho'ra pd. 10) in church to-day. Aro Karl och Gustav hemma ? 8. attends very often. som han a'gde? 7. but no one 3. Blomberg. I la. The two subdivisions of the Second Conjugation will be designated by a and b. 7) into the 6. you yesterday. 2 gar i kyrkan. to need beromma. 5) which have been praised 1 so highly. Varfor var han ej ni tala med honom om? 4. On the way out I met Mr. but you were not at In the afternoon I telephoned twice. me that he had sold his (sina) two factories. 8. behova. i dag ? 10. Nar hemma? 3. . to use en ef'termiddag. 5. glorious. 1. en for'middag. 4. Varfor tror ni. in the afternoon full'paclcad.42 B. pa for'middagen. I tried to see home. 7. lib. I. to try Jidrlig. Mrs. to listen to .

FOURTH DECLENSION. yet IDIOMS. goal mota. This declension contains: (a) A few neuter monosyllables ending in a vowel. believes tvd ganger. song siillan. to preach en predi'kan. (ut) to 4. carriage vandra. Ha. Ha.). ago 1. sermon promene'ra. -ar. to pick tdnka. hela dagen. meet kopa. Ha. since for. I. I. excellent tiga. road. hor pd. at noon mycket. sad. LESSON Inflection of VII. I. seldom soka. lib. . speak to trdkig.> en sdng. dinner pd middagen. -a in the plural. Ha. see. to wander. to meet. highly ett mdl. to own iinnu. it seems to me plocka. unpleasant sd trdkigt. att trdffa (rdka) en person. I. vagn. for Idnge sedan. to (into) the country men. prep. to think om'tala. 106. tell. tedious. twice tycka. The nouns of this declension take The postpositive the plural. Jag ser pd. to ring up sedan (adv. meal. also -en for neuter monosyllables.. -ar. -er. two years ago. I. definite article is -t or -ei in the singular. 107. to think predi'ka.INFLECTION OF NOUNS buy pa landet. to seek. listen to. noon. look for trdffa. Ha. stroll viktig. relate jag tycker. 2. for tvd ar sedan. wagon. I look at. and conj. too bad tror. to see (meet) a person. lib.. way ypperlig. -n in 105. 3 4. I. weighty. to take a walk ringa pd' hos. the whole day. sedan. long ago.. but en middag. important en vdg. -ar. Nouns (Continued).

and a THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION. 111. may also have the def. 110. a piano . PI. INDEFINITE Sg. a heart. def. (b) Most neuter nouns of more than one syllable ending in an unaccented vowel. salt. a realm. ett rike. ett hjarta hjarta-n Sg.44 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. eye. 1. absolut. 2. etc. piano-n piano-t piano-n-a bi-et fci-wa (also bi-en) Sg. sing. The : Indefinite Declension has the following endings -t in the neuter singular. Declension of Adjectives. a bee. as. rike-n PI. ear. The adjectives have an indefinite declension. Adjectives ending in -t preceded by a consonant do not take the ending -t in the neuter. generally -e. ogon and 6'ron. NOTE. Bf. -a (-e. form bi-t. Examples of nouns belonging to the Fourth Declension : ett hjdrta. 1) in the plural for all genders. ett bi 5i-n The words oga. have the plurals. 108. neuter. 1. neuter. konkret. ogonen and oronen. and similar neuter nouns. 60. . salt. bo-t. salt. TconTcret. DEFINITE hjdrta-t hjarta-n-a rike-t rike-n-a Sg. see 112. ett bi. ett piano PI. likewise foreign adjectives ending in -t: absolut neuter. ett rike PI. and ora. definite 109. form. NOTES ON THE SINGULAR. ett piano.

neuter. Adjectives ending in an unaccented -al. free. one is dropped and the other changed to t : trodd. bid. left. neuter. found. 5. good. Some adjectives are iilskande. burned. ripe. brett. fritt. kaUat. lat. as. . 1. in unaccented syllables d is dropped: Jcallad. especially in solemn style. as. desolate. -a or -e. faithful. believed. -en. 45 2. bldtt. sant. 112. funnen. ode. The is but -e USE OF THE INDEFINITE DECLENSION. form of the neuter. neuter. If the final d is preceded by a consonant it is eliminated: ond. true. funnet.neuter. neuter. noble.INDEFINITE DECLENSION. old. plural generally takes the ending -a for all genders. neuter. always used when the adjective ends in -ad (past participles of the First Conjugation) and sometimes. bred. broad. 2. not used in the indef. trogen. brant. t Adjectives ending in -d preceded by a vowel change d to in accented syllables before the neuter t: god. neuter. vanster. The adjective is declined in the Indefinite Declension when used attributively with a noun in the indefinite sense. troget. 4. mogna. ont. Adjectives ending in -e (especially present participles) do not change in the neuter: alskande. a 113. neuter. is added: gammal. good child is the joy of its mother. gott. when the adjective modifies a masculine noun. -el. mogen. NOTES ON THE PLURAL. etc. brand. ode. trott. If the adjective ends in a double d. neuter. barnet ar vac- . ddel. neuter. neuter. blue. 1. lazy. Adjectives ending in a double n drop one n before the neuter t: sann. loving. Adjectives ending in an accented vowel add -tt: fri. called. gamla. ddla. -er eliminate the vowel of these endings when the plural ending. 3. Adjectives ending in unaccented -en change n to the neuter t. 6. and also when it -is used predicatively: ett sndll-t barn ar sin moders frojd. evil.

gammal gamla onda gammalt ont trogen troget trogna dlskad dlskat dlskade Sg. PARADIGMS WITH NOUNS. ett sndllt barn-s moder. 117. the mother of a good child. . en dlskad PI. PI. M. en god flicka Sg. Sg. gen. thus. sndll-a barn-s modrar. F. en ddel konung en ddel kvinna PI. troget. tro- verbs. Adjectives agree with the nouns they qualiin case: ett sndll-t fy in number and gender but not barn. goda gossar goda flickor barn barn goda ett gott ett ddelt Sg. 114. absolut absolut absoluta trodd trott trodda 115. nobly. en god gosse PI. GENDER FORM GENDER FORM NEUTER Sg. ddla konungar ddla kvinnor Sg. the child is pretty. troget. ddla namn namn dlskade man man en dlskad moder ett dlskat land dlskade modrar dlskade lander RULES OF SYNTAX. faithfully. ond PL PI. ddelt. ddel. the mothers of good children. good children. tig-a gossar. ker-t. god PI. gott ddel ddelt goda ddla Sg. the indefinite Most descriptive adjectives can be used in form of the neuter singular as adddelt. sndll-a barn. Examples of the NEUTER Indefinite Declension: M. F. noble.46 INDEFINITE DECLENSION Karl och Robert dro ftiCarl and Robert are industrious boys. faithful. 116. a good child.

dar och plock 10.EXERCISE.) . Un(red) der traden (the trees) aro sate och i gren (def. A. .. 7. Var hade han varit? han om? 10. (noble) 8. (sweet). Var aro satena? C. Hurudant var vadret i gar? Huru manga (many) grader 2. thermometer indicates several degrees . Vem 9. som i manga hanseende behag min vans tradgard vaxa 2 god apple I gar var 2 jag . knowledge Xote inverted order. Vad talade traffade ni dar? 8. 2.. kail Supply the proper endings : 1. ty var illuminerad. 1. . Hela dag 2 arbet jag trog men pa ypperlig kvallen ak skoban jag skridskor. . (def. Var det lugnt (calm) 4. .). pi. Amerika. In order to the student's 2 endings are to be supplied. dar ni var i gar? pa kvallen? 6.. 2. I . Han mannisk . baste. ar 2 han den hade mycket att saga om forhallande i honom..) sina bo test . 6. som res (went) till Amerika for tva ar sedan.). klar och vacker vis . but cLar and beautiful. 11. dashes are put even where no B. 4*. och glad (proper form of munter) styck ak fram och tillbaka. do) ni under (during) dagen? 3. Vem tillhor tradgarden. atskillig grad mycket nordan under (adv. En 2 haftig l bias och termometer . 11. pi. 9. Vad gjorde ni (did . pi. Pa hastig (adv. men nu har kommit (come) tillbaka.) aro och .) bygga fagl J (def.. som jag kann . . fryspunkt 3. Beskriv (describe) skridskobanan ? 7. en stor musikkar spel . (yellow) och mycket . Av alia . Vad gjorde visade termometern under fryspunkten? 5. I gar var det men .. . Apple nagra. Answer in Swedish: ? 1. mannisk is traff 2 jag en gammal van. 47 EXERCISE VII. Skrid(adv. Det gick (went) is var blank och hard 5. . I The weather is believe that the cold to-day.

man. and to-night a big baud will 2 1 play in the rink. I like ditions there. freezing point eti mdnga. seat -rar. It is a great pleasure 8. rod. I. respect sot. VOCABULARY. -t. I am tired because I have worked faithfully cellent. -n. -t. illuminated en termome'ter. There pieces. rott. -n. the gender the adverb. The hard and r-mooth. -ar. I wish to speak to (vid) them. to play (music) hard. hdftig. mometer en is. troget. 2 kno\v. in. ett stycke. amusement. ure. -rat. ther- cold trogen. 10. I. 6. sweet iUumine'rad. glad. faithful . the latter behaga. -n. glad glatt. -n. vet. enjoyment to pick gammal. 7.) -or. merry en musik'kdr. If the ice is 5. of the adjective: is also -t. merry I see a couple (of) old friends. happy en grad. piece vehement ett sate. lib. -ar. skating rink spela. a Use present tense and invert (104. red hastig. klar. ice kail. 9. -t. -er. 2) .48 VOCABULARY 3. -er. Do you know if the rink is illuminated to-night? Surely (ja visst). condition. hart. 1 -r. The band plays merry music and happy people. -n. shiny bldsa. old plocka. ett -t. 11. many manniska (fern. N. being forhdllande. very ' all day. nest bygga. pleas- human ett noje. 4. degree en gren. skate en skridskobana. -or. hard -t. soft. band ett 60. I. clear Ha. hdnseende. pa. relation -t. to build fryspunkt. Two forms are given and the neuter form. yellow rapid violent. smooth. to blow munter. -t. good I wish ice is ex- (invert) to skate a couple (of) hours. en skridsko. to please blank. branch gul. B. below the freezing point. -er. They have been in America and know the con- to skate rapidly back and forth.

120. and The Fifth Declension Kammare. Nouns (Continued). of peoples and nouns of foreign origin ending (c) Most neuter nouns ending in a consonant. -n. from och tillbaka. 'Generally pronounced skrisko. which modify the vowel in the plural. fader. father. FIFTH DECLENSION. back and forth. apple IDIOMS: 1. iidel.FIFTH DECLENSION. I. (sometimes -ne for masculines in -are) for gender nouns and -en for neuter nouns 119. man. deer. except those ending in -eum and -ium which belong to the Third Declension. 118. Ha.mma. -t. mouse. travel ett viider. or -en for gender nouns and -et for neuter nouns in the singular and -no. 2. The nouns belonging to this declension take no ending in the plural (cf. liamr- (b) Names in -er. sheep.. . man gas. broder. noble ett apple. visa. brother. ride. indicate uka.re. 49 weather show. louse mus. The postpositive article is -n. to skate. (d) The nouns fader. broder. . swine. or. aka skridsko. nouns ending and -are. LESSON Inflection of VIII. . . goose lus. ha. in the plural. in English). includes: in -ande (a) All gender kallr-ar. pi. NOTE. and kallare have also the plurals kamr-ar.

ett namn. indefinite singular of the we find -e. gdss. a chair- man. The indef. en ett mu'siker. . . however. en musiker PL musiker Sg. gdssen. a baker. . Fot has the plural fatter only when signifying a part of the body. THE DEFINITE DECLENSION. a mode. loss. 73. a name. mile. en ordforande. INDEFINITE en bagare Sg. judge. ett modus PL modus *Observe the elimination of the re. mossen. Such forms as doma- or domrarna from domare. foot turn. moss have the definite forms mannen. cf.50 DEFINITE DECLENSION. 122. The ending takes the place of -a in the following instances: . note 5. note 4. -a. lossen. Klein. c).no.' fot. loss. for the def. are growing obsolete. to distinguish its plural from the plural domarna of dom. In the Definite Declension the adjective has practically only one ending. form is used (73. of man. 121. article is generally -na even for words like bagare. The def. gdss. inch mil. modus. PL bagare Sg. sentence. which is added to the original form (the -e gender form) 123. . sometimes. Examples of nouns of the Fifth Declen- sion: en bagare. 2 Words in -us cannot take the postpositive article. namn namn-et namn-en modus 2 modus e of the ending -are. ett DEFINITE bagare-n bagarna (ne)* ordforande-n ordforande-na musiker-n musiker-na PL namn Sg. a musician. NOTE. moss. and a few common words measure as. Declension of Adjectives (Continued). en ordforande PL ordforande Sg.

but den gamla. sense of physical largeness. svenska sprdket. (3) After the possessive and demonstrative adjec- and pronouns as. the latter expression is emphatic and formal den stor-e mannen means the great man. den rike mannen. Stora would here because of its greater commonplaceness convey the when : . my new gloves. -s (es) and -tals are indeclinable. as. occasionally in the the adjective modifies a noun denoting plural a person of the male sex den god-a (also god-e) gossen. this faithful servant. -e (se). as. denne trogne tjdnare. mina nya handskar. 124. the Swedish language (69). konungens ddla upptrddande. as. the noble conduct of the king. Kdre van! I unhappy man. (c) Always when the adjective ends in -ad.DEFINITE DKCLENSIOX. de rike. the rich man. min far(2) brors vackra hus. den gamles hus. After a noun in the genitive. (b) When the adjective is used as a noun to denote human beings of the male sex. The adjective is declined in the Definite Declension when used: (1) Before a noun with the postpositive article. den stor-e (never stor-a) Gustav Adolf. (a) 51 Often in the singular. the fine house of my uncle. the old woman. . Adjectives ending in -a. the house of the old man. the rich. as. the adjective then has a genitive in -s: den gamle. NOTE. friend. -om. USE OF DEFINITE DECLENSION. the old man. den alskade drottningen. the beloved queen. In expressions of address and in apposition (4) Dear with a personal pronoun. Jag olyckliga manniskal tives .

half. form. min faders de (ripe) applena. de (faithful) lararna. thus. flickan. ddl-a ddl-a ddl-a ddl-a Sg. Examples of the NEUTER Sg. dlskad. The prepositive definite article den. man. THE USE OF THE PREPOSITIVE DEFINITE ARTICLE. forsta dagen. loved. the hela natten. is the ten most industrious boys.52 EXERCISE. dlskad-e PI. de : (small) gossarna. (noble) mannen. den vackr-a barn-et. den gamle. den flickan. 2. before superlatives and adjectives self . 126.(red) hus. . Definite Declension: ddel. dlskad-e NOTE. ett -. before hel. de tio flitigast-e gossarna. -el. the beautiful girl. left side the . the old tkona. svemka gpr&ket. FEM. whole. Swedish language . Supply the proper form of the Swedish equivalents of the adjectives given within parenthesis in the following den (beautiful) hus. (respected) ett namnet. . ddl-a (e) PI. The prepositive article is generally employed when the adjective lilla. det. thus. -er Sg. 125. the NOTE 1. noble. trogn-a trogn-a dlskad-e dlskad-e -en. sjalv. faithful. names halv. positive definite article must also be used. (sweet} barn. ett (wet) fait. ddl-a(e) PI. is omitted in a number of set phrases. trogen. the beautiful. used as a noun. ett det (wet) faltet. 'EXERCISE VIII. the whole night. del It . first thus. A. det (little) (free) land. trogn-a(e) trogn-a(e) trogn-a trogn-a dlskad-e dlskad-e -al. often especially such as serve as of place . the day vdnstra sidan. den the little girl. MASC. de (70) is employed when the noun is qualified pi. Adjectives ending in unaccented drop the vo\\t-l uf their last syllable before -a or -e of the def. by an adjective or numeral in such a case the post. det sndll-a good child.

Dessutom (126. den (new one) . Var ni bra. "Vad den gamle vanlige lakaren. this den skicklige lakaren dr Buren. Denne 8. 1 one) ar en gammal van till min ar i det nya huset pa hornet och Vasagatan. I gar vaknade jag med en haftig huvudvark. till Jag forsokte inte. Kanner er far dr Buren? 8. ett (salt) 53 bad.). Jag maste (had to) vanKungsgatan ta en hel timma. dricka en kopp av det starka kaffet. (old [one]. de . ar den mycket dalig.EXERCISE. den (free one. 4. lit. translate of. 10. i Answer ? in Swedish : 1. voro 4. i "Har har ni ett recept. 15. Var har han sitt Hum Hur mottagningsrum? 9. and f. ty det var far. ett -. Da jag kom (came) tillbaka. Vad f attades er ? Vad mor gjorde ni fore frukosotaliga ? ten Varfor voro er far och 5. de -. 1. (sweet) barn (pi." "Hur sover ni?" 16. Hans mottagningsrum af manga patienter fore mig. "Ar aptiten god eller 14. 2. manga koppar kaffe drack (impf. innan jag traffade honom.) ni? 7. and f. inte (did not feel) alls bra och kunde (could) 5." 12. 3. fattas er?" fragade har ofta en mycket "Jag jag. m. - B.) . 9. lange och varfor maste ni ..). haftig hufvudvark". ej ata nagot av den goda maten. "Far (may) jag se pa er tunga?" 17.(ripe [ones]). "Pa morgonen "Daligt. mannen. C. min far och Jag madde mor otaliga. svarade dalig?" 13. nar ni vaknade lange gar ? 2. (att) 6.(noble) den (respected) lakare.. (he. 11. 3. Jag kladde mig och promenerade i den vackra parken en timme fore frukosten. men kunde Pa eftermiddagen gick jag 7. 2). m.(small) barn. det ar for aptiten. Hur hade ni promenerat? 6." ordinerade han rorelse i friska luften Till is sometimes used to express genitive relation . de (new) lararna. ty de hade vantat lange.

at all eft horn. bath ett barn. woke up to-day with a very 3. corner before en aptit (no pi. which call. fattas bad. Besides he the other (andra) for the poor appetite. dricka (strong verb). nytt. Vad 1. is the same 'For with the verbs like ask. to ail I. en frukost (pron. food mogen. he asked (104. When he had examined him he wrote he came (sJcrev) two prescriptions. prescribed 1 Have to when in the present it denotes compulsion and imperfect. He came soon in the big red telephone for 4. -ar. well. inte. besides. to dress en kopp. impatient . automobile ett bad. -ar. -t. new fore (prep. poor (deponent verb). free frisk. well ddlig. telephone. lib. -t. child not (conj. ripe (18. 8. fruckost). When automobile. one for the violent headache. lilla. his appetite At (vid) to 1 noon (def. doctor's office ny.). Vad fragade den gamle vanlige lakaren er? ordinerade (prescribed) han? old father My 2. innan kldda. pi. He came down for (till) breakfast (def. Dr. is expressed by mdste. write. and adv.) 2 was very poor and we had the famous old physician. healthy -t. VOCABULARY.). -et. 1) ett mottagningsrum. fri. smd). -et (def.) but could not eat anything (ndgot). in addition liten. fritt. is rendered efter. Buren.) appetite en automobil'. breakfast (en) luft (no pi. to drink little. King's street dessutom. -er. Z>. to lack.54 vanta? 11. exercise and fresh air. before en huvudvark (no pi. anything ordine'ra. violent headache. 5.) air en lakare. and he are old friends. small bra.). physician (en) mat (no pi. Our dear father 6. old friend?" 7. reception room. which he bought last year (i fjol). 2) my father. cup Kungsgatan. "What ails you. send. I. VOCABULARY 10.) headache ndgot. in. alls. to prescribe otdlig. fresh.

respected en rorelse. man moder. as. vtinta. notes 1 and 2). movement. brother fader. Vasa street vdt. man pi. I. few nouns of the Third Declension double (d) the last consonant. so'ner (grave accent). IRREGULARITIES IN DECLENSION. Often there is also a vowel modification. Vasagatan. daughter. strong ett recept'. (b) For the elimination of the endings -us and -um after e and i before the plural ending. Third. en kopp kaffe. pi. and Fifth Declensions modify the root vowel in the plural as. tongue vakna. -or. .IRREGULAR DECLENSION. coffee. 2. inte alls. kind to wait skicklig. ansett. 55 patient stark. others (see 85. dottrar man. to sleep IDIOMS: 1. Nouns (Continued). not at LESSON Inflection of IX. exercise salt. For the syncopation of the vowel of an un(a) accented ending before the plural ending. -t. . I. notes 1 and 2 and 85. salt I. . to wake up telefone'ra. pi. vatt. -er. mother. a cup of all. fader son. modrar and some pi. -t. -t. sova (strong verb). broder. son. bonder broder dotter. pi. (c) A few nouns of the Second. wet friendly. note. peasant. see 86. pi. . A . 127. en patient'. bonde. -r. father. skillful vanlig. pi. note 4. prescription ansedd. to telephone en tunga. see 81.

a few monosyllabic gender nouns end- Some nouns ing in o. the latter only takes the Mr. mouse. . rivers. backer fot. cow. pi. DECLENSION OF PROPER NAMES. pi. fact. Ins. pi. pi. pi. o. (f) pi. moss. sko-r td. pi. I am reading the poetry of Tegner. f otter get. : faktum. a. such are. -* as in Eng- THE 129. the objective being identical with the nominative. the rivers of Sweden are beautiful. louse. nouns ending in unaccented -e. book. toe. pi. shoe. jag laser Tegners dikter. bok. gas.) NOTE. If a title precedes the lish: herr Liners dotter dr hdr. goat. name. pi. The nominative and the genitive are the only cases that need to be taken into account in the declension of nouns. mus. loss. getter not. pi. ko-r sko. Names of persons. enemy. pi. and some others. pi. klo-r hustru. LineVs daughter is here. . examination. (Exceptions 130.. a. and places take an -s in the genitive ex. fi'ende. gdss. goose.56 THE CASES. 128. countries. ta-r (g) Many loan words retain their foreign plural pi. as. klo. of the Third Declension take only -r in the plural. notter (e) So also. examina. mountains. fakta. nut. hustri(-r pi. foot. examen. wife. fiende-r claw. cities. Sveriges floder dro vackra. CASES. pi. ko.

Johannes' evangelium. Proper nouns ending in an s-sound (s. as has been stated before. by the addition of an -s to the nominative. vdggarna till ett hus. the life of Christ. instead of en blixts hastighet. singular and plural. as. When several words are used to designate the same (e) person or object. occurs with nouns in -us. The Swedish Grammar 5 . the Gospel of (a) St. 131. as. the last word in the group generally takes the -s: Karl den stores rike. Note also the genitive of Jesus. the roof of a house. as. blixtens Cb) In the case of -st. 2) in the nominative have their possessive of the same form. or -xt in a common noun ending in an s-sound. The nominative and the objective need no illustration since their functions are the same as in English. In regard to the genitive it is of prime importance to notice that the form in -s is employed much more freely in Swedish than in English. (c) In certain expressions names of localities ending in a vowel use a nominative in apposition where other words would require a genitive. taket p& ett hus. the genitive relation is generally expressed by the prepositions pd and till (rarely av) thus. konungen av Sveriges (also konungens av Sverige) hov. the rapidity of a flash of lightning. hastighet. 57 130. the walls of a house. IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS. Uppsala universitet. the univer- sity of Upsala. The genitive is formed. the nominative. 132. sometimes by putting the noun in the definite form and suffixing an s. the realm of Charles the Great. . (d) A Latin genitive in -i Kristi Jesu.THE GENITIVE. as. liv. adding only an apostrophe. SYNTAX OF THE CASES. the court of the king of Sweden. x. John. indefinite and definite. THE GENITIVE.

land till sjoss. last spring. ten crowns' worth of : 1 sugar. (c) till the prepositions In a few expressions a genitive is used after i and till: gd till sdngs. however. to or at sea lands. family. bordets ben. a kilogram of butter. : gd Sunday till bords. ett kilo smo'r. tio meter tyg.58 THE GENITIVE. last fall temporal expression with This use of t varas. of and till is limited to a few phrases. or business of somebody: jag bor hos Lindholms. the legs of the table. min mors ligger ddr borta. i i sondags. for tio kronor socker. The following uses of the genitive should be noted: The word modified by the genitive is omit(a) ted in expressions like: min klocka dr vackrare an min brors. by . are very common occurrence. Blombergs dro sjuka. which. NOTE. thus impersonal nouns. and nouns of value. 134. I live at Lindholm's. to go to bed. vid mdnadens slut. this is my sister's hat. ten meters of cloth. in Swedish take -s. After quantitative nouns of measure and weight. at the end of the month. detta dr min systers hatt. 133. of. down . the Blombergs are sick. which in English invariably would be construed with of to express the genitive relation. . is genitive relation rarely expressed by the prepo- sition av. to sit . a cup of coffee. i governing the geni- tive denotes a past period. by water. last i A hostas. my watch is prettier than my brother's. the nominative is used en kopp kaffe. my mother's lies over there. Somewhat analogous is the use of the geni(b) tive designating the house. as. at table.

Jo . The city (of) Berlin . 1. The speech of the emperor of Germany. The literature . och av Sveriges modern 3.EXERCISE.). 11. love of country. 4. The objective genitive often expressed by till. Tegners Fritiofs saga och Eunebergs episk forfattare kanner jag indef. My house and my father's. 12. Lindgren's daughters. thus. kdrleken till j osier landet. is the leg of the table (in two ways) ? 2. 13. but den unge mannens hati. jag tyck mycket battre om Selma Lagerlofs bb'cker. kryc- kan pa kappen. A cup of good coffee. The theaters of Paris. of Sweden. The streets of Berlin. 17. The of Strindberg. 8. 3. 16. 10. . Plato 9.) arbet har 1 jag dikt (pi. gen. the young man's hat). city. EXERCISE IX. translate: one of Socrates' pupils. Charles XII. ar han ej mycket pessimistisk ? 4. The is roof of the house (in two ways) poor. He is at sea. the cover of the box. 14. the crutch of the cane (never hatten till den unge mannen. def. 15. Av de klaslast forfatt (pi. the author (place author first). The history of Mr. The books 6. 2 ni om Strindberg. Where Translate the following sentences and expressions. by till The possessive genitive is often expressed (or pa) when the possessor is an inanimate till object: locket ladan. Supply endings where indicated: val ? 2. I bought the shoes at Lindwas a pupil of Socrates 1 holm's. Hur tyck till August Strindberg och Selma Lagerlof. 2 18. 7. A. the sight of land. 2 Put Berlin in apposition with 1. university of Upsala is very old. Tyvarr den svensk litteratur sisk Kanner ni till icke. 5. 59 is 135. The banks of the Mississippi are beautiful. B. He came (kom) last Monda}'. asynen av land. sometimes by av.

I believe. 7. I What do you wish. d). 4. som i mandags spelade Adolfs. men sa borj det att . man stallningen? 1. sir (min her re) 3. men jag hade hade hb'r att man skulle (would) av Strindbergs dramer. Herr Palme. kanner ni till? Lagerlof an om i Strindberg? 5. def. Charles? i Where are you going am ? going to Sandell's. Nej. om Selma att 6. *rhe def. 11. Yes. I like the towns of southern (def. 1. gar kvall? utfb'rde 1 Hurudan var fore- Gustav Adolfs roll? to-night. wish to buy the works of Topelius (130.) utfb'rande var mycket gott (also. green house belong to Mr. spela en' i gar kvall? 6. 6. 9. Vilka av de klassiska fb'rfattarna fb'rfattare har ni last? 3. form of the adjective used in answering a question containing a is used after a possessive modifier (124. Williams' mother? his brother's. ty forevar utmarkt. negative. Det var skada. och vi stallning Roll stann hemma. 8. EXERCISE. Vilka moderna Varfor tycker ni battre 4. Are you acquainted with Francis' (130. gen. 2. a) parents? 8. (pi. C. Fausts 10. Hade ni ej i amnat ga pa teatern gar? Vad D. utfb'randet av rollerna). note 2). roll i Gb'thes i dram. Var ni ej pa teater att ga. Blombergs och vi voro dar. Does the No. Monday. 7. ty jag amn snb'a.60 5. I met them at Blomberg's last Have you read Selma Lagerlof's famous (def.) . Vem 2.) Prance (128). climate of Italy better than that of southern France (than ters? southern France's). Where is to-day's paper (the day's 2 paper ) ? I wish to read the latest (senaste) speech of the king of England. spelade 7. Conversation. it is Where do you pass your win- Sometimes in Italy and sometimes in one of the 5. spelade nu Gustav land tal? Har ni Kan last tidning ni saga -Jo is om kejsarens av Tyskvad Sokrates' berb'md 3 mig larjunge hette? *Note the inverted order.

Monday pessimis'tisk. poem en dram. drama episk. damage Frans. v. to stay. . modern en mdndag. perform. I and (samt 3 ) bread and Yes. -n.VOCABULARY. could be used here. speech. tteater en tidning. execution. -or. but have heard contains an excellent portrayal of the peasants of that Sweden. ett tak. see Jidlla). to be called stanna. 10. butter. sleepy en sang. Ila. modern'. -rar. Where have you bought the chickens and the geese? 11. 3 Samt . Italy yes (used in answer to a negative question) klassisk. to read en dikt. Mr. -n. with. -t. only). roof to contain number (neuter). -ar. -t. Aren't they fine? do you wish. sleepy. lii-sa. -t. -t. young chicken performance . snu'a. classic lib. bed ett tal. work en Idrjunge. I What have bought them at Lind's. green en gas. ett arbete. butter en forfat'tare. France sen.en skildring. I believe I am very tired. 12. -ar. "Jerusalem" it ? 1). goose heta. unfortunately kiinna know about ett utforande. -er. though rarely used in conversation med. klimaf. late skada. climate till'. Francis en fo'restdllning. sir? I wish a cup of strong coffee. author fo'rdldrar (plural only). snow parents gron. Sweden sitdra (def. newspaper trott.southern in'nehdlla Ilalien jo. giiss. so late last night. -er. I. ett brod. stop Sverige (neuter). -ar. ett drama (no plur. portrayal ance (ett) smor. Brown. (st. 61 I Unfortunately not. somnig. -ar. -t. -t.). pessimistic part (acting) Frankrike (neuter). -ar. book. you are went to bed translate: Where do you intend to go to-night f 2 Also tidningen for i dag. ett -t. to I. epic en roll. en kyckling.. tired tyvlirr'. -ar. en teater. VOCABULARY. is interchangeable with och to avoid repetition. -er. to -ar. description. pupil bread Ila.

which may be considered a slightly modified form of the Second. the singular of the present indicative. 2. fag] m du Sg. y. both numbers. \ ni syr han] han] . -dde in the imperfect indicative. LESSON The Verb 136. -tt in the neuter form of the past participle -tt (HI. concert. note 7). to attend the theater. infinitive. This conjugation contains comparatively few verbs. tion : 4). -dd in the gender form of the past participle. jag [. the Third Conjugation. -ende in the present participle (111. 138. belong all weak verbs which end in any other vowel To than -a in the 137. att ga iir pa. The Third Conjugation has the following : endings -r in stem vowel in the infinitive : e. THIRD CONJUGATION.62 THIRD CONJUGATION. teatern. a pity. (Continued). a 1. I >tror du 1. . o. det skada. PRESENT INDICATIVE Sg. -n in the archaic second plural. it is pd en konsert. in the supine. Examples att tro. IDIOMS. a not a. to sew. stem vowel in the plural of the present indicative. to believe of verbs of the Third Conjugaatt sy. X.

etc. /tar trott. 63 vi 1 ni nro vi ] ni \sy de\ I iron de\ I syn IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. DECLENSION OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. yagr Tiar ST/if. jag hade 139. Personal Pronouns. du } I ni \sydde han\ PI. etc. Neuter Sg. Obj. du (din) dig han hans hon det (min) mig honom hennes dess henne det PI. .PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Masc. PI. Sg. ni ttrodde {. and Fern. FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON Masc. trott. Nom. jag hade sytt. Fern. Masc. and Fern. jag 1 du jag j. PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE. han\ vi ] ni \sydde J vi ni ] ttrodde J de / de trodden I sydden PERFECT INDICATIVE. etc. jag Gen. etc.

It is considered more polite in the singular to use the title of the person with or without herr or fru. Doctor? Persons whose titles and names are unknown may be addressed with herrn. the lady) it is impolite to omit name or title in speaking to persons we know Vill herrn vara sa . 140. likewise also 'et or 't for det and 'no. or fro'ken (also damen. (b) Mig and dig are colloquially pronounced mdj and daj. REMARKS ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. name or is i kvall? Will you come toBut Kommer doktor Lind i kvall? Are you coming to-night. Pick du't? Did you get it? 141. The definite form of the title is generally used except when it occurs together with the used in independent construction. 67. I saw him yesterday. Your Majesty. Jag sag 'en i gar. . a. form for the second person occurs in a few Ers Majestat. Doctor? to move out into the country.64 PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Doctor Lind ? Ndr flyttar ni ut pa landet. for henne. : . Your Excellency. Ex. (a) The personal pronouns with the exception of the third person lack genitive forms these forms are supplied by the possessive adjectives. herr doktor? When are you going Ex. frun. (c) In conversational language 'en or 'n is sometimes appended to the verb or to the pronoun subject in a question and used as a sort of enclitic pronoun for honom or den.: Kommer doktorn night. For the use of du and ni in address. Ers excellens. see 142. b. But a genitive titles. as.

) till mitt arbete. och min hustru blev (was) skadad. forma 1. 5. var Kungsgatan ar? Will you kindly tell me. med en sparvagn. Vi ha bade (both) motorbat och segelbat och naturligtvis om att ro. b) ni oss aldrig. 8. 3. Vi ha det sa trevligt. Vi bo c).) ni era ferier i somras (133. nar ni voro ute och akte ? 6. Flyttade ni ut tidigt i ar? 4. 7. var villa ligger vid sjostrand . Vad aka i kolliderade ni med ? 7. 6. A. sir. vid en harlig liten insjo. ej automobil mera? 11. eller hur? min hustru. Varfor flyttade ni ut sa sent? 5. def. medan vi bo pa landet? 9. och fran dess veranda ha vi en harlig utsikt over sjb'n. Varfor vill fru Ed- strom 9. 10. Conversation. voro (93. where King's Street is? NOTE. som han herr doktor. om ni tyck (pi. Var bodde ni i somras? 2. herr professor. The existing objection to this convenient pronoun gradually disappearing. Varfor bor ni pa landet? 3. 4. herr doktor? 2. Ni flytt ut ganska sent i ar. Varfb'r besoker (93. Var tillbring (impf. 7ad skedde. Supply the endings of the verbs and nouns where indicated. B. EXERCISE X. G5 god och saga mig. Nu ma i hon ypperligt. Vag roddbat. ej forma henne att aka automobil mera. 1. pa landet som vanligt. Var Hur har ni det pa landet? 10. men jag kan 8. Hum manga slags ligger er villa? (kindi of) batar har ni? Vad passa vagarna for? . 11. det bero pa olyckan.EXERCISE.) aro fb'rtrafflig och passande for automobilakning. a) vi ute och kb'r nya bil. Nar sommar komm . Har vi ni ej hb'r lamna stad vi kollider om den? Strax innan amna (att) i min . is the pronoun ni with the To combine convenience with politeness one may judiciously intersperse title. jag inte att stanna i staden langre. jag maste fly ut i naturen for att hamta nya kraft (pi. Ja.

66
C.
1.

VOCABULARY
Doctor Edstrom and his family lived at a beau2. Their villa is situated last summer.

tiful little lake

(Hgger) at (vid) the lake shore, and from the porch they have a charming view over the lake and its islands. 3. The
doctor does not feel well if he does not spend his (sina) vacation in (pa) the country, 4. Last summer they moved out later than usual, for an accident had occurred to Mrs.

Edstrom.

5.

They were out riding

in their (sin) large
6.

new

automobile and collided with a street car.

Mrs. Edstrom

was seriously injured, and now the doctor cannot make her 7. Haven't you (Ex. X, A, 7) ride in an automobile. heard of that (ddrom) ? I thought you and the doctor were very good friends. 8. I have visited them several
times at
(i)

their
9.

home
Once

in the country; they have such a
I stayed a

pleasant home.

whole week and was out
ocli

rowing and

fishing (ute och rodde

metade) on the lake

every (varje) day.

VOCABULARY.
aldrig,

never

kollide'ra,

I,

to collide

allvarsam, -t, serious en automobil'dkning, automobile riding
bero', III, to

en kraft,

-er,

strength

kora, lib, to drive Idmna, I, to leave
langre, longer,

depend

any longer

en

bil, -ar,

colloquial abbrev.

medan, while
meta,
I,

for automobile

to fish

ferier (always plur.) vacation en motorMt, -ar, motor boat fly, III, to flee ma, III, to feel (well, ill, etc.) en natur', -er, nature flytta, I, to move

forma', III, to be able; to induce or compel

natur'ligtvis, of course

ganska (adv.), quite
Jiamta,
I,

en o'lycka, -or, accident, misfortune
passande, suitable
ro, III, to

to

fetch

handa, lib, to happen, occur en hustru, -r, wife en insjo, -ar, lake

row
-ar,
-ar,

en roddbdt, en segelbut,

rowboat
sailboat

INDICATIVE.
en sjostrand, shore
sjiJstriinder,

07

lake

som

vanligt, as usual
-or,

skadad, -at, injured i somras, last summer en spdrvagn, -ar, street car strax, soon
trevlig,
-t,

en veranda, en villa, -or,

porch
cottage

villa,

dka, Ha, to ride en o, -ar, island

over (prep, and adv.) over,
past

pleasant, agreeable

IDIOMS.
1.

att

vara ute och kora, gd, rida,

etc.,

to

be out

driving,

2. 3.
4.

walking, riding. att gd ut och gd, to take a walk. att ha det trevligt, to have a pleasant
att

home

or time.

md

bra, ilia, to feel well, bad,

ill.

LESSON
The Verb

XI.

(Continued).

FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE. 143. The future indicative is formed by combining the present of the auxiliary skola, shall, which
is

skall (in conversation ska), with the present infin-

and the future perfect by combining the same auxiliary with the perfect infinitive.
itive;

FUTURE INDICATIVE
Sg. jag]

FUTURE PERF.
jag]
17

INDIC.

du

\

i

7,

ni
PI.

fskall

(ska) kalla

,

7

x

T

du

ni
vi

[skall (ska) h akaUat

han]
vi

han]
1

m

~\

de
1.

\skola (ska) kalla
J

ni

I

de

ha

skola (ska)
kallat

j

I skolen kalla
NOTE
Pure future
is

I skolen

ha

kallat

generally expressed either by the present or by the infinitive together with the present of the verb komma, to come (296). 2. The double forms of the English future and future perfect, / shall call,
be calling, and / shall have called, I shall have been calling, are to be rendered by the single forms, jag skall kalla and jag skall ha kallat.
I shall

68

IMPERATIVE.

THE IMPERATIVE.
The imperative is formed by attaching to 144. the stem of the verb the following endings:
SINGULAR
Second Person -a or
NOTE.
gular
;

PLURAL
First Person -om Second Person -en or -n
-a in the second person sin-

all

Only verbs of the First Conjugation take other verbs use the mere stem.

145.

Instead of the form in -om, which

is

exceed-

ingly rare, the imperative of the verb Idta, let, latom, generally shortened to lat, is used with the reflexfirst person plural and This form corresponds exactly to the English imperative with let; thus, Idt(om) oss kalla, let us call.

ive

pronoun

oss, us, of the

the infinitive.

Instead of the second person plural in -en or -n the second person singular, with the pronoun ni understood, is used as an imperative for the second person plural.
146.
NOTE.

The pronouns are generally omitted

in the imperative.

147. The conversational language uses a number of expressions which are more polite than the imperative the most common is vill ni vara sa god, will you be so kind; thus, vill ni vara sa god och komma (will you have the kindness to come), also, var sa god och, etc. or the expression, sa dr ni (du) snail (then you are kind), may be used after the imperative; as, kom, sa dr ni snail (please come), or, kan (can) may be used in a question:
; ;

kan du komma mi?

equivalent

to,

come now,

please.

INFINITIVE.

69

148.
to go.

Examples of the imperative of the verbs
bdja, to bend;
tro,

kalla, to call;

to believe;

ga,

kalla (du, ni), kallom, lat(om) oss kalla, kallen(I) (du, ni), bojom, Idt(om) oss bdja, bbjen(I) bd'j tro (du, ni), lat(om) oss tro, iron (I)

ga
NOTE.

(du, ni),

lat(om) oss ga,

gan
-07*1,

(I)
and

Verbs the stem of which ends in a vowel lack the form in

take -n in the second person plural.

149.
(a)

REMARKS ON THE
The present

INFINITIVE.

-a, but verbs of the Third Conjugation and a few verbs of the Fourth Conjugation the stem of which ends in a vowel take no ending in the infinitive. The sign of the infinitive i? att, to. Ex.: att kalla, att

active infinitive ends in

tro, att ga.

(b)
to

The perfect
ha
;

infinitive is

formed as

in

Engtrott,

lish; thus, att

kallat, to'have called; att

ha

have believed att ha

gdtt, to

have gone.

(c) There is also a future infinitive formed by combining the present infinitive of the auxiliary verb skola, shall, with the infinitive of the verb;
as, att

skola kalla.

This

is

rarely used.

(d) The sign of the infinitive is omitted very much as in English. (Further particulars will be given
later.)

phrase expressing purpose is generally introduced by the preposition for, for; as, jag har rest till Tyskland for att studera tyska dar, I have gone to Germany in order to study Ger(e)

An

infinitive

man

there.

70

EXERCISE.

The
150.

Reflexive Pronoun.

only one distinctively reflexive which is used for all genders and numbers of the third person: himself, herself,
is

There

form, the objective

sig,

itself, themselves; as, han (hon) sdtter sig, seats himself (herself) de sdtta sig, they seat themselves.
;

151.

Elsewhere the objective case of the personal
;

pronouns is used as reflexive; as, jag sdtter mig, I seat myself sdtta oss, we seat ourselves.

m

NOTE

1.

In English the reflexive -self must be distinguished from the em-

This is expressed in Swedish by sjalv; as, jag sjalv, I myself; phatic -self. han har gjort det sjalv, he has done it himself. 2. Sjdlva(e) preceding a noun means even ; as, sjdlva konungen kan inte
.gora det, even the king cannot do
it.

EXERCISE XI.
A.
sag
1.

Om m
mig.
bat
4.

kom med
till
i

2.

onska taga en liten tur pa sjon, barn, sa Ga in till Ostermans pa vagen, Karl, och
lana
. . .

dem,

att jag b'nsk
,

(Iheir) bat.

3.

Hop-

pa nu
.
. .

goss

,

men

forsiktigt, sa att ni ej stjalp

(it).

Vem

skall ro?

Jasa, du Erik, nej, lat Karl

ro, jag tror ej, att det skall bli tungt for

honom, ty sjon Sluta att ro, Karl, och slapp ned ankar 6. Se bara, hur Lat oss nu kasta nt rev fisk det ar har! Karl har redan ett napp pa sin mycket krok. 7. Tycker ni inte, att det ar roligt att meta, nar
ligger

som en
.

spegel.

5.

.

man

far

napp?

8.

Var nu
trad

snail och ro

i

land, sa satta vi

oss under det stor

for att ata var middag.

B. 1. Kara barn, oppna lasebockerna pa sidan tjugu, och lat oss lasa Tegners vackra dikt. 2. Sag mig, Karl, vad den handlar om, ar du snail. 3. Det var alldeles riktigt.
4.

Borja nu och las den hogt och Yar god och ursakta mig, froken

val for oss, Maria.
Forsell, jag

kan

ej

EXERCISE.

?'l

lasa hogt; jag ar forkyld och har ont i halscn. 5. Det var 6. Sna.Ha froken, tillat ilia, da skall lilla Klara lasa den.

mig
7.

att lasa den Det var bra

utantill

;

jag bar lart hela dikten utantill.

gjort, Klara.

Hor nu pa uppmarksamt
8.

allesammans, medan Klara deklamera den for or.
C.
2.

laser.

Sedan

skall jag sjalv

Conversation.

1.

Vad

b'nskar ni
3.

Vem

(att)

gora

i

dag?
tungt

ska vi lana baten av?
4.

Varfor

blir det ej

for Karl att ro?

Vad maste man

5. Vem av er bar napp borja (att) meta? pa sin krok? 6. Nar ar det roligt att meta? 7. Var skola vi ata var

gora, innan

man kan

middag?
Klara
Forsell

8.

Varfor kan Maria
att

ej

lasa hogt?
10.

visat,

hon

ar flitig?

9. Hur har Vad amnar froken

(att)

gora, nar Klara har last dikten?

D. 1. The children wished to go out fishing (ut och meta) yesterday. 2. Since we do not have any boat, we had to (maste vi) borrow one from Osterman's. 3. The
boys
it.

jumped
4.

carefully into the boat in order not to upset
it
5.

1 Carl rowed the whole way , and difficult, for the lake was like a mirror.

was not very

Stop rowing, Carl; and you, Eric, drop the anchor. 6. Let us throw out our lines here, boys, there is (A, 6) plenty of (much) fish
ashore and
breakfast.
children.
sit
8.

here, I think.

you are tired we shall (invert) row 8) under the big tree to eat our Please (B, 2) open the books on page ten,
7.

If

down (A,

9.

Tell me, Carl,
is.

who

beautiful

poem

10.

Quite right,

the author of this (denna) my dear boy. And
for us.
11.

now Clara

will recite the
this, I

poem

When

she has

myself shall declaim it for you. 12. don't you begin, Clara ? Have you not learned it by Why heart? 13. Please excuse me (var god och ursakta mig},

done (gjort)

Miss Forsell.

I tried to learn it

by heart yesterday, but

as en spegel. som conj. lib. riktig. noon. like. Jag ar forkyld. bad. -ar. could (kunde) not. correct ett fonster. i I. Ha.). VOCABULARY. to say til'lata (st. -er. sore. is no longer intervocalic. entirely allesammans. only bra. 1. nagot. line -t. I have a sore throat. -t. 3.VOCABULARY. ett ankare. I had such a sore throat (sa out i lial14. to upset saga. Please open (var snail och .). because. I. since en rev. it is fun. too bad that so tio. throw en krok. en sjo. sen). bite ndgon. -ar. attentive (-ly) lara. I. hoppa. I. sluta. is bad(ly). luck uppmarksam. to learn. out *Hela vagen: the prepositive article is i huvudet). heavy trip. sometimes a doubling : is here intervocalic. to jump (as adv. tung. turn. Det ar roligt. ten -t.) the window. all . -ar. v. Carl. hog. to en to teach tur. -lar. quite. fish right. hook kasta. yesterday ilia (adv. redan. Ha. or. rolig. mirror stjiilpa. ont.. utantill. -bocker. (irr. well (often referring to I. to excuse lasa upp'. window -t. alldeles. adv. pronoun. v. reader en middag.). I. wicked. to recite by heart IDIOMS: 2. becomes vppmarlcsamma in the plural m nummer becomes num-ret in the def. I have a headache (huvudvark. dinner ett napp. . and who. en fisk. also -t. ur'sakta. -ar. -ar.). Note that long m can be written double only when it and principle causes sometimes a dropping of one vppmarksam. -t. anchor bara. en lasebok. already erne' dan. I have caught a cold. any ond. jasa'. form m m This is intervocalic. omitted.. amusing lake to cease forkyld' -kylt. cautious to treat about handla om. so. health) angry to declaim deklame'ra. to permit (rel. having caught a cold forsik'tig. Jag har ont i nalsen. high aloud) gdr.

to seize grep grepo gripit gripen. 153. These verbs are called strong verbs. 73 LESSON The Verb XII. 152. THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. Swedish Grammar 6 . -et 154. this conjugation are The first class contains verbs the root of which undergoes but one vowel change. -et gripa. In these the vowel of the supine and the past participle is always different from that of the infinitive the vowel of the plural of the imperfect is in most cases the same as that of the supine. in the case of a few verbs like that of the singular of the imperfect and different from . to hold holl hollo hallen. The second class contains verbs the root of which undergoes two vowel changes.FOURTH CONJUGATION. Examples INFINITIVE : IMPERFECT SO. The verbs belonging to divided into two classes. SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE hallit PL. There is frequently also a change of vowel in the supine and past participle. In these verbs the vowel of the supine and past participle is the same as that of the infinitive and the vowel of the plural of the imperfect the same as that of the singular. hdlla. This conjugation contains all verbs that form their imperfect by means of a change of the vowel of the root without any added tense sign. that of the supine. (Continued).

Example INFINITIVE : SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE .FOURTH CONJUGATION.

gripa finna grep II. INFINITIVE SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE PL. to find. IMPERFECT SG. I. att finna. fann grepo gripit funno funnit grip en. to Fourth Conjugation: PRINCIPAL PARTS. .FOURTH CONJUGATION. -et -et funnen. seize. classes of the 75 att gripa.

ni) PI. 3. En hem. min far. is Det sjunker pa oppna Stockholm called sjb'n. Nar ban ser mig. In stadsbud porter in called hotellvaktmastare. Vart tag gick 3. Karl ater for mycket. Som (as) vi . som har farit Jag bar brevet pa posten. (neuter). 16. Han blir sjuk. IMPERATIVE. finn (du. ni) gripom. A. lat(om) oss finna finnen (I) finna ha funnit skola finna ha gripit skola gripa gripa EXERCISE XII. 1. stiger ban av taget. Han kommer pa besb'k hos oss. 18.76 EXERCISE. finnom. 4. och vi maste tillkalla lakaren. grip (du. till Change the present into imperfect in the following: till Min bror skriver ett brev 2. 12. Sg. 13. J 17. Han 10. Han ger sitt handbagage till en barare 1 och gar med mig. Den sjuke gossen ligger till sangs. 6. Present. 2. Han far svar (64. lat(om)oss gripa gripen (I) INFINITIVES. funnit. 5. ty vi voro forsenade. etc. staden forran sent pa ej fort. FUTURE PERFECT. 8. PI. det ar forsenat. Jag gar till stationen for att mb'ta min bror. vi skola ha gripit. 1. Sg. och dessutom stannade det vid alia stationer. etc. jag skall ha gripit. 11. funnit. Vi kommo ej till den lilla kvallen. 14. Vagorna A sla over a hotel skeppet. B. 15. b) pa det. Perfect. 7. 9. haftig storm ntbryter. Det ger honom krafter. Future. Taget ankommer ej forran klockan sex. Vi taga en droska och fara Amerika. som vi fa av Karl. sover ganska gott. Vi ata frukten.

i Hur manga minuter morgon? i Nar skall man 7. In the dining room of the hotel (gen. Tror ni. begarde vi var rakning. stannar taget Var ligger hotellet. The train which I was on did not run baggage I to to a porter 5. vi betalade den samt gavo 8. men vaknade sja'l6.) had 2 a good supper. Jag kan rekommendera det. 5. 2 Uae iHo. It is situated by (vid) a lake. is fraga. I did not have time to view the town for I arrived late (sent) and had to leave early in the morning. besago vi hotell. att taget gar fort? vid Alvesta 6. It is not large but very shall recommend my (mina) friends good (bra). Vexio is a pleasant little town. 5. An hour later (scnare) I went bed and slept well until six o'clock in (pa) the morning. ? ar taget forsenat? 3. bor (ought] ni ga till detta (this) hotell. and I believe it stopped at all stations. fara) to Vexio. natten. X. dar ni brukar taga in? va'cka oss 8. for 3. friend of mine (en of mina vanner) had recommended a small hotel which lies near the station. I gave my hand I. it to all 8. Vi sovo utmarkt hela lag nara stationen. I asked for the bill and it when they (man) found very reasonable. utan gingo direkt till vart 4. Nar vi hade atit frukost. 4. and invert. Hur manga minuter 4. 11. and asked 1 him to show me the way to the hotel. and I who go (resa. def. 77 som ej staden. 10. 1. men maste stiga upp klockan sex for att fara vidaVi hade bett dem vacka oss i tid. Den var ganska resonabel. A very fast. va. 2. att ni kan vakna sjalv? 9. Har hog? ni sovit gott natt. 7. 7.I did not come to Vexio before ten o'clock in (pa) the evening. At this hotel one gives (invert) no tips. . 9. 2. 3 called me. *To ask a question 'Use vdcka. voro trotta. 6. herr Arndt? Ar rakningen D. re. C. Nar ni besb'ker staden drickspengar.EXERCISE. Nar komma vi till Stockholm? Tycker ni. to ask a favor is bedja. Conversation.

Of the strong verbs the following parts are given: the infinitive. blev. lib. rive bedja. ankommo. -ar. dining room en natt. station stiga. to see ett skepp. -en. gdvo. sjonk. to rise -en. -et. to fdtt. -et. -or.). slog. . take tiU'kalla. to sleep en station'. I. to ligga. and the gender and neuter forms of the past participle. bddo. sovit. stiga upp'. blivit. -en. pi. gingo. (bror). -et. gdngen. -et. skrev. stego. sovo. slogo. to write drickspengar (always tips sjunka. to go fa. to step. to drive.). to pray. recom- blevo. sjunkit. -et. night ntira (adv. reasonable bill broder broder. near en post (in this beta'la. gick. for. ftck. logo. I la. porter pi. en droska. to go (run) ett pi. post office view bliva. bedd. se s &9. -et. bett. to give en supe. -sett. ship en bdrare. -en. to bear . -en. besdgo. -er. belated. late (train) giva (also ge). supeer. -et. ankommit. to demand pay besett. to rise. ankomma. direct (ly) skriva. to ask -en.). skrivit. before forse'nad. nutter. to remain resona'bel. foro. the supine. burit. -en.dd ~ ett brother to < > > > bdra. rekommende'ra. tog. bad. sova. to carry. fingo. bett. to ar- ett hotell'. .78 VOCABULARY. farit. handbagage (-gash'. en matsal.). when found. strike sld over. to travel. . B. besedd. Sa 9> sett . gdtt. to gd. skrevo. and prep. stigit. -en. direkt'. bar. to sense to no besdg. -ar. mend en become. sov. N. -et. buro. steg. to get up -et. -et.). bestf. supper taga. -t. slagit. en rdkning. mail. sjonko. to look at. -en. VOCABULARY. cab fara. be situated bega'ra. to wash over receive forrdn (adv. hand baggage no to call (in) train . to get. to sink sld. tip. givit (gett). togo. I. to lie. tagit. -et. ankom. hotel legat. ett tag. -en. Mg. -t. gav. the singular and plural of the imperfect.

-et. r ?* Han] vi 1 matte vara ^ matte alska. 2. v. to stand le. \ma vara. 5. Verbs the infinitive of which ends in any other vowel than a lack the simple present subjunctive. utbroto. to show the way. to eat vidare. ^}Imd vara. 4. (ir 3. -en. SINGULAR. tendency of forms for the simple subjunctive. } matte vara ni de ] \ } ma alska. 159. vi ^ l (ma alska. to go std. to Mra ask for a thing.). dto. is formed by adding -e to the stem. (lagga) pd posten. v ni tro [T0 de . utbrot. further IDIOMS: 1. . sons. han f han] PLURAL. ut'bryta. to wake to break out Ufa. substituting compound PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE. etc. Much more common is 158. utbru-viicka (tr.SUBJUNCTIVE. LESSON REMARK. . matte alska dlske. XIII. NOTE. att tro. tro ni de vare. The simple present subjunctive of all perexcept the archaic second person plural. Har posten Commit? Has the mail come? Vad (ir Jclockan? What time is it? Klockan sex. 79 Ha. dt. to love. It is six o'clock. ga. vare. tit. att bedja att om en sale. -et. to mail. -en. . iitit. to believe. These include all verbs of the Third Conjugation and a few others as. to smile . Examples of the present subjunctive: att vara. att alska. att visa vagen. to be. . the compound form with ma. The archaic second person plural ends in -en. Note the THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

skulle vara. are of very common occurrence. skulle alska.80 f SUBJUNCTIVE. -at Sg. (1) IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. . etc. to be alska. PI. f 1 1 m&n tro mdtten alska matten {ro 160. and Third Conjugations the simple imperfect subjunctive is identical with the imperfect indicative. is (2) In the First. etc. . 161. jag vore. -et var voro alskade alskade dlskad. vi bunde. etc. 1 4 [ mdtten vara varen. man alska. Sg. binda vara alska PI. etc. IMPERFECT SO. SUPINE PAST PARTICIPLE PL. skulle binda. skulle binda. Examples the verbs binda. f 1 1 [ dlsken. vi vore. Sg. NOTE. (3) Compound forms consisting of the imperfect of skall. The singular of the imperfect indicative of the Fourth Conjugation often used instead of the impf. skulle alska. jag alskade. to bind INFINITIVE of the imperfect subjunctive of vara. . In verbs of the Fourth Conjugation the simple imperfect subjunctive is formed by changing the ending -o of the plural of the imperfect indicative to -e (the archaic second person plural having the additional ending -n) The vowel of both numbers of the imperfect subjunctive is thus the same as that of the plural of the imperfect indicative. vi alskade. skulle vara. man vara. etc. jag bunde. Second. . etc. to love. skulle. band bundo bundit varit dlskat bunden. PI. subjunctive.

possibility. skulle. 81 162. md implying greater and matte less 164. A confidence in the realization of the wish. . PL skrivit. etc. tives of the verbs skriva Examples of the perfect and pluperfect subjuncand vara. such as wish. (a) The perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the present or the imperfect of the auxiliary md with the perfect infinitive. Sg. etc. concession. jag hade PI. etc. SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH. Sg. or matte ha varit. or vi skulle ha skrivit jag hade varit. purpose. realizable wish is expressed by the simple (a) present subjunctive. (b) The pluperfect subjunctive is either identical with the indicative or formed by combining the imperfect of skall. Classification of uses. 163. request. etc. jag ma ma or matte ha or matte ha jag vi ma or matte ha varit. with the perfect infinitive. or jag skulle ha varit vi hade varit.SUBJUNCTIVE. or by the compound form with md and matte. PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. skrivit. or vi skulle ha varit USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. or jag skulle ha skrivit vi hade skrivit. vi ma skrivit. PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE. The subjunctive which marks in general the absence of direct or is used regularly in statements positive assertion of doubtful reality.

o. he hurried in order that he might be ready. by the pluperfect (b) is A not subjunctive. After a past tense the subjunctive with skulle may be used. sa att. aft. "Varde Ijus !" The wish may sometimes have the force God said. also. in order that. with the sense of would (that) Closely related to the subjunctive of wish are the subjunctives of purpose and concession. SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE. Ex. att han ma (matte) beskydda pray to God that he may protect us.. ! om young again 0. "Let there be light. oss. sa att han skulle vara fdrdig.. pa det att. om. Ex. han skyndade sig. 165. ma or matte Gud giva dig hdlsa! May God give you health. Note the use of ack. Matte han vara hdr! Would he were here! Vi matte vdl komma i tid till tdget! I do wish we might come in time for the train. Ex. NOTE. The compound subjunctive with ma and matte is used in clauses expressing purpose with the conjunctions att. Give Gud dig hdlsa.82 SUBJUNCTIVE.. om del snart vore vdr I O that spring were here! 2. att jag vore ung igen! Would I were han vore hdr! Would he were ! Hade jag blott vingar! If I only had wings Hade jag blott haft en enda van! Had I only had a single friend! NOTE 1. Bed till Gud. a similar wish referring to the past. here ! Ack. The simple imperfect subjunctive may also express a very vivid wish referring to the future: Ack.." of a command : Gud sade : wish which refers to the present and which at least not immediately realizable is expressed by the simple imperfect subjunctive.. .

. som kommer . we shall go whether he comes or not. without any reference to kanhdnda vore det sa gott att borja its probability arbetet med detsamma. 83 NOTE 1. Mr. sa att han skulle kunna tala del flytande. THE POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE. Det ma sa vara. it may possibly be true. may (permission). it might be true. Absolute possibility is denoted by kan (sometimes ma). whether you wish or not vi skola ga.EXERCISE. with your help. If the subject of the purpose clause clause the infinitive with for att (149. . SUBJUNCTIVE OF CONCESSION. is han har at rest till home . tive of possibility. Vallner to Stockholm to visit his sick brother. sleep he studied Swedish diligently in order that he might speak it fluently. expressed by the subjunctive with Ex. a very vivid probability is denoted by matte: det matte vara mamma. sa att han skulle fa sova. See Senses Modals (255. is . it must be mother who comes. b). det matte vara brevbararen. NOTE. no doubt det kunde vara sant. indicates or subjuncthe possibility merely that an action may occur. sa att jag kunde betala min inackordering A. vare sig han kommer eller ej. The expression vare fig (let it be for itself) has practically become a conjunction meaning whether. he has gone Stockholm for att besoka sin sjuka bror. att det vore han och att han hade med sig en postanvis2 ning hemifran. .: det kan vara sant. Note the concessive subjunctive in vare sig du vill eller ej. The compound subjunctive (sometimes the indicative) of fa. and kunna. 1 Nagon knackar pa db'rren. . Concession ma nu ma (not matte) : . Jag 6nskar. can (ability. I should be able to do it. 1. 2. that may be fienderna komma. ia is the same as that of the principal used: herr Vallner or ej hemma. perhaps it would be well to 167. are often used in a purpose clause if permission or ability is implied: han bad barnen vara tysta. e) 2. possibilty). NOTE. : begin the work immediately med din hjalp formadde jag nog go'ra det. not 166. he asked the children to be quiet in order that he might han studerade svenska flitigt. Ex. ty han kommer alltid vid derma tid. . of EXERCISE XIII. now the enemy may come.

T 165. 4 164. utan ett Matte 4 de ej vara sjuka dar hemma! ett 7 7. Vore 1 det ej battre. Vad nyheter (news) innehb'll telegrammet? hade er bror rest till Brasilien ? 8. note. I owe both for board and . ne?. 1) the post- man. Vad b'nskar ni. 1. vilja giirna. det ar inte brevbararen. B 167. Ack. Varfor kunde ni icke resa med detsamma? 10. 1. Vore 3 man bara rik och ej en fat- tig studerande! telegrambud. Somebody must be knocking 2. att jag kunde 2 resa med mig detsamma. min skolavgift. 2. och nu onska mina foraldrar. att ban medforde (brought ville 1 4. om jag bara kande nagon. att du sande dem ett par dagar. r 164. at the door. lana ville telegram och bade dem. b. Conversation. 5. 164 b. C. Vad ville era foraldrar. ! ma a. Varfor 6. ha trott det! Min bror Kobert. bar kommit tillbaka. home. 2. 4. subjunctive (like the indicative) . Matte 4 det bara kunna betala mina 165. 3. brevbararen med ett rekommenderat brev. B. to like. money order contain 1 money. att det ar 3. sa att jag skulder och resa hem. nien jag bar tyvarr inga. 8. Har kommer vilja lana dig. som reste Brasilien for att gb'ra 6 sin lycka. 1. Vem tror ni det ar. att jag matte 4 resa hem pa skulle 5 till Vem Nej.84 och EXERCISE. b. Vad tjanst hade er kamrat gjort er. som hundra kroner. om ban hade haft pengar? 1 Impf. som knackar pa dorren? brevbararen? along) if ran ? ? Varfor formodar (suppose) ni. 2) my debts. If my 2 parents would only send me some money soon so that I Only a common letter! or a registered letter from I wish that it might could pay (A. 2 innehalla nog pengar.om pengar ? 9. 6. 1. Jag skulle sa garna 10. 4. for I expect a 3. Would you go and open? I wish it were (164. 2. att ni skulle gora ? 9. for I am entirely without (any). sa. 5. Varfor ni garna ha en postanvisning hem- Vad ville ni hellre vara an en f attig studerande ? 7.

to letter carrier mand beromma. Their father required that he would (skutte) come. a) . subjunctive of innehalla (164. 10. alldeles. altogether. 2 0m minaforaldrar bara *Pres. Who would (skulle) have believed that he would return so soon. Let us hope that it may not rain . 1). but whether (166. 85 5. What he says might (167) be true. Mother wishes that I too might come (164. But he may (ma. we shall go. at home fattig. lib. from home en herre. 2. they do not obey. 2) true. translate two ways: literally and "asked 5 After a verb of command Swedish often uses the modal auxiliary that I". gentleman . may be used.VOCABULARY. auxiliary of the future). -ar. sow." early that they may 7. children. 2) Christmas at home. VOCABULARY. quiet. bara. tuition. entirely en brevbdrare. Be your poor father may sleep (far wish that he might come (164. 165. -t. come 5 home early. 1.- praise com. and they promise that they will send money in a few days (om ndgra dagar). beromde fira. (fordrade) that they kan) say what he will. 1). Use the impf. inf. to order. (not to be confused with skoltt in its use as an 1 ville. to celebrate note 3). did so and she said.) . note) he comes or not. a) home. The children eat breakfast very be in school on time (i tid). "May God bless 5. 6. her something 4 . b. I. to Jiemifrdn. Would that what he says were (164. 4. skola with the pres. etc. 7. 103.darhemma. etc. I the good gentleman. Father (min far) writes that brother Robert has returned from Brazil in order to cele- brate (165. The old woman asked me to give D. only befal'la. indie. 6. poor impf. 3. If we had only not gone out! But who could believe 9. for we have no umbrellas. Let us study diligently so that our teacher may 3 praise (165) us. -arna (def. (see lib. b. so that We 8. pi.

. en skolavgift. regis- hope en in'ackorde'ring.31T*. fortune. tn'neMlla. . I. -en.86 hoppas. vara skyldig. ndgon. postal common. contain . kom. silent }> utan (ady prep ^ and CQnj butj without vanlig. usual I. and past participle in which forms the corresponding hard vowel generally reappears. . cercertainly telegrambud. boarder -holl. guilt skyldig. kommo. jul. kom. debt. a student to promise telegram . to bless IDIOM: Det ar nog han is coming. a few ocksd._t_i Christmas komma. telegraph en ^^ . -L. to rekommende'rad. -t. (Continued). en lycka (no pi. happiness lyda.f . money order -ar. guilty en m. IRREGULARITIES OF VERBS. some (one). to obey med detsamma. som kommer. -er. en postanvisning. to . ett . . -hollo. mit. 168. IRREGULAR VERBS. -en. also quiet. any. -halht. some. tered -rat. -er. in debt. . immediately nog. I am sure. -et. v. -et. and room (or board only) > ' . board .). enough. The most common of these verbs are: supine. ett telegram'. Some verbs of the second class of the Second Conjugation which are derived from other words by means of the suffix -ja drop j in the imperfect. to owe stackers (indeclinable). lib. it is very likely he that LESSON The Verb XIV. -t. I. pi. messenger time ear i y tjug tyst. en studerande. iova.). . tuition en skuld. -ar. (deponent -ar. poor (in the sense of pitiable) . to come. nagra. valsigna. .

to grease. 169. le. to say sdtta. to accustom ^lur. tor(e)s tordes (Ill. bcder. to go gdr gick komma. to come kommer heter ler kom hette log heta. Commonly pronounced 170. INFINITIVE 8? P. 3). to do bringar bragte bragt bragt gor gjorde gjort gjord lagger sdger sdtter lade lagt Idgga. learn vdlja. oil sporja. to dare 1 lagd sade satte 2 sagt satt torts sagd satt sdja. Such a change of vowel occurs very common verbs : also in the following INFINITIVE PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE P. "The neuter is gldder saljer skiljer : gladde glatt salde skilde salt skilt gladd said skild smorjer smorde smort smord sporjer sporde sport spord valde valt vdljer vald vanjer glatt. to lie se.IRREGULAR VERBS.lt. ] bringa. ber bad dor dog fick to get. 2 gladja. to live lever ligger ser sldr levde Idg ligga. pray do. to die fd. SUPINE P. to gladden salja. ST. The neuter is bragt. satt.. to ask. to sZ<$. vant (Ill. There are besides a small number of verbs which are entirely irregular. The most important of these are: INFINITIVE bedja. to separate smorja. to choose. lagt. receive far gd. PRESENT IMPERFECT su. PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE PART. vande skilt. 3). see sag slog to strike . gladja. to set. to bring gb'ra. to be called smile leva. vand etc. to sell skilja. put toras. to lay 2 saga. elect vanja. to ask. PAET. PART. etc.

88 INFINITIVE UNREAL CONDITIONS. .

tillfalle? 2. signifies to pay a visit. an han hade betalt for den. om ni hade Det skulle jag visst gora! Om min bror ej hade blivit sjuk sa hastigt. . 81) EXERCISE XIV. Ja. Om Om . . 2 Notice word order. som sakert skall Jag sag var gamle van Agrell pa gatan i morhade just anlant med londonangaren och sade. Vein 2 valde man i stallet? Det vet jag ej. men Karl sade. 11.EXERCISE. A. Karl gatt? gladja dig. om 8. . 1. . skulle jag losa biljett mi. ing 1. 6. . Han 1 pa hos dig i dag. om ni hade 3. till- Varfor reste ni ej for en manad sedan? Var7 Swedish Grammar. att ban snart skulle bli bra. han salde den i gar och rick mer. Senare blir det svart att fa 5. . . with stress on hatsa means to greet. Vart liar en. C. Om han ej hade salt den. sakert valt honom till ordforande i foreningen. Vet du om herr Anderson bar salt sin lilla villa vid Djursholm ? 10. . sa ban hade 2. om B. sa skulle jag ha hyrt den 12. . . Om jag visste. De trevligt. Skulle ni gora en resa . ^H'dlsa pa with main stress on pa. se. Hade Karl onskat det. . 1. sa . Jag bar en nyhet. 2. Han talade. 3. 5. falle? Conversation. som om ban hade gjort goda affarer i England och fortjant mycket pengar. Hade jag black och penna. . . sa . Regnar det i morgon. om bade garna gatt med oss. hade jag rest for en manad sedan. Jag skulle ha rest till f orkyld. det tror jag ej . 8. Vad skulle ni gora. 7. som du bad om. sa hade man for sommaren. 4. sa Stockholm. tid. 13. Complete the following by adding a clause expresscondition or conclusion. Han bar gatt for att kopa morgontidningen. att att ban skulle balsa han it first skulle fb'resla herr Lindell. . sa . . sa 7. till Sverige. . om ban finge tid. ty batarna aro sa upptagna pa sommaren. 3. . 4. jag inte vore sa trott. . Om Det skulle vara mycket 6. hon icke vore . . det generally comea in expressions of this kind. 9.

I wish he would call so that we might have a chat. Vad har var van Anderson gjort med sin ningen prak- nu? 4. 1) to Sweden next summer. I never get (bJir) sea-sick. *Skvlle garna or skulle tycka om att. had he been 5 16. 7. Why did he not get a ticket? The boats were all full. 'English go must often be translated by resa. Nar tiga (fine) villa vid om ej Djursholm? 8. Bor ban ej pa landet somrarna langre? 9. wife does not dare to go along . 8. 14. If I had money and time I should cer- tainly go with you. but now it looks as if he intended to stay in Sweden.90 EXERCISE. Yad skulle du ha gjort. 9. have grown accustomed 3 to (vid) the sea. accustomed to. left Stockholm. 17. I am glad to hear that. He would have gone a month ago. which you brought me about Agrell jag). I should like 1 to take a trip (B. I should do it if I could only should also of course visit Germany I think you would enjoy yourself very much she I is in Stockholm.att vara radd for. 15. Anderson will go 4 ? 11. 2. Hade man valt honom. . if he had gotten a ticket. could not choose a better (bdttre) occasion. van vid. Varfor valde man ej Karl till ordi forande klubben? 11. *To be afraid of. You be fine (trevligt). (advantageous) att losa for skulle det vara fordelaktigt biljett aro batarna mest upptagna? 5. you could accompany Would it not me? 4. 12. om ban hade salt den? 10. He has been in England ever (anda) since he alive . om ban hade D. Vad vill du. The news. We and England. Have you heard whether Mr. We used to be very good friends and I was sure (saker pa) that he would have written me. To grow accustomed att vanja sig vid. sell my house. I thought that he had died long ago. made me very happy. if 3. Var har du lagt tid? 7. 5 Use the pluperfect subjunctive of 3 leva. 6. My afraid of 2 the passage. 10. att Karl skall gora for dig? 6. Ska. fara. 5. I think (tror 13. b'nskat det? 1.

yet. rapidly. -nt. just an. sudtrevlig. society -slagit. Han ar rddd for spoken. make happy hastig. -er. -er. -t. surely. he is afraid of ghosts. pen -slog. -or. -t. 4.). London steamer IDIOMS: 1. -ar. sdker. this morning visst (adv. . I. 2. certainly hastigt rapid. I am happy (or pleased) Man har valt honom till president. lib. med -nd. -slogo. (prep. occupied. afraid. news en ord'forande. arilanda. -arna. VOCABULARY. -t. full morse. sea-sick fortja'na. to follow folja med'. -nt. rent. -n. make sjosjuk. en mor'gontid'ning. i (money) en gata. voyage. en affar. and adv. to accompany -ar. upptagen. en overresa. -en. chance. en penna. fine -et. to gladden. earn. sage -or. a morning paper en mdnad. quick.). difficult glcidja (168). occasion (adv. rtidd -or. certainly just (adv. en fore'ning. than en londondngare. he has just come ha mycket roligt. certain helt sdkert. pas- Han att 3. denly hyra.VOCABULARY. he has been elected president 5. with. ett black. to propose to (no timid -t. Det gldder mig. to lib. -er. make use of folja. along arrive . lib. neuter). to enjoy oneself very much. I.). in -t. 91 business -nde. to use.). sudden ett tillfdlle. -et. sure. hire i pleasant. street stdllet. chairman . the place of svdr. opportunity. month en nyhet. fo'resld. ink bruka. har nyss kommit.

Carl took his (own) hat. my son mitt barn. var eder (er) (deras) sin genitive of the corresponding personal used as a possessive in the third person masculine. her (dess). PLURAL ALL GENDERS ram din mitt ditt mina. your (hans) . for all numbers and genders of the third person but must be used only when the possessor is the subject of the verb as. her son. our edra (era). hennes son. gossarna visade deras leksaker. her. of den. adjectives and pronouns are : SINGULAR MASC. their sina. my books. Karl tog hans hatt. feminine. Gossarna visade sina lek. The 172. would mean that he took somebody else's hat. The other possessives are declined according to the Indefinite Declension of adjectives and agree in gender and number with the noun they modify. thy. but.POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS. hans 173. showed their (own) toys. their . his books. ram son. my (hans) (hennes) (dess) (hans) (hennes) (dess) vdrt edert (ert) (deras) sitt dina. the boys . . FEM. his. LESSON XV. The reflexive possessive sin is used. my child mina backer. Ex. the boys showed the toys of some other children. backer. its (gen. your (deras). saker. The is pronoun : . These forms are invariable. his (hennes). Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns. Karl tog sin hatt. and neuter. det) vara. The possessive NEUTER . 174. its.

your family. my family. han har fb'rlorat hatten. as. egna. Only a few special rules need be given. The position of the adverb in a sentence depends largely on its relation to the verb and also on emphasis. as. provided there is no ambiguity. yours are brown. here is my book. mina ogon tiro bid. my own words. 175. din ligger ddr. 177. his head. take off your hat . The possessor especially in reflexive constructions is often represented by an object pronoun han brot av sig benet. FURTHER REMARKS ON THE POSSESSIVE. . era tiro bruna. pi. he has lost his hat jag har ont i hjar178. (a) There are in Swedish a number of adverbs which are called movable adverbs. he fell and struck hatten. my eyes are blue. 179. yours lies there. eget. 1 NOTE. particularly when the thing possessed is a part of the body or an article of clothing. They are never preceded by the article except in such expressions as de dina. people. our family or our party. people. egna ord. mina 176. : THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. SUBSTITUTE FOR definite The form is . often used instead of the possessive adjective. 1 have a pain in : my heart.POSITIONS OF ADVKKBS. The possessives are often combined with the adjective egen. 93 The possessives are used also as pronouns. as. hdr dr ram bok. he broke his leg tag av dig han foil och slog sig i huvudet. de mina. tat. POSITION OF ADVERBS. In an independent clause these follow the simple verb and stand between the auxiliary and infinitive or participle . own. de vdra.

att han nog kan ha rdtt. A. Turn ihe following sentences into dependent clauses by prefixing the parenthesized words. who soon went to America han kan nog ha rdtt. (Lantbrukaren sade. . . a number of other nondescriptive adverbs like vdl. finitive or the participle (b) Descriptive adverbs as a rule follow the inwhen the verb is a com- pound. 1. ndgonsin. he is . as. har aldrig satt vete pa sin inte . I admit. . ever. . : icke sjuk. certain indefinite temporal adverbs. he may possibly be right. not. Such movable adverbs are especially the adverbs of negation: ej. . . jdmt. aldrig.) . en harv. that he may possibly be right. att 3. EXERCISE XV. his brother soon went to America. Icke.94 EXERCISI:. (Jag tror. 5. som snart reste till Amerika. . adverbs precede the simple verb and the auxiliary of a compound verb. aker. . . In a dependent clause these in compound tenses. soon. alltid. innan ni. hans bror. (Sager Vetet kan aldrig vaxa utan . . att ) De amna annu plantera ) sin potatis. to be sure . unfortunately. his brother. ?) Ni . noting the change of position of the adverbs. No adverbs except those mentioned above can stand between the verb and the subject: he often used to come is in Swedish. possi- Ex. he says he is not sick hans bror reste snart till Amerika. snart. always. not sick han sager. jag medger. I suppose. never. skola sakert ) (Jag ar saker pa att regn och solsken. bly. att Man maste man kan sa. continually. att han icke dr sjuk. sager. Han . han dr tyvtirr. han brukade ofta komma. att forst uppluckra jorden med . nog. . . inte. 4. (Han 2.

. Herr Wallin ar en av . (their) faders tradgard ar stor. Var aro (yours. . som ar pa besb'k i vart dotter. . Vi skola stiga upp mycket tidigt och fara med den elektriska sparvagnen till jarnvagsstationen. gar en av oss till biljettkontoret och vara jarnvagsbiljetter. 1 174. .. 2 Supine of lagga. Vi tycka deras sallskap och onska.. tycker 13. .EXERCISE. att de matte stanna lange hos oss. (Jag fruktar. . 3. till . Var och en bar Dar packa vi druckit. (our) matsal. 5. . pa det att (3d att and subj. rum sa 9. Hennes syster.. . Fonstren har . 11. 10. ?) De skola snart sa sin havre. medan sitt paket eller sin vara korgar och duka pa graset. Karl har givit mig 1 Ha barnen fatt (their) laxor an? . . 1... 95 6. litet. . . Efter en halv timmes resa stiga vi av och ga till en 6. Nar vi atit och i skogen. 1 Pas- (your) skor? Jag har funnit . 8. (my) bocker.. polite). . passar honom. men ej om (his own) 2 1 lagt (my) bocker pa . Han 1 . . . men .. . 4. aro stora. 1. Huru manga . skola vi foretaga var utflykt. or indie. springa vi omkring och leka. . (her) rum . . . pengar. Har ar (our) hus. . . (your) hus? 5. . om 7. 6. .. . 8. . Mamma skall packa vara korgar i kvall.) de ma vara fardiga 1 tidigt i morgon. . dar ar . B. . .. Flickorna ploc- . (their) bord (sing). . . 4. koper 7. (his) 7. skall folja med oss. 2. hem med sin lilla 2 mycket om komma dit. Det daliga vadret kommer mojligen att forhindra att ) . om De ha . . (his) rock 10. Na'r vi vacker plats korg. Supply the possessive adjectives and pronouns indicated in the following. I morgon om vadret ar vackert. (Vet ni plantera er potatis och er majs nasta vecka. . 2. . 3. C. och sedan stiga vi pa taget. upp en av edra systrar kokar kaffet. . (his). (my) vanner.. . 9. to lay (169). (his) hus ar mycket . arbetet pa falten. 12.

Her sister who is on a visit with (hos) us morning . Varmed all our picnics might be as (sd) agreewas yesterday. tvattar handerna och ansiktet. 5. Hur lange racker resan? 9. 1. Nar gora ni er utflykt ? 2. Min 14. 3. 2. Han tvattar sig tanderna om handerna 4 samt kammar haret. Ar det en hastsparvagn eller en elektrisk sparvagn? 7. Mother had packed our baskets 'in (pa) the E. *Is visiting. we played games and sang. Tad gora ni med ret? 10. Pa kval- len taga vi taget tillbaka staden. Conversation. I wish that you had been with us. 9. 2 4 bror Erik klader (klar) sig. 6. Also. 8. In the evening we returned to the city by 11. med dem till sina3 hattar.96 ka blommor och pry da ej EXERCISE. Behagar deras sallskap er? besb'k hos er? 5. 10. likes to go on (med pa) excursions. Vad gora ni efter maten? korgarna? pryda flickorna sina hattar? 11. She makes (kokar) very good coffee. train. 'Express the possessive idea in a different way (178). Who made the coffee? My sister Mary. 15. D. . borstar Sedan tar ban pa sig rocken. When we had bought our tickets we boarded (invert) the train and car to the station since 7. We took the street we had much to carry. Vem var pa 4.I wish that able as (som) ours evening in order that they might be ready early in the 2 4. but the sun soon began to shine. Hur komma ni till stationen? 6. satter pa sig batten och ar fardig att ga ut. I. We unrode (for) half an hour (en lialv timma). baskets in the woods and set the table in the packed our grass. 12. och i ansiktet. Varfor packade er mor edra korgar pa kvallen? 3. Varfor gar ni till biljettkonto8. When we had eaten we had a great deal of fun (mycket roligt). Plural and definite form of liten. The weather was not 1 very pleasant when we woke up. 11. Matte det bara regna i morgon! 13.

and let us go out. Carl struck his head while ( medan) he was J In English adverbs may often precede the simple form of a verb. to set the table -t. ett ansikte. place to suit kit. . 1. snart. -et. face ett besok. 14). funnit. passa. to en utflykt. 2. to kamma. to brush drucJco. office borsta. soon en skog. . rum. in Swedish z never. -or. satte. mama en ett biljett'. I. I -ar. forest. tander. to unpack en plats. Does he have his own (176) hat or mine? 5. Eric struck Carl in the 7. -t. slagit. -en. dnka. mamma. -en. Carl. thereupon. -en. fann. I. lib. accompany to strike grass en hand. leka. around packa. electric pryda. Tviitta dig om handerna (B. to drink to fit. I. -n.VOCABULARY. sjunga. note) hat when you come into the room. comb (to to cook make). Take off your (178. dracJc. satte. hand en hatt. room sedan. to return finna. I. en visit mamma . omkring (adv. -et. put en tand. -ar. late 3 in the evening. Where do you have your hat? 4. -er. Put on your coat and ^at. folia med'. -en. sjo'ngo. to sprang. 6. . woods sprungo. sjo'ng. to adorn en rock. basket play tvatta. 3. . lib. ready follow sing folja. slogo. except as stated in 179. hair (generally no to sprungit. Wash 3 your hands and brush your teeth. . to sld. driclca. -ar. ticket ticket biljett'kontor'. run (ett) kaffe company coffee satta. I. -et. head. funno. koka. sent pa kvdllen. skating. to boil early to en korg. to fardig. then to find -t. coat ett fara tillbaka. satt. hander. druc- -er. hat ett hdr. satt. mother (in address).) -ar. a. -en. VOCABULARY. to pack packa upp'. wash excursion la. tooth tidig. F. Eric. slog. -er.) about. I. ett sallskap. . pi. elektrisk. -et. I. sjungit. to (ett) gras. -et. springa. and prep. lidigt pa morgonen.

182. passive jag seized . tdget. THE PASSIVE IN -S. an error liable: mdnniskor finnas. in conversation is less than that formed by means of the auxiliary verb This -s is a remnant of bliva. . att tvatta sig roligt. 5. att binda. -en*) of the Second is added" to the to which beginners are In the compound forms s is added to the supine or infinitive: han har rdgen skall sas (from *d) t morgon. the reflexive pronoun sig (old form sik) extended by analogy to the first and second persons. pi. att kalla. for which see 188. we enjoyed i ourselves very 2. del finnes or del finns. 3. This passive common NOTE 1.98 IDIOMS: 1. hdnderna. The passive is formed from the active by adding s to the corresponding form of the active. 2. Vi hade mycket much. active jag kailar. om face. LESSON The Verb XVI. or by combining the corresponding tense of the auxiliary bliva (sometimes vara and varda) with the perfect participle of the verb. The r in the present indicative singular endings -or. I am called . 3. gripes. there are. 1 -r is al- ways eliminated and quite often the e in the ending -er . there is found or there is. 181. active jag griper. to bind. to get ansiktet to wash one's hands. as. to call att gripa.s and Fourth Conjugations ends in corresponding active form) and not in -es. PASSIVE. dodats. THE 180. Examples of the passive of the verbs . either PASSIVE. (with the exception of the arnhaic second person in -as (. (are found) men. att stiga att pa (av) kaffe. the rye will be sown to-morrow. passive jag kallas. to seize . koka mafce coffee. to on (off) the train. he has been killed . (Continued). I am The pres. ind. -er.

Sg. etc. vi hade kallats. skulle kallas. PI. to be called. etc. PLUPERFECT Sg. Future. etc. kallats. jag kallas. to be seized att kallas att ha kallats att skola kallas bindas. FUTURE Sg. ma ha kallats. etc. jag har kallats. ma ha kallats. etc. bun-dit. etc. jag hade kallats or matte ha kallats. jag kallades or matte. etc. (2) gripas. jag hade PI. etc. bundo. Perfect. Sg. or matte ha kallats. grep. PL vi kallas. FUTURE PERFECT PI. skulle kallas. grepo. PI. INDICATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE jag kalles or ma kallas. vi skola ha kallats. etc. etc. vi kalles or ma kallas. etc. vi ha jag vi kallats.PASSIVE. jag kallades. etc. gripit. etc. etc. to be bound PRINCIPAL PARTS g*-ipa. vi kallades. binda. INFINITIVES Present. vi hade kallats. jag skall ha kallats. etc. jag skall kallas PL vi skola kallas Sg. band. etc. 99 (I) kallas. gripen bunden . etc. IMPERFECT Sg. vi kallades or matte. etc.

Since English uses the verb to be and the past participle to represent the subject both as undergoing the action of the verb. bindes vi gripes. blyet bojer sig This con- 185. vi gripas. bindes PI. The agent of a passive action is expressed the preposition av. bundes vi grepes. Instrument is usually personal expressed by fiende med (medelst) med ett svdrd. as. jag greps. lead is easily bent (can easily struction generally conveys an idea of possibility. : han dodades av sin he was killed by his enemy with a sword. man kallar mig. jag hijrs. am heard. When some personal agent is implied but not expressed. one. bindes IMPERFECT Sg. with the active voice. SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PASSIVE. The compound forms are conjugated like kalla. vi grepos. man sager or det sages. bands PI. Swedish prefers the indefinite pronoun man. THE APPARENT OR FALSE PASSIVE. Sometimes a reflexive construction is employed . tion . (blyet bojes latt). 184. NOTE. am seized . ha In verbs with present in -er e I is very often eliminated in conversaI thus jag grips. etc. jag ma bindas. vi skola bindas. NOTE. The agent may be either by or impersonal. bindas Sg. they. Idtt it is said. PASSIVE. bundos jag grepes. INDICATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE jag gripes. vi matte bundits. jag gripes. I am being called. be bent). REMARKS ON THE 183. as in the door is shut .100 PASSIVE. bundes thus. thus. de ha gripits. matte bindas. instead of jag kallas.

. When tions take rivs torn. Carl is pushing me. to the side. examples. which is a real passive. de blevo knuffade. or is being closed. in The latter is expressed Swedish by vara. they are met often) barnen klapoch kyssas.. the cat scratches . (pronounced with short t). or. denoting Ex.) 2. and also as being in the state or condition resulting from the action. as.av honom. XOTE in 1. in -s has very often a reciprocal de motas ofta. dorr en ar stdngd. papa. It is best to avoid using the -s form of a verb which .at sidan. the door 186. and the past participle of the verb. which may be called a false passive. etc. In the first case \ve would invariably say. the children caress and kiss one pas another (literally. they meet one another often (literally. . on the contrary. used in the absolute sense verbs of the Second and Fourth Conjugathere is also a shortening of the vowel: katten not -es (181. is (in the state of being) shut. characteristics. they pushed (absolute). which as any other adjective agrees with the subject in number and gender. . have passive force. . or. Ex.PASSIVE. The passive : meaning. by him.. rives would mean t* being -es The passive is nd there in its true as well as its reciprocal use generally takes no shortening of the vowel.). (The teacher should give other else .. -s. to be. man stdnger do'rren.: Hasten bits (pronounced with short i) the horse bites (has the habit of biting) pappa.. . . etc. as in the door is shut (has been shut before). 1) . is often used reciprocal or even absolute sense when it is not accompanied by an de knvffades can hardly agent or other modifier which obviates the ambiguity the mean anything than they pushed one another. (b) it Sometimes is habit. they were pushed. the door do'rren stdnges. are caressed. (reciprocal) or. great care must be taken to distinguish between the true passive and the apparent or false passive. (a) IDIOMATIC MEANINGS OF THE PASSIVE. .. de knuffades. Karl knuffas. 101 (is being shut). used absolutely.

Man hunden (also hundens agare). especially the form in -s.] 02 EXERCISE. Pa bosten plojer bonden en del av sin aker och sar vetet . plural. IMPERSONAL PASSIVE. man etc. etc. salt huset ? 1 Har ban 6. Den store forfattaren von Heidenstam rakningen. and Man (I am being kallar mig. 1. and Turn 3. i as subject : II. A. Man (I tackar mig.. 10. 4. am being called. 7. Man with the active would be less Note such impersonal passive expressions stiff in such cases. future.). there is too much talking here. subject becomes object B. etc. is often used impersonally. NOTE 2. boll ett tal Yem mig den forsta maj. here they eat and sleep all the time. det har inte spelats i dag. Continue through all persons of the singular and tackar dig. Detta ar ett vetebrods historia. pres..) 2. 9. see 184. saljas? Har ban gar? valts till ordfo*The Dansades det bar . 2.. Even intransitive verbs that lack personal passive forms may thus be used: det tolas for mycket har. etc. for construction with man. Skall huset 13. ihanked. there has been no playing to-day. 8. impf. The subject in the active becomes the agent in the passive (183). Jag har betalt mota honom vid stationen? En hund bet En hunden med en revolver. pluperf. The passive voice.. the following sentences into the passive form. har dies och soves jamt. detta kallas . Ratten (the court] botfallde (fined) honom. as. skall i 5. pres. det har berdttats mig. poliskonstapel skot arresterade agaren till Turn rande? lP into the active with 2 man 12. 187. 1.. I have been told. perf. benet. EXERCISE XVI. I.

som det brukar vara. borjar vetet att vaxa. 7. jer 4.EXERCISE. grow again 2 The farmer in the spring and ripens in the summer. comes. som sedan av bagaren forvandlas till Vill du ha en skiva av detta vetebrbd 2. och ar torrt. not believe that the wheat has been sowed yet. This wheat sprouts in the fall before (innan) the winter 6. It is protected by the snow. men snb'n skyddar den mot kolden. 3. ej hellre en skiva av ragbrb'det. 3. Nar mognar unga vetet? vetet? Varfor gror vetet pa hosten? Vad tjanst (service) gor snon vilket brod 1. I do is What the wheat called that is sowed in the fall? 4. och dar till males det brod. which covers it. It is called winter wheat and regarded as (som) the best (Msta). Vart forslar 7. Plo- han hela sin aker? Vid vilken arstid borjar brodden ater 8. Av vem har vetet avmejats ? att vaxa ? man vetet? 9. Om den unga brodden ej tacktes med sno. kommer med kold och sno. ditt Erik? sa ar pappa snail. kb'res till mjb'l. Da av- meja bb'nderna det och kora det 8. savs that the wheat will be cut to-morrow . lyckats riktigt. 1. gor bonden pa hb'sten? 2. The field 2. Conversation. Nej. 4. 103 Da vintern vaxa. giv mig 3. Till vem 12. kaffe. dar det troskas. slutar vetet att 5. 5. C. det till kvarnen. och pa sommaren mognar till det. Vad 3. vintervete. vill ni ha en skiva ? has been plowed by the farmer. denna gang har Anna 1. 7. Medan vadret annu ar varmt. skulle 6. logen. sa den frysa bort. It begins it is to 8. 1 otherwise it would be damaged by the frost. Ar ad gor han med det? det 6. Yad gor man med det dar? 10. 5. Det har legat pa bordet sedan i gar Brodet ar ej sa gott. Av skall vetet saljas? 11. gror vetet. Nar vetet har trb'skats. nar snon har smalts av solstralarna. D. Pa varen. E. 4.

to arrest av'meja. F. beto. flour miller en mjolnare. -a. there here. Yes. threshing floor. 'Use skullc and invert. to drive. to protect to stop. to -ar. This (delta) bread is excellent. leg mot. -or. sloto. who will grind it to flour. 10. granary mala. to bite en brodd. lib. plo'ja. "Ater directly after NOTE. 1 . mogna. -rar. 9. -et. skot. en revolver.) cold. III. -ar.). sa. froso frusit bortfrusen. to melt en solstrdle. skoto. It has been bought by the miller. . to plant torr. sluta. luck with main Sister Anne has had good (lyckats verb. annars. III. -ar. -en. to be killed by frost .) fine. I. . I. -sago -it. I. lib. to sprout rather slot. 1. -ar. to haul (en) sno. (har ar) a loaf of white bread 3. bita. slutit) en hund. ansdg. dry . bitit. frost ko'ra. -t. gro. which he will sell to the baker. . -lar. first skjuten. revolver en skiva. police- bet. sprout frysa bort'. and he hopes that the weather will be (use pres. The wheat which was threshed yesterday has been hauled to the flour mill to-day. flour mill (en) kold (no pi. I. to bake ett ben. anse. med) her bread this (dennd) time. to regard -sett. dog en host. VOCABULARY. but it is dry. -sedd. otherwise arreste'ra. to transform skydda. slice skjuta. against lib. Is there 2. sunbeam sow. forste. -et. fall en kvarn. any (nagot) bread in the house? is I am so hungry. I.104 VOCABULARY. I. to plow en polis'konstapel. snow smalta. fros bort. to ripen bone. to grind (ett) mjol (no pi. to cut baka. man -et. Ha. I. skjutit. to shoot close (also forvandla. go back and substitute the passive with bliva wherever it is possible. hellre. or IV. When the next lesson has been mastered. en loge -ar.

I.) LESSON The Verb PASSIVE 188. bun- den jag bleve trodd. to become. to be. lo remain). -ar. to believe. bunden vi bleve trodda. wheat -rar. jag blev trodd. (Continued) WITH AUXILIARIES. bundna Sicedish Grammar . owner dter. vi blevo trodda. bunden vi bli(va) trodda. which agrees in number and gender with the subject. k and sk are always hard before a soft vowel in an 1 unaccented ending . to bind : Passive of the verbs tro. g is hard in loge (g. with the past participle (not the supine) of the verb. en vinter. 1 winter en vAr. . 105 to thresh (ett) vete. jag blir trodd. vi skola bli(va) trodda. bunden PI. spring again en agare. troska. bundna bundna Sg. and vara. also be formed by the corresponding tense of the auxiliary combining The passive voice can (bli). XVII. INDICATIVE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE jag blive trodd. Occasionally the verbs varda. are used as auxiliaries. bunden bundna bundna IMPERFECT Sg. Sg. 189. PI. binda. vi blive trodda.PASSIVE. to verb bliva become (also. jag skall bli(va) trodd.

vi skulle ha blivit bundna. jag har PI. jag skall ha blivit trodd. huset ar brunnet. frequent occurrence. The other subjunctives are formed as shown above bli(va) trodd. bundna blivit trodd. : . bunden vi ma ha blivit trodda. which is con- jugated with the verb vara instead of hava in the perfect tenses. bunden PI. to express a condition or state. thou wilt be called. PERFECT Sg. jag hade blivit trodd. The beginner may disregard this formation of the passive entirely since it is obsolete. he was called vi tiro vordna kallade. as. the house is burnt. we have been called. PI. . Jag varder kallad. is of comparatively (2) Vara is generally used only in the apparent or false passive (185). Ex. that is. ha blivit trodd. bunden . (1) OTHER AUXILIARIES OF THE Varda PASSIVE. vi hade blivit trodda. .106 PASSIVE. jag ma ha blivit trodd. bundna bunden bundna trodd. PRESENT INFINITIVE att bli(va) trodd. etc. bunden PERFECT INFINITIVE att _NOTE. vi bunden ha blivit trodda. du skall varda kallad. I am called han vart kallad. (vart. jag hade bundna bunden vi hade blivit trodda. however. vorden). the imperfect tense. vordo. jag ma 190. thus. vi skola ha blivit trodda. bundna blivit PLUPERFECT Sg. FUTURE PERFECT Sg.

The passive with bliva is more common in conversation than the These two passives are often interchangeable sometimes. he is liked by all jag dr plagad av mygg. The passive in -s is preferred to the passive with bliva in expressions denoting a common rule. -* form. . NOTE. man byggde huset). jag kallas Johan. are to be repaired. . and as resulting from the action of the verb (185) its present plus the past participle is often used as an equivalent for the English perfect passive and its imperfect plus the past participle as an As: brevet dr skrivet. han kallas feg av var man. fact that in the . . NOTE.PASSIVE. I am troubled by mos. but huset byggdes. the (note also construction with man. . it comes very near expressing a true passive: han dr omtyckt av alia. sadana brott straffas med fdngelse. 107 Sometimes. om jag ej gor det. But since vara plus the past participle indicates a state or condition regarded as complete and permanent. however. as. the mail had already been distributed. poslen var redan utburen. quitoes. a general fact. or huset blev byggt (also. . to be. or by the passive in -s thus. 184) house was built in a month. 192. the letter equivalent for the English pluperfect passive. FURTHER REMARKS ON THE PASSIVE. he is called a coward by everybody. 191. I shall be called a coward if I do not do this on the contrary. these shoes. Too much stress cannot be laid upon the overwhelming majority of cases passive action is not expressed in Swedish by vara. such crimes are punished with imprisonment flaskan forvaras pa is. an injunction or direction. the bottle should be kept on ice. but by bliva and the past participle. however. I am called John but jag blir kallad feg. is not huset var byggt pa en mdnad. and the past participle as in English. has been written . de hdr skorna skola lagas.

both forms may be used of some definite agent. minnas. angry). lyckas. by the Deponent Verbs. Ex. du har blivit beromd av din larare. this is also the case in the passive: frukten blir skadad av frosten. For instance. etc. 2. to succeed. or make the agent the subject. the passive with bliva seems to imply a definite agent. to wrestle. EXERCISE XVIJ. whereas floden blev fylld would imply action on the part If the agent is expressed. ty jag hade ej blivit 1. Jag kom ej . lazy). when no agent : they express different shades of meaning. or man with the active. spring) to turn spring brottas. many are even transitive. A. . The present frost. andas. others one without. use either the present of the passive in -s. is men- tioned. to remember. 3. . Some have a present participle in -s. to be lazy. . vredgas (from vred. Jag skall icke bli klandrad av min fader. vdras (from var. Most deponent verbs lack this form. to be (grow) angry. without any difference in meaning. etc. .108 EXERCISE. which are wanting in the passive. Jag har blivit beromd av min larare. the fruit will be damaged 193. to breathe. the -s Conjugate the following both as indicated and with form of the passive.while the -s form very often imparts a sense of indefiniteness floden fylldes seems to point to a slow natural process. of bliva has generally a future sense. 194. Many verbs have only the passive -s form.: latas (from lat. To express the present. They are conjugated like the passive of other verbs except that some have imperative forms. These deponent verbs are active in meaning.

och innan klockan sju voro 1 tjugu stora abborrar upptagna 1 fjadern ar avbruten. 192. plagas av tandvark. note. den saktar sig ej mer. nar jag var liten. 'En klocka fortar sig or saktar sig. Om jag hade agad mera. these. Kan herrn stangt hela sondagen? Nej. det 3 cippnas ej forran pa eftermiddagen. etc." blivit B. och jag hoppas. att saga mig. 10H 4. du kom ej. han har Vad van. som skedde . Den har stannat. men man radde mig att blivit Har aro vi hos ur- makaren. *See 190. ej ty du.EXERCISE. blifvit 6. those. och pa det har skola klackarna lagas 3 Har du ej sovit gott? Nej. 12. 4 De hiir. Vi rodde ut pa sjon. I do not C. Use also the active with man. 13. dessutom behover verket . 6 justerad. Anderson's house has been destroyed by fire. have heard that Mr. 192. det har paret skall halv5. du skulle ha etc. men nu ha 7. 2. blivit 2 men man tror. kallad. ej resa. tag. and 185. om du. om museet ar det inte. I dag blev jag vackt av min van Berggren. Karl. gains or loses time. blivit blivit ej hade hjalpt honom. I . Utom nagra gamla mobler man hur elden uppstod? den har ar 1 liar intet blivit 2 ra'ddat. anlagd. 1. klandrad. till . 10. om jag om du hade hjiilpt Jag skulle ha honom. Has nothing been saved ? 2. Jag skulle ha tagit samina gar. jag har plagats av trott ut. en sa svar tandvark hela natten. 5 Herr Lind dodades vid jarnvags8. Du ser sa sulas 3 . Vill du taga de har 4 skorna skomakaren. 9. 5. de dar. 2. etc. uppdragen och goras. 3. 5 2 -s form can be used. klandrad. fiskarna nappade bra. allt ar uppbrant. men det 4. Vet Icke sakert. leaving out "av min Idrare" and "av min fader. innan det dagades. Ar 1 hela huset forstb'rt? 1 Ja. sa hade jag blivit en battre manniska. Jag tror att nog att ren11. i alia Jag brukade ocksa mina ihaliga tander plomberade olyckan. att ar fatt med den? rekommenderad 2 till mig av en han lyckas laga min klocka. Nu har den blivit rengjord.

to kill en eld. Passive 'Passive Keep good time. conflagration regulate en jdrn'vdgsolycka. watch. for 7. 6. feather. ipresenterad for. of av'bryta pades.110 VOCABULARY. I. to break i'Jidlig. 10. I. I. Hall din 3 is an excellent watchmaker. -lagt. introduced to him. It has been cleaned and regulated 4 and I hope that it will keep good time now. -or. nothing off). perch -t. by a friend not to go. bell . . Now I shall not be troubled by my hollow tooth has been filled 2 3 .). VOCABULARY. he was recommended to me 2 My by a friend. believe that they succeeded in saving anything except some old pieces of furniture. I have seen in the paper that the railroad accident which well. v. earn haWsula. 3. Lind was killed in 4. impf. to half-sole hoppas (dep. 4 recom- mended 2 gu raft. fatt? way accident vad ar det What is the matter? en fjdder. which . I have a pair of shoes 8. deserves to be with bliva. (sometimes Ha). He 2 is a in man who -. spring fo'rrdn (adv. to hope and bryta av'. lib. I. to lay hold of.). niture piece of fur- . -ar. watch. en ab'borre. hopav'bruten (p. railfatt. I. to deserve. clock. heel en klocka. -ar. in expressions like taga anldgga to cause arson fatt p&. -lade. hollow intet. toothache any longer. -drar. before forsto'ra. main- en Jclack. -lagd. to mend -ler. part. . to destroy laga. to adjust. I Mr. I should have taken the same train if I had not been advised 5. happened yesterday. broken juste'ra (j=sh). Where does the shoemaker live? that need to be repaired 2 soled 9. fortjd'na. -t. knew him but I was never Just think (tank bara). -ar. arilagga. These shoes are to be halfhad stopped. fire. has been repaired 3 3 by the watchmaker. I eld. -or. en mobel. to establish. doda. Mr.

arise . to pain. dess only to things. shut utom.. Demonstrative Pronouns. nappa. the same. detta. Dens refers only to persons. that. to reduce speed. tooth (en) tandvdrk. except occasionally Det is pronounced da or de in conversation. sure(ly). -stodo. -stdtt. They are declined as follows : SINGULAR MASC. in LESSON 195. I. I. wind up). & FEM. Ill en land. -t.DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. to save sakta. clean upp'dragen go. den dess dens den den det dess det NEUTER de deras dem PLURAL ALL GENDERS SINGULAR FEM. poetry. -stod. Obj. lib. denne(a). beside stiker. certain (ly) ett verk. movement en sondag. den Gen. denna N. shoemaker en ur'makare. . trouble presente'ra. detsamma. rengjorde. I. lib. work. wound pulled up pull up. densamme(a) densamma G. na and branna up). MASC. -ar. slow up en sko'makare. . denne(a) dennas G. to advise radda. this. burnt up to upp'. to burn ren'gora. I. det. Sunday vid. part. upp'std. XVIII. PLURAL NEUTER ALL GENDERS GENDER FORM Nom. The demonstrative pronouns are: den. I. watchmaker stanga. tunder. densamme(a). to close. (p. part. of upp'dra- rdda. this. torment. to up. toothache upp'brant (p. & GENDER F. detta deltas dessa dessas densammes detsamma desamma densammas detsammas desammas in NOTE. dennes N. to fill (teeth) pldga. to bite (of fish) plombe'ra. . to originate. and draga upp'. I. of upp'brdn- to introduce etc.

112

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

196. These are used also as adjectives, but have then no genitive. There is besides a demonstrative adjective samme, same, which is used more frequently than densamme and inflects as follows
:

SINGULAR
MASC.
FEM. & GEND.
F.

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

samme (a)

samma

samma

samma

197. The following adjectives partake of the nature of demonstratives and may also be used as pronouns in the plural and in' the neuter singular sddan, sddant, sadana, such; likadan, -t, -a,, like, Ex.: en sadan alike; dylik, -t, -a, such, similar. gosse, such a boy; dylikt har jag aldrig sett forr, I have never seen such a thing (or things) before.
:

198. Den har, this, and den ddr, that, used originally only in conversation, are rapidly finding their way into the written language. They are declined
as follows:

SINGULAR
MASC. FEM. GENDER FORM

PLURAL
NEUTER
ALL GENDERS

Nom. and

den har, ddr
Ex.

Obj.:

det har, ddr

de har, ddr
vill

(Genitive lacking.)

Den har hasten

dr vacker, den

jag ko'pa,

this horse is fine, I wish to buy it; det ddr huset tillhor visst herr Carlen, I think that house belongs

Mr. Carlen; de ddr rosorna tiro hdrliga, those (After den har and den ddr, the noun takes the definite form.)
to

roses are beautiful.

199. The former and the latter are expressed by den forre(a) (neut. det forr a, pi. de forr a) and den

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
senare (neut. det senare,
:

113

Emma

Anna och pi. de senare) systrar; den forra ar ljus, den senare are sisters; the former is a mork, Anna and blonde, the latter a brunette.
tiro

Emma

NOTE. When used substantively, these expressions take an -s in the genitive: den forras (Annas) lynne ar glattigare an den senares, the disposition of the former is merrier than that of the latter.

200.

REMARKS ON THE DEMONSTRATIVES.

(a) The forms in -e must be used when the demonstrative is used as a pronoun and refers to persons of masculine gender; they are generally preferred,
at least in the written language, when the demonstrative is used adjectively before a noun denoting

a person of masculine gender: denne ar min bror, this one is my brother; det ar samme man jag sag i gar, it is the same man I saw yesterday.
(b) After samme a following adjective has always the definite form but a following noun generally the indefinite; after denne the adjective is always definite

indefinite in the written but very often definite in the spoken jag language har sett samme (a) lille(a) gosse forr, I have seen the same little boy before; denna stdtliga kyrka ar den nya Vasakyrkan, this stately church is the new
:

and the noun generally

Vasa church.
(c) Sadan is regularly preceded article: en sddan man.

by the

indefinite

NOTE. In exclamations, however, the order may be reversed in case of sddan and its equivalents sicken, slik, and tocken; thus, sddant ett elande ! Sicken en stackare ! Such a miserable creature (Never oh, such misery
! !

en sicken stackare

/)

114

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

(d) The demonstrative pronouns den, det, and denna, delta, referring to things in a general way, and depending upon a preposition, are sometimes translated by dar (sometimes hdr) with the preposition added: ddrmed, with that, or those; harmed, with this, or these jag har talat med honom ddrom, I have talked with him about that thing, or those things jag litar ddrpd, I rely on that.
, ;
;

201.

SOME USES OF THE DEMONSTRATIVES.
they, this, that, these, those,

For

when used

as

subjects and referring to a predicate noun, Swedish uses the neuter singular det, detta, det hdr, det dar, irrespective of the gender and number of the follow-

ing noun, if the demonstrative idea is not very emphatic or if one person or thing is not contrasted with another; as, detta dr min bror, this is my brother; detta dr vackra blommor, these are beautiful flowers but denne dr min bror, this one is my brother; de hdr dro -vackra blommor, de dar fula, these are beautiful flowers, those are homely ones.
;

202.

Den

is

often used as antecedent to a restric-

tive relative (he

who)

;

icke sanning, he truth (222, d).
NOTE.

who

sagt detta, talar said this does not speak the
as, den,
;

som

De

is

often used indefinitely

de darhemma. the people at home.

203.

Idiomatic expressions with demonstratives

:

En
it

etc.)

sadan dumbom han dr! (or, sddan en dumbom, Whafca stupid fellow he is Det gor detsamma, does not matter med detsamma, immediately.
!

;

EXERCISE.

115

EXERCISE XVIII.
A.
1.

Fill out the blanks as suggested.

Smek

ej 2.

... ...
i

(186, b). rev ... (me)

katten, Anna, ... (it) rivs (that) 2 (it) ar visst (the same) katt , som 3. Ar ... (this)* ... gar. (your) gosse,
. .
.

1

fru Anderson?
flicker.
5.
. .

Ja, och
.
.

.

.

.

3 (detta or dessa) ar
1

.

.

.

(my)

4.
ej

Aro
.

(yours) ? ... (those) i parken. Maria och Elisabet ganska lika? Nej, det ar
.

Vilka aro

(such, 200, c) skillnad pa dem, att man ej kan se, att de aro systrar. ... 6. (the former) ar ljus, ... (the
latter)

mork.
Ja,
.
.
.

7.

Ar

...
. . .

(this)

3

...
8.

(your,

familiar)
fatt

ring?
. .
.

(it) ar

(mine).
9.

Av vem bar du
Jag bar
(it)

(this) vackra ring
till

2

(def. or indef. ?) ?

fatt

den av min far
jag tror
ej,

ar sa ovanlig; 10. Jag att jag nagonsin sett en precis likadan.
julklapp.
...
. . .

blev sa glad, nar jag fick (it), jag hade lange b'nskat mig ... (a similar one, 197). 11. Ar (this, 200, a) 2 Smith, som du talar om, (the same) person , som vi
. . . . . .

kanna pa ... (that) 1 resa (def. or indef.?) till Stockholm for ett par ar sedan? Ja, han ar ... (the same one, 200, a). 12. ... (He who, 202) talade var
larde
. .

i

(the same) gamle herre (use man), som vi traffade gar kvall pa bjudningen hos Linds. 13. Vad sade han
2
. .

.

.

(about that, 200, d)
(because of
2

?

Han

sade, att

han var glad

.

.

.

it,

translate, over it).

'198.

200,

b.

3 201.

B.
it?
I
3
.

1.

This 1
it

found

a beautiful flower; where did you find 2 in that little flower bed. 2. Please take a
is
is

seat
3.

2 comfortable; take this one 2 I believe I shall take that one by (vid) the window,

That chair 2

not

.

thank you (tack sa mycket, girl take after her mother?

first).

4.

Doesn't that 2

little
,

4 Yes, she has the same eyes

116
the
,

VOCABULARY.

same mouth 4 and the same

voice

4
.

5.

Have you

ever

6. He is almost seen such a (200, c) sturdy old man? old, but it does not matter (203) ; he does the eighty years

same heavy work
work
9.
till

as he used to do.

7.

Let us take a walk
is rare.

;

such a fine autumn day as (som) this

8. I

must

six o'clock; after that (sedan) I

can take a walk.

Which (vilJcen) Mr. Smith do you mean? The one who (202) lives on King's Street. 10. That is the same
Mr. Smith whom I used to know. He was such a good man. 11. Are these 1 your sisters? Yes, and those are my brothers. 12. You have such a beautiful ring, Anna;
where (var.
.

.ifrdn?) did you get it?

13. Yes, it is very

Christmas present from my brother. pretty. 15. In that (200, d) 14. I wish I had one like it (197).
I got it as a

you are right, Carl, but please do not talk any more about it. 16. Our teacher was angry with (ond pa) us yesterday. 17. He told us that he had never seen such compositions
before.
18.

Those who (202) had more than ten errors
theirs.
god och
titt

had to rewrite
MJOl.
(also

*198.

*Either var sd
200, b.

ner,

or var sa god och salt er

tag plats).

VOCABULARY.
bekvam, en bjudning,
-t,

comfortable
-ar,

reception,
-er,

party en Wom'sterrabatt', bed
brds pd

ganska, quite, .fairly en hostdag, -ar, autumn day en julklapp, -ar, Christmas
present en katt, -er, cat
lik, -t, like,

flower

(dep

v.)

(

III,

impf.

alike

brdddes, supine to take after
duktig,
ett fel,
fd, fick,
-t,
,

brdtts),

ljus,

-t,

light,
I

blonde
I

mena,
en

(sometimes

la), to

capable, sturdy error
(170), to

mean
mun, munnar, mouth
mork,
-t, dark, brunette ndgonsin. ever

fingo, fdtt

get; be allowed

COMPOUND
niistan,

VERBS.
-er,

117
difference

o'vanlig,

almost -t, unusual
-er,

en skillnad,

skriva om', to rewrite

en person', en ring,
-ar,

person

smeka, Ha, caress
en
-et,

precis', exactly

stol, -ar,
,

chair
rar,

ring

sdllsynt,
tio,

riva, rev, revo, rivit, -en, to scratch, tear

ten

right en rost, -er, voice
ratt,
,

en tunga, -or, tongue en upp'sats, -er, composition
dttio,

eighty

IDIOMS:

1.

2.
3.

be right. att bras pa ndgon, to take after somebody. det iir visst, I think it is.
att
ratt, to

ha

LESSON XIX.
The Verb (Continued)

COMPOUND

VERBS.
in

204. There are two kinds of verb compounds Swedish: inseparable and separable.

INSEPARABLE VERB COMPOUNDS.

The following prefixes always form insepacompounds that is, compounds of which the component parts are never separated: be-, bi-,
205.
rable verb
ent-,
er-,
;

for-, gen-,
a-.

har-, miss-, sam-, um-, mid-,

van-, veder-,

206.
the first

Noun Prefixes. Verb compounds of which member is a noun are generally inseparable
impf. korsfaste; supine,

;

as, kors'fasta, to crucify;

korsfast; past part., korsfast; land'satta, to put ashore; landsatte, landsatt, landsatt; hals'hugga, to behead; halshogg, halshuggit, halshuggen.
NOTK.
If

the noun

is

compounded with a

proposition, this

compound
f

prefix

may be

separated from the verb.

Thus: landsatta,

to put ashore, satte

land.

m SEPARABLE VERB COMPOUNDS. to cut off. when . holla fram'. ge'nomldsa or Idsa ge'nom. with no difference of meaning: u'teldsa or Idsa u'te. Separable verb compounds of this class often change their meaning when the adverb or preposition follows the verb. to read through. but frikalla. to manifest. If the adjective as. to lock out. to take from or deprive of. (2) al With difference of meaning: the sense is liter- the parts of the verb compound are separated. lagt adaga. COMPOUND adagaldgga. Adjective Prefixes. to estab. av'hugga or hugga av'. Adverbs and prepositions used as prefixes form both separable and inseparable verb compounds. Adverb and preposition prefixes. fran'taga or taga fran'. huset separable. 207. number. not kalla fri. It is best for beginners to regard the adjective prefixes as in- 208. ddaga. to ransom. lade VERBS. is separated it agrees with the object in gender and han vitmalade huset. frikopt or kopt fri. frikallat. For the present and see 206. skyndade till tullhuset. (1) Separable. to break an'lagga. ddagalagd. to acquit. to stretch forth. the present and past participles of such verb compounds are always inseparable when used as attributive adjectives: den landsatte passageraren. they are sometimes separable: satta i land vid kajen. lish. organize lagga an'. landed at the pier. etc.118 etc. when equivalent to a clause or when used in the predicate. to point out. figurative when not separated: av'ga. frikopte or kopte fri. Adjectives used as pregenerally form separable verb compounds: fri'kopa or ko'pa fri'. we hurried to the custom-house. . the landed passenger. note. . vi ha bh'vit satta i land. to aim fram'hdlla. he painted the house white. to resign graduate ga av'. . . un'derhalla. frikallad. but han mdlade vitt. to . fo'rega or ga fo're to precede. we have been landed. past participle fixes NOTE.

the affix is always accented. Ex. ga fram'. care must be taken not to confuse it with a preposition introducing a phrase. to endure. fore-. 119 entertain. and the separable prefix. they landed him but han hogg av handen. to manage. present. but han brot av' brodet. 213. The latter takes the accent and imparts an entirely different meaning to the verb. forsta'. When the affix is separated and happens stand before a noun. he broke a piece off the bread and ate. to appear. man satte honom i land. Compound verbs are conjugated exactly corresponding simple verbs. which never take the accent. 211. .COMPOUND VERBS. a phrase. and stdnga Synopsis of the verbs av'bryta. if Care should be taken not to confuse for-. 209. to go forth. in'ne. un'der. han brot' av brodet och at. to NOTE. like If the separable affix is an adjective or 210. ACTIVE Pres. The musical accent is grave. often after as. Impf. become evident. to hold beneath. he cut off his hand. Thus: fordra' ga. the inseparable prefix. 207) the object is placed between the verb and the affix. to understand. if an adverb or a preposition. jag av'bryter jag avbrbt Future jag skall avbryta jag stdnger in'ne jag stdngde inne jag skall stdnga inne . on the noun. for. 212. The stress accent falls always on the prefix. to impend. except in the case of be-. to shut in. he broke to : the bread in two. fram'gd. prefer. phrase (206. fo'redraga. the preposition rarely. . to interrupt. ent-.[see 36 (a)]. fo'restd. hallo.

to stay here or to go with us ? 7. jag skall ha avbrutit jag har stdngt inne jag hade stdngt inne jag skall ha stdngt inne PASSIVE Pres. He will . P. jag avbrots. jag skall ha avbrutits. Put the verbs in different tenses. I can't endure that man. or har blivit innestdngd or blivit hade av- jag hade innestdngts. or blev avbruten tas. jag hade avbrutit Fut. 11. Future jag skall avbryor skall bli(va) av- Perf. or harblivit avbruten jag hade avbrutits. Had you 12. The landed passengers wished to view the city. bruten jag har avbrutits. Hold the glass beneath the water. fer. a piece. You 2. The ransomed one nized. or blir avbruten Impf. or skall bli innestdngd jag har stdngts inne. or blev innestdngd jag skall stdngas inne. I had 1. P. thanked his friends. or blir innestdngd jag stdngdes inne. off broken 4. Translate. He was (blev) recogrecognized (two ways) him? 14. 10.120 EXERCISE. A. He has interrupted me. 13. jag har avbrutit Plupf. or skall ha blivit inne- skall ha blivit inne- avbruten stdngd EXERCISE XIX. 3. jag avbrytes. Which do you pre- 6. or hade blivit innestdngd jag skall ha stdngts. 8. Perf. must entertain your friends. 5. They ransomed him. jag stdnges inne. They (man} have my request. landed the passengers. 9. Plupf. He will comply with come after. or bruten Fut.

1. "jag skall skicka ut pengarna genast. We must 2 . de ha underlatit att skicka ut pengarna. lille far". sin Kejsaren efterkom kuskens begaran och gav hokappa som pant. steg tsaren ut. disguise ourselves 1 if we do not wish to be recognized 2. Conversation. Han Da han skulle betala. Av vilka (whom) hade kusken (settle the matter) ? forut blivit bedragen? 10. sade till kusken och amnade ga in." "Nej. Kvarlamna din kappa som (as} pant. Hur ville han uppgora saken betala kusken genast? 9. om du skickar ut pengarna.EXERCISE. varseblev han (blev han varse). ropade pa en. Varfor ville han. For att kunna (165. B. sa att man ej skulle (165) igenkanna honom. sa skickar jag in den. Vad varseblev han. steg in och befallde kusken att kora honom till slottet. 2) gb'ra detta bmkade ban foretaga langa spatserturer forkladd i en vanlig officerskappa. fb'retog kejsaren av Eyss- land langa spatserturer? Varfor kande man ej igen honom? Vart begav han sig en gang? 4. Varfor kunde han ej 8. Have you observed the conduct of this man? 3. avbro't kusken honom. and I do not understand how people 4 can entrust money to 3 him. 121 Nikolaus den forste av Eyssland onskade att iakttaga sitt folks liv. begaran ? D. Efterkom kejsaren bans skulle kvarlamna kappan? 3. att "Var god och vanta"." nom C. nar han skulle atervanda? 5. "sa ha officererna redan ett par ganger bedragit mig. Nu aterstod for honom endast att anfb'rtro sig at en droska. Varfor 2. han varse. Yes. he spends too much for amuseSu-edish Grammar 9 . En gang hade han gatt ut till en liten forstad. Vad befallde han kusken? 7. Vad gjorde han? 6. blev han han givit ut alia sina pengar. att kejsaren 11. 1. Da de hade anlant dit. att han ej hittade. I have. Nar han skulle atervanda.

to arrive Defal'la (insep. -Jcom- -kommit. an'fortro (insep. verb. -et. 7. if any. but he asked for request? (bad om) my watch as security and said he would return 9. cheat - deceive anliinde. to entrust bedra'ga (insep. as a rule.122 ments. The man had a good reason it when he got the money. car ni matt. *An indirect passive with -* would hardly ever be used in such a case. way (pa samma satt). 6. -dragit. B. lib. -drogo. impf. I shall order the cabman to drive to the theater. request. N. lib. even when the verb is separable. stig w. Ha.). he had been cheated so often in the same should send out the money. The past participle is practically always inseparable. sa god och stig vr. which are not always interchangeable: 4 The separable forms are. Get into the carriage. 4. -brot.).). -drog. to come after to fri'Jcppa. demand comply with icomma efter. kommen. Ill. pay this did you settle the matter (C. Now we have arrived at (till) the palace. (infep. to interrupt bryta av'. I did not it know that I had when I was going lost my money. f Var 1 FSrkldda man. The supine of a separable verb is separable. mand efterkomma> to -bruten. ' . 10. to com- av'bryta to. to an'ldnda (insep. VOCABULARY. 5. bro-brulit. pi. He interrupted me while I was speaking and asked for the money which he had entrusted to me.).). 8) ? I settled it in way. kopa fri'. VOCABULARY. ransom ^ ^ ef terTcom. than the inseparable. 2 Use passive with bliva.). -et. used more tSga at or till. that I asked the cabman to wait and said that I 8. but skriva till. to break off en bega'ran (no. -dragen. Please 5 step out of the carriage. also construction with oss. for this request. object is often preceded by at or till. or. The teacher should point out the difference in meaning of the two kinds of verbs. at least in the simple tenses: han ger (giver) ut. Did he comply with your In a way (pa satt och vis). How (skulle) to I became aware (of) for the ride (dJctur). reflex.

-rit?: vem vad ?t = vems vilken vilkens vilket vilkendera vilketdera vilkets vilkenderas vilketderas . The interrogative pronouns are: vem. I. -er. to recognize neglect kvar'lamna. lib. walk derstand in. to un- cloak en orsak. -satt.INTEHROGATIVES. find one's way ob- un'derhdlla entertain (see hdlla). to i'akttaga tagit. which.). to become aware of d'terldmna. -er.. -givit. palace skicka in'. publish. lib. to leave behind en klocka. serve hdlla un'der. -or. to shout Ryssland (neuter). var'sebliva. watch land'sdtta. kdnna igen'. I. -et. to spend. -satte. to return lamna dter (unusual) a'terstd (sep. who. vilken. (sep. vilkendera. -er. -gdvo. -Idt. -satt. edit hitta. -Idtit. to return vdnda dter (unusual) life en officer'. clock. -given. -et. officer IDIOM: att varsebliva en sak. to prefer forkld'da (insep. -n. ett stycke. what. lib. who. vad. Interrogative Pronouns and Adjectives.). to dis- 123 en officers' kappa. security ropa. giva ut'. I. which one vad for en. lamna kvar'.).) . SINGULAR r. ett slott. to igen'kdnna.). -et. utgav. what kind of. DECLENSION. to endure. to land ett Hi. see std). -stdder. tolerate. Russia . to hold beneath un'derldta (insep. see std). -or. see bedraga). -togo.. -en. to become aware of a thing. cause en pant. fo'redraga (insep. bliva var'se. ut'. -tog. reason. suburb forstd' (insep. -Idto.. LESSON XX. castle. -er. . piece to find. to re- main d'tervdnda(sep. fordra'ga (insep. . what. to send out ut'giva. I. The 214. lib. to -tagen. en spatsertur. officer's guise en for'stad.

The interrogative adjectives are: vad. This use being rather restricted. vilken. 216. When ichat is subject in an indirect question it is often represented by vad som in Swedish: jag vet ej vad som ar bast.: Med vem talade du? (or vem talade du med?) With whom did you speak? Vems bok ar detta? Whose book NOTE. how. vet is this? it is When vem is subject in an indirect question followed by som : du vem som var hart do you know who was here? Vad is used both as a pronoun and as an adjective when used pronominally it is always neu(b) . the latter use prevailing. but no genitive. ter. vad for en. adjectively it may be used for all genders like the English what. vilka vilkas ett Vad for en has a neuter vad for vad for ena.: Vad for adjective it drops . Ex. vad (object) han har sagt. . of what Their declension is identical with nature. vilkendera. that of the interrogative pronouns but they lack the genitive case: hurudan has the neuter form hurudant and the plural hurudana. Ex. and a plural 215. (a) Vem refers only to persons and is never used as an adjective. As an ena in the plural. REMARKS ON THE INTERROGATIVES. the student should use vilken and vad for en: Vad talar rdtt har han om? What is he talking about? Vad du att gora detta? What right have you to do this? NOTE.124 INTERROGATIVES. PLURAL Nom. Gen. and hurudan. (c) Vad for en is used both as a pronoun and as an adjective. I do not know what is best but jag vet ej.

Ex. vartill. For may be separated from vad: vad ar is del for en blommaf What kind of (a) flower that? (d) Vilken and vilkendera are used both as adjecand as pronouns. vad may in certain cases be replaced by prepositional compounds with var. . and for inflection of den see 195.: varmed har man belonat honom? With what have they rewarded him? Varav lever han? What does he live on? Relative Pronouns and Adjectives..: Vilken har varit hdr? Who has been here? Vilket hus har du hyrt? Which house tives have you rented? Vilkendera o'nskar du? Which one (of several objects) do you wish? Vilketdera huset ar hans? Which house (of these houses) is How is the weather his? Hurudant ar vddret? (of what nature) ? If the interrogative pronoun is governed a preposition this may as in English either preby cede or stand at the end of the clause: med vem talade du? or vem talade du med? with whom did 217. vad. 219. The relative pronouns are som. vilken. For inflection of vilken and vad see 214. varmed. 221. With prepositions. you speak? 218. The relative adjective is vilken. where: varav. 125 blommor har du ddr? What kind of flowers have you there ? Sometimes it has the meaning of vilken vad for en konung hade Sverige da? What king did Sweden have then? : NOTE. etc. and the genitive form vars. hurudan (hurdan) only as an adjective. den.RELATIVES. 220.

vad jag har sett. four boys of whom one was my cousin were drowned yesterday. also after the indefinite pro- noun allt. which fact surprises me (here som would be incorrect) fyra gossar. kets. It is not used very often in conversation except when the antecedent is a clause (when it is indispensable) or when a preposition must stand before the relative.: min van. vars barn dro sjuka. When vad is the subject of the sentence or clause it is generally combined with som. av vilka en var min kusin. vilket forvanar mig. Ex. NOTE. (d) Den is used as a definite relative only in the objective case. by far the most common of the relapronouns. (a) REMARKS ON THE RELATIVES. (b) Vilken the genitive : . ft skolu saga vad som iir rdtt. which is supplied by vars and vilkens (vilEx. mannen. the man whose children are sick is very poor. (c) Vad is used as a compound neuter relative including its antecedent. who- . dr sant. as* such it is of comparatively rare occurrence. the one who (which). is Som tive when used as a pronoun often employs form vars instead of vilkens. we ought to say what is right. Ex. that is all I have seen (som may be used) . skall resa i morgon. he has been elected. drunknade i gar. han har blivit void. it is indeclinable and is used for all genders and all cases with the exception of the genitive.: vad han sdger. It has no plural.126 RELATIVES. thus. det dr allt. what he says is true. 222. my friend who is here on a visit will leave to-morrow. vilkas). dr mycket fattig. In the nominative together with som it corresponds to he who. som dr hdr pa besok.

whoever. : these are the rules which you must follow. kdnner jag. In solemn style it is sometimes combined with ddr. What do you have are you speaking? book do you mean? 2. The prepositions which govern the rela- end of the clause. the house which he lives in is his father's. huset. he says? 11. What 5. . I know the ladies that you speak about.EXERCISE. 223. he who. Of whom 6. A. Do you understand what 12. Who is he? 1. often omitted In Swedish as in English the relative is when objective. Ex. den ddr. Of what are you speaking? 7. or vari han bor. dr mitt. . when used with som. Ex. dr dum. the house in which he lives is old. i du mo'tte gar? Who was it you met yesterday? governed by a prepo- 225. he that knows the right. Ex. as.: Vem var det. som boken ligger pa. the table which the book lies on is mine. I do not know what is best (bast). What sort of a man is he? 10. den som sdger detta. vilket (i vilket) han bor i. 127 ever. EXERCISE XX. dem (more common som) ni maste folja. han gore det rdtt dr. varpa boken ligger. som han bor i. whoever says this is stupid den ddr vet det rtitta. dessa dro de regler. and the preposition may be used. always. What 2 new house is that? 8. or bordet. a compound of the rela- adverb var. bordet. where. som du talar om. let him do right. huset. tives are generally placed at the 224.: damerna. sition tive When the relative is and refers to things. Who goes there? 1 in your (178) hand? 4. 3. dr gammalt. Translate orally. Do you know at (vid) what time the train leaves (gar) ? 9. dr hans fars.

7. . vars som aterstar. d) does such a thing (nagot is not a good man. There is no poet whose life is so interesting. 3. c. och en av oss maste do. matter. That is the lady who has the pretty daughters. must be rendered by det finnes (/inns). 4. gjorde apotekaren ett besok helt lugnt till i officerens bostad och sade denne : "Emedan jag ar den. thing. 5. som var en apotekare. pa vilken duellen skulle utkampas. Var sa god och valj det ena och svalj det jag svaljer det. That is not the man I mean. -Uppsala universitet. see 222. In (218) does the difference consist? 14. blev voro som 1 hade rakat i tvist med en officer. 1. av vilka det ena 3 ar forgiftat. om vilken de oense. Do you know kind of teacher he is? 15." som blev mycket overraskad av apotekarens forandamal naturligtvis var att forhindra duellen. . Tidigt pa morgonen av den dag. . onskade att forhindra duellen. och apotekaren. there are. slag. what kind of a new house is that? or which is that new house? *To like best. . av denne utmanad till duell. kastade ut pillerna genom fonstret och forsonade sig med honom. En forstandig man. d) is is rich not always happy. 1 Relative may be omitted . in a general sense sense by det ar. J Note the frequent use of som. Har . How is the weather? : Which drama what what = translate in two ways: preposition before and at the end of the clause. . of Strindberg do you like best 3 ? 13. 6. var en obetydlighet. . sa tillkommer det mig att valja vapnen. Translate orally. in a limited C. aro tva piller. det andra daremot oskadligt. The man whom (224) I sadant) about is a professor at (vid) the University of Upspoke 2 sala 8. *det ena. when it 2 Note the frequent use of sa to introduce the follows the dependent. He is a man who knows every2. Den sak. B. He who (222. That is all 1 I know about the Whoever (222. Transl. principal clause the other. one. som liar blivit 2 utmanad. *There is. The house in which (225) he lives is his father's. det andra.128 EXERCISE. . Officeren. tycka bast om. 3 9.

d) remained. it is He reminded him of an old custom according to which the right of him (C. He went to the house of the man who had challenged to him and had a talk with him. det piller. translate in two ways (218). through what) 6. 1. The propo- which the pills druggist made it surprised the officer and he 13. which was poisoned 2 . officeren? hade apotekaren Vad tillkom honom och for vapen foreslog (proposed) apotekaren? Visste apotekaren. 8. threw the out through the window. 4. I do not know what the quarrel consisted Do you know what kind with whom in 1 . a) purpose ceeded in this (200. han valde? 10. the other was harmless. sucwas to prevent 2 True or apparent passive? . 9. Med vem hade 4. C. who was a very sensible man. tvist? Vartill blev till han ntmanad av Niir gick apotekaren beslutat forhindra duellen? varfor?. vilketdera pillret var forgiftat? 8. swallow the one that (222. what I have heard it was about a The druggist. When the officer asked him what kind of weapons he would choose he held out a couple of pills. He himself would (skulle) (ville) take and swallow. 9. wished : 5. Conversation. 6. i 129 apotekaren rakat officeren? 3. but according to trifling matter. 5) who has been challenged to choose the weapons. The druggist asked the officer which one of the two he would 11. whose (222. sition 12. prevent the duel. Yes. The druggist. 3. d). Varfb'r 5. By what means did he succeed in preventing it? (transl. the duel. 2. 1.EXERCISE. 7. skulle hans motstandare Vad Vad slag? (opponent) gora med 11. He is a man whose friendship I esteem 1 very highly. I know him well (ml). 7. andamal? of a man the druggist is the officer got into a quarrel? 2. Vad var andamalet med detta for- Vad gjorde officeren sitt med pillerna? Upp- nadde (attained) apotekaren D. Of these there was one 10.

.. friendship o'verras'ka (insep. I.). sensible.). ut'mana lenge (insep. -t. en tvist. rdckd frarn'. ut'. to I. cease fighting ligent die) . prise to sur- calm(ly) 1. . difficulties. insignifi- endure. bostdder. trifle o'ense (indecl. (sep. I. .). chal- proposal forso'na. -t. 3. to throw out en vdnskap. druggist lycklig. I. I. -er. quarrel upp'skatta (insep. vent ett to pre- see komma). ett piller. hog. forhind'ra (insep. home en duell'. to get into a quarrel. dott. IDIOMS: att rdka i grill. er'inra (insep. ut'kdmpa. . sist. en apotekare. on the contrary to die do. meet (with). proposition. Det tillkommer mig. -er. lib.). happy bestd' (insep. -er. be the right of somebody (insep. to swallow to reach or hold out till'komma forgif'ta (insep. duel harmless pill ddr'emot. I. -t. to befit. (rarely I.. to. treat en o'betydlighet. to meet to . havr a right or it is my privilege. . high ut' ett vapen. at something. utkasta). to poison I.130 VOCABULARY. to con- mena. att bliva overrasTcad av nagot. conversation remind fram'rdcka. to esteem forslag'. at variance o'skadlig. emedan. -t. ett samtal. to reconcile -t. VOCABULARY. to en sed. custom. . because enligt.). usage svdlja.). rdka. to fight out to forstdn'dig. to mean -er. I. I. svdrigneter. Ha. according to come or get (into). intel- kdmpa (i. e.). en bostad. dwelling. I to become astonished to it. dogo. 2.). see std). kasta lugn. weapon I. dog. cance.

: hon yick frdn hus till hus och tiggde. an adverbial predicative: hon gick tiggantill hus. (3) as de fran hus to house. 1. a sleeping he spoke flu- an adverb: han talte flytande. continue. many 227. from sy. and the infinitive preceded by att han hbll pa att skriva. instead of hon gick tiggande. otherwise -ende. NOTE. she went begging from house prefers a finite verb to the present The conversational language often participle used as an adverbial predicative. NOTK takes 2. expressed by means of the verb hdlla pa'. . aldrande. to sew. Sometimes the preposition mea. he was writ: ing when I entered. Ex. ently .LESSON XXL The Verb (Continued). from minnas and aldras. aging. lack a present participle. -s from le. syende. remembering. 226. The present participle is indeclinable. The present participle is formed by adding -ande to the stem of the verb if the infinitive ends in -a. -3j as. (2) as The present participle is used: ett (1) as an adjective: sovande barn. leende. to smile. Deponent verbs form their present participle either with or without the minnandes. the repentance of a dying person. etc. but if used as a noun. from kalla. it in the genitive: en doendes anger.: kallande. da jag kom in. to keep on. dish to it is The present participle is not used in Sweform a progressive tense as in English. When is the idea of continued action especially prominent. PRESENT PARTICIPLE. to call. 228. child. Ex.

lie. lent to the NOTE. . Nouns in -ning and -ande (added to the verbal stem) correspond to the English verbals and abstract nouns an -ing. 1 med att lasa. all this talking is unnecessary. 232. gossen sprang sin vag. han gick bort utan att se mig. Swedish uses a noun clause with att instead of att with the infinitive: He came without my seeing him. much writing tiresome. their having come home was a surprise. mdste han ga hem. am 229. aid writing ligga och lata sig. and similar verbs are ga. used with a och skrifver. 233.132 PARTICIPLES. is with. The past participle is formed in five different ways according to the class or conjugation to which the verb belongs. ran away. After the verbs hora and se Swedish uses the infinitive. PAST PARTICIPLE. att de hade kommit hem var en ofverraskning. hanging around (idly). lounging about. sla. he went away springa without seeing me. Note the following use of halla pa: jag holl pa att falla. The English present participle very often must be rendered by a subordinate clause either temporal. ndr han horde oss komma. finite I NOTE. I came near falling. emedan han var sjuk. I saw him coming. han kom utan att jag sag honom. cise. 231. never the present participle. . . go . mycken is skrivning ar trottande. stand form of some other verb to express progression: jag sitter . Sitta. as in English: jag sag honom komma. hearing us come. 230. .: allt detta talande ar onodigt. causal. att The English verbal infinitive: in -ing is often equiva- running is a useful exerar en nyttig o'vning. idling och hanga. Ex. inserted before the infinitive: han holl pa to sit ligga. or relative. being sick he : had to go home. according to the sense the boy. When the verbal is modified by a possessive adjective.

Deponent verbs as a rule lack the past participle. In the First Conjugation the ending is -ad. bojd. kallad. STRONG DECLENSION. 237. 1 . Class Class i. SINGULAR NEUTER GENDER FORM PLURAL ALL GENDERS I. IV. II. sydd. WEAK DECLENSION. kopt. so do many in- transitive verbs. dlskade kopta bojda sydda(e) sydda skrivna(e) skrivna 'Masculine nouns denoting persons often take the -e dlskade kopta(e^) bojda(e) kopta (e ) bojda(e) sydda(e) skrivna(e) form of the adjective. These endings are added to the stem of In the Fourth Conjugation there may not be a change of vowel thus. It is declined in accordance with the rules governing the declension of adjectives. dlskad kopt bojd dlskat kopt bo'jt dlskade l kopta(e ) bojda(e) III. the ending is -t. II. In the Fourth Conjugation the ending is (-n. the ending In the Third Conjugation the ending is -dd. -et). -en 235. In the Second Conjugation. 133 234. Class I. shriven. NOTE 2. . It may be of assistance for the beginner to notice that the past participle e of the imperfect. In the Second Conjugation. or the verb. The past participle is used as an adjective and agrees in number and gender with the noun or pronoun which it modifies or of which it is a complement. skriven sydd sytt 'skrivet sydda(e) skrivna(e) dlskade 238. of weak verbs may be found by dropping the 236. may 1. funnen. II. ii. Class is -d.PARTICIPLES.

havande Nyheterna mottagna i brevet. (sova) brev har hund . om en slant. or the supine of the verbs indicated. defeated and shattered. (pi. pi. The past participle should not be confused with the supine. Havande last Translate: 11. (vanta lange) till . according to the context . gar ha gjort oss alia glada. Jag har mig. 6. apparent passive (185) the defeated Russians fled hdren. 1. . the army. A. rocken dr lagad. 1 . .) bitas ej. I heard him . . 1 Ester ar en . 7. . 3. vet jag ej vad jag bor gora. Barn ring (grata) . . an appositive. withdrew. kastade jag bort det. . In the last function it is used with bliva (varda) in the de slagna ryssarna flydde. 10. . (hitta) alia de (forlora) brev (def. (forlora) 1 har blifvit stod (finna) 2. Supply the present participle. . . EXERCISE XXI. the coat is mended. the past participle. 8.. the house has been painted. .. han dr bortrest. to hi? NOTE. (komma). huset har blivit mdlat. expanding the participles into clauses.134 EXERCISE. brevet dr skrivet.. or a predicate modifier. drog sig tillbaka. . I eke 9. . he has left . . used only with the auxiliary verb hava to form the perfect tenses and is indeclinable.. . framfor den tjusa) 5. Den also the definite and plural endings. bad tiggar . . (fb'r- liten flicka. the letter is written. besegrad och uppriven... The past participle is used only adjectively as an attributive. has arrived. . erfarenhet nog.. . . .. form the compound passive and with vara 240. 239. edert 2 Express in more idiomatic Swedish by (inbegripa) 1 sig . han dr anldnd. 2 Ert . (stanga) dorr 4.). to : . . . which is. . With some verbs of motion vara may be used with the past participle form the perfect tenses as. (vanda) .

6. som talar 8. She looked 3 charming in her new winter it hat. omtalade for mig. vilken 4. Han ar en mycket inflytande man. 'After verbs like se. dem komma. ar konduktb'rn. kanna.ar val belast. C. 1. Swedish uses the dependent verb. Pres. Ernedan det ar lange sedan jag sag henne. Stopping 2 she wished me a merry Christmas and a happy New Year. 12. 5. Seeing 1 me look at it. kande jag knappast igen henne. Reading and writing are taught at school. att han mindes mig. gick jag in i rokstar dar borta. Emedan 2. not the pres. she told me that was a Christmas gift from her father. 1 men Going home from church last Sunday. I ex8. 3 . nar taget gar. traffade jag froken Lind. kommo hennes vanner ut ur kyrkan. 3. He came driving. I met Miss Wallner. Jag svarade. infinitive Past part. hora. Det ej skulle lamna staden utan att ha besokt dem.) on him. Mannen. 2 Smiling kindly she said that her father would like to see me. 5. att jag tryckt 6. jag ville kupen. Z>. Nar jag gick hem fran kyrkan i gar. Hon var fb'rtjusande vacker i sin nya vinterhatt. 4. . Note the inverted order in an independent clause following a dependent. nar han sag mig. tressant 7. Nar jag sag sade jag adjo och lamnade henne. Not having 4 seen him for many years. 2. 2. 2 of the B. 3. Da pa att samtala. 1. part. Her father is a very learned and cultured man and a celebrated author. dotter till en gammal skolkamrat. 3. singing 1 135 13. Han kom springande. att hennes far ofta hade uten b'nskan att fa traffa mig.EXERCISE. gladde mig. well-read. havpressed my desire of calling (inf. manga frammande sprak vi hollo och . 9. Hon hon sade var en julklapp fran hennes far. part. stannade han och halsade. 1. fraga honom. He speaks fluently six foreign languages and is very 7. som rbka en cigarr.

cul- lange vantad. experience lange). grdt. p. translate by a temporal clause. Thanking E. language -en. or do. stop stiga pa'. compartment for smokers? No. 5 VOCABULARY. -er. often talked about 2 me and wondered where I was. forbjuden. I went into the Is this a is prohibited here. they checked my bagni) pay 1 gage without weighing (230) it. long expected flytande. smoking en ro'kare. Having bought a time-table. emedan.). taga emot' (sep. to board. to call on in'begripa. waiting room. Having asked the conductor if it was the express train for (till) Stockholm. -ar. -at. en rokkupe. learned frammande. p. -gripit. (bilda). I. sju. strange (e)mot'taga. 1. (Idra). lett. (fortjusa). .. ett snalltdg. conductor I. 4. coin . 3. adjo'. p. weep hitta. to polette'ra. to include en konduktor'. to receive om'tala. prohibited fortju'sande. we boarded the train. -et. note) caused me to (gjorde att jag) come too late to the 1 train. (flyta). (viinta en er'farenhet. tola om' (sep. p. . seven express train to find en slant. lart. good-bye belast'. se ut. (forbjuda). le. (appearance) 'Clause introduced by ty. I. ett sprdk. My stopping and talking (230. hdlsa pa'. p. p. p. pres. compartment smile well-read (railroad) log. tured see taga). p. -grepo. to smoker compartment for smokers rokning. How much did you have to (maste for overweight? Nothing. p. -er. to oildad. . 5. pres. grdtit. -t. foriil'drar. p. en kupe. her I asked her to greet her parents from me. grdto. -grep.136 ing 9.foreign. *To look 4 Causal clause introduced by en'dr. ! Expand into a coordinate clause. too late grata. -er. smoking 2. VOCABULARY. -er. enter stanna. to stay. -at. check (baggage) charming parents for sent'. fluent lard. tell to . logo.

it snows det blixtrar.). last Sunday tid'tabell'. -er. LESSON The Verb XXII. Jag sade adjo till honom. it thaws det dagas. The impersonal verb form. att onska ndgon ett gott nytt dr. The impersonal subject is det. turn en vantsal. as. wish jul. to to look at undra. 241. IMPERSONAL VERBS. winter hat en time table en tiggare. att onska ndgon en glad a merry Christmas. something moves in the forest . it lightens (2) Those expressing merely abstract action. to tell somebody something. . 5. I. Swedish i korridoren. to have company. it rains det snoar. 4. somebody is walking in the 10 Grammar . to wish somebody 2. to weigh vanda. tit'ta pA. sondags. it dawns det regnar. lib (vande. which is never omitted except in a few archaic expressions. Ha. it freezes det toar. I said good-bye to him. like the reflexused more extensively in Swedish than in ive. English. beggar vaga. -ar. I. overweight en onskan (no pi. is 242. (Continued).IMPERSONAL VERBS. to wish somebody a happy New Year. det knackar pa dorr en. or tala om' ndgot for ndgon. vant). waiting room en overvikt. (1) Important impersonals are: Those referring to processes of nature: det fryser. att ha frammande. lib. . i 137 -ar. 3. to express IDIOMS: 1. att om'tala.). en vinterhatt. det gar hall. to wonder ut'trycka (insep. there is a knock on the door det ror sig i skogen.

det gives. may form an impersonal passive either with det as the subject or with the subject omitted. Many verbs. and det 2. (a) Det stands for the introductory there and serves to bring the verb before the logical subject.138 IMPERSONAL VERBS. (3) Verbs in many idiomatic phrases. dr. Det finns. once there lived a king. det skrattades och s Jongs. ser jag. as already shown in part. whereas det dr expresses existence within . The verb does not as in English agree with the logical subject but always in the singular. even intransitives. 244. is (b) 1. and there are. ence. Other uses of det: Det corresponds in general to the English it. expressing mere existare rendered by det finns. This form is often resorted to for emphasis. my life is at stake gdller honom. det sprang ett par gossar over fdltet. and det dr: There is. the person or thing referred to often appearing as object: lonar modan. as. det.levde en gang en konung. I am doing well gor mig ont om dig. more seldom det gives. there was laughing and singing. it concerns him 243. expresses existence within a space of extended or indefinite limits. det gives. it seems (I see) . Det finns. hdr dies. THE IMPERSONAL PASSIVE. tion is often asked. but has some idiomatic uses. you are det frdgas ofta. there ran a couple of boys across the field. I feel sorry for you hur star det till med dig? How are you? det det det det det gdller mitt llv. the queseating. literally. NOTE. as. it is worth the while gar mig vdl.

det gives intet val. Note the singular of the verb. or gives en Gud. do you know what he said? Yes. nu dr han det ej Idngre. to compose one: self . dr han hdr? Ja. to remember erinra. to remind inbilla sig. to believe fatta. (c) Det is used expletively : REFLEXIVE VERBS. vet du vad han sade? Ja. erect uppfora sig. irrespective of the to represent another word. ly in no peculiarity of conis placed immedi- The reflexive form is used much more wideSwedish than in English. to presume. to imagine inbilla. 247. there is no choice det finns. to seize fat ta sig. Reflexive verbs "reflect" the action upon Hence the object is always the proto the subject. to behave tro sig. to make believe uppfora. I think so.REFLEXIVE VERBb. or clause already used. he was rich. Examples erinra sig. det gor jag. there were still honest men. there is a God. the subject. dare tro. I do. A reflexive verb has The pronoun object jugation. to perform. number of the following noun. det dr ett par herrar vid dorren. noun corresponding 246. ately after the verb. often giving rise to secondary significations which require their own peculiar translations. 245. . is he here? Yes. han var rik. : 139 a definite space of relatively small extent det fanns dnnu drliga man. and of which the repetition is avoided (it is then rendered by so or not translated) Ex. there are a couple of gentlemen at the door. now he is so no longer. . det tror fag. phrase.

as. befinna sig. to imagine. PRESENT INDICATIVE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Sg. inbilla dig (familiar) 2nd PI. with the reflexives. condition) beflita sig. Some verbs are used only reflexively . etc. of sjalv och The student construction should. IMPERATIVE 2nd Sg. etc. FUTURE jag skall inbilla mig. to be (as to health. etc. ha(va) inbillat sig Future Perfect: att skola ha inbillat sig Idt(om) oss inbilla NOTE. etc.140 REFLEXIVE VERBS. sig sjdlv The reflexives may be intensified by sjiilv: han alskade sina medmanniskor : he loved himself and not his fellow men. jag inbillar mig du inbillar dig han inbillar sig jag inbillade mig. ' PERFECT jag har inbillat mig. jag skall etc. to take place begiva the sig. etc. FUTURE PERFECT ha inbillat mig. ni inbillar er (eder) PI. PI. avoid the use being very limited. and inbilla er 1st PI. etc. this . Conjugation of reflexive inbilla sig. vi inbilla oss I inbillen er (eder) ni inbilla er (eder) de inbilla sig vi inbillade oss. however. jag PLUPERFECT hade inbillat mig. to apply oneself tilldraga sig. icke oss. inbillen er (archaic) INFINITIVES Present : att inbilla sig Perfect att : 2nd Sg. to betake oneverb: att self 248.

etc. we meet one another hdstarna bitas. 4. om du. Note such idiomatic reflexive constructions as: jag skar mig i fingret. .. I cut my finger. 2. om du. . Carl has broken his leg. Carl. maste jag klada om . song and joy accompany one another. 3. etc. freezing and snowing. Hurry. Translate: soon. sa att. . The reciprocal idea may. 2. Om jag inte uppfor mig battre. mig . each : represented by an object pronoun. . we loved one another. skall . The postpositive definite article is often used instead of the possessive with nouns which denote parts of the body and articles of clothing.EXERCISE. mig. THE RECIPROCAL PRONOUN which is is other. innan du . . sa att jag ej f orkyler mig. klada . maste du. one another. 250. tell if we are waiting for (pa) you. EXERCISE XXII. I think so. etc. Continue the following: 1. Jag du . We shall see one another 4. satt pa dig hatten. put on your hat. etc. boys. there is a postoffice in (vid or pa) this street? it is Stay at home. dig 3. Can you 6. etc. Karl har brutit av sig benet. The possessor may be varandra. och det ej jag ej kommer 1. . indeclinable vi trdffade varandra. . There are two industrious boys in this room. mot kolden. dig. 5. 141 249. often be expressed by the -s form of the verb vi traffas. When no agent is mentioned the -s form of the passive must often be avoided since it may give a reciprocal meaning to the verb : . pm jag hade skyddat mig andrar mig. Jag hade befunnit mig battre. NOTE. regnar. A. we met each other. Innan jag mottog frammande. sa maste jag 5. vi dlskade varandra. jag. . sa du. as has been stated before. Om skammas. (186). the horses bite one another sang och gladje foljas at. varmt.

till (at) Erik skriker val 2 gossarna. att fa traffa er. EXERCISE. Lendo the boys make Tell (B. 1. such a noise (B. som om det gallde livet. att Karl ej var hemma. Anna. i dag regnar det. 3. Mr. 2 3. 11). it is long since we met. att jag bar latit er vanta. Hur star det stiga in till? S'a nom trakigt 1 . tror jag. Lind. Vi ma alia bra nu. Jag inaste ga och klada om mig. att oppna. I gar snoade det. Lind ? I am it is Mr. 4. herr Edgren. Sag days) ? 7. nu blixtrade det till och med. Ad jo. skynda dig. to see you. De kunna ju. 1. Mr. det passar ej att taga emot frarnmande. roa sig utan att vasnas sa. looks as if it if we inquite (ganska) chilly tend to go out. very glad nart. men vadret iindrar sig sa hastigt nu for tiden. det drojer endast ett par minuter. boken ar trakig. tills jag ar far dig. 9. Anna. I should think. 5. How are you. kladd som jag ar. Father. Men hur befinna ni er nu for tiden (nowa- Jag horde for nagon tid sedan. 5. J It is suppose. now there is a would (skulle) rain soon. bed ho- fb'rmaket och satta sig. The pleasure 6.142 B. att det ar herr Edgren. 10) them to behave is Why . hemma. 2. etc. Anna. etc. herr Edgren och jag kunna knappast hora varandra. att det ar omb'jligt att skydda sig mot forkylning. 3 Val I C. 3 Please look and see (se efter) who it is. 8. att de uppfora sig litet battre. det skulle Jag mar fortraffligt. very likely. the book bores me. Det gar pa verandan. . det var trakigt. 1 think the weather has changed . 11. fru Sterner. men vi traffas val senare. nu knackar det pa dorren. i Jag tror. ha glatt honom fru Sterner. I it it is becoming 2. Jag hoppas ni ursaktar. otherwise (annars) we shall catch cold. Anna? mutual. and we must dress warmly knock 2 4. att min man icke ar 6. att Karl hade fb'rkylt sig mycket svart. . It is cloudy. Somebody is walking on the porch. 10. too bad that. 12.

be proper concern roa sig. fattas (dep. 3 Use an impersonal construction. allow miss'taga to (insep. parlor motas (used reciprocally). lib. I must hurry. to have a value. 4 Pre- siime tro sig. to ready lib. but he is no longer so (244. droja (intr. Idt. Has he presumed to ask you to lend him? 3 14. I. Who is Mr. but do not know one another we always greet one another when we meet (250).VOCABULARY. to amuse oneself to hdl'sa pa. kit. I. see taga). No. he ought to be ashamed to behave is is of Mr. -t. I. skynda sig. to hurry . 11. to greet dress (some- senare. 9. lib. Brown. better it is 143 . Brown ? He is a man who always lacks 3 money and who wants to borrow from everybody. ett liv. mistake sig. to fit. cry kldda om' dress to change skydda. skri- dress (oneself) (sig). verb. . Idto.). to let. frusit. I. cold (health) to become cloudy ett for'mak. 2 242. to be (health) knappast. there is Carl that so badly.). en forkyl'ning. hardly en kold. -en.. befin'na sig. often impers. skreko. -ar. mulna (generally kldda. -t.) I. fros. Good-bye. life Idtit. VOCABULARY. froso. 10. 1 Use reflex. 13. 7. forky'la siff. He used to be much respected. to skrek. to take time delay. passa.. Who 1 company. body) Jcltida sia. Idta. 3. lib. to en glddje. to feel. et. there is much work for me at home. If I am not mistaken 1 yelling . cold kylig. 2. We that lady you greeted ? It is the wife well. to protect I. cool . I. c. to freeze ftirdig. to yell. later skrika. he knows that it is not worth while 15. There are not many (manga) in this town who would lend him 4 money. to lack frysa. to catch cold misstaga be mistaken impers.). 12. 242. joy meet one another giilla. v. when 8.

difficult.). are defective. -t. serious sd att (conj. 5. 2. . kan kunna. to be (health) conduct oneself svdr. pi. to make noise I. The modal INFINITIVE auxiliaries are: PRESENT IMPERFECT SUPINE PLUR. to 1 . shall vilja. even (conj. to change (something) traffas (used reciprocally). -t. must tor. (a) The archaic second person has the ending -en: I skolen (md takes only -n in 2nd pers.). the coin is no longer current. std till'. ought to bor skola. some of them. until tills dndra. 251. may bora.).). lib. (~b) The singular form is practically the only one used in conversation. to receive company. howThe following remarks will suffice: ever. he is of small account here. bad uppfo'ra. to be ashamed of something. att ta emot' frdmmande.). lib. att skdmmas for ndgot. 4. han galler icke mycket har. to change one's mind meet or see one another omsesidig. to to be ashamed snoa (impers. mutual och med. MODAL AUXILIARIES. SING. to excuse fora upp vasnas (dep. sad. Why does he stay so long? Myntet galler icke Idngre. SG. trdkig. can ma ma. boring. to erect. is likely maste skall (ska) skola(ska) skulle vill mile vilja velat maste maste mast torde tor tora The modals are conjugated regularly. to per- snow form uppfora sig. will ma kunna kunde kunnat matte borde bort stcolat bora maste.144 sfcummas (dep. MODAL AUXILIARIES. I. 3. Hur star det till med er Itrorf How is your brother? Varfor drojer han sd lunge? LESSON XXIII. Verbal Auxiliaries. I.: I man). -t. 1. to iindra sig. so that till to bring up ur'sakta. AND PL. IDIOMS. I.

The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives generally used are with the imperfect and pluperfect indicative: imjag skulle kunna. a perfect subtive: md junctive with perfect identical md or matte subjunctive with skulle and the perfect infinitive. velat. I I work yesterday. jag har kunnat gora it. must go home jag vill in. tor. mdste. mdtte ha kunnat. I must go now. jag maste ga nu. The compound tenses 'are formed regularly: jag har han hade kunnat. to as. he says that he cannot come. NOTE. Skola. . ville. att han ej kan komma. jag mdste arbeta i gar. velat. vilja. perfect subjunctive. det. jag md. and mdste: jag maste hem. and bora lack future and future perfect. kunnat. the simple infinitive: han sdger. (c) 145 skolat. The Swedish modal must for that reason sometimes be translated 252. The modal auxiliaries have more complete forms in Swedish than in English. SOME USES OF THE MODAL AUXILIARIES. The modal auxiliaries govern.MODAL AUXILIARIES. I vilja. in. pluperfect subjunctive. In the pluperfect subjunctive of skola and bora. Swedish prefers a construction made up of . as in English. want to come 254. The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives only are in use (except in the case of vilja and kunna) and they are like the indicavilja kunna and vilja may form a present subjunctive with or matte and the present infinitive. had have been able to do 253. md. fd) md and tor lack perfect and The subjunctives of the modals except of kunna and are not formed with md. velat or jag hade perfect subjunctive. pluperfect. and skulle. by a paraphrase. but sometimes a when an adverb of direction is used a complementary verb may be implied verb of motion I may be . omitted after skola. an imperfect subjunctive with skulle and the present infinitive. They are generally accompanied by an infinitive. matte. or jag kunde. a pluand the perfect infinitive. jag skulle ha kunnat.

jag hade kunnat skriva. jag kunde ha skrivit. his lesson. I might have been able NOTE. the imperfect subjunctive of the modal and the perfect infinitive of the verb to one consisting of the pluperfect subjunctive of the modal and the present infinitive. often used as a mild command. to write. 255. I could have written. would in a similar case always be put in the pluperf. except that when we wish especially to emphasize the pluperfect time of the ability or possibility we use the pluperfect subjunctive of kunna. he would have wished to go. Kunna. but : . sin liixa.146 SENSES OF MODALS. han hade velat ga. Originally it meant to know how. he can read but he does not want to. Vilja. om hans mor ej hade varit sjuk. conforming thus with the English usage. and the depending verb in the present infinitive: jag hade velat skriva brevet. and not jag wile ha skrivit. now you may go. he knows Swedish. nar : : . han skulle ha gjort det. SENSES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES. Ex. (b) Possibility: det kan nog hdnda. to be skilled in. nu kan (d) Willingness det kan jag giva (ge) er genast. men han vill ej. that may happen. custom hon kunde grata i timtal. The treatment of kunna is identical. : (a) Ability : han kan Idsa. can give you that at once. This use is still retained in the verb when used independently han kan svenska. if his mother had not been sick. (e) Habit. on the other hand. (c) Permission: In this sense I it is ni ga. he should have done it ni borde ha kommit. you ought to have come. I could perhaps do it. jag kunde nog gora det.

Jag visste icke. du. and and the infinitive. Matte expresses a more vivid wish than ma. you are very tired. : NOTE. Auxiliary: the present and imperfect are used as auxiliaries to form the present subjunctive. (b) Desire: ma Gud valsigna vart arbete. 147 sitt doda barn. bad mig att stanna) he asked me to remain. Continue: 1. or by the present or imperfect of the verb: ndr han sag mig. or. jag maste stanna Jag hade kunnat gora en resa.). du skulle. om men jag hade velat. du matte vara dare say. Z. 256. expressed by the imperfect of the modal matte (not ma) det matte ha varit : hemskt. hon tdnkte pa pliiga NOTE. (a) Ma. From this sense of ma springs its use in purpose clauses and some other clauses introduced by att: han badj att jag matte stanna (also. etc. that may be so occasionally in the sense of fa (263. may we only come in time to the train (would that we might etc. skulle ha spelat tennis. whenever he saw me he would ask. Habit and custom are more often expressed by the verbs bruka. Jag skulle vilja ga ut. om jag hade kunnat. 3. NOTE 1. perhaps. etc. . vi matte vdl komma i tid till taget. possibility: ma (not matte) may be used with the sense of kan: det ma sd vara. I A. (c) Permission. mycket trott. 4. etc. EXERCISE XXIII. hemma. 2. etc. Om jag . a) det ma du ej gora. brukade lian jraga. Here belongs the expression mahdnda. may God bless our work. frdgade han. you may not do that. du visste vad du ville. du hade. Jag 5. icke.EXERCISE. (d) Supposition. vad jag ville. it must have been uncanny. she would cry for hours when she thought of her dead child.

Vi skulle kunna ha sa roligt tillsammans. Vad fragade Karl er 4. C. att 1. "jag bar blott sett ett enda spel och kunde alls inte bli pa det klara darmed. som skulle pas mellan tva av de basta fotbollagen i staden. 6. 7. Jag sade at honom. 8. sa hade jag mast skynda mig. ni ej 5. att jag kunde vattna blomsterrabatterna och kiippa grasmattan. utkamJag bar ofta bett pappa. Matte pappa bara tillata det! tankte jag. att han matte fraga min far. om jag med honom till staden. jag hade mycket arbete. om jag skulle kunna gora det. men kunnat overtyga honom om att det ar en nyttig 7.148 EXERCISE. som jag horde gora. nar Karl avlagsnade sig foi att bedja honom om lov. 3. ej. etc. 6. fara med. etc. att ni skulle fa folja med? Vad onskade Karl skulle gora? Varfor avlagsnade Karl den ? sig. att jag bar han matte lata mig spela fotboll. du. hade velat fara med tiotaget. om jag kunde 1. Matte jag veta. att . 6. Jag brukar ofta saga.. Det matte ha varit svart for Karl att fa pappas tillatelse. 11. 2. 2. men att onskade. sade han en gang. litet for att han hade mast lova. du. att ville fara jag Min van Karl fragade mig i gar morse. sa maste han finna det intressant. om ni finge resa till staMellan vilka skulle spelet utkampas ? 7. du horde. Varfor trodde ni ni. Naturligtvis skulle vi bevista det stora fotbollspelet. om han ville lata mig ga med. "Det ma sa spelet. ej ha kommit for sent matte du. 4. Varfor tror ni ej." 10. 5. att om han blott forstodo idrott. Jag ville giirna 8. ! B. etc. vara". att vi skulle vara tillbaka sa tidigt. Conversation. i gar morse? 3. Vad bar lyckats overtyga er far om ? 8. etc. Det syntes ej mig vara litet for ett slagsmal. mycket for ett spel och litet for Karl kom tillbaka och sade. om Jag horde ha fragat min far forst. 9. Vad skulle ni ga till.

(pres. that you came. Carl. game will be played between the two best like very teams in town and I should 3. -er. of maste) to stay at in order to take care of the garden. 2 l Fdr (263). '. But it seems to 5. preceded by the prepositive article. nar ni kom- mer hem? D. 6. resan? 9. go fara med. but we might meet again to-morrow. which is not Skulle mycket garna vilja. the noun takes the definite form. I have always wished to play football. 7. I should terday.. I am so glad be able to get my father's permission.. I ought (horde] really have done (254) this work yesDid he give his perdid papa say? 9. I. I wish he would come rich. me time (gang). flower avlagsna sig. 1. 'Imper5 fect subjunctive of kunna. for my before evening. 13. atttid.VOCABULARY. always I. to accompany . av'ldgsna. Hur manga fotbollspel Har Karl lyckats att fa er fars Vad maste ni gora. He must be very of maste} to be back early. Now I must say mission? 11. to travel. Yes. If Carl were only here. Would you go and ask father (pappa) whether I to may go? What 2 work to-day. 5 good-bye to you. I have home all summer 3 that he ought to allow me to go this had (perf. 2 You you may go with me. water the flower beds and cut the lawn. A football I should like to go to town with my friend Carl. 'After hela. s-form. 2. but it is my father does not think that a useful sport. only to attend fara. 186a. VOCABULARY. 10. 4. do not know whether (om) I father has given me much work to do But I may go. only bevista. see. to rerriove en Worn''sterrabatt' bed blott. 14. he would 8. much 1 to attend 2 it. 11. for he spends much money. er far finner spelet intressant? 149 har er far bevistat? tillatelse till 10. to go away bara. but you will have 12. soon so that we could 4 begin to eat.

of course nyttig. I. ten o'clock train mellan. gar morse. again Tclippa. once en i'drott. -t. SENSES OF MODAL AUXILIARIES (Continued). really o'vertyga ( insep. to cut. between i vattna. 257. bli pd det Jclara. fight forst. gation. lawn en gang. thus Originally it it ought to be. I. to permit to ett tiotdg. first skota. verkligen. : The imperfect borde is generally used with present meaning and hag the same signification as bar (ought) if unaccented du borde skammas. . take care of for mycket. sport igen. understand. to go to town. yesterday morning 1. the train ought to be here in ten minutes. Skola. to Bora. Det synes mig. . if I were to do my duty) to go home and work. ett fotbollag ball (lag). I ought do what 1. -or. or jag tyclcer. play play tennis. In the sense of duty bora is weaker than skola. ) I. Ha. tennis tidigt. 4. I should like to accompany. < Jag vill gdrna fara med. lova. permission to promise tillata (insep. to convince IDIOMS: att fara till staden. mow game. I. too much en grasmatta. spela. early tillsammans. If accented it implies that one does not do what one ought to. is right.). : (c) Fitness : sa bor det vara. football . ett lov. 3. % LESSON XXIV. signified duty or obli- . I ought (that is. (a) Duty: jag bb'r gb'ra vad som ar rtitt. -er. .150 ett fotbollspel. together en tilldtelse. it seems to me. SENSES OF MODALS. for instance: jag borde ga hem och arbeta. useful . Verbal Auxiliaries (Continued). 2. permission ett spel. team ett slagsmdl. you ought to be ashamed of yourself. Ha. 2. water . game foot- naturligtvis. NOTE (b) Calculation taget bor vara har om tio minuter. 258.

give him my greetings. intention. then let us do it soon. if you should see him han sade. (d) Threat or promise: det ska du inte ha gjort for inte. if we are to do it. (g) alia slags den in 259. he Report: han skall vara kolossalt rik. (a) Auxiliary: 151 1. e. when proceeding from skulle ha gatt. 2. : . I shall have gone. The imperfect finitive as (skulle) is used with the inone mode of forming the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. he said that he would come.SENSES OF MODALS. (a) Will. om vi ska gora det. I will remember you for this (i. purpose: han ville visst icke gora dig ond. I wish we had a garwhich all kinds of flowers might grow. i vilken blommor skulle vdxa. sa hdlsa honom frdn mig. (f) i gar. (e) Intention: han skulle ha kommit intended to come yesterday. du skall icke stjala. you should have gone when he asked you. om ni skulle se honom. (c) the speaker Duty or du : necessity. The present (skall) is used as an auxiliary with the infinitive to form the future tense jag skall ga. repay you in kind). ndr han bad dig. I shall go jag skall hava gatt. (b) Condition or contingency: . he is said to be enormously rich. he did not at a!l intend to make you . att han skulle komma. Wish: vi skulle allt ha en trddgard. thou shalt not steal. sa lat oss gora det snart. Vilja.

any other than animate subjects. is till. willingly. 261. ville. please come a little closer (vill is very often used thus to express a mild command) . blommor dig t What is 'vilja ej vaxa i sadan jord. supposition: the imperfect torde is used with present sense and is of much more frequent occurrence than the present tor: det torde . if 260. that must be true. jag ville garna ha en kopp NOTE 1. children must obey their parents. e). annars food. flowers do not grow in such soil. I cannot keep him. Will and would denoting habitual action are generally expressed by the simple tenses. but it is often used figuratively with inanimate: min klocka vill ej ga. angry. present and past. . or else I shall svdlterjag ihjal. REMARK. Do not translate will and would by vill. sometimes with vdl and a negative: ni ville vdl inte gora del for migf Would you do that for me' 2. I must have starve to death. jag kan ej kvarhdlla honom. they are only a sign of the future or the subjunctive. he wishes me well. or by the verbs bruka and plaga (255. (b) Logical necessity: det mdste vara sant. he was anxious to help v ill ni komma ndrmare or vill ni vara sd god och komma ndrmare. Vilja is often used with an object. Probability. entreaty or request: han ville garna hjalpa. I should like another cup. he is determined to go home. especially a pronoun: Vad vill han The imperfect subjunctive he does he have to say to you ? han vill mig vdl. (b) Wish.152 SENSES OF MODALS. for- Tor. Mdste. Its signification seems to forbid its use with well disposed toward me. han vill hem. my watch does not run (won't run) . of vilja with the adverb garna. (c) Moral necessity: barn mdste lyda sina dldrar. (a) Physical necessity: jag mdste ha mat. generally used to express a request politely as above.

make. c). also occasionally as a substitute for the passive as.VERBAL AUXILIARIES. 263. It has three main significations : leka. : han lat pojkarna somebody do a thing: jag har latit Karl hdmta bro'det. I have had Carl fetch the bread. to receive. NOTE. I XOTE. to let. c) or : nu far du ga. more common than either kunna fick ma (256. by have and the infinitive by the passive participle. (a) Permission Tn this sense it is 255. OTHER VERBAL AUXILIARIES. det later sig gora. to give permission he allowed the boys to play. very likely it is quite difficult. or cause (to do or to be done). The causative auxiliary lata. is also used as an auxiliary in a variety of meanings. han torde vara sjuk. (a) to allow. for he promised surely to come. Fa. 153 vara ganska svdrt. he has been persuaded. (b) Necessity: Swedish Grammar som gosse han ofta gora en 11 . ty han lovade sdkert att komma. . (c) Lata is used to paraphrase the : first person plural of the imperative lat oss ga. (b) to have When rock. he has been persuaded. In this reflexive construction the passive infinitive is also permitted : the reflexive always precedes the infinitive: han har latit sig ofvertalas. now you may go. that can be done. I suppose that he is sick. In the latter case it is best to render lata. the infinitive the verb has this signification the subject of is often omitted: jag har Idtit gora en have had a coat made. 262. to get. han har latit overtala sig.

fa is used in an inchoative sense resembling the English get. f ) lar vara sjuk. etc. hora. The same idea . vi mdste alia do. men jag var sa klen. as. to get hold of used independently fa presents fa igenom en . min far har sagt. permission. 1. etc. om min far hade Som den med. mans work. du skulle garna. A. she received news of it yesterday (learned to know) kommer han? du far se. as a boy he often 1. Very often the word lov. surely han ar more commonly expressed by the use of the adverb visst sjuk. used only in the present indicative based on report. NOTE. nog and vdl ex- press the idea conveyed by torde (261). When Fa tag pa. striking analogies with get a thing through. ty jag var ej tidigt. The adverbs allt. is certainly. etc.154 EXERCISE. sa borcle jag anda gora det strax. etc. Jag blott finge lov af min skulle garna vilja ha kaffe. etc. det klara med hvad han ville. 6. fa arbete. had to do a man's NOTE when 2. 5. they say he is sick. you must study now. Jag bor vara hemma om en timma. hon fick veta det i gar. gel. du lat honom. you will see (learn). (c) With the verbs veta. etc. Om han kunde jag ha gatt till sangs 7. sa . som gosse hade du. EXERCISE XXIV. and se. om jag lakare att dricka det. etc. . Jag skulle ha latit gora mig en kostym. du bor skall gora det. we must it all die. pa velat ge mig pengar hade velat avlagsna att betala sig. visst. Om jag 3. is used euphemistically with denotes necessity: du far lov alt studera nu. ty Continue: 2. om jag hade kunnat. In this han sense it is more common than skola (258. 4. Jag lat honom vanta pa svar. gosse hade jag nog fatt arbeta tungt. thus. Mdstc has a more general and absolute meaning than fa. honom. etc. att jag maste hjalpa vara. many sale. is Lar to denote a supposition : NOTE. must be rendered by. 264.

Handlanden ville hjalpa honom och erbjb'd honom olika glasogon. val kopa mig glasogon. 10. Vad fick han8. om han hade kunnat lasa? 11. sedan satte de pa ett par glasogon och sago uppmarksamt i boken. Han stod vid ett av marknadsstanden och Handlanden gav dem en sag. roro i stand. Han 1. He he had to have in order to be able (165. bast lasa? 7. Conversation: 2. Vad gjorde handelsmannen for att kunna se. Vad tyckte bonden. att glasb'gonen skulle satta honom i stand 1 att gbra. satte pa sig det steg par glasogon. om jag kunde lasa?" sa kopte han glasb'gonen.EXERCISE. "Kan ni lasa den liar sfilen bra?" fragade handlanden. Bonden ville ocksa kopa sig ett fram till disken. Av vem (7. kan du verkligen lasa?" "En sadan dumbom du ar". to be able. to read wished to buy (of) spectacles. man lade ater bort dem. 9. Vad trodde han. men bonden sade gang efter aiman: "Jag kan inte lasa med dem. den? Vad ville bor man lata undersoka sina ogon. to enable. och nar den andre svarade ja. man koper glas- Yad for stil de. a pair 1. ogon? (ogonlakaren). kunna *Satta i stand. svarade den forsta bonden. som under tiden hade kommit dit: "Men sag mig. bok med fin stil i. vad for glasogon han maste ge dem? 5. A peasant who was unable 1 2. Vad gjorde han alltsa? skulle ha? delsmannen lov att ge honom? (one pair after another). Vem hade kommit till marknahan garna gora? 3. hur folk kopte glasbgon. D. Vad gjorde man vid ett av standen? 4. 155 En bonde hade kommit till en marknad och ville kopa nagot." Till sist fragade honom en annan bonde. B. Hade bonden velat kopa glasogon. "skulle jag. innan 6. 2) thought (trodde) that all to read was a . som ha att han ocksa svaga ogon. ena paret efter det andra och sag i boken.

Several times I have wished to see him. en adress'. 14. to offer -en. Where have you had your suit made? I should like (259. fool er'bjuda. he is said (258. g) to have studied his art in London. What do the children wish (to have) for Christ- mas ? They want many things. -man. address flere(a) more. VOCABULARY. b) have had (262. . dealer . have spectacles. Carl asked my father. The young man is not amined by an let him permitted 8. spectacles gdng -bju- en dumbom*." 12. ~et. through 1 bygga. but you must be back before six o'clock. -mar. 11. note) to if I 4. he is having (262. 10. Causal clause with emedan. dit. and be able to read. wise. b) a house built in the country. sensible bort'laggd (sep. 7. The dealer one pair after another. to build en disk. -bjodo. counter glasogon. and must superintend the work. several en bonde. lib. time and again en handlande. a) to read because his eyes are weak. 9. endr or do.). b) to have the address of your tailor. 6. buy glasses. "May we go to town?" and my father answered. -ar. doctor says that he may read a short while to-mor- row. The (263. "You may go. had he been able to read. Yes. -bjo'd." (254. 5. He can make clothes that fit. VOCABULARY. 13. -er. Your father must have a great deal to do now. but we can't afford to give them much. He said to himself: "I ought to can get a pair that fits me I shall The peasant would not have wished 3. thinking 3 that he would try find a pair which would fit him. 15. bonder. merchant en Jiandelsman. b) his eyes ex- 2 oculist before buying glasses. to put away genom. of modal) to be satisfied with little. but I have not been able 1 to.156 pair (of) spectacles. A wise man would (258. : Expand into a temporal clause with innan. 3 1 Icke kunna in proper tense. -t. peasant forstdn'dig. efter annan. Then they will have (use pres.

J julklappf What do you wish Christmas (. USED AS PRONOUNS ONLY. vill du ha till More commonly used separably. I. . olik. fair print -et. 2 Note how final m of a word when the preceding vowel is short its becoming intervocalic by the addition of an ending (3). now nojt. on} they say that he has written a new book. to examine upp'marksam. : bringar en lycka. 265. German man. 2. to superintend I ett rdd. kliider. what one gives brings one luck. much booth wag. French Ex. is doubled on LESSON XXV. in the meantime un'dersoka tinsep. kort. people (cf. sex. you. (a) In the oblique cases the corresponding forms of en are used. man fb'r. oculist overvaka (insep. Indefinite Pronouns. en ogonldkare. lacking an exact equivalent. to have a coat made. en for the objective the reflexive is sig. liten. we. ens for the genitive. marknadsstund. : talar mig. weak under tiden. is variously translated one.INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. mycket. en skriiddare. clothes 157 . style. advice. -t. en stund. they.). people slander me. ett en marknad. . Jag har cannot afford. nijjd. stil t tailor en konst. I. Vad for att 3.present)? luta sy en rock. -er. different . want .). to nu. art atiga fram'. short def. pi. -er. while smd. Thus vad man ger. six IDIOMS: 1. little -er. satisfied -t. . att han har skrivit en ny bok. man sager. means ej rdd. lilla(e). -t. unlike. to step forth -ar. Man (indeclinable) is used only in the nominative as an indefinite personal subject and. attentive vilja ha'.

Var och en is sometimes used adjectively. Ingenting as well as ndgonting in a negative sentence are often intensified by a following (sometimes 268.). 266. nothing. ting alls. no plur. -s. no plur. no plur. he has been badly treated. after. : envars (vars och ens) rykte bor respekteras. one should not The reflexive possessive is sin.). everything. sometimes en och var. NOTE. Ingenting (gen. var och en (neut. vars och ens. . In a dependent clause ingenting and intet come immediately after the subject: han sager. Envar (gen. beromma sig sjdlv. jag har sett ndgonting (nagot). everybody's reputation should be respected. skulle icke man praise oneself. (gen. jag sag alls ingenting. -s. something.). one ought to honor one's parents. every one var och en (envar) har sina fel. Ingenting ting. as. everybody has his faults. 2. 269. otherwise ens an ens usedr ens vdnner dro ofta vdrre one's friends are often worse than fiender. Ndgonting (gen. Ingenting and ndgonting are followed by an adjective in the indefform of the neuter: har ni nagonting gott alt ataf do you have anything good to eat? Likewise nagot and intet. I saw nothing whatever. no plur. gen. everybody.). ndgonlikewise intet is placed before and nagot after. no plur.) . is one's enemies. sitt. vart och ett. har du sett nagonting? Ingenhave you seen anything? Nothing at all. (b) it is man When man is the subject of a transitive verb usually best to render the sentence by a passive : har behandlat honom Allting ilia. 267. NOTE inite is usually placed before the supine of a compound tense. man bar vorda sina fordldrar. att han ingenting har sett. anything.158 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Jag har ingenting (intet) sett. envars. preceding) 1. alls. -s.

one. ene. In less elegant conversation en is used in the nominative with the same sense as man. egna vdnner one has most confidence in one's friends. nagra. nagots. den ena. anyone. anything: har du nagra . Ende (-a) (plur. the other: den ene kommer. 273. and def. plur. the other goes. det ena) often used in correlation with den andre (-a). he is one of my best friends. some. 151) USED AS BOTH PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. han dr en av mina bdsta vdnner. gen. 270. enda). ett och annat. ett. he was the only son. one now and then. plur. jag har ej sett en enda av dem.). When used as a pronoun it is always preceded by the definite or indefinite article and takes an -s in the genitive dessa voro de enda. something. an: man tror ens bast. neut. a few. Den is . one now (some say so). den andre gar. the one. gen. ens. nagot. here and there: and then says so annan (neut. ndgons. gen. only as adj. in the oblique cases it always takes the place of man. som voro ddr.. any. ndgras).INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. only. ena). : 274. some one. one en och annan sdger sd.. these were the only ones who were there. En form (neut. det roda applet och det grb'na. one comes. En och en och annans. Nagon (neut. It is not used after adjectives like the English one: the red apple and the green one. II. def. own ene (-a) (fern. 271. 272. etc. a. gen. I have not seen a single one of them. ena. is used as an adjective: han var enda sonen. no plur.

(some(nobody) har kommit.. more common than ingen. . inget. ingens. for the use of allra see 316. (anybody} dar? vitt 1 Jag jag ser . jag har ho'rt ndgot vackert om dig. Observe the following idiomatic uses of hel: som ett hell. The paraphrase icke nagon. I have worked : all hela Paris. NOTE. alia hans dottrar voro vackra. Supply the missing indefinites: Ar . . EXERCISE A. . and more common for intet. some one (has) asked for you. All (neut. . somebody's hat lies here. inga. as adjective. as a whole. intet. jag ser .. completely pd del hela taget. plur. I have heard something nice about you. intets. all alls Paris.1 GO EXERCISE. God has created everything.. annars kan heist komma in. . allts. Men ju vem som (one) horde lasa dorren. (nobody}. on the whole. . wholly. everything: Gud har skapat allt. When all in English means whole it must be rendered by hela without the prepositive article jag har arbetat hela doyen. ingens karaktdr kan vara renare an hans. all his daughters were pretty. . . body's) hatt hanga dar. nobody's character can be purer than his. 1.. XXV. inga. Ingen (neut. see 268. jag har icke nagra pengar). day 2. vet.. 275. nagra is at the beginning of a statement ingen is preferred. all j or den dr Guds verk. sa . plur. gen. 3. gen. taken as a whole. nobody. gen. ingas). all the earth is the work of God. . alias). all. none. For the use of . 1. NOTE 1. no: jag har inga pengar (also nothing. NOTE 2. Inget is becoming more 276. I have no money. pengar? have you any money? nagon har frag at efter dig. allt. alias. helt och hallet. The words it often omitted: for any and some when used in a partitive sense are har ni tdndstickort do you have any matches? Some when means a little is translated by litet (lite). 3. och (one) hb'r det icke. alia. no one. 2. gen.. nagons hatt ligger har. .

.. 8. as far as. I am at home to no one 1 . . 10. Here I I am Do you have anything good 6. this chicken Should you like a wing or a leg? 7. Middagen maste nu.. (a little more). . . Have you ever seen anything have waited for (pa) him all week. a). note). Har du (any) frimarken att lana mig? Jag bar skrivit brev (all) da. . Brev(one's) saker. .. . till? *Sin Sd neuter of vid). . I shall the best quality. If anyone asks for me.. One (271) of those two Americans asked for (efter) you. (one) ar ute och reser? 9.. och jag maste betala fyrtio ore. Skulle ni vilja ge mig . Var god och tag plats bredvid mig. 8. 7. bort . bararen liar varit bar med . som ni ser. l Behagar ni en kopp kaffe vitt (vitt. vara 12. . out (for) a few minutes he comes. with (till) the fruit. One generally takes a glass (of) wine .. . 6. li. 9. Thank 3 you. 4. . 3. vi aro blott . Try this wine. 11.... fardig . . Take you what you want without ceremony. . here one helps oneself (248.. som ar ute der. (one) var ofrankerat. utan att man visste det. och jag bar inte . . till . (the other) var rekommenderat. I shall take a little of this fruit. . (a few) brev for dig. B. .. 10. If 2 will allow me. i familjen. or ens (265. note omission of som (as). Behagar ni . och reser.. . . say that I shall be 2 at home again at seven o'clock (klockan sju). (everybody).EXERCISE.. to eat? Yes. Hur skall (one) fa .. (some) soppa? Soppan iir utmarkt. 2 nar . so annoying? and now when 5. . . 161 (somebody) kunde till och med komma ocli stjala 2 5. svarighet med posten. (no) ceremonier.. Lat (one's) post. he left no card. . it is ten years old and of is excellent. adressera dina brev poste restante till (some) av de stadu amnar besoka.. liar (some) vanner.. . 2. . gen (every one) (a single) frimarke kvar.. 13. not now.. 4.. and I cannot recall his name. I wish to rest a little.

we shall see the sights of (bese) the city. soup ito. without stamp poste restante. to rest (visiting card) en kvalitet'. I. but I shall take another 4 11. en svdrignet. I la. frimarke. Ila. postage stamp -stal. when we have eaten. bortstjula (sep.). IDIOMS: 1. lib. your wine another time. 2. -or. to address -er. or automobile? translated: not. -n. behaga. Vad behagar nif What would you like? Var god och tag plats. lib. 13. -stulo. VOCABULARY. to leave wine en vinge. family ett smaka. wing ett ore. ett vin. Where shall we go? who visits Stockholm must of course visit the Everybody famous Skansen and the Northern Museum. One single apple like this is worth more to me apple. to desire bredvid. beside . *Translate: one such apple as (som) this. -en. I. to taste stjiila bort'. Now. -er. rier bast. forty to steal furarglig. to remember ofrankerad. -at. 12. -er. cab. regis- seven I.-teo . lasa.). to try Jiiinga. What do you prefer. car. card Vila sig (refl. please sit down. -er.162 taste VOCABULARY. tered sju.). to please.). -stulit. fyrtio. 3. -at. more I (often impers. a). I haven't seen anything of Stockholm yet. 14. over. to hang ett kort (visit'kort) .. general delivery en brevbarare. left lamna. American mer. -er. best letter car- rekommende'rad. en ceremoni'. ore (coin worth 14 cent). -t. Let us all go there. 2 Use the present tense. -et. to lock en amerikan'. minnas (dep. -n. ceremony en familj'. annoying forsoka. Skulle ni vilja ha en kopp kaffe tillf Would you like another cup of coffee? . quality kvar. than all (the) wine in the world. for anybody.. I. -ar. -er. adresse'ra. 'Adverbs cannot stand between subject and verb except adverbs of negation and a few others in a dependent clause (179. difficulty en soppa.

1. Mdngen (neut. in speaking of quantity. Ex. a different one. gen. annat. . something else. : Somlig (neut. in speaking of individuals or individual things. every other day. ndgot annat means somebody else. . and def manga. I should like another cup. . more. . andra det ddr. much: hur mycket pengar har du pa dig ? how much money do you have about you? icke alls mycket. somligt. . . somligas). some.: manga vackra blommor vdxa i trddgarden. pi. nagra. of all genders: somliga mdnniskor. mangens. 3. is used as a pronoun or an adjective generally only in the neut. mangas) many a in the singular and many in the plural. and plur. The English some is generally to be rendered by ndgon. some. fleras). gen. other. Like the English definite article in the singular: bok? preceded either by the definite or inhar ni en annan Have you another book? Vad go'ra de andra? ffagon annan. annans. Indefinite Pronouns (Continued). gen. What NOTE 2. gen. andra. 279. andras). Mycket (indeclinable). 281. some want this and some that. pi. please give me another book jag ville garna ha en kopp till. Note the correlatives somliga. NOTE 2. . . sing. many a rich person is unhappy. 278. andra. not very much. are the others doing? 1. gen. and def. some people. many beautiful flowers grow in the garden. Varannan signifies every other varannan dag. 280. pi. somliga. Flera(e) (gen. by litet (lite). several. . en till means one more: var . mdngen rik dr olycklig. somliga o'nska det har. 277. En annan means god och giv mig en annan bok. mdnget.LESSON XXVI. another. other it Annan is (neut. others.

164

INDEFINITES.

282.

Flesta(e) (gen. flestas)
fiesta are

,

most, the majority.

used as comparative and superlative of manga. When flera does not express comparison it signifies several, quite a few; fiesta is always preceded by the article, but the noun it modifies does not take the postpositive article: flera voro hiir i dag an i gar, more were here to-day than yesterday; pd fieras begaran sjong han sdngen, at the
request of several he sang the song; de fiesta rosta nog honom, the majority will doubtless vote for him.
fur

Flera and

283. Fa (gen. fas), few. It is very often preceded by nagra: ndgra fa voro hdr, a few were here. 284. Varannan (neut. vartannat; no plur.), every other: varannan dag ha vi tyska, we have German every other day. NOTE. Om vartannat, topsy-turvy; var (vart) tredje, var (vart) fjdrde;
every third
;

every fourth.

285.

Endera

(neut. ettdera)

,

one of two, either;

ndgondera (neut. nagotdera), either;
ingendera (intetdera), neither; vardera (vartdera), each.
nominally.-

when used proadjectives. Ex. ingendera av oss fick ndgot, neither of us got anyThese take an
s in the genitive

They are rarely used as

:

thing; han kan komma endera dagen, he may come one of these days ; hdr ha ni ett apple vardera, here

you have an apple each.
286.
1 Var (neuter vart; no plur.) Veach, every varje (indeclinable) varenda (neut. vartenda, no pl.)J

a pronoun

only used adjectively. Varenda used as followed by en, ett. Ex. varje larjunge mdste go'ra sin plikt. every pupil must do his duty;

Varje

is

is

:

INDEFINITES.

165

jag har givit bort vartenda every one.

ett, I

have given away

NOTE. Varje may sometimes be used with the sense of any: varje penna dr god nog, any pen will do.

287.

Vilken (neut. vilket, plur. vilka)

som

heist

and vad som heist (neuter) are used pronominally and adjectively with the sense of whosoever, whatsoever, whichsoever, anyone at all, anything at all, any at all; vem som heist, whosoever, anyone (at
all), is

used only pronominally. When these words are used as adjectives, som heist generally follows the noun when used as pronouns, som may be dropped before a relative clause. Ex. vilken penna som heist dr god nog, any pen is
;

:

good enough; vem som heist kan komma, anyone at all may come; Ids vad bok som heist, read any book you please; vid vilken tid som heist, at any time; vdlj hvad heist, som passar, chose anything
that suits you.
adverbs hurudan, and conjunctive ingen, hur, sd, likewise form compounds with som heist to become especially indefinite; as, dr det ndgon som heist
1.

Ndgon,

like nar,

or sale, varfor du icke kan din Idxa? is there any reason whatsoever why

Nej, ingen

som

heist,

you do not know your lesson? No, no reason whatever; kom nar som heist, come at any time; kor sd fort som heist, drive as fast as you
please.
2. The particle an is also used with the relatives and certain conjunctive adverbs to impart an indefinite force: vem det an dr, whoever it may be; vad du an gor, gor det veil,

whatever you do, do it well; vad svar han an gav, whatever answer he gave; hur fort det an gar, sd, hinna vi ej from i tid, no matter how fast we go, we won't be there in time. 3. Note the difference in meaning between han gjorde vad som heist, and vad han an gjorde.

166

EXERCISE.

288. Bdda, bdgge (gen. bddas, bdgges), both, are plural forms. When bada is preceded by the prepositive article it means two; as, de bdda flickorna tiro systrar, the two girls are sisters; but bada systrarna kommo, both sisters came.
OBSERVE.
Vi bdda, ni bada, de bdda, both of
us,

both of you, both of them.

EXERCISE XXVI.
A.

En

pa

sitt

grosshandlare behovde en gang en springpojke kontor och satte fordenskull en annons i tidningen.

gossar infunno sig pa kontoret nasta dag. Somliga av dessa hade medfort goda rekommendationsbrev, men

Manga

grosshandlaren skickade bort dem alia utan att se pa deras rekommendationer och beholl en enda liten gosse, som icke hade nagot som heist skriftligt intyg. En av hans vanner,

som var narvarande, fragade varfor han ej hade nagon rekommendation, da de
medfort sadana.
ej

just valde en,
fiesta

som

andra hade

"Jo", svarade grosshandlaren, "han hade sa fa rekommendationer, ehuru de ej voro skriftliga.

Han

torkade av fotterna vid db'rren och tog upp en knappnal fran golvet, foljaktligen maste han vara bade renlig

och noggrann. Dessutom tog han av sig niossan och svarade raskt och riktigt, darfor maste han vara bade forstanHan vantade stilla och tyst, medan flig och uppmarksam.
var och en av de andra trangde sig fram, och ar foljaktEn manniskas uppforande betyder ligen ocksa bl}'gsam. mycket mer an vilken rekommendation som heist."

B.

Conversation.

1.

Vad behovde

grosshandlaren?

2.

Vad

gjorde han for att fa en springpojke? 3. Medforde hans annons nagot resultat? 4. Vad hade de fiesta medfort? 5. Brydde sig grosshandlaren om deras rekommendationsbrev? (bry sig

oni=o
Vad

core for).
det.

6.

Vem

valde

han for platsen?

7.

var

som forvanade en

VOCABULARY.
av bans vanner, vilken var narvarande?
8.

167

Vilka fern

goda egenskaper (qualities) agde gossen? 9. Varigenom (through what) visade gossen, att han var renlig? Artig? Forstandig och uppmarksam? 10. Vad brydde sig grosshandlaren mer
C.
1.

om an
1

(than)

om

rekommendationsbrev ?

day?
if

Are tbere many advertisements in the paper toNo, only a few (283). 2. I should like to know there is anyone who wants an errand boy. 3. It seems
4.

as if every other

boys.

The next morning
;

(279, 3) advertisement is about errand there were many boys in (pa)

the

letters of

it was full of boys who wanted the place. 5. The recommendation of most were very good. 6. Some 7. But the of the boys had many recommendations each. merchant dismissed every one of them and kept a small 2 boy who did not have any recommendation whatsoever.

office

Which one of you got the place? Neither. 9. Every boy who did not have any letter of recommendation was dis10. I believe that he missed, and neither of us had any.
8.

will

that (den som) he has
little

soon need another (279, 2) boy in his office; the one 4 4 11. The is neither polite nor tidy. conduct of both boys was good, but it seemed as if the
12. Do you have any reason boy behaved better. whatsoever 2 for not having 5 done this yet? 13. I did not

3

that it should be ready so soon; when I asked you, said that I could do it at any time. 14. How fast shall you 2 I drive ? You may drive as fast as you please 2 3 1. Use present or kommer att and ijfr del or finns det (244, b). 287,

know

.

infinitive.

4

VarTcen.

.

.

.eller.

translate varfor du icke har,

etc.

VOCABULARY.
en annons'

(pronounced an- behdl'la (insep., see hdlla), to retain nongs') -er, advertisement lieho'va (insep.), lib, to need artig, -t, polite
av'torka (sep., torka av'), to
bety'da( insep.), lib, to signify

wipe

llygsam,

-t,

modest

168

USE OF TENSES.
nnsta,

bort'skicka, skicka bor'(sep.) to dismiss

narvarande, next
,

,

present

bdde. och (conj.), both. ehu'ru (conj.), although
.

.

and ocksd, also
en plats,
rask,
-t,

-er, place,

position

fort, fast

quick
cleanly
-er,

foljaktligen,
ett golv,

consequently
floor
,

renlig,

-t,

forderi'skull, on that account
,

en rekommendation',

re-

commendation
wholeett

en grosshandlare,
sale

rekommendations'brev,
-t,

,

merchant

a letter of recommendation
skriftlig,

in'finna sig, to appear, to pre-

written

sent oneself
ett intyg,
just, just
,

testimonial
-ar,
,

en knappndl,
ett kontor,

pin

office

en springpojke. -ar, errand boy synas (dep.), Ha, to seem torka av', I, wipe off trdnga sig from', lib, to crowd to the front, to press forward
tyst,
,

medan, while
med'fora (sep.), to bring along noggrann, -grant, careful

quiet,

silent

upp'taga, taga upp', to take up
ett

uppforande (no

pi.),

conduct

LESSON XXVII.
Use of the Tenses.
lish,

289. In general the tenses are used as in Engbut the following points should be noticed.

PRESENT.
290. The Present for the Future. In both languages the present is used with the meaning of the future but this use is much more extensive in Swedish, and a Swedish present must often be rendered by the future. In fact Swedish employs the present instead of the future almost always when some adverbial expression of time accompanies the verb and prevents a misunderstanding jag gar till posten och ar tillbaka om tio minuter, I am going to the post office and shall be back in ten minutes.
:

NOTE.

For the progressive present see 228 and note.

USE OF TENSES.

169

IMPERFECT.

The imused in a present sense, especially in exclamatory expressions, to denote intensity of feeling, such as pleasure, enthusiasm, disgust, etc. It is usually combined with the impersonal det. Ex.: Det var fortjusande vackert! How Det var forfdrligt, hvad det charmingly beautiful bldser! How fearfully it storms! Det var roligt, att du kommer, I am glad that you are coming. Det var da lojligt! Isn't that ludicrous?
291.
perfect of the verb v ara
is
!

The Imperfect for the Present.

NOTE.

For the progressive imperfect see 228 and note.

292. The imperfect is used in certain expressions with a present or imperative meaning to give a tinge of modesty or politeness: herrarna behagade komma in, please come in, gentlemen; jag on-

skade veta om herr dr tillbaka, I should like to know if Mr. X. is back. This might perhaps be

X

regarded as a subjunctive (167).
PERFECT.
293. The Perfect for the Future Perfect. As in English the perfect is often employed with the meaning of the future perfect when no misunderstanding can arise: ndr han har varit i Sverige ett dr, sd talar han svenska flytande, when he has been in Sweden a year, he will speak Swedish fluently.

FUTURE.
294. For the present taking the place of the future see 290.
.295.

The future expressed by the auxiliary skola
infinitive often

and the

conveys the idea of a reso12

Swedish Grammar

or even command: jag skall betala. am jag star i on the point of leaving for Europe. 298. decision. In a dependent clause the auxiliary hava is frequently omitted: nar du gdtt (har gatt). skall jag borja att arbeta. since the latter has almost the force of a command. when you have gone. . I shall begin to work. is used very little in taken by the perfect (293). FUTURE PERFECT. The future perfect its Swedish. it is equivalent to the English to be about to. or on the point of. We may say. is equivalent to a promise . jag betalar i morgon. but is used much till less extensively: I begrepp att resa Europa. etc. nar ni laser boken and not ni skall skratta. Sta i begrepp is occasionally used with the infinitive to express immediate futurity. you will laugh when you read the book. we must say ni kommer att skratta. Omission of the Auxiliary in the Perfect and Pluperfect. If we wish to translate.170 USE OF TENSES. I am going to pay. In this case the present could not be used since there is no adverbial expression of time to obviate the misunderstanding. lution. nar ni laser boken. du skall betala is equivalent to an exhortation or command. place being 299. I will pay. 297. The present of skratta may also be used but is not quite as good in this case as kommer. Pure futurity is often expressed by the of the verb fcowwa-f-the infinitive of the verb present 296. preceded by att: jag kommer att betala. for instance.

USE OF TENSES. infinitive is often translated by a verbal noun or a : gerund (b) ten att in English. han sages ha dott. Idr. a construction nom komma. att (a) is omitted : With the future auxiliary skall. . modifier of nouns and adjectives konsthe art of growing rich detta dr latt att forstd. jag horde honom sjunga.. plaga. like. The infinitive with att used : As dr mdnskligt. to err subject or object of a sentence: att fela In this case the is human. where the noun is really the object. I heard him sing. infinitive Swedish uses here the active where . ved att saga. wood to be sawed. (c) Very often when the infinitive is used predicatively after a verb in the passive: han hordes saga. as. to hope. (c) etc. 300. (b) When the infinitive has a subject in the ob- very common in Swedish. As a Note expressions like : rum att hyra. 171 THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE. he was heard to say. to use. is 301 (a) . std. jag sag hojective. hoppas. (d) After many verbs which in English require to before the infinitive which they govern. bliva. fa. As predicate after vara. Thus. they seem to get . to use. finnas. especially when euphony demands. bli rik. he is said to have died de syna-s trivas. rooms for rent . I asked him to come. the modals. The simple infinitive (without att) is used much more frequently in Swedish than in English. and lata. to intend. dmna. I saw him coming. along well. jag bad honom komma. bruka. this is easy to understand. etc.

302. Swedish uses an att clause preceded by the preposition: genom att han Idnade mig pengar. "tror du verkligen. Prepositions with att When it refers to the subject of the leading verb the att may be preceded by almost any prepowhich case the English generally requires a verbal noun. as. genom att hjalpa andra hjdlper man ofta sig sjalv. Nar sjorovarnas skepp narmade sig och dess kapten be- fallde. ropade matrosen med jamrande rb'st: "Jag bar ej sa mycket styrka kvar. by his lending me money. A. I was able to buy the house .172 EXERCISE. he went without my getting a chance to speak to him. vad han skulle gora. he played instead of doing his work. som seglade fran Smyrna till Marseille last. forfoljdes av sjb'rovare och ansags vara Kaptenen kom da pa den tanken att lata besattningen ga ned under dack. Ett skepp. by helping others. Pa dacket lamnade han blott en enda matros. I am glad that I infinitive sition. "Far din vag. in can help you. din 2 dumsvar. att man skulle stryka flagg. we often help ourselves. kunde jag kopa huset. och kaptenen samt halften av besattningen ha dott i pesten pa b'verresan. utan att jag fick tala med honom." till bom !'' ropade sjorovaren Skynda er att stiga ombord. han lekte i stdllet for att gora sitt arbete. men komma sakert att do. vi komma fran Smyrna. med dyrbar forlorat. Han either the active or the passive is used in English: Vad dr hdr'att gora? What is here to be done? star ej att overtala. han gick. Sex man aro annu kvar. NOTE. EXERCISE XXVII. att . ni fa bemaktiga er skeppet. om ni ej hjalper oss. 1 ty ni allena kan radda oss. When the subject of the infinitive is not the same as that of the leading verb. som han noga foreskrev. he is not to be persuaded. jag dr glad over att kunna hjdlpa dig. Infinitive.

(do. 5. .. . 3 . och da . With the exception 0. min daliga svenska. innan du far ga ut och spela (kb'pa. Note omission of som. (packa. Vad hade blivit av kaptenen? 10. . mer att. och da . Vart det seglade det? Vad 6. . 3. . Change the following three sentences according to 299.. Om jag hade vetat. as. you big fool. niiigen voro kvar? 11. . the present. (besb'ka.) . I morgon . Du ditt arbete. transl. . Varifran kom skeppet? 4. 1 : din asna.. first person) min 9. 1st plur. . niir de horde detta 1 ? of. att ban var sjuk. 1st sing. 1.) dig. lish future. morgon . etc. . Erik.) tillbaka. sa hade jag besokt .EXERCISE. koffert.) till Stockholm. . sa (skratta. Nar 2nd sing. Vad befallningen de kaptenen pa det andra fartyget honom 'att gora? 9. . Supply the proper Swedish equivalent for the Engnamely. 2 Note the use of the personal pronoun of the second person in expressions denoting contempt . 1st plur. I 6. . Darpa avliigs- Note the weak form of the adjective after a personal pronoun. I gar nar min kusin kom for att progressive present). besoka mig. 2. ni laser . . B. (resa. . ? 2. Hela besattningen . (gora) allt boll. 7. Det dar gamla fartyget . Conversation. Om en vecka (vara. polite) at mina manga fel. progressive imperfect.. jag skulle vilja narma 173 nade ban J 3 sig sa fort mig ditt fartyg!" ban kunde. (fara) till Chicago.. for slags last hade det? Var ett segelfartyg eller ett angfartyg (steamer) det Av vem sjo- forfoljdes det? Kunde undkomma (escape) Vart skickade kaptenen hela besattmed undantag av 1 en enda matros ? 8. future with sTcall. Other expressions of the same kind din skurk. . en ring at dig. or hamthe first six sentences. 4. Vad gjorde sjorovarna.. Hur manga av besattrovaref artyget ? 7. in 1. 5.. 8. 3. 1st plur. sakert for- olyckas. .

Genom 13. had (299) told the pirate that half of the crew had died of the plague. 7. for (ty) he did not wish to 3 8. crew . the pirate sailed away without taking 3 9. I call that working (301. Vi sakna vara vanner. ar till Den gamle 11. to what port board? if know going to sail ? 2. . and shall 1 introduce you to you wish. He is a fine man and I am sure (saker 2 that you will like him. alle'na (only predicative. . alone befal'la. of the verbs indicated. 2 6. 10. Han ansags till . Mr. 3. 14.. (vara) rik. . 12. honom. Did he do all this work? sailor Well. He has just returned from pa) America and the passage was very difficult. It was only 3 by maneuvering the ship skillfully that (som) he saved it. a). Shall we go on the captain. min larare. this is (291) a beautiful ship! it is 1 Do you know him. He was on the point (297) of possession of the ship. D. . Sjorovaren hordes . the att New York. bemak'tiga sig. som nyss ha rest infinitive. When the leave the city without having spoken to us. 1. (Tcomma) home before night (def. no neut. 10. (ropa) matrosen pa dacket. 15. -ar. 14. going out when I entered. He much VOCABULARY.. fast in order to get 11.). 12. . very interested in playing3 tennis. *Here the future implies a decision: skola or komma attf 2 Here pure futuriis ty. (narra) sjorovarna raddade kaptenen sitt fartyg. (ga) ned under dack. som nyss bar stigit i vagnen. 13. herrn. 5. 4. He asked us to come on board. We must walk form). He does not believe that his trip will be stormy. The water is warm enough for bathing 3 (till att bada i). Lind was kind enough to lend me a book. In the following supply the proper . . to take pos- session of lib. to command en besatt'ning. Han bad matroserna .174 VOCABULARY. infinitive or the simple. But I say.

-er. certainly. kit. harbor en hedersman. to pur- omoord. lib. -or. ett ddck. maniivre'ra. struto lower en kapten'. power en tanke. to cry. -er. ned. en flag g a (flagg). strok. dyrbar. yet last. en matros'. be so kind as to (please) lend me.). -et. att do i en sjukdom. costly . . en person for ndgon. 3. sailor to maneuver thereupon vessel down ett far'tyg. port. han var sd god och kom. -at.). flag nog. call honor en hiilft. en tanke. -er. exact I. to be sure fort. to approach fvrfol'ja (insep. Var sd god och Idna mig. stroko. -ar. jiimrande. -man. I.). v. en rost. 175 -er. -ar. deck . to prescribe noga (adj. to enter en styrka. -er. -t. to die of a disease. -t. pest. -en. burden IDIOMS: 2. voice en sjorovare. rapidly fo'reskriva (insep. quickly. to introduce a person to somebody. . 5. sig. man of to introduce ropa. dilrpd. interested stryka. I. enough. 1. a thought.VOCABULARY. to tell somebody someatt presentera thing. captain komma en in'. to hit upon an idea. plague presente'ra. strength. sue en hamn. he was kind enough to come. precious. thought iinnu. half plaintive skicklig. att omtala ndgot for ndgon. ndrma and adv. on board en pest. pirate . 4. -er. att komma pd en ide. cargo. skillful intresse'rad. I.

LESSON XXVIII.
Comparison of Adjectives
303. Most adjectives form their comparative by adding -are to the stem of the positive, and the superlative by the addition of -ast. 304.
rik ddel

Examples

:

trogen vacker ringa
NOTE.
in the comparative

rikare ddlare trognare

rikast ddlast

rich

noble
faithful beautiful

vackrare ringare
Positive stems in unaccented

trognast vackrast ringast
-el, -en, -er,

humble, small

and superlative.

drop the e of these syllables Positive stems in -a drop the a.

305. The following adjectives form their comparative and superlative by the addition of -re and -st and modify the stem vowel if it is strong:

grov hog
lag

grovre hogre
lagre Idngre storre

Idng
stor

trang tung

trdngre tyngre

ung

yngre
;

NOTE. Grov, trdng and lag are also compared regularly moral signification.

lag then has a

306.

The following are compared

irregularly:

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
307.

177

adjectives derived from adverbs, such as designate place, have no posiespecially tive. These have a comparative in -re, generally

Some

inverted in the superlative -erst.

bakre
bortre

bakerst
bofrterst

frdmre
ftfrre(a)

frdmst
forst innerst

farther back, rear farther farther in front

former
inner

inre

nedre undre
yttre
o'vre

nederst

under st
ytterst

under
outer

nether, lower

overst

upper

308. Adjectives which do not easily take the endings of comparison may be compared by using mera and mest together with the positive (such are adjectives in -e, -ad, -s, isk and all participles) Ex. ode, desolate, mera ode, mest ode; dlskad, mera
. :

dlskad,

mest dlskad.

NOTE. This is also the case when two qualities of the same object are compared with one another: han or mera trott an somnig, he is more tired than
sleep}'.

DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
309. The comparative is invariable except that takes an -s in the genitive when used as a noun den dldre brodern, the older brother; det dldre barnet, the older child; den dldres rdttigheter, the rights of the older.
it
:

The superlative is not declined in the predicate when not preceded by the definite prepositive article; when preceded by this article it is declined Ex. han like an adjective in the weak declension.
310.
:

178

EXERCISE.

var den flitigaste i klassen, he was the most diligent one in the class han var didst, he was the oldest.
;

Superlatives in -ast take only the ending -e: del vackraste barnet, but det yngsta barnet, den yngste gossen.

NOTE.

311. jag, he

Than
is

is

rendered by an: han ar aldre an
I.

older than

EXERCISE XXVIII.
A.
Insert comparative and superlative forms respectively in the blanks.
1.

Jag ar trogen, du ar
.
.

.

.

.

,

han ar
.

.

.

.

2.

Vi aro

adla,

ni aro

.,

de aro ...

3.

Detta huset ar
.

stort, det

dar

och det grona dar borta ar 4. Detta ar en fortjusande utsikt, men utsikten fran berget pa andra sidan floden ar och utsikten fran den hoga bergstoppen .,
ar
. .
.

,

.

.

.

Han ar en lag manniska, jag Vilken av de tva bergstopparna ar den (lowest) ? 9. Hur gammal ar Erik? Det vet jag ej sakert, men han ar (older) an Karl, och Alfred
sondagen var det ... bar sallan sett en ...
.
. .

5. Karl ar liten, Erik ar (peak) dar borta ar ., 6. I dag ar det manga i kyrkan, men forra Ernst ar
.
. .

.

.

.

.

.

7.

8.

.

.

.

ar den

.

.

.

(oldest) av gossarna.
eller

10.

Vem
ar

ar
.

.

.

.

(most

musical},
tive)

Anna

an Klara.

12.

Klara? H'ar du

11.
sett

Anna

.

.

(compara-

en ...

(more desolate,

ode) trakt an denna?

E. 1. Ar icke katedralen i Koln en av de aldsta, storsta och hogsta kyrkor i varlden? 2. Jo, det finns endast fa, som aro aldre, storre och hogre. 3. Nar tycker ni, att det
ar intressantast (310) att resa?

Pa sommaren,

ty da aro

dagarna namare.

langre, man kan se mer, och det ar mycket ange4. Hur lang tid tar det att komma fran New

De snabbaste angarna gora overtill Liverpool? resan pa mindre an sex dagar. 5. Det ar ett misstag, att
York

EXERCISE.

179

de europeiska tagen skulle vara langsammare an de amerikanska. 6. I flere lander i Europa aro snalltagen bland de
snabbaste,
flere

som det over huvud taget finns. 7. Har man ej klasser darborta an har? Jo, det ar vanligen tre
i

klasser;

Tyskland har
fara
i

man
9.

till

och

med
i

fyra.

8.

I Sve-

rige resa endast de allra rikaste

(316)
reser
10.

forsta klass, och

de

fiesta

tredje.
i

Man

andra klass dar an
borta?

var forsta.

bekvamare (318) i Vena bor i huset dar-

en kusin.

Tva av vara narmaste slaktingar, en farbror och 11. Den forre bor i framre del en av den ovre va-

ningen, den senare i den bakersta delen av den undre vaningen; resten av huset star tomt. 12. Jag skulle garna
vilja

hyra huset,

om

dess yttre vore vackrare, dess inre dar13.
1 Skulle du vilja gb'ra en langre

emot behagar mig.
tur
1

i

min

bil

i

eftermiddag?

Ja,

med

Translate: extended; form of the noun.

langre means here rather

stb'rsta nb'je . 2 Note the indefinite long.

2

1. There are large and high churches in most cities, C. but there are business buildings in New York which are larger and higher than the largest and highest churches in

the world.

in the class.

oldest brother is the most diligent boy In point of 1 studies he is at the head (framst, 310), but in sports he is poorer than most of them. 4. We had the most beautiful weather on our
2.

My

3.

trip to-day; it
5.

was

less

warm

than on our former

trip.

Have you no nearer and
No, he
is

he?

my

better friend in this city than 6. I do not nearest and best friend.

know whether

I shall travel first or second class.

Would

2 you advise me? 7. If I were you (i ert stdlle) I should is more comfortable than rather travel second; that class

our
8.

first

and only the wealthiest

travel first class here.
3
;

The

fastest steamers are not always to be preferred
less.
9.

a slower and larger steamer rocks

Don't you think

180

VOCABULARY.
is

that the interior of this house

much more

beautiful than

the exterior?

Why
etc.

(308). don't you rather rent that
*Use impersonal form of gdlla.
*att foredraga (301, c).

Yes, but it is more beautiful than modern The house next to ours is for rent (301, b, note).
?

It has

many more modern

improvements (nutida bekvamligheter).
Translate
so,

(171, B, 2) skulle jag hellre,

VOCABULARY.
en affiirsbyggnad, -er, business building angendm, -t, agreeable (en) bekvamlighet, -er, comfort bekviim', comfortable bredvid', next to, at the side of ddrborta, over there
endast, only

en klass, Idngsam,

-er, class

slow '(not lone-t, some; to be lonesome att ha trdkigt) ett miss'tag, mistake modern' -t, modern
,

ett noje, -n,

amusement,

pleas-

ure

en rest, -er, remainder -t, European en slakting, -ar, relative en farbror, -broder, uncle snabb, -t, quick, rapid fattig, -t, poor fo'redraga (insep., see draga), ett studium, -er, study till och med, even prefer torn, -t, empty, vacant gunga, I, to rock, to swing en tur, -er, trip gdlla, lib, to have a value; to be a question of vanligen, usually en dngare, steamboat Jiellre, rather 1 i'drott over huvud taget, on the whole -er, sport en overresa, -or, trip across en katedral', -er, cathedral
europeisk,
,
,

*ldrott

is

generally used collectively in the singular.

LESSON XXIX.
Comparison of Adjectives (Continued).
is expressed by or by sa. .sow, lika(sa) .som, (just) .as; so (as) ... as, the latter generally after negatives lika or sa is occasionally omitted: han dr lika gammal som jag, he is just as old as I; hon dr ej sa lycklig, som hon brukade vara, she is not as happy as she used to be; han dr tapper som ett lejon, he is as brave as a lion.
. .

312.

A

comparison of equality
as.
.

.

;

NOTE. A comparison of equality with adverbs is expressed in the same way where there is no equality the correlative as as must be rendered by d som only han skriver lika bra som du, he writes as well as you ; kom id fort
; .
. . .

:

som

mojligt,

come as soon

as possible.

313. The comparison below the positive is formed by using the adverbs mindre, minst (less, least) han dr den minst framstdende av de tre brb'derna, he is the least prominent of the three brothers.
:

314. The adverb the with a comparative is expressed by dess, desto (sometimes ju) ; the correlatives the. .the by ju (normal order) .dess, desto or ju (inverted order) as, jasa, han kommer, desto bdttre,so, he is coming, so much the better ju Idngre han stannade hdr, dess (ju) fattigare blev han, the longer he remained here, the poorer he became.
. . .

;

;

315. The comparative and the superlative are sometimes used absolutely; the comparative then denotes a rather high degree and the superlative a very high degree; as, en sto'rre penningsumma, a rather large sum of money jag gor det med storsta noje, I shall do that with the greatest pleasure min
; ;

baste van,

my

dear friend (in speaking or writing

Some adverbs are hastig. hastigt. NOTE. god. good. 316. vdnlig. adv. plural of all) den allra storsta. verbs.: adj. adj. . the greatest. mojlig-en. possibly. rapid. few except those ending in -t can be compared. Distributive Superlative.. vdnligt. friendly. The bra. adv. of The indefinite forms of the neuter singular most descriptive adjectives can be used as adEx. The superlative often strengthened by the adverb allra (old gen.182 to ADVERBS. 317. gott. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.. prettiest of all (the very greatest.. their degrees of comparison like the adjectives. den aUra vackraste. trolig-en.. 318... some one) . probably. Adverbs form Very Examples hovligt ddelt troget : tungt 319. vdl gdrna ilia ndra Idnge fore fort ofta sakta fram . adv. formed from adjectives in -Kg by means of the ending -en. pret: tiest) . Adverbs. adj. kdraste du (kdra du is perhaps more common) is in speaking to very intimate friends.

talad (308). he read as plainly as he could (also sa tydligt han kunde. fast den senare ar mera omVad skall ni gora under de stundande . Jungstedt. As. Gar du ofta pa 1 eller sex teatern. Apparent exceptions are a few idiomatic absolute superlatives. det allra varmaste lika bra Jag tyckte. they were very nearly one hundred. The comparative and the superlative of adverbs are invariable. The English more and more=aUt+the repeated comparative as in English (a single comstormen rasade allt hdftiparative may be used) och hdftigare. note omission of lish.EXERCISE. 1. han Idste det tydligaste han kunde. . att frb'ken Forsell sjb'ng som fm 5. Konserten i gar var troligen den mest lyckade (308) sedan sa2 songens bb'rjan. most) fern mycket hellre De olika numren pa programmet mottogos med bifall. as. So also the Swedish equivalent for the Enghon gick det tystaste hon as . Karl? Hogst (at the ganger om aret (338... : som. EXERCISE XXIX. he came as soon as possible. he greeted me most politely. 322. A. the storm raged more and more gare : violently. 4. . 323. han kom med det snaraste. note). he fought as long as possible. . mojligt . as). i 321. she walked as quietly as she could. han hdlsade mig pa det hovligaste. can.as possible is expressed by sa. 2. Jag gar pa forelasningar och konserter. as soon as possible. could kunde.som sa snart som mojligt. 183 320. salongen var i det narmaste fullsatt. . 3. de voro det narmaste ett hundra. han kdmpade i det Idngsta.

1. 4. 10. Ju oftare ledsen. han var visserligen icke den allra basta i sin klass. froken ni (att) avlagga 6. fore been as occupied as I am now. note). Nu synes han mera lat an dum (308. EXERCISE. Do you attend the theater oftener now than you 1 used to (do). Var auditoriet vid konserten 4. and when I 2 I attend mostly the opera. att han far 1 sitta kvar. is sound form nummer . one m no longer intervocalic. I have never bedo attend. Carl? 2. och ju langre du gb'r ditt besok. 6. att jag skall skriva 7. it seems. go to the theater. 2. is Indef. the more (314) I do. dropped in the def. go. desto battre. honom med det allra sna- Kara du. Na'r amnar till honom an? Gor en jamforelse (comparison) mellan Eriks och Karls Har ni skrifvit arbete 1 i skolan. Conversation. pa B. Vart gar ni heist. 11. No. maste du verkligen resa? Jag ar sa men kom igen sa fort du kan (321). 5. the more there is to do. att det troligaste ar. to used in the sense of to in a number of phrases: att 2 320. pa teatern i eller pa en forelasning? talrikt? 3. to market. du kommer. 9. Hur gar det for Erik i skolan? Icke sa bra som det gjorde i bb'rjan.184 helgdagarna ? hos min bror. form since the long m- G. bli 12. extremely seldom. Karl daremot studerar det flitigaste han kan och ar framst i sin klass. raste 2 . han arbetar utan det ringaste intresse och ar alls icke uppmarksam i klassen. Jag skall avlagga ett kortare (315) besok Halsa honom pa det hjartligaste 2 och sag till honom. Aren't you working a . gar Fann ni konserten lyckad? ? ahorarna de olika numren 1 Forsell eller fru Jungstedt? (ett) besok hos er bror? 7. ty du ar alltid en mycket valkommen gast hos oss. Vem Appladerade sjong bast. Pa is target. Jag har hoppats i Erik skulle uppflyttad ar. 1. fa tealern. 3. 8. men 2 i det langsta . men han var flitigare an nu och gjorde sitt basta. 8.

watering place applause en torjan. cordial hard. do? Come as often you please (287. No. although friimst. Where do you intend to spend it? to get my vacation. Sivedish . Is he wrote other me most politely that he would time. VOCABULARY. he were growing lazier and lazier (323). hard interesting dum. are often used to form an absolute superlative. 10. approval. lay. No. -er. in the highest degree. ) harder than you used to? 5. -er. rather 4. for the most avlagga. perhaps more (flera}. to make take part sep. 5. He sent the most cordial 6. -er. perhaps crowded en Mass. 1. seems as 3. class 13 Grammar . I have been at watering places several (flera) times before. insep. I wish have a certain work ready as soon as possible in order 6. the more we are. (314) (skutte) D. come an- (316) greetings to all his friends. can't you come as l to see me a little ofterier than you 1). the merrier it will be. very. -t. interest karihan'da. guest hjartlig. Are you going alone? beautiful sceneries of Lapland. little 2 185 to (274. lecture en gdst. we shall be four.VOCABULARY. he not here yet ? Perhaps he will come a little later. to take a trip to northern Sweden. en forelasning. Ytterst hogst. Would No. exceedingly. My dear (315) friend. Perhaps. *For del mesta (320). fast. beginning ett bifall. audience (a off for det mesta. Is Eric as diligent as he was in the beginning? it No. summer mine most (hogst) interesting account of the 9. stupid intressant'. This 8. h&rt. extremely. 2. -ar. -n. I do not know what if is the matter with him. eft intres'se. and ytterst. ett auditorium. friend of A I prefer has given me a as soon as you permit me to go with you if I could be ready you? 11. With the greatest (315) pleasure.. -t. -cr. At a watering place? 7. visit) . en badort. foremost full'satt.

1st def. probably lyckad. ledsen.). nificant sceneri'. en skildring. appear celebrated en sdsong'. northern stundande (indecl. opera. snar. 3. en [neut. a natural season. 4. to sing (no neut. program ringa (indeclinable) insig. season en opera. *Sasong is a social season. (den) forste(a).).). etc. 3rd. sex sju dtta nio sjunde dttonde nionde tionde elvte 10. IDIOMS: 1. 8. promoted upptagen.186 kvar (adv. uppflyttad. soon norra (indeclinable). -ar. to be promoted. 2. att tli uppflyttad. att sitta kvar. Hvad fattas honomf What the matter with him? LESSON XXX. 3. sjungen. . left. ferier a vacation from school. snart. mentioned. 5. The Numerals. I la. account quick. cer- tainly vacation from work. 9. lazy -at. om'talad. 6. sjong. -or. -at. coming ett nummer. to permit house troligen. successful . tio 11. to seem. to be sure. adj. elva . verkligen. sjungit.). semester. -t. ORDINAL ett. -at. v. opera tilldta (insep. arstid. in the over sjunga. -er*. occupied en semes' ter 1 vacation ^Semester is a scenery -rar. is 2. number synas (dep. -er. -et. not to be promoted. 2nd tredje. sorry rapid. -et. moved up. CARDINAL 1. sjongo. really visserligen. fyra fern fjarde femte sjatte 7. ett program'. and predicate) lat NUMERALS. ene(a)'\ tvd tre andre(a).

90. When genitive but are otherwise indeclinable: used as nouns they take an s in the de fyras . 326. 30. tva hundra hundra hundrade hundra forsta tva hundrade tva hundra femtionde tusende ett tusen ett hundra femtionde femtio 1. tjuge) 21. but tjuguen gossar. 17. tva 250. 31. 15. 80. 325. tjugutva trettio (tretti) tjuguandra trettionde tretti(o)forsta tretti(o)ett fyrtio (fyrti) fyrtionde femtio (femti) sextio (sexti) sjuttio (sjutti) attio (dtti) nittio (nitti) (ett) hundra hundra ett femtionde sextionde sjuttionde attionde nittionde 200. en million hundra femtio REMARKS ON THE CARDINALS.NUMERALS. tjugu (tjugo. 19. which has the neuter ett: det ar tjuguett barn i rummet.000.150. 50. 60. The cardinals are indeclinable when used as adjectives with the exception of en. 18.000. 14. 187 tolv tolvte tretton fjorton trettonde fjortonde femton sexton sjutton aderton femtonde sextonde sjuttonde adertonde nittonde tjugonde tjuguforsta nitton 20. 13. tjuguett 22. 101. 12. 40. ett tusen ett 1. 70. 16.000. 100. (ett) tusen 1.

they two. itu: riva itu. the twentieth century thousand. tear in two. also in the sense of suddenly) . cf. 328. and. as if it was written fortio. ett Hundra and tusen are always preceded by : may be left out) ett hundra femtioatta. tre (in counting time.188 NUMERALS. The numbers. milliard.. The form . The ordinals are used as indeclinable adjectives. etc. femti. fyrti. bada and bagge have the force of numerals. del forsta tusendet. both.. . we two. adv. etc. tu. except forste(a) and andre(a) which follow the weak declension. Hundra and tusen may also be used substantively and then take the form hundrade and tusende with plural in -n: det tjvgonde arhundradet. . NOTE. billion. och. adertons sammankomst. 329. Bada and bagge are occasionally used with tva for the* sake of emphasis: bada tva. the prepositive definite article. NOTE. de bagge. pa tu man hand. between two de unga tu. sextitre. the first tu is used for tva in certain set such as. de Academy) . Fyrtio is pronounced generally pronounced arton. the meeting of the eighteen (the Swedish dsikt. etc. million. are used mostly in compounds: femtiatta. is not used between the hundreds and the tens. but may sometimes . the opinion of the four. 327. are declined as nouns of the Third Declension: tre millioner manniskor. in confidence phrases. the engaged or newly married couple ett. (in counting ett 330. The forms tretti. Aderton is REMARKS ON THE ORDINALS. They are usually preceded by 331. in such expressions as vi bada. Tvenne and trenne are sometimes used for two and three but never in connection with other numerals. ett tusen ett hundra sextiofem.

it is the second time he is here. a quarter of Klockan ar tjugu minuter fore minutes of three. Ex. the numbe used alone after the article: den 5 ber may februari. the last being used with the numbers to inthe ordinal. used instead of the ordinals these follow the noun : pa sidan tio. it is half past nine. dicate letter or letters The ordinals are often abbreviated. In compound ordinals only the last number takes the ordinal ending. den ett tusen tvd hundra sextiofjarde. it is ten o'clock. tre kvart pa fyra. it is it is a quar- Klockan ar four. 333. Klockan ar en kvart fore ter of four. (till. 332. the death of Charles XII. it is twenty . cardirrals are occasionally . den andra.NUMERALS. i) fyra. den 8:e. Klockan ar en kvart over fyra. Klockan ar halv tio. The ordinals take the genitive -s: Karl den tolvtes dod. The following phrases illustrate the manner of telling the time of day Hur mycket ar klockan? what time is it? Klockan ar tio. tre. det ar andra gdngen han ar har. on page 335. den tredje. : 130 be used without it den forsta. 334.: den 5:e. but forsta dagen (also den forsta dagen) i veckan ar sondagen. it is a quarter past four. 336. the first day of the week is Sunday. The ten. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME (O'CLOCK) : .

563. 7X9=63. 3X2=6. Vid niotiden. piece. ett ar tva. 4. Multiplicera 580 med 213. 3. it is twenty minutes past three. Eead in Swedish: 2X12=24. 4X8=32. two times a year kronor f veckan. ten crowns a- This distributive use of the def. sions of quantity. EXPRESSIONS OF MEASURE AND PRICE. he came at ten o'clock. . etc.213. tva ganger En gang tva ar tva. 19. etc. article is found after other expresnoun is then preceded by a preposition (generally han fortjanar trettio om. towards ten Han kom klockan tio. or <) tvd ganger om aret. EXERCISE A. live the differ5. 4X2=8. 11. Subtrahera 15. o'clock. tre. 1. After an expression of price a noun measure requires the def. Practice orally. but the : tio kronor stycket. 6X7=42. NOTE. he earns thirty crowns a week. at three o'clock sharp. o'clock. . give me a glass of fresh water.190 EXERCISE.348. she bought four meters of black cloth. Pa Precis slaget ire. 2. Klockan dr tjugu -minuter over ire. article in English: detta tyget kostar tre kronor metern. After nouns of measure t*he thing measured used without preposition: hon kopte fyra meter svart tyg. postpositive article of in- stead of the indef. 7X10=70. 337. tva ganger tva ar fyra. pa. is 338. giv mig ett glas friskt vatten.213. at three o'clock sharp. 3X12=36. XXX.113 fran 6. it has just struck four. 2. Addera 1. Klockan har jiLst slagit fyra. about nine Fram at tiotiden. this cloth costs three crowns a meter. En gang ett ar ett.

78. 371. 7. Widare means wider. minuter sedan. 12. 191 1 It is Name a quarter past 12 . icke sa varst.000. Nej. 4 tjog agg. Det bradskar ej. 67. 8 kronor och 50 ore for supen och frukosten 7. 4. the numbers 40.000. innan det gar. 2. 10. 1. Hur manga invanare bar staten Minnesota? Omkring B. pr- *Tva och (pronounced d) per kilo.50 kilot3 och kostar smoret och aggen? aggen 1. 12.15. Den ar val tamligen sa hog. en skinka pa fyra kilo och diverse gronsaker. man betala sarskilt. 75.001. 50. 498. 5. further. tror jag. dessa far sig till? snail. staterna i Unionen. att det ar en av de storsta 3. kloekan har just slagit sju. eller 2. klockan is often denna stad bo 2. Ah nej. Vad Smoret kostar 2. 22 kronor och 37 ore. sa kunde vi a'ta frukost pa hotellet.50 2 racker. 100.. Jag har kopt en hel del (en massa) saker pa torget i dag: 1 kilo mejerismbr. 6. 10 kronor for rumrnet.. icke Da aro naturligtvis drickspengarna till betjaningen inbegripna? 8. formodar i holm morgon? jag. ar du annars forsumma vi taget. 53. : kl. I 2. 41. 'At a quarter past twelve.656. och resten for diverse smasaker. Sag till uppassaren Har ar den.000.EXERCISE.50 sometimes 3 Also tjoget. 205.012. 5. G4. om vi stiga upp .000.25. vi ha annu en kvarts timme pa oss (to spare). 104. ty dar bo nara 7.098.427. 2. talrik. may be is translated by very.342 manniskor. ent expressions for: 3.45.000 manniskor eller nara tre ganger sa manga. Med vilket tag resa vi till Stock- Det gar ett tag . ver abbreviated to . (at six or half past five). it it has an idiomatic use which is hard to render. 94... Hur mycket 9. Skynda dig. 12. 4. abbreviated to kl. 1. 11. femti. nar man tar i Minnesotas befolkning ar ej vidare 1 betraktande. jag fick den for nagra att vi onska rakningen. (a quarter past seven). 89. 209.15.30. klockan en kvart efter tolv. 1. men den ar anda ej pa langt nar sa stor som London. belb'pa de 2 kr.

*Skulle. part.). service. the whole expression stockholmstyer. Let five me see. 8) to about 1 3. to lect. VOCABULARY. to to forso'va amount sig (insep. please. or fifty ore a dozen. I owe you three crowns kind is and seventy-five ore. Ila. of inbegripa. Hurry.192 C. 1. creamery butter . 12. or state. 4. in American money a crown is about twenty-eight cents. How many minutes do we have to spare (B. I. 9. it amounted (B. you? holm. How much a Use over or translate VOCABULARY. Was your bill at the hotel very high ? No. vegetables (ett)betraktande. In the city of London live almost 7. -ar. 2. of the p. forsum'ma to neg- en betjaning (generally no pi. can you change it? 10. Did you have thirty-six crowns.). it was not as high as I expected. or we shall miss the train. Yes. en befolkning. 3 twenty-five ore in change (tillbaka) 11. -ar. only fourteen minutes. here is a fifty-crown bill. sova). the tips not included . (In a store. 'Use the plur. population ett dussin. it is nine mj watch. to please beldpa sig till. diverse. consideration del. I believe. 5. various mejeri'smor.000 more than three times as many as (312) in our people. dozen see behaga.). to hurry diver" se (pi. I should like to look at. Did you oversleep ? Yes.) What can I do for some view cards of 2 Stock(till) We have cards at various prices. 10) before the train leaves? 6. 8. that. we slept to a quarter past six and the train was 2 to leave at ten minutes past seven.000. I wish to change one hundred and forty crowns into (i) American money. breakf ast at the hotel before you started ? No. . we only had time to drink a cup of coffee and eat a sandwich.. part inhabitant en invanare. here are forty-six . crowns and is crown? A crown is one hundred ore. brddska. to oversleep (insep. servants miss (train) gronsaJcer (pi. five ore apiece. This ten ore apiece (338) or a crown a dozen.). . minutes of by (enligt) 7.

From The the cardinals are formed : variatives by the use of slags (the geni(a) tvd slags. dubbla) . meaning kind) tre slags. . en supe. -n. take a thing into consideration. without further ado. -ar. en sedel. unlike. icke vidare mycket. niira. -er. expect vdxla. two kinds of. I. fifty-crown ett torg. tive of slag. ham en smdsak. pi. -er. -or. ett vykort. -t. vtinta. bill -lar. olik. The Numerals 339.kronor.NUMERAL FORMATIONS. numerous back . union uppassare. rise ett stycke. -a) for the adjective and -fait for the . three kinds of. piece tamligen. 5. near. fairly. utan vidare. I owe him ten ten crowns. multiplicatives by the addition of dubbel for the adjective and dubbelt for the adverb more rarely by the addition (neut. Vad behagasf What do you wish? What can I do for you? Jag ar skyldig honom tio . score kronesedel. yet i IDIOMS: 1. er. state stiga upp' (see stiga). femti- ett tjog. : many (b) kinds of flowers. to get up. alt taga en sak betraktande. icke pd Idngt ndr. manga slags blommor. (Continued). souvenir postal egg to andd. 4. not very much. The of -faldig (-t. dubbelt. sandwich en stat. . tillbaka. waiter to wait. . trifle en smorgds. LESSON XXXI. 193 almost price bill. different . 6. 2. ett dgg. ett pris. supcer. -t. I. supper talrik. 3. market place en skinka. to change . not by far. pretty en union. NUMERAL FORMATIONS.

double. Half. manifold. twice or two times tre ganger. quadruple. de gingo tvd tva. a twenty-second part so also en tretti(o)tvaendel. by twos. in pairs. one half of the house. . (b) Fractional adjectives by prefixing halv to the . en halv. tvd ganger. vetet avkastar trettiofalt. part (plur. etc. tusentats. three times two equals six. one at a time och tva. Halv is used as the denominator of fractions and as adjective. hundreds. ett tjugutal. one by one. tredubbel.). time plur. hdlften av huset. 1500-talet. delar) : en tredjedel. dubbelt sa manga. 1599). a third. two at the time. tusentals manniskor voro narvarande. 340. the eighties. tva tion(de) delar. about twenty. kragar av fyrdubbelt linne. NOTE. halv and hiilft. triple. (e) The collectives by suffixing the word tal to numeral : . . the sixteenth century (1500 . han gar pa fyrtiotalet. Observe expressions like hundratals. From the ordinals are formed : (ct) Fractional nouns by compounding the ordinal with the noun del. twice as many. . dussintals. NOTE. adverb: dubbel.194 NUMERAL FORMATIONS. thousands of many dozen people were present. collars of four-ply linen. . (d) The distributives by the repetition of numerals en och en. two tenths. once or one time. the wheat yields thirty-fold. : the tva och the 1. they went by twos. tva dr lika med sex. thousands. 2. otherwise hiilft is used ett halvt dussin. one half en tjugutvaendel. he is in the forties. To denote an approximate number: about ten. and adv. . 80-talet. mangfaldig. ett tiotal. To denote a decade or a century thus. fyrdubbelt (neut. half a dozen ena : . ganger: en gang. (c) The iteratives by the use of gang.

Vad for en dag ar det i dag? What day (of the week) is it to-day? Det ar onsdag i dag. 341. To-morrow be the sixteenth. every third: varannan dag ha vi rakning. NOTE. To-day is Wednesday. (b)The date of the year number often preceded by ially in the given by the cardinal ar. dog . tredje (neut. day. Napoleon ar 1821. Only the first is in common use. (a) In giving the day of the month the ordinal is used without any preposition as. not after. i dag. to-day is the sixth of August. (c) Ordinal adverbs by using the preposition for with the ordinal for det forsta. in the year of. 190 next higher unit: halvannan. as. To-day is the will I morgon ar det den sextonde. : . two and a half. halvtredje. one and a half. secondly. every other. Napoleon died in the year of 1821. (d) Distributives by prefixing var to the ordinal : varannan var vartannat). etc. 5:e (or 5) oktober. as in English: Boston den . we have mathematics every other (neut.EXPRESSIONS OF DATE. etc. vart tredje). first for det andra. EXPRESSIONS OF DATE. a letter the date is placed before the name dating of the month. Observe the following date idioms: Vad ha vi for ett datum i dag? What date it is to-day? Det ar den femtonde juni fifteenth of June. det ar den sjatte In augusti i dag. especis case of historical dates.

vid middagen. pa sondagskvdllen voro vi i kyrkan. . last night. Pa followed by the def. kvdll. at midnight i i . morgon. NOTE after pa is . at noon. sing. and om followed by the def. and i (in) are used pa requires the def form. in the night. Sunday evening he left for New York. on Sunday evening we sondags kvdll for han till Neiv York. 342. and 343). this morning gar morse. middagen. last i were Sunday evening. in the morning. in the evening pa natten. on Sunday one ought to go to church rod gor ni om sondagarnat What do you . to-morrow b'vermorgon. The day following t is the last day of that name. om so'ndag kvdll. om lordag. plur. 2. to-morrow night morse. may denote indefinite or recurrent time: pa sondagen horde man ga i kyrkan. yesterday morning morgon . the prepositions pa (on). to-night. next Saturday. . on Monday we were away i mandags voro vi borta. . . pa kvdllen. while the day any day of that name in the past or future the day after' om is the next day of that name (for other uses of f and om see 338. mdndagen voro vi borta. i i i i i kvdll. the day after to-morrow. do on Sundays? 343. in the afternoon. last Monday we were away. in the forenoon. at noon. . gar kvdll. note. om (about). vid midnatt. . With the names of the days of the week and i the genitive of the indefinite: pa . fo'rmiddagen. next in church. eftermiddagen. Note such expressions -of time as: pa pa pa pa morgonen.196 EXPRESSIONS OF TIME. 1. om the indefinite .

i nummer -\-ihe number generally precedes the street name han bor i nummer 11 Linnegatan (also i ll:an [elvari] Linne: gatan). . Herr Carl Lind. in the summer. 2. .. manad? . at noon to-morrow tidigt morgon. En manad eller . the house number follows the street name: street) . ({). (b) In giving an address. (twelfths) inne- En hel innehaller alltsa . i i somras. form of gata. early i morgon bittida. last year . (trappa or trappor. EXERCISE XXXI. in the beginning of April borjan\ \pa april. dag ett ar sedan } to morrow . gar det . early to-morrow morning. in the summer of . . he lives at number 11 Linne Street. 1. this summer fjol sommar. . Storgatan NOTE. a year from om mandag. 4 tr. to-morrow i i i i i i sommar. morgon om ett ar. the latter part of April in the middle of April mitten) slutet .. i i . the past summer (of the same year) dag for ett arsedanl to _ d . (|f) (|t) hel. stair or stairs) signifies story. 344.. tr.EXERCISE. 197 . eller Hur manga . A. i . till sommarn.. ('{fete. Hur stor del av ett ar ar en ar. Stockholm. . next summer. morgon middag. next Monday om sommarn. (a) In addressing letters the street name is written as one word with -gatan (def... .) pa en . ar en tolvtedel av ett haller en hel. 8. Supply in Swedish whatever is indicated.

Vilken ar den genaste vagen.6. gor man sedan naren och erhaller . han stupade 1632. det JOT datum. man . jag nagonsin har sett. 17. Har du varit i herr Lindgrens tradgard nyligen? 18. . . I gar for en vecka sedan kom min bror hem fran . for att deltaga i firandet. . (in the year of) . . Sommarferierjuni na racka alltsa omkring . (2 |) manader. Pa vilken vaning bor han ? Han amnar ju att flytta. bag- vagen till den ar bortemot en och en halv kilometer kortare. I dag fira vi pappas (in the morning). dividerar taljaren med nam1 (liV).. () . 13.. Den andra ar alltsa mer an diibbelt sa lang. . 10. . . . Det ar . till . Vad 3. 12. dess- utom har han manga andra J slags blommor. . . *Att ta itu may be omitted. 5. .198 3. 11. . en dag i . for- vandlar bada braken (twelfths) blir det? och adderar de blir bada taljarne. . Vad for datum ha vi i Man 7. 8. vanster. EXERCISE. han foddes (50th) fodelsedag. indef. vet ni . . Hur mycket ? . Vid vilken pa dagen stupade konungen? . . 9. 14. jag var dar i onsdags.. . I dag dag? (the sixth) november i dag. Det (ff ). Hum Vad adderar 4. article vi. eller hur? Lit oss ta dag? Det ar fredag i dag. Hur langa aro feri- erna vid den svenska folkskolan ? Skolan slutar i mitten pa och borjar igen i slutet pa augusti. (the sixth) tid november ... och . .. Tyskand . (the ninth of) augusti 1861. till hb'ger. to go to work with something. ar er brors adress nu? 2. B. aro de allra harligaste rosor. 1. . . . Eosorna aro utspruckna de Ja. och om (342. note) lordag maste vi ha det har arbetet fardigt for att kunna ta i tu 2 (327) med nagot nytt i borjan pa nasta vecka. 16. also vilket datum or vad ar med nagot. tror jag. ha vi salunda arsdagen av Gustav Adolfs db'd vid Liitzen. Conversation. Vad ha vi for staden. den ge leda till till vanster eller den 15. (three times) sa manga invanare. Sverige ar mer an sa stort som Minnesota och har nastan (twice) . () ? Man . The etc. .

rdrst is colloquial. my sister Mary is a year and a half older and I have a brother who is almost twice as old as I hope that you will pardon (use 4 . ? 2 are you in such a hurry I am Why going 3 to the station to my sister. Can you tell me how to 1. . IFuture with skall. the end of September. 6.EXERCISE. a week from to-day is Christmas. *En och en halv mdnad. 2To be in a hurry. (on) L my I. i Vad ha 7. 1 multiply two-fifths by one-fourth ? i multiply the numerators and the denominators together and the result is two- twentieths. meet is I know. Have you studied fractions? Yes. 9. haven't you ? Not so very long 5 I left the city at the beginning of August and came back at . 5. vi for datum i dag? 6. 4 Translate att jag 'har drSjt med att skriva. You suppose. so I was away a little over a month and a half 6 11. 20th year. How many is units are there in seven-sixths? 4. which was dated Monday. Nar stupade Karl den tolfte? C. we are studying note) them now in school. than I. August 4th. Does your brother have the same address as (som) before? No. : fcke sa varst Hinge. skall multiplicera or hur 5 moved. 3. Vad ar det for datum morgon om en vecka? Nar firar er bror sin fodelsedag? 8. You have been away very long. Is she coming so soon. In seven-sixths there one unit and one-sixth over. 10. only (forst) this morning. How old are you ? I am in are the oldest in the family. No. (on) the 20th and we shall have 7. 2. now he lives at num- ''How to followed by an infinitive must be rendered by a clause here hur jag man mvltiplicerar. pres. att ha bratt or bruttom. 199 5. (290. I must be there at a quarter of ten and it half past nine now. but my birthday 8. he has ber 13 King's Street. is a family festival at home. Nar foddes Gustav den andre Adolf? Vilket ar och vilken dag ar han fodd? 9. nar? 4. it is only the 18th to-day. .) my delay in writing but I received your letter. Yes.

to add thus (not also) bliva. I. slot. family ett slut. kilometer . alltsd. I. give en tdljare. brattom (att Jia brtittom). sluten. see hftlla). to multiply del'taga (sep. -ar. thus folkskola. -ar.). lib. thereupon. delay en dod. month mitten (def. formo^da. I. to lead. festival -er. sluta. to reach. form or mitt). to contain en kilome'ter. -or. to be born utsprucken. -ar. gen. (generally sing. ursdkta. slolo. tion. . nastan. unit matics.). midst leda. lib. and conj. -ar.. after sluta 1 . to date multipUce'ra. slutil. participate I. to receive. of spricka en fodelsedag. anniversary when it means shut and to conclude belongs to the Fourth Conjuga-et. death er'hdlla (insep. see taga). adde'ra. birthday to presume transform to to open (of flowers) en vdning. I. to part.). celebration field) sd'lunda. to divide'ra. forvand'la. right innehdlla (insep. public school fodas (pass. ut'. story. vacation ett ftrande. fraction trouble) (also hoger (no neut. date conduct en mdnad. to . end close. en ndmnare. then. -a. I. .. short (of a road) en hel (-a). about racka. *Sluta I. I.). en familjefest. to equal) ett ftrdfc.). near. indef.200 VOCABULARY. -er.. end stupa. birth to). apartment en drsdag. VOCABULARY. last sedan (adv. numerator to excuse p. middle. -t. almost denominator nyligen. Ha. to divide . recently ett drojsmdl. of foda. to be in a hurry ett datum. to fall (on the battle . I. to become (in mathe. get omkring. date'ra. ferier (pi.

and i (in) bed i govern the genitive in a few idiomatic phrases: somras. by. invid. at medelst. close by nedanfor. out. efter. before fb'rbi. hos. in front of for. omkring. to Till . against. The following expressions with preposi14 tional value are of Swedish common occurrence: Grammar . during by uppfor. since till. past fore. to undan. around. beside kring. according to among above frdn. except for a few of the pronouns. with. igenom. by the side of mellan. on sedan. last summer. NOTE. in. below nedfor. above ovanfb'r. of. emellan. for. for mot. after. emot. along utfor. off bakom. Prepositions. up i. between at. away from under.LESSON XXXII. into among ur. down inom. 345. down ovan. along utefter. ifran. beneath. till sdngi 346. in.over. before. behind bland. outside of. below. to. utom. through. except utan. ahead of ' pa. before innanf&Tt within utmed. outside of med. is the same as the nominative. beside. with vid. above ward 347. a. ositions in av. by means of bredvid. out of innan. near. aenom. within jcimte. to. behind enligt. The following are the most important prepSwedish: nara. without about utanfor. from framfor. by. by. by. Prepositions govern the objective case which.

by. a year ago.. for the sake of my father . for hans skull.. the king of Sweden. he died of hunger. by virtue of or till foljd av. with reference med hdnsyn till. in consequence of. sedan take the expressions which they govern between the two parts. (b) Material: klockan dr av guld. NOTE. 348. he wept for joy. in spite of oaktat. ago .202 PREPOSITIONS. skull requires the genitive case: for min fars skull. long ago. for his sake for ett dr sedan. watch is (c) Agent: han beundrades av alia. The following are the uses of some of the most common prepositions. excepting for . . sedan.. instead of undantagandes. USES OF THE PREPOSITIONS. Av. off. Titles: from. For. on account of trots av (trots).. . skull. (d) Cause=for.. because of med anledning av.. for: konungen av Sverige. for the sake of for. skull and for. the of gold.. (e) Quality. of: han grdt av glddje. med avseende pa. langsmed. along 1 rorande angdende [concerning betraffande i J stdllet for. in regard to i i to kraft av. For. fian dog av hunger. . he was admired by everybody. (a) of.. for Idnge sedan.. description or characteristic: en . in spite of i Icings.

vem frdgar han efter? Whom does he etc. he has provided for the education of his children. send for the har letat efter boken.PREPOSITIONS. jag har fdtt boken av honom. jag the book. at: Time or sequence: efter efter middagen ar det sko'nt att vila. related judge by something expressions are found with certain verbs: att doma han rattar sig efter fin fan vilja. according to. one of my friends. av ara. tala om det for honom. . sending.: inquire for? (c) strdva efter. etc. governed by his father's will. looking. . 350. object: han har so'rjt for sina barns uppfostran. mig? Who comes after me (behind (b) for: after verbs of asking. I have from him. after.- skicka efter lakaren. det ar sndllt av dig. behind. I have hunted for doctor. according to efter vad jag har hort. the most diligent of all. mention to him han har ingen forstaelse for idehe has no appreciation of ideal things for mig far du gora det. . to. according to what I have heard (enligt is more common in this sense) NOTE. 349. it is nice to rest after dinner. ella saker. to strive for. as far as I am concerned you it . (f) man Source : received the book it is kind of you. for. he is . 203 of character. before. for. a of honor.: (a) Advantage. (a) Efter. reference. den flitigaste av alia. vem kommer me)? striving. Closely to efter ndgot. For. (g) Partitive idea: onskar ni ett glas av detta vin? Do you wish a glass of this wine? en af mina v anner. of man av karaktdr. : etc.

for lange sedan. hitch the horse to the cart. The temporal before : is rendered by fore and t'nnan. att skrdmma nagon for nagot. me du (b) Price: giv mig for en krona konfekt. caution. when danger is at hand (before the door) . to be afraid of (g) After something. hur mycket har betalt for hatten? (c) Place How much have you paid for the hat? (especially figurative. in for mig dr han blott en vanlig mdnmy estimation he is only a common mortal. att vara rddd for nagot. steg for steg. (d) Duration of time: det dr nog for en vecka. ndr faran star for dorr en. in the sense of ago for en vecka sedan. he hid from me (with such verbs for is sometimes used together with undan) : att varna nagon for nagot. niska. number of idiomatic expressions: vad . a week ago. he has translated it word for word. (f) verbs denoting flight.204 PREPOSITIONS. long ago. han gomde sig for mig. concealment. a strictly literal : before is generally expressed by framfor) med do'den for b'gonen. to be on one's guard against something. step by step. and the like: han ftydde for fienden. he fled from the enemy. that is enough for a week (see pa and under). to (h) In a frighten somebody for something. he grew worse day by day. han blev varre dag for dag. may do it. att akta sig for nagot. with death staring one in the face. give a crown's worth of bonbons. NOTE. (e) Succession han har o'versatt det ord for ord. : With sedan. fear. to warn somebody against something. spdnn hasten for kdrran.

ej utratta nagot. pa nagot at dig ? mig 7. vi ha angbatsforbin- med tva turer i timmen. den nedanfor 3 staden. EXERCISE XXXII. Hans dod kommer att fororsaka sorg inom vida kretsar. for att vara bara ett barn. de allra bekvamaste. vi 2. men darborta i hornet . jag bar fatt adressen av en av mina vanner. upp/or. Detta lar vara en ypperlig restaurang. I walked by myself. men han kunde karl 1 . 1. Det var hyggligt av dig sjalv. att jag skall prehonom? Han ar en man av karaktar och skall Jag for ga ned i staden 7 i dag for att att gora nagra uppkop mig. 12. spelar han icke sa ilia. han skrattade for sig sjalv. ovanfor. till ar ett bord. att jag skall ko- tanka pa 8 men jag fb'rskottera. sa titta in och hor efter . du Om gar forbi Lindgrens cigarrhandel. Into. aga ett litet lantstalle utmed 2 Aro era forbindelser med staden bekvama? delse Ja. om de fatt in av mina favoritcigarrer an. Pengarna kan bar fatt lana av dig sa ofta. Han var en praktig enligt ryktet bar han utovat en storartad valgorenhet. note use of ut. A. och efter vad jag bar hb'rt. 5. da flo- flytta vi ut pa landet. Av haftigt sjuk efter middagen. som ej ar upptaget av nagon. for disken och talar sentera er for 6 bildning. 10. Under sommaren bor 1 ni val ej i staden? Nej. he laughed to himself. Dar star han sjalv framhb'ger 5 4. skall may also be . designate location *Note use of kommer att. vill du kanske. Det ar mycket folk i denna restaurang. 9 Sa sorgligt. jag jag ar alldeles utan pengar nu. nedfSr denote direction. kommer automobilforbindelse snart att upprattas 4 3. Vad dog han av 11 ? 11. 8. to be only a child he does not play so badly. 6. att herr Liden skulle do sa hastigt. i sa fall 10 kop en lada. 205 tar du mig for? What do you take me for? jag gick for mig sjalv. Han blev hjartforlamning. Vill ni.EXERCISE. Man skickade efter 9 lakaren. *Nedanfor. 9. 'Also utefter. med agaren.

Varfor tror ni att den bar restaurangen ar ypperlig? for tjanst vill ni gora er van? 8. 10 In that case. Conversation. 7. 6 Not till. Who was the gentleman who just walked past us and saluted ? I met him about a week ago 6 when I took and it is a trip up 7 Gotha canal from Gothenburg to Stockholm. Pa vad satt kommer forbindelsen med staden att forbattras? 6. B. nar sommaren kommer? 2. Var ligger ert lantstalle? 3. Let us ask that side of 2 5 policeman for a good restaurant. shall we sit down by that table in the corner? 5. street car or . I expect company between nine and ten. Aro angbatsturerna taia ? 5. After dinner I shall have 10 to hurry home. 'Down town. 11 348. what opinion do you have of him? 9 349. Where do you live 1 during the summer? We live in a little country house. we have connection by steamer 4 every half-hour . ban sina favoritcigarrer? C. Ar det svart att komna in till staden ? 4. But it will leave within a few minutes. May I give you a piece of this steak? If you please . This looks really cozy. but if it means to have an opinion of it must be translated by tdnka om: vad tanker du om honom. I have not had a bite to eat since twelve o'clock now after seven. and according to the paper we are soon 3 to have connection by automobile.206 used. d. 1. give me only half of that. That is too 8. 4. a. I must be at the hotel before nine. Is it not inconvenient to live outlittle above the city. Vart flyttar ni. much. Vad 1. att ban ar utan pengar? 9. Var kb'per gb'ra. Vad lovar ni att nar ban siiger. 7. 3 the city? No. *Think of. EXERCISE. Which is the best way of getting 11 to the hotel? By by steamboat? 9. hotel. tdnka pa. 9 8 6. "Note omission of article. The little steamboat that 12 in front of the lies there by the quay will land you right Now 10. 3. which we own along 1 the river a 2.

kind ut'rdtta (insep. VOCABULARY. right en kaj. occupied I. above. above. '349. hygglig. 12 350. 4 Far. KI tid. en forbindelse. we 14 ancl wait for the boat. may be. character en krets.). splendid -er. -er. half hour purchase (insep. cigar . is used with certain prepositions: mitt i rummet. -t. . cause forskotte'ra. -r.'e halvtimme or far trettionde minut (note use of ordinal in such expressions). perhaps en karaktar'. -t. I. I think a steamboat leaves every ten minutes. frequent Goteborg. J See A. 14P&. Gotha canal luck) tilt. -lar. v. pier. to advance Gota kanal. -t. v.).). -er. street car en stek. a. to failure upp'tagen. for'orsaka (insep. piece. bit (bite) en cigar rhandlare. en disk. to -at. for precedes omkring. . to en tur. education hoger (no neuter. there it comes out 16 between those two big boats. z 13. shall go down to the quay Just in time 15 . mitt. circle ett lantstdlle. -ar. institute . If you are ready now. kan'ske. 11. cigar sorglig. -t. in the middle of the room mitt under predikan. heart establish.). strange connection I. Det plus present. right on the finger. -ar. hemtrevlig. en automobilfurbindelse. f Utom or utanfor. quay en bit. "Present of modal. police-. "Use infinitive of . Translate right by mitt. -er. -er. sorrow. Gothenburg ett uppkop. right in the middle of the sermon . comfortable en bildning. it 207 backs out from the quay. favorite en sorg. turn (also I. -t. -t. steak storartad. tackar or om See A. 3 Medelst (med T may also be used). counter prdktig. *Use fa. middle. note 3.VOCABULARY. -ar. titta. en favorit'cigarr'. 6 1. grief sad frummande. en spdrvagn. Va. v. magnificent look trip. mitt pu fingrel. country house en poliskonstapel. -n. connection by automobile bekvtim. nice. violent complish . to ac- Mftig. jag komma. dealer man -t. culture. homelike upp'ratta en hjartforlamning (-ar). -ar. -ar. There will soon come 13 another. indef. 12. 16 Fram. ni bchagar. -ar. cozy. I. en halvtimme. -r.

steamboat " trip a . Genom (igenom). Jia to have company. cise. genom stora anstrdngningar har han uppndtt sitt mdl. in the shop of. (b) (the preposition in this sense (c) Means: han later hdlsa genom sin bror. turn. we went through the forest. in: oss. on acforande count of his foolish conduct he has lost our con(d) fidence. LESSON XXXIII. v. to exer- practice -t. in Goethe we read much about art. Time account of: genom sitt ddraktiga upphar han forlorat vdrt fb'rtroende. excellent. may follow the noun and has then the form igenom): han var olycklig hela livet igenom. en vulgiirenhet. iigare. hos skrdddaren. vi Idsa hos Gothe mycket om konsten.208 utova (insep. 352. connection by steamer en dngbdtstur. he lives with us. -r. min tur. to call on somebody. Uses of Prepositions (Continued). charity ypperlig.). he sends greetings through his brother. at the tailor's. at the house of. on account of: (a) Direction: vi gingo genom skogen. fine en dngbdtsforbindelse. det ur att tur. it is my 3. en IDIOMS: 1. he was unhappy throughout his whole life. 351. owner att ha frdmmande. On Hos. through. by means of. 2. to be in luck. I. han bor hos . att titta in hos nugon. by means of great exertions he has attained his goal. PREPOSITIONS. -er.

to get into difficulties. med enda sprang. i transition: is smor och 354.PREPOSITIONS. i . with. i Change. Observe the difference between expressions like ya in i kyrkan. go into the' school skolan (to attend church. by. the cream grddden forvandlas i changed into butter and cheese. in anger. . translated by last) : i vdras. (a) 7. (a) Accompaniment: mil ni ga med mig i kyrkan? Will you go to church with me? han var med de forsta. . into: han kom in i rummet. som gingo. to go to pieces. in [house]) and ga i kyrkan. jarnvag. once a week. place into which (figurative) svarigheter. (e) hast. (b) Place live in rdka i att leva i fattigdom. in the room. to (figurative) att poverty. he was among the first who went. i skolan go. (b) leap. to write in haste. NOTE. to study with diligence. for hundreds of years . he came into the room. 209 353. last i spring i . to: Med. : : (c) Time (with seasons and days in the genitive to denote past time. i (go into the church. into: (literal) : Place i rummet. en gang veckan. in. dag. to send by med penna. last Friday i gar. ost. yesterday i hundratals ar. place into which (literal) is denoted by in i. go. . ga bitar. to-day fredags. to attend school)'. write with pen fara med . with (at) a single (c) mail . skriva Instrument: skicka med posten. Manner: att studera ett med flit. travel by rail. i (d) Manner: skriva vrede.

Time om fem minuter. emot. (d) In a number of set phrases. om en manad. in. piano for a new. gd emot nagon. be kind to your brother. ward evening. a. om onsdag. next Time within which I nagra dagar. tola med. bytte Exchange. NOTE. oppose something.: : (a) Subject or topic han berdttade om sina dventyr. As an adverb med means along: kom med I Come along! Mot.210 PREPOSITIONS. han kommer nog fram mot kv alien. shall have it is denoted by inom: jag skall ha det fdrdigt inom ready within a few days. work against somebody. vad handlar boken om? What nagot (b) om does the book treat about? jag vet ej den saken. Om. around. Wednesday. against. sdtta sig emot nagot. toward: (a) Direction: hdren marscherade emot fienden. besldktad med. go (b) to meet somebody. end of which) in a taget kommer train will be here in five min: month. he told of his adventures. I know nothing about that (at the matter. he will very likely come to355. for. about. they won the game with ten points to four. of. related to. (c) (d) Remedy: hdr dr ett bra medel mot huvudvark. comparison: I gamla pianot mot ett nytt. NOTE. var vdnlig emot din bror. etc. etc. here is a good remedy for headache. de vunno spelet med tio podng mot fyra. speak to. the army marched against the enemy. ut det exchanged the old jag Hostility: arbeta mot nagon. 356. in . as. (c) Time at which (indefinite) : om dagen. the utes.

ask for something (inquire for=frdga ejter. to compete for a prize. quest something. : . om vintern. A. especially generally denoted by omkring or kring. (d) Interest. ty jag har sa brattskall om.EXERCISE. om honom? om may perhaps ga takes the main it (f) Position: han har en bindel om huvudet. tdvla om ett pris. twice a year. 8 grammet i dag? Ja. is EXERCISE XXXIII. Det var bra. north of Stockholm. to re1 . contending etc. competition. kronor per telegraf till Berlin. har ar Tors 9 jag be om 10 ett kvitto? . jag ar vat om fotterna. when the meaning is literal. b) spela om pengar. och dar vaxlar man nog for er. jag 4. Jag skulle vilja vaxla en del 1 svenska pengar i amerikanska. with the arm around somebody. to the right of. in winter. 1. 211 the daytime. play for money. och dessutom maste 5. ni betala for adress och namnteckning. (e) Motion past: ska vi forsoka . norr om Stockholm. NOTE. Jag kanner ej till 3 nagot vaxelkontor narheten. med forsta lagenhet. my feet are wet. see 349. Kan ? ni saga mig. till hoger om. att anhdlla om ndgot. att Shall we try to pass him? (here be regarded as a separable prefix stress) . with verbs of asking. lamna Stockholm om* 5 ett par timmar. Jag 7 tele- skulle vilja siinda ett tusen adressen och telegi'ammet. 3. var det narmaste vaxel- kontoret ligger 2 i 2. Hur mycket Berlin? kostar ett telegram om tjugufem ord till Det blir fyrtio ore per 6 ord. bedja om ndgonting. . Position or motion around. he has a bandage about his head med armen om nagon. tva ganger om dret. Avgar 6. men darborta om hornet ligger en bank.

d. han har adragit sig sina motgangar genom sitt slarv. also vid. Get 12 in a few minutes. "Note omission of auxil- B. a.212 EXERCISE. iary. It is from my brother. 7. Here is a telegram for you. Visst inte. Han talade om de ekonomiska svarigheter. Stackars Agrell. an expression of price with the meaning of a. . i vilka han ra10 10. Han hade kunnat vara valbargad for lange sedan 12 . och anholl om 11. a number of. 1. Why not? I have promised to take my friend Carlen along to the football like to game in the afternoon. b . ett mindre Ian. Will you take for them too. It was 10. I0 356. skb'tt sig. *0/. I shall 13 take these parcels with me into the car. 'Note use of pres. also kommer att avga. Hur av- lopte med Idrottsklubben Kamraterna vann Kamraterna spelade med kraft och 9. The Latin per is used after 456. 2. Could 2 you You will find tell me where the nearest telegraph office is ? I one around the corner on the first cross street. f. 8. 8. How much dress does a telegram of 3 twenty words to Paris cost? It 4 costs forty-five ore a word. we could also say fyrtio ore ordet. 7. kat. Jag traffade var gamle van Agrell i mandags. know of. May I then send the ad- and signature for nothing5 ? No. 3. 4 form of polite request. elegans. Du var val ej hos Bloms i gar ef teriniddag ? Nej. och vi kommo ej tillbaka forran fram mot 11 niotiden. allt synes ha sammansvurit sig mot honom. b. herr Carlen bad mig ga med honom till Idrottsparken. "355. *Also dr belii- get or or. That seat so kind of you to check that valise for me. wish to answer immediately by 1 telegraph. Hurry up! 9. 'Common *Kanna till. . they are going to compete for 11 into this compartthe championship in football. "See 354. l En del is used colloquially in the sense of tome. the train will start ment. om han 13 f otbollmatchen ? tre mal mot ett. "350. I should 10 go with you myself . you will have to pay 6 5. 6. but it will not be possible for me. dinner with 7 us next 8 9 Wednesday ? I am so sorry. 4.

vicinity ett ord. v. opportunity adversity skota sig (refl. 7 8 352. a. -svor. you. I. will the spring. Who is this gentleman that comes . to go out. note. -er. within en kraft. article. -ar. check valise en resviiska. 15. force. en motg&ng. Ha. Now we They 16. afraid Stockholm inom. no indef. 12. -en. -er. to request ett mdsterskap. -er. 18 356. 'Use present of denotes 21 "Use j. -er. g. bank baklanges. bli. Use skall since the future here 15 18 Leave out the 350. north (en) narhet. to conspire en Wgenhet. meet 21 us? Old Upsala. 356.). while the students are still return within 20 a month. above. raka. game genast. -et.).). ture signa- ekonomisk. receipt sammansvarja sig (refl. strength ett kvitto. v. VOCABULARY. carelessnosfi . Use ata. will be 1* 213 very comfortable for you. indef. above. immediately word I. How far 17 is it to Upsala? ring for the 18 of Stockholm. gentleman en idrottspark.). financial football elegance -er. "Use kommer ait "Use langt. -ar. 13 4 See A. 6. f. 2 Sec A. an'Mlla (insep. 22 we have there. if you are not afraid to ride 15 backwards. ''-Vaster. 356. en namnteckning. 13. I think. -n. . to take care of oneself ett ett mal. not ingenting. good-bye! they 16 third time. You Upsala lies thirty miles north Thank Now ought to there. -er. Athletic Park in to meet. -svurit. 11. prepositive def. ett paket. norr (adj. 4. elegans. possible (ly) -ar. backwards en bank. See A. 20 356. Over 1. and noun. v. gd av' to break mojligt. 19 0m or pa. 1P *Intet. meal slarv. are there. to visit it in 19 14. en fotbollmatch. encounter radd (no neut. 6. ship -t. . park Idrottsparken. depart. Use pros. 5.). 4. to -or. timid. 12 above. 6 3 note bliva. goal. towards the west above.d. 'See A. athletic polette'ra. -svuro. champion- av'gA. 358.VOCABULARY. d. parcel en herre. 1 -t. a determination. nearness. . b. of ga.

to the post office. in the country. -er. to go into the field. ett vaxelkontor. to send to the post office . in. a disease. I. I. pa landet. att rdka fattigdom. to en telegraf. for. han ar pa sitt rum. he has gone to Sweden . I looked at him han syfiade pd mig. Idvla. gd ut pa faltet. to Till teatern . . pa teatern Implies posten. the book lies on the table. he alluded to me. (d) rest Time during which. my way here. to become poverty-stricken. LESSON XXXIV. : (b) Place into which teatern. gd pa target. jag rdkar inte hdr. to. pa posten. for how long: han har till Sverige pd ett ar. 'Pronounced elegangs 1 . seat PREPOSITIONS. svdrigheter. pa go to market. Uses of Prepositions (Continued). on. telegraph cross street . into the country. I do not find 2. on. vdlMrgad. -or. jag blickade (sag) pd honom. -n. mean? only till attendance att skicka to the theater as a place . contract to see. a hole in the coat. (c) Direction toward an object: han riktade sin kamera pd mig. well-to-do d'draga sig (refl. to change exchange v. upon. to NOTE. (a) Place in which: boken ligger pa bordet.). pa landet. bring att i rdka en person. office to compete -at. IDIOMS: 1. 357. meet a person. att skicka pd mail. he is in his room ett hdl pa rocken. he pointed his camera at me. en tvargata. .214 elt sate. Pa. vaxla. to the theater. to contract att ddraga sig en sjukdom. I met him in the street. to get into difficulties. posten. jag mo'tte honom pa gatan (not i gatan). at.

Om morgonen. pa delta sdtt. till . till svarta himlen: go to town. this morning (not om morgonen). beef soup att leva pa tio dollars i veckan. det gar hundra ore pa kronan. upp2. in. en vdxel pa (a) femtio kronor. of. . I am waiting for him.: pa. in Swedish soppa pa oxkb'tt. to answer. mdrksam etc. tank pa det! Think of it jag vdntar pa honom. upon. om varen. 215 for a year. to listen to. jag dr matt pa sddana saker. han dr ond pa mig. giva akt pa. (h) In a number of idiomatic expressions: pa svenska. 358. ho'ra pa.PREPOSITIONS. jealous of. tavlan. (e) NOTE. in the morning : .: till staden. I hope for rain. to live on ten dollars a week. to rely ! : . to count on. jag rdknar pa din hjdlp. svartsjuk pa. etc. (f) : 1. to pay attention to: ho'r pa vad jag sdger. he has not written for a week. in this manner. etc. han har ej skrivit pa en vecka. a draft for fifty dollars. he is angry with me. see om. etc. : . I have no money about me. to. there are one hundred ore to the crown. Expectation hoppas pa. attentive to. I count on your help. angry with matt pa. I am tired of (have had enough of) such things. for. i Time at which pa morgonen. Till.: jag hoppas pa regn. is much more indefinite: we must say dag pa morgonen. avundsjuk pa. answer my letter. tired of. (g) With certain adjectives ond pa. envious of. rdkna pa. Response and expectation after certain verbs Response: svara pa. . in the spring. listen to what I say. to hope for lita pa. pa varen. svara pa mitt brev. to the (a) Motion to a place: ga till posten. jag har inga pengar pa mig.

to congratulate on a birthday. blackboard. bliva till sten. he came to me. sit at table . he NOTE. . As an adverb it means even: till och med han. here is a package for you. be of use. presidenten.216 PREPOSITIONS. even he. to take for wife) . God's love for us. . vara till nytta. in (b) Place at or in which: ligga bed sitta till bords. han kom till mig. etc. shoemaker by trade benet till bordet. de ha kront honom till konung. har ar ett paket till er. vad fick du till julklapp? what did you get for Christmas present? vi hade lax till middag. conduct to the table. love of country. destination. up to. (f) In a number of idiomatic expressions: till hosten. (c) Purpose. to marry (lit. (g) till : till . sjunka till batten. transformation: nyckeln ar till att Idsa upp med. genitive : is the president's son. fora till bords. take sugar with the coffee. sink to the bottom. till till stings. I drink meals. including frdn sidan och med sidan trettio. they have crowned him king. Here may perhaps be classed the Swedish equivalent for the objective karleken till fosterlandet. . och med=to. the leg of the table han ar son till . from page twenty tjugu to page thirty inclusive. (d) Specification. on sea. vanlig till sattet. of good character. appointment. Guds kdrlek till oss. of a good disposition skomakare till yrket. . tag socker till kaffet. . to lie sjoss. to the post office. become stone. to heaven. I shall go home for Easter. (e) Addition coffee with : my jag dricker kaffe till maten. reference: god till karaktaren. the key is for unlocking. next fall till pdsk far jag hem. taga till hustru. we had salmon for dinner gratulera till fb'delsedagen.

vill ni salja huset under 10. I am under his supervision. in the course of the : . 1. snalltaget mellan Stockholm och Uppsala. hans bok dr under all kritik.000 kronor? Do you wish to sell the house for less than 10. direction: jag stod under trddet.000 crowns? under tjugu (d) ar. under the circumstances. under omstdndigheterna. 4. Jag har mycket kontanta pengar pa mig. Manner: under tarar omtalade han vad som hdnt. age: kaptenen star under majoren i rang. dinner. under marschen. XXXIV. 21? 359. beneath. Har du 7 6 Nej. under twenty years of age. han blev raddad pa 2 ett underbart 3 3. kom under mitt paraply. weeping (with tears) he related what had happened under skratt och skdmt. during. in the meantime. . Min kusin var bland passagerarne. during his lifetime under tiden. amid: (a) Place. under. EXERCISE A. jag har till princip att tagit ut alia dina pengar? Sivedish 5 Grammar 15 . till ar har ej en sa forfarlig jarnvagsolycka foljd av en felsignal ursparade natt2. men jag har ett kreditbrev pa denna bank till belopp av tio tusen kronor. Pa manga 1 i hant som gar. on the march. 1 stood beneath the tree jag star under hans uppsikt. Under. under middagen. amidst laughing and joking. come beneath my umbrella. Jag vantar pa att fa* en vaxel a ett tusen kronor inlost. his book is beneath all criticism. (c) Rank. (b) Time under hans livstid.EXERCISE. 5. . the captain is below the major in rank. som jag utstallde pa denna bank genom litet dess korrespondent i Chicago. Vad vantar du pa ? satt. value.

"357. Conversation. utan 9 ga till bords. trip to Narvik. What do you think of 1 the railroad accident which It is the happened yesterday afternoon ? most serious 3. Generally separated. 7. Varf or vore det sakrare att till taga ut allt. 9. for 2 many years. c. 'Adversative conjunction . but was saved. lates but after a negative. 4 because of carelessness on the part of the employees. f. f. The accident hapof the cars which did not derail. Vem och vad ar den dar unge mannen. *Fa can often be translated by get. 2 357.) Maken till middag ha vi ej haft 10 pa lange. som vi traffade 11 pa bjudningen i gar? Han ar en son till dr Liden och ar larare till yrket. B. C. pa honom kan man da aldrig rakna. en mindre summa innesta. 11. lammstek m. ^57. uttagare. Vad ha vi till middag i dag. kimna Har du reda pa att ogynnrorande denna bank under de senaste veckorrykten na varit i omlopp.218 alltid lata EXERCISE. Anna? Soppa pa lions. who is on a was among the passengers. My brother. pened 5. any longer. de insatta pengarna. h. Omkom han ocksa ? 5. Vad sig pa taget beloper sig er vaxel till ? 6. T 8 insdttare. Varf or later ni en mindre obetydlig? Var gardagens jarnvagsolycka summa innesta i banken? 8. Adressaten hade nog 12 13 blivit ond pa mig. Varf or behover ni ej bara mycket kontanta pengar pa er? 7. 10 357. '357. Vem befann vid tillfallet ? 4. som ni satt in? 9. Varigenom ursparade taget? 3. c. 10. Varf or har ni ej gatt 1 bords forut? 10. 5 351. samma 8. Vad ar er tanke om middagen? ^Thought is here equivalent to opinion. have to. How? He had gone into 3 the dining car and this was the only one 4. Could you tell me where Stockholms Enskilda Bank is? . 2. Nu vanta vi ej langre 8 pa honom. d. 12 357. a. m. sa ar du snail. om han fatt betala losen. Translate. a. Lagg det har brevet pa posten. A. but de uttagna pengarna. Det var bra att du gav akt darpa. 6 satta in mera senare. (etc. "Fa. jag raknar pa att 6. 2. trans358. Du har glomt att satta frimarke pa. 1.

er. 9. all'varsam. VOCABULARY. -er. jag tackar. for I . to heed to cash . ett belopp. party in'nestd (generally insep. 2. . for many a. promise). help lions avundsjuk. Is your coffee sweet enough? my 17 No. note. error. the place is never literal. f. have not used sugar with 18 my coffee 14. During 8 all my travels I have never been so short of money. we have here a temporal adverb which obviates 18 I3 12 /To till vana att . to redeem. "Nej. Lind will surely be envious of I Carl when he hears that they have elected Carl chairman 19 . h. 8 Pd slaget of pa in a few set expressions To. 5 357. Garna.VOCABULARY. 15 character? I observed only one fault in him while he was 11. giva akt' (pa). 13. to think of (have in tonka om. supervision: too great a love of Take a little more sugar. to turn to. future with skall (the future here denotes a *356. terrible in'losa. 10 address oneself to. 358. to remain ett fel. 358. to have an opinion of 4 2 8 A betjdningens sida. . "Use present. 357. a is used instead 353. tre or precis klockan ire. serious gdrdag. d. You can count on me. a. mind). 10. What my under 16 money. c. . 358. e. wrong signal (money) . in this sense). c. All the banks are closed at three o'clock sharp 6 and you have only 7 five minutes to spare 7. d. He seems to have a habit 13 of always coming late. How is he as to opinion it is badly written. yesterday en Jijalp. "358. on it foi 5 one thousand crowns. chickens. -er. envious (collective). Now we have it in the bank. years. en adressat'. 2. 8 359. "352. have very little cash about me. I have a drjift 219 6. I must have the money. 8. -t. I shall gladly 10 to-morrow they will 11 cash advance the amount of the draft for you. 357. I9 d. mistake en felsignal. 357. a. . tanka pa. Mr. f. -t. amount poultry en bjudning. thank you. is your opinion about the book? According to 14 12. waited long enough for 12 him and the dinner is getting cold. 358. forfarlig. "Att vanda tig till. ambiguity. I believe that I must turn to 9 you and ask for help. addressee -t. losa in'. invitation.

-n. in this sense). wonen losen. part ett socker (def. att att ha reda pd nagot.220 PUKI'OSITIOMJ. rumor. lib. postage due derful en make. Vid. at Christmas. etc. I. (b) Time: vid jul. 3. -t. vid stranden. : 1. by the shore vid Stockholm. to count en sida. ett rykte. miraculous. spdra ur'. in something. in the neighborhood of . to derail press . gora reda for nagot. reputation rakna. cash corre- en Correspondent'. knowledge en vilxel. sugar en soppa. -lar. kreditbrev. become cold (adj. night exur'spara. a din- iMllna. 2. insignificant ut'stalla ogynnsam. . soup ett satt. at. taga ut' (see taga). at the table. -ar. vid femtio ars . lamb steak w ^rbar. Stockholm fdstad vid vdggen. spondent ett -er. to take out en princip'. till consequence of. because of. to know something. ransom. fix one's affections on somebody vid lampan. page. to . LESSON XXXV. Also figuratively: fdsta sig vid nagon. in'satta. credit . ut'taga. -n. principle en reda (-0 in compounds) order. (generally insep. match en uppsikt. by the lamp. unfavorable . to draw (a draft) omlopp. sockret). ett -t. ett yrke. fastened to the wall.: (a) Vicinity: slaget vid Breitenfeld. draft vdrdslosJiet. -or. to give an account foljd af. manner. perish circulation om'komma (see komma). -ar. letter of en lammstek. carelessness trade of IDIOMS . side. mate. the battle of Breitenfeld. supervision ett nattsncilltag. -er. way o'betydlig. I. vid bordet. Uses of Prepositions (Continued). 360. by. ing car -ar. -t.). satta in' (see sdtta) to deposit en restaurangvagn. . -or. kontant'. . on.

han sag inte ens at mig. Contact: taga vid handen. . . me (in my direction) . vid Idsandet av detta brev. han skot stolen at sidan. at the penalty of death. to. to be in good health. han dr vid armen. to: (a) Direction=toward. he has gone toward the river kasta ett ben at hunden. At. in good humor. to take by the rora vid saret. at the first opportunity. at a great heat. vid forsta tillfdlle. vid tjugu kronors bb'ter. used thus hand. on. 22 1 alder. . to hold gripa. in the direction of. at a fine of twenty crowns. draga. d andra handen. (c) Condition: vara vid god hdlsa. to (d) . is used in a few common phrases. at the reading of this letter. (b) Often before an indirect object (also till) jag gav boken at Karl. touch the wound. toward. vid gott lynne. he didn't even look at . det dr sa man kan grata at det. I gave the book to Carl. : 362. (e) Penalty: vid livsstraff. it is enough to make one weep. he is in the army. with verbs like hdlla. A. to laugh at. at fifty years of age. : (c) Cause (often with a touch of ridicule or contempt) att skratta at. lead. fora.PREPOSITIONS. throw a bone to the dog. to seize leda. vid stark hetta. as. 361. this sense at does not necessarily In imply attainment of the goal. the idea of direction is often strengthened by till placed after the governed word: han har gatt at floden till. to pull. he pushed the chair to the side. on the other hand d ena sidan. to conduct.

the bridge which leads across the river has collapsed. 363. above. (d) Duration: han blev hos oss over sommaren. etc. han segrade over sina fiender. beyond. With verbs like skriva. across: bron. he remained with us during the summer over natten. tola. on the one side. beyond: ett stort moln hanger over berget. to write. the teacher is above his pupils. to gain a victory: Karl den tolvte regerade over ett vidstrdckt rike. en vdxel a femtio kronor.222 PREPOSITIONS. sidan gatan. (a) . at: 1. above. over.: over. beyond the sea. to rule rada. Charles XII. over night. I think he is above thirty. floden. When the expression is literal. a big cloud hangs over the mountain. he was victorious over his enemies. across. (c) New York by way of Chi- Excess: denna sak kostar over en krona. he has gone to cago. han ar nog over trettio ar. Place (literal and figurative) =over. one one side of the street. to . det gar over mitt forstdnd. a draft for fifty crowns a Hans vdgnar. . pa must be used: pa ena . Related to this construction are expressions like han har rest till New York over Chicago. Related to this construction is over after such verbs as regera. to hold sway (primarily to advise) segra. about. topic=about. this thing costs over a crown. (e) Cause. concerning. som leder over har rasat. that surpasses my understanding. in his behalf. of. (b) Direction=over. over havet. . lararen star over sina larfungar. ruled over an extensive realm. on.

he expressed himself concerning the questions of the day. express oneself han skrev. angry at a thing. 2. Under min vistelse i Sverige har jag 4 forvanats over den stora hovlighet. och kan inte formas att tala vid en lakare. fortvivla over. glad of. gladja sig over. vanned svenskarna 3 bemota varandra. We EXERCISE A. 5. : 223 speak yttra sig. but ond over en sak. sorry on 3. annu har jag ej haft tid. to rejoice at. to speak of somebody (make a mention skriva om. Din for tiden. 2. Har ni varit vid 5 Skansen. angry at. 1. det beromda friluftsmuseet. pa vilka svensken uttrycker det amerikanska vikt ofta "Keep off the grass. 6. ond pa en person. he wrote. angry with a person. att vid bans hoga alder och sig med hans om sin halsa battre. to despair of. meaning: att tain om ndgon. talade over ett svart dmne.EXERCISE. far ar visst ej vid synnerligen god halsa nu Nej det ar han inte. With adjectives denoting feeling: glad over. klaga over. som Hazelius har Vi svenskar aro med ratta 6 stolta darover. han yttrade sig over dagens frdgor. svaga kroppskonstitution maste han varda 3. Jag 2 har sagt at honom mer an en gang. . to become angry at. to write about. ond over. of. say in Swedish." Han faster stor vid hovlighet. NOTE. Nej. account NOTE. to mourn. Ser ni anslaget darborta vid : gangen ? ! Det dar under tradet med orden "Det ligger i (is to) allmanhetens intresse att skona planteringarna ?" 4. ledsen over. men vid vid alia tillf alien . Om used with similar verbs may have a different of). XXXV. men han klagar aldrig over 1 nagot. to complain of. spoke on a difficult topic. upprattat? 7 forsta tillfalle 7. Ja Det ar ett av de manga satt. With verbs denoting feeling: sorja over. vredgas over.

. I I theater. 8 drag over Skansen. will the evening over my books.224 skall EXERCISE. ! We shall 15 14 soon be at the mouth of the Were you at the spring festival at Skansen yes- . -a. fragat efter dig. 1. I am in 3 such a humor to-night 4 that I could not laugh at anything. blivit fardig honom med sin an? Nej. tillbaka vid 7 for ej sa liinge sedan ett hogst intressant fore- Har du till 9 . Although across the ocean many times. neut. rightly. jag traffade 10. 2 361. he can't be made to there more compulsion implied in fd. gen . and it Djursholm a suburb has become famous by reason 8. attach importance to.. What shall 1 we do to-night? 2. At what time does the play begin? It begins as it. I am not very fond of it either you go with me? No. cause fa nagon att tro. i London. att bon to is Fd and forma are often used in the sense of make. main here over Christmas? No. also till. . 9. I know that you 6 5 are tired of the theater . laxa J sa trott. I . Vic- 12 Eydberg died there not so very long ago and all have traveled Sweden mourned his death. make somebody believe hon kan icke format. 3. 7. pi. lay stress on. 361. 11. 8. *Att fasta vikt (av: . close by to 10 me I live in Djurs- of Stockholm? Yes. it 6. Kile. How quickly we glide -I over the water Elbe. han gick at staden niotiden. going to the think I shall pass am 2 . hon var somnade over boken. Is not holm. att Idgga vikt pa. b. men Har Klara nyss ute pa vaatt ban skulle vara sade. stackars liten 10 . 7 you know how I have often expressed myself concerning 4. B. prepositional compound. 10. c "Also pa. I suppose 8 5. b. "Note the irregularities of liten. of the tor many prominent men that have lived there. en av mina vanner 9. Doktor White. a. before. traffat Karl? Han har Ja. jag ga hb'll dit. the rolling and pitching of the ship always makes 13 me sick. usual at eight o'clock. Christmas. Med rdtta. amd. e. '360. but I have forgotten 11 Stockholm. seende) vid. 9 4 Note the S 363. def. Where is your home ? Do you intend to ream going home for 9 You have mentioned it. litet.

attach ond. fid jul. framstdende (invariable). 15. ^357. ett anslag. terday ? 225 all stayed at are so sorry 10 that we could not 17 12. cannon) om'tala. disposition en mynning. 16 What preposition? In this "Here and there used in the sense case the preposition may also be left out. direction -er. I. e. 4 361. lib. We 18 the music. -t. mouth (of rivnozzle er. and he told me to Yes. angry. a. he may be frightened at the sight of horses. sorry notice bemci'ta. c. glidit. g. to re- ledsen. sight.). etc. -ar. 9 358. to complain en . b. of hither and thither are hit och dit: kom hit. at Christmas. suburb furv&nas (dep. to glide uneasy. -er.VOCABULARY. 10 350. -sttider. Your eyes look 19 very sore. an open air museum glomma. aspect kroppskonstitution. i narheten av. etc. I and Ha. en allmanhet. Den -\- what form of litenf VOCABULARY. to consuit in (a doctor) Skansen. 8 c. "Se-f what? 20 363. e. to be astonished glida. play (theater) en plantering. *Fastad fid. ont. en anblick. I am 21 by the otudy only by daylight. 20 them. evil. e. -et. constitution (of body) -et. generalities klaga. placard. 5 357. to treat. prominent fiista. 15 360. .). 14. . -ar. orolig. to spare. to forget . Were you not out at all? Yes. rolling rddfrdga (insep. haller ej vidare pa. a. 363. squares. daylight humor. 3 360. on account of the bad weather we home in the afternoon. I. Take the little one hand. ett hall. 2. gled. during the go there evening the weather got better and we went to Berns and No. is the Swedish equivalent for all "Present. sore en forstad. gledo. 1. Have you conquite worried about sulted an eye doctor about them? Yes. Ha. "What used in the sense of whole f 13 What order? also angaende. politeness skona. -n. f. I. ceive ett dagsljus. v. Stockholm hold. . -er. not kom heir. Why? 7 2 357. public. tola om'. Why not future with si-all f Use an adverb. listened to 13. v. to mention ett lynne. design. "Invid (nara invid). to fasten. 'Future with shall. vegetation in parks. (en) hovligJiet. -en. to treat with care . worried en pj<is. en rullning.

there. ett tillfiille. klart (from klar). Note the following idiomatic expressions: att vara borta. -er.. -a: The usual adverbial suffixes are: borta (bort). away. (1) now. (3) Derivatives formed by means of a suffix: bara (from bar). to express proud synnerligen. only. eye doctor LESSON XXXVI. I.226 ADVERBS. at att vara home. no. nagorlunda. only. Origin. remain uttrycka. hemma. -er. hereto. possibly. jo. weight. . tolerably. mojligen (from mojlig). . 364. darav. stolt. hopefully. ej. inte. ja. lib. clearly. hemma (hem). nej. hdr. en stampning. Ha. occasion to stanna. elakt (from elak). -rar. here. hoppfullt (from hoppfull). dar. to be out. especially sorja. wickedly. not. to spend. fort. With respect to their origin adverbs may be divided into three groups: Primitive words and compounds of such as nu. opportunity. (2) The neuter singular of the indefinite form of adjectives: beskedligt (from beskedlig). to this. icke. 365. v. to be at home. modestly. hdrtill. spring festival vdrda. Adverbs. to care for en alder. (a) Derivative Suffixes. yes. pitching (of ships) -n. blott. bringa). importance en v&rfest. to mourn en vikt. of or from that. . fast. age till'bringa see (insep. pass (of time) en ogonlakare.

-es (originally a genitive. disposition) annorlunda. to-day I was up early at hand ? han or ute och gar. toler- ably. dvenledes. troligtvis. any- where. some adverbs of time and place) framme. framdeles. storligen. manner. piecemeal delvis. fortu- nately. by no means nagorlunda. har du boken framme t Do you have the book / dag var jag uppe tidigt. probably. . at hand. ride. hoptals. we . aker. . 227 quite.ADVERBS. in. styckvis. Note the following idiomatic expressions: i morgon aro vi framme. there. in any oth: er way ingalunda. (d) -en (from adjectives in -lig) dagligen. hardly. tjogtals. to-morrow shall be at our destination. alldeles ypperligt. out. ute. mojligen. troligen. especially. we shall see later. tidtals. or A : . partly. generally in b. 2) : alls in or icke alls. com- pound adverbs. in front. jag feeling very well . : (e) -ledes: sdledes. etc. note all. or ddr. entirely. (c) -e (in Idnge. (g) -lunda (an old genitive of the Old Swedish lund. recently. here. etc. (b) -deles: alldeles. daily. sdrdeles. . (f) -Ugen: bitterligen. by hundreds. he is taking a walk. (h) -s. in this. jag tycker ej sa sdrdeles om very well . I can't aay I like Note the following idiomatic expressions: alldeles mar am him riktigt. quite right. alls icke and 366. by the score hundratals. at times. possibly. svdrligen. . nyligen. long. -fa preposition hdri. I honom. vi fa se framdeles. inne. or that ddrtill. up. bitterly. Compound adverbs are usually composed of very common form of prepositions and adverbs. . probably. 366. to this. : lyckligtvis. e. likewise. thus. at the des: tination. (i) -vis (ws=English wise) possibly. adverb compound is hdr. later on. greatly. in great numbers. not at ndgonstans. see 365. mojligtvis. uppe.

Hdr and dfir are also prefixed to many adverbs there. he is much too diligent. . your. . . Alltfor. 1. bara ett ogonblick.228 ADVERBS. sometimes met with consists of a of noun generally in the genitive case preceded by some other part speech (see also 365): avsides. 368. come by all means before I leave. . . somewhere. he hasn't even written mother. outdoors. . att from this it follows . sure he has deceived you. hdri bestdr skillnaden. by all means. liggdags (pronounced daks). innan jag reser. just a moment. in there. etc. . Position and comparison of adverbs have already been discussed. more han har allt du kommer for sent. jag vill for .. of place to form over extremely common compounds: daruppe. Carl could cer- tainly be am bedragit dig. utomhus. half-way. gor det for all del icke. Ens to his (in questions till and after negatives) : han har icke ens skrivit sin mor. apart. that. bedtime (also hur dagsf at what time?). darborta. all For (for ing en) del: kom for all del. if you need any- come to me.rhem.ma. da. the difference consists ddrav foljer. ndgonstades. his. in this NOTB there 2. just kom till mig. sa bara thing.) Another form of adverb compound home ddrinne. practically 369. The following examples illustrate the idiomatic uses of certain adverbs and adverbial expressions Allt: I : Karl kunde allt vara flitigare. up upstairs. . Bar a: om jag bar a hade tid! If I only had time! Kom du hit bara! Just come here (threat) om ni strict . for: han dr alltfor strdng. 367. . . you come too late. etc. etc. (or results) that. inside. halvvags. . at (my. the The functions of the adverb are same as in English. behover nagot. don't do it.

skulle . . . but I do not have time. it may possibly be true nog borde du ha lytt din far. not a bit . and I was most frequently alldeles icke. . icke. 229 I ing en del sdra hans kdnslor. inte det ringaste. En gang: han har varit hdr en gang. Note such em: phatic expressions as by no means. ej: of the negative adverbs inte is used in conversation. he det . I should like a little more meat han vill nog hellre (comp. I should indeed like to go along. men Nog: han kommer nog. of gdrna} vila sig. I think you ought to have obeyed your father jag ville nog gdrna ga med. jag gdrna gora det. tror jag. he does not even write to me. kan nog vara sant. not tired either. wound would by no means his feelings. inte en smul. he comes now and then. I suppose I could do that. det levde en gang en konung. Gdrna: jag dter gdrna fisk. I am fond of fish. I believe. han kommer en och annan gang. I think he would prefer to rest. you know det kunde jag ju gora. alls (icke) inte. inte det allra minsta. not in the least. will very likely come. inte ett grand. . och icke jag heller. icke heller jag. Heller: min bror var icke trott. Inte. my brother was not tired. Ju: du gor det ju? You are sure to do it? Han dr ju min far. he is my father. neither was I. he has been here' once. . inte (icke) alls. not at all. I should gladly do it jag ville gdrna ha litet mera kott. once upon a time there was a king han skriver inte en gang till mig. jag har inte tid.ADVERBb.

atager jag mig icke er hustrus behandling. that is no doubt true lat dr han vdl. kunde betala en sadan och befaim sig alltsa i stor nod. sade han. Det hande en gang. Han gick namligen 4 till lakaren och bad honom att besoka bans 5 hustni. men han emot (tvars visste ocksa. Skomakaren betankte sig mycket pengar hade han val inte. but not stupid. "Kom bara". 2 3. overlade saken lange for 3 sig sjalv och kom slutligen pa foljande tanke. "men jag vad jag bar. ej dum. EXERCISE A. 1 . "och jag betalar. det men nog is more *Val has almost the same meaning as nOg . och ni forstar ju.230 i EXERCISE. men han hade alls ingenting. . "Tyvarr ger er garna allt 8. Hennes man hade garna kallat en allvarligt sjuk. 4. antingen ni botar henne eller bringar henne om livet. more? Veil mig en kopp till. att denne skulle begara ganska mycket for sin behandling. I suppose you are tired dr vdl sant. he is lazy." icke lange. om ni bara botar min hustni. . dr ni snail." 11. has a ring of concern and sincerity which vdl lacks. "Under femtio kronor. vackert hus." jag botar henne eller icke. Strax darpa 9 begarde lakaren sitt honorar av skoma- . svarade skomakaren. give me another cup. Han "Har ni da 6 nagot att betala ej sa mig med?" fragade lakaren. att en skomakares hustru blev 1 2. och nagon utvag funnes 7 nog. att ni maste betala. 7. men det gallde ju hans sjuka hustru darhemma. 1. both denote supposition subjective. som bodde mitt ofver gatan) i ett stort. 8 blev allt varre och varre och dog slutligen. antingen mycket". men denna 12. please. Han kande nog en framstaende lakare. 5. XXXVI. 10. sa 9. Lakaren atog sig den sjuka fruns behandling. to oe sure. 6. varmed han skicklig lakare. vad ni begar. hum manga till? How many Till: giv : ni dr vdl trott.

4 May be omitted. XXXII. no expense. svarade lakaren. get your You know. Translate But do you have. att jag ar skyldig er nagot.EXERCISE. 16. He is honest. that you will never to be sure 6 . . C. Vad ville den- ne forst veta. of course . 231 ligtvis icke". 9 366. hans hustru? 1. innan han atog sig den sjuka fruns behandling? 7. When the 5 concerned. 4. 13. but al- 7. Fanns det nagon skicklig lakare i narheten ? Varfor tvekade skomakareu att hamta honom? 5. to send for a probably C. 5. Neither have I. Vil- ken bb'n riktade skomakaren till lakaren ? 6. s : : B. "Olyck14. etc. Note 12. 3. 1. 3. llonom referring to lakare is the subject of the infinitive. 3 . karen. *Ex. The doc- who lives right across the street is skillful. 2. da kan jag alls icke inse. be. es at least ten crowns a visit I suppose 4 . 8 350. Var denna lakare barmhartig? 8. Vem insjuknade. "Botade ni min hustru" fragade denne. etc. I heard that the doctor. pa vilka jag lovade att betala er. att betala? 10. Dessa voro ju de tva villkor. not seen her since she became better. be too great. tor if I had only had money. 9. "Ni bragte henne val ej fortsatte skomakaren. note 1. he would probably 4 not have hesi- tated at all to summon is 6. Conversation. She has 1 prominent physician. do you not 6 from him. 'Translate and there would probably 8 Note allt plus repeated comparative. and her illness will 2 2. Pa vilka villkor skulle han betala detta honorar? Var Lyckades lakaren att bota den sjuka? skomakaren enligt sin asikt skyldig lakaren nagot? fallen seriously ill. Lakaren protesters de na- 15. I have sent the shoemaker a bill for his treatment. I should have liked last long. can . hence hans and not sin. soon after together too poor. 7 8. om livet". but he chargIf he had been sick instead of his wife. Vad lovade sko- makaren 11. health of my fee wife the expensive doctor. Would have liked to. "Ja. h. skomakaren eller Varfor hamtade ban icke en lakare med detsamma." turligtvis daremot.

v. I think 'Not future with Why? 2 A. that is to say unfortunately clyckligtvis. Note. to see. treatment in'se (insep. indoor work nb'jen vtomhtis. : makes forty crowns a week. VOCABULARY. Please don't take the trouble just doubt 6 find them later on. I is VOCABULARY. There are three common ways of asking for the health of a person in Swewhich are they ? ^Tills nu.). use of the definite article after expressions of price . I. Ha. ^Translate by nog. framme hand (adv. to demand. '-Certain adverbs may be used to modify nouns in Swedish. will. om aret. v. S above. XXXIII.. often per is used. Forsell. merciful befinna sig no. realize (refl. What was skall. feeling 12. ''Hans or sinf 8 365. Translate by an adverb. 2. -ar. In expressions of time i and om are used han fortjilnar fyrtio A. following ett honorar'. which follows the simple verb or the auxiliary. 1.). by chance begdra. the cause? Too much indoor 12 A. Use the definite Attention has been called before to this distributive postpositive article. at proteste'ra. is he at home? No. to continue dagligen ndmligen (adv. Note 5. seriously framstdende. 13 . to cure leta. i stdllet for. better . direct . the trip thither. he . instead of I. health hdndelsevis (adv. daily fort'sdtta (insep. ho out for the moment. feel reflect bota. namely. prominent foljande. just wait and I shall look for them. "Invert. 11. above.000 kronor . you no somewhat 13. to aim.). -t. to search for (adv. c. v. lib. : . charge inomhus (adv. to betdnka sig (refl. see fin- be situated. I have them somewhere. He is out riding 8 with Dr. in front. see satta). v.). see se). allvarligt (adv. How now. once a month. fee barmhdr'tig. to be. until now 11 are you now 10 ? I am the doctor has visited me daily. should like 6 to see Mr.).). charitable. outdoor amusements 10 dish .). . Edgren. b. 'Translate by ju which follows verb 6 invert. I. I.. 9 349.232 9. when so used they follow the noun resan dit. arbete inomhus. tills for narvarande. .. en Jialsa. work. 10. 3.). 2. to protest rikta. Do you happen to have those books at hand 8 ? No. kroner i veckan.000 crowns a year en gang i manaden. etc. indoors en behandling.

of these are : . sickness slutligen.CONJUNCTIONS. to deprive of to hit life. tions: join a dependent clause to sentence. phrases. (a) General connectives. LESSON XXXVII. for the moment. komma p& en tanke. 1. Har du to hdndelsevis sett min ftofcf Do you happen have seen my book? 4. . or 16 Swedish Grammar . . see lagga). tvars (adv. vara. finally tveka. -ar. and words of equal rank. which 370. to kill. The most important anting en . for ogonblicket. 5. 3. across moment en utgift. or . into The coordinating conjunctions are divided two groups: (a) general connectives and (b) adverbial conjunctions... I. to under- dtininstone. eller. both ej heller. at last. langre fram (framdeles). v. expense -ar. en sjukdom. . I. 233 (refl.. to hesitate d'taga sig take v. neither . either . 371. o'verldgga (insep. (2) the subordinating conjunctions. I. Conjunctions. prep). to deliberate IDIOMS: att bringa att om livet. There are two general classes of conjunc(1) the coordinating conjunctions. later on. . which are used to connect clauses. . 2.. en utvag. expedient to last.). nor. at least ett ogonblick. eller. endure -er. upon an idea. some other part of the COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS. bade and och. .

. . icke blott gav han mig goda rad. inverted order (predicate before subject) when they connect clauses: han reste genast. utan tifven may take either word order.234 icke blott. .. eller requires the .. . . etc.eller. neither . Those of the general connectives which connect clauses require the normal order (subject before predicate) with the exception of antingen. . (aven rarely stands at the beginning). but I stayed antingen vet han ingenting.. REMARKS ON THE GENERAL CONNECTIVES. ej heller jag. which require the . and sdval. utan han lanade mig aven penningar. but (adversative) varken eller. . if more common. he does not come. varken. men jag stannade. nor do (2) I. . . -or he dares not say any. . 373. they stand at the beginning the inverted order must be used: han icke blott gav miff yoda rad. . . thing.som. nor 372.eller and ej heller. CONJUNCTIONS. and samt. . . NOTE.. he left immediately.utan dven(ocksd). but och.eller: jag vet inte antingen han kommer eller ej. The normal is in which case icke blott and aven are placed within the sentence . Icke blott. . not only. The following peculiarities in usage should be noted : (1) ej heller translates nor when it it not correlative: hem kommer icke.but also men. inverted order when used with antingen and varken but not as a rule when used alone. he not only gave me good advice but he also lent me money . ty. eller vdgar han ingenting saga. . as well as for utan. In dependent clauses the Mormal order is used with antingen. utan liven lanade han. . either he knows nothing.

partly alltsd. thus an. therefore emellertld. (b) Adverbial conjunctions. sdledes bo'r han vara . yet. . but a pretext.. : 374. . (3) samt does not connect clauses in conversational language. . but are used as conjunctions to connect coordinate clauses. so sdledes. now. yet. nevertheless likvdl. tion. still icke desto mindre. utan en forevdndning. .now dndock. also sd. 375. still ock. thus sdlunda.CONJUNCTIONS. also. otherwise dels . this is not a reason.an. A large number of conjunctions are adverbs in form.. also ocksd. yet. . The most important of these are the following : consequently annars. still ddrfor. . still dven.. yet. . . 235 and is not used (4) for often takes the place of ty in conversa(5) utan is used only after a negative and introduces a contrast which excludes or contradicts what goes before detta dr icke ett skdl. even REMARKS ON THE ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONS. dels. partly dock. The adverbial conjunctions require the inverted order: klockan dr dtta.

236 EXERCISE. now . ) an grdt hon. .. when used as mere adverbs ock and ocksa like English too often follow the word they modify. likval. . or at times. etc. he has not been heard of for many years. . yet it was repulsed. en i XXXVII. and dven. An. . jag ocksa har varit i Paris. etc. common in the same sense is EXERCISE A. consequently he to be here soon. too.) blev det tillbakaslaget (or det blev dock. emellertid. . an skrattade hon. alltsa dr han troligen dod. and dndock are often placed after the subject and the predicate: angreppet var hdftigt. have been in Paris. fick jag dock ej tillfdlle att tola vid honom. omsom . . ocksa. . : Quite alternately. she laughed and cried (3) . Det matsalen Jigger ett paket smutsiga starksaker antingeller i salongen. Ocksa is more common than ock. Var snail och tag dem . . dock (likval. while aven precedes: man har ej hort av honom pa manga ar.an is equivalent to the English now. consequently he is probably dead. the equivalents of also are ock.at times (or alternately. 1. 376. (1) ought Do not confuse Note the following peculiarities in usage the Swedish alltsa with the : English also. o'msom. . har snart..) the attack was fuThe adverbial conjuncrious. (2) Dock. it is eight o'clock. I.. tions must be placed after the subject and the predicate when a dependent clause precedes: ehuru han var ddr. although he was there I had no opportunity to speak to him.

att antingen kommer han mer han icke forran i morgon. 5. 10. 7. 11. val. till 237 strykinrattningen. of must. Huni ha era kragar och skjortor?' 4. 3. 6. Jag onskar att bli bade klippt och rakad. amnar ni gora under tiden ? Var- for gar ni in i en f risersalong. val denoting a. etc. har den mycgatt upp 7 ket att laga pa den. '373. Herr Sjostedt bad mig halsa och saga. Karl. tvatten vara fardig? 7.EXERCISE. 2. ty 2 de aro mycket vardslosa. 4 372. eller kom5. Bra often has reference to the essential excellence. 375. 4. Har sir en f risersalong . salunda tet. sa skall jag emellertid forsoka att fa den fardig till i kvall. '376. the former refers to form. far ni vara snail och skynda 8. bra mycket. Jag later icke hamta tvat- ten sjalv. Conversation. far jag likval lov 5 att ga in. da hinner jag icke blott att ga till barberaren. Emedan ni lagat rocken sa val 1 . 2. att Karl skall bara det? 3. Vad fattas er rock? Vad . Ehuru det ar skall jag ocksa bestalla en ny kostym hos er. Dels 6 saknas i men er. 4 pa slaget fem. 2. the latter to contents. Vad stedt halsa ? Yarfb'r? 6. 1. to the outward: skriva val and skriva bra are not the same. Vad later herr Sjo8. Bra colloquially may have the sense of very (much): 5 Fd lov. 9. 2 Note use of later. som ej ser fin ut? vill ni ha gjort dar? 10. 9. Jag anvander endast de basta varor och sysselsatter endast de skickligaste arbetare. B. ehuru den icke ser fin ut. sommarna har och dar. utan ocksa att utratta ett par arenden. Var dar- for sa god och tag matt pa (of) mig. jag har bratt. Sag at dem. Var ligger paketet med starksa- kerna? ru vill Vart vill ni. ty jag har brattom. arbeta bra. alltsa Vad felas den har dels 6 rocken? ett par knappar. Nar maste 5. higher degree excellence. 1 kan jag garantera bade tyget och snit- Bra and val would here be interchangeable. Klockan fem? Det ar bara halv tva nu. utan 3 de maste skicka hem den fore klockan sex pa onsdag kvall. att bade 1 kragar och skjortor maste vara vita och val strukna.

(common- tain. hence you must hurry. 4 'A'a'sia. most worn 11 he sent out. garante'ra.). 12. 7. nevertheless + VOCABULARY. 8. I. 357.). I. place negative 349. intr. 2. to lack. 5. etc. ter Both the washing and the ironing must be betnext5 time. but also a shave 8 11. to go up. -ei. 10. last time. hunno. What two words translate timef 6 When or equals other8 ''Precis klockan fern or pa slaget fern. 2. Just 2 wait a little. lib. although felas (dep. It is either on the little table in the dining room or in the hall. consequently I can't write to him. (Translate by clause. I don't know his address .238 C. to ail I. to order . "376. 1. I shall come down myself. f. The coat was almost worn out. heller. Although the coat was al- it. but we can't find it. to fetch hinna. Carl is not satisfied with their work either 3 4. en arbetare.). b. nevertheless he sent it to the tailor to be mended. 3. before fore ehuru. 10 three quarters 9 of an hour to spare . bara. note definite form of adjective. rakstuga) . 369. Neither the collars nor the cuffs were well ironed 6. -en. to guarantee g& upp' (sep. I have only . 13. Although he will be here in an hour.) noun is indefinite. VOCABULARY 1 boy is here from the laundry and asks for your washing. en f riser' salong. 2. or 6 I shall send my washing to another laundry. get (to) ly. . 369. therefore I came in A to ask you. barber shop . but send it home on Friday without fail. to use barber en barberare. Use a prepositional phrase. I need not only a hair cut8 . at. 3 2 1 adverb after the subject. they can neither wash nor iron. 1. rise open (sun) hamta. "See 342. Tiemn.. . Tre kvarts timme. to have time. yet I shall go to the barber shop. 9 IO 3. My friend writes that he will either come 7 at five o'clock sharp or not at all.). before forrdn' (conj. (prep. bestal'to. it is translated by annars. lib (impf. Idioni wise. You must not wait for 4 me to call for it 12 this time. anvdnde). 9. It is a very poor laundry. -et. hunnit. workingman an'vanda.

II. ett matt. The most important of these are . (a) Comparative: ju. 3. -en.).. -er. 6. Conjunctions (Continued). LESSON XXXVIII. -er. stro'ko. satisfied en onsdag. 4. cloth utsliten. -et. stru- kit. v&rdslos. to miss en salong'. careless cut ett iirende. to oc- cupy. en tambur'.. rakad. Jag o'nskar att bli klippt. the coat has ripped in the seam. suit. drawing room. the.. ironing starksaker (pi. an. dirty. than. 5. : 377.. hall auditorium (in a theater) ett tyg. -n.CONJUNCTIONS. -er. smutsig. -t. -t. laundry rub en strykinrattning. merchandise ett paket'. ej att go'ra det. down nojd. shirt vara. seam sakna. som. I. (linen) Wednesday parcel sysselsatta (see satta) . fastdn. -er. . I shall 2. laundry (en)strykning. a shave. soiled . to occasion en manschett'. . SUBORDINATING CONJUNTIONS. om an. -er. as. article. -or.desto (dess). nojt.. -er. so'mmar. ett snitt.). such as . -et. though. he reached there in time. to employ en som. costume en Jcrage. Jag hinner to do it. see to it that you are here then. cuff measure ned (adv. even if. en kostym'. att ni ar har da. -or. fast. worn out en skjorta. Han hann dit i tid. Concessive: ehuru. -ar. -ar. as sasom. the door has opened. I. stryka. errand not have time IDIOMS: 1. 239 stro'k. Rocken har gdtt upp i sommen. om ock. to mend. Laga. -ar. Darren har gdtt upp.. the . collar laga. 1 wish to have a hair cut. erase. (b) even. oaktat. to iron. vestibule. aven om. although.

until. while. det dr osdkert.att. eftersom. if ever shall see him. NOTE. so. . in case. the air wag quite cool. since. when. indefinite temporal adverbs and certain adverbs expressing supposition. ndr. we shall have to begin to eat without him. if he had 379. so that. sa att. if. sedan. sa var luften ratt sval. as often as (h) . when. sa snart. whether. that. . sa hade han varit vdlbdrgad nu. is If the independent clause follows. efter. because. if only. (g) Temporal: da. before. : (e) Consecutive (result) sa att. sa. .that. he said that he possibly might be able to lend me a couple of hunwe dred. as darfor att. if. After a subordinating conjunction many adverbs (negative adverbs. in order that. since som. . so: ehuru solen tycktes skina ganska varmt i dag pa formiddagen. The general subordinating att. so that. . is . att. although the sun seemed to shine quite warm. as soon as . because entir. han sade. tills. often In a subordinate clause the auxiliary hava very often omitted: om han inte slosat bort sina pengar. forrdn. if all. innan. its verb precedes the subject and introduced by sd. om vi ndgonsin fa se honom. . that. etc. (d) Conditional: bara. in order that. (c) Causal da. om. pa det att. as emedan.) which in an independent clause follow the simple predicate or auxiliary must be placed before the predicate: eftersom han icke kommer. (f) Final: for att. REMARKS ON THE SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS. it is doubtful.240 : CONJUNCTIONS. after. . sa fa vi borja dta utan honom. since he does not come. . 'sa ofta. 378. att han mojligen skulle kunna lana mig ett par hundra. medan. . .

it. har det icke regnat forr i ar.CONJUNCTIONS. if only: det bara inte regnar. Bara=om bara (often om. the easier desto Idttare gar det. even if he were here. as it now rains it has not rained before this year) som vddret var tryckande. like ivhen in English. oppressive. its correlative desto (dess) the inverted order: ju forr du do al go'r det. but both may. interrogative (5) nar. as rich as you (sdsom is less (2) : . Emedan and endr are used less in the spoken than in the written language. . sa skola vi ga. om an are often separated if they stand at the beginning of a clause. ock and an being placed immediately after the subject: om han an vore har. 241 not squandered his money. the sooner you it will be (go). I stayed indoors. he did exactly since) as I lika rik som du. holl jag mig inne. it is more emphatic than som: sdsom det nu regnar. (3) Om ock. have a causal value (da is more common in the sense of as) when as . if only it does not rain. we could not do anything. om . sd kunde inte gora ndgot. (6) . 380. The following will serve to illustrate the uses of the subordinating conjunctions: (1) Ju requires the normal order of words. as the weather was . m (4) Da and ndr are temporal conjunctions. Som may have both a comparative and a causvalue (eftersom is more common in the sense of han gjorde precis som jag. common. we shall go.bara). he would have been in easy circumstances now.

I don't believe I am able. ffd. Prepositions may also govern other clauses jag tanker pa hur jag skall fa bud till min bror. om jag skall stanna eller Om . its usage with the Like its English conjunction equivalent it is often omitted: jag formodar han kommer snart. Som om. EXERCISE XXXVIII. only by your coming : to my assistance I was saved. NOTE 1. as often as. I rejoice over what has happened. whenever you please. En viss person erholl ej en gang ett tungt brev f ran en Enar brevet var frankerat. may take som but generally do not: sd snart han kommer. he has convinced me that his intentions are sincere . maste han betala ganska .jag gldder mig over vad som har hdnt. sand honom hit. as soon as. is (10) Att substantive almost identical in that. blev jag rdddad. som heist. sa att han icke kunde arbeta. Observe : sd ofta . Subordinate noun clauses introduced by att may be immediately preceded by a preposition: han har ofveitygat mig om att han menar vpprikendast genom att du tigt. I am thinking of how I shall get a message to my brother . as if. (9) Sa ofta. A. som om det skulle regna. jag tror icke jag kan. sd snart som heist. For att with the infinitive is used when the subject in the purpose clause would be the same : is also equivalent to whether in an indi(7) rect question: jag vet ej. kom miff till hjdlp. van. as though det ser ut. (8) Pa det att is less common than the other final conjunctions sa att always denotes result when used with the indicative han skadade sig. I suppose he will soon be here. and sa snart (sa fort). he injured himself so that he could not work.242 EXERCISE. as often as you please . 2. : as in the principal one. I do not know whether I shall stay or not. as soon as you please ndr som heist. it looks as though it would rain. as soon as he comes send him here.

fann han "Jag mar alldeles fortraffligt. 2. att paketet inneholl som kom honom C. foil narslutna 2 sten fran mitt hjarta. Hur kande han sig vid upptackten av paketets fullt? innehall? 7. van hade sant det tunga brevet.. . alltsa 1 .). sa mycket mer dess tyngd lat ana nagot vardefullt. Vad hade avsandaren bifogat? att tro. Emedan han sag. (lie sent.. att han skulle bli rikligt ersatt paket till Adressaten beta- som genom paketets innehall.. . ." och avsande samma dag 1 ett stort : Mottaga- vannen. att paketet inneholl nagot vardefullt.). inclosed. honom att ett spratt.).). andock . att avsandaren ej 8. . . att pa resa. Han onskade 6. etc.EXERCISE.). lade utan att knota den hoga losen i hoppet. trodde. . etc). (he paid. (he paid. .). etc. 5. Vad maste man alls betala. annat an orden ren skrattade Da ban oppnade det. nar han oppnade brevet? Vad gjorde han hamnas pa vannen ? 4. . 1. Vad var det i all synnerhet. Varf or betalade vannen den hoga losen utan att knota ? 5.. Complete the following according to the anecdote above and the indications given. bans van ve. (he received. 3. Da han oppnade viss person var brevet. sa 9. etc. . nar ett brev ar ofullstandigt eller icke frankerat? Vad fann personen for att i fraga. Eftersom han (lie insag. nagot varde6. be especially careful to 1. Han . etc. . B. mycket mer som. att en 7. 2. . 243 ingenting mycket i losen. darfor . ." Note use of indefinite form with samma. lat spela Nar en . Conversation. (he found. .. avenledes utan att frankera det. . hamnas pa 1 sin van. sag.. Ehuru han van(it was not light). etc. Till sin overraskning fann han dock intet annat dari an en stor sten orden: med 1 "Vid underrattelsen 2 att du madde is definite bra. Brevet var ej frankerat. etc. get the word order correct. Ehuru han . var en av bans vanner. (must pay. decided. Narslutna and the noun indefinite. so innelyckta. 4.

is and the colder the weather. 4. spratt. 17.. besides it does not fit me very well in the back. 2. the better. 6. honom. astonished)... 11 as it rains. it does not please me. we cannot go out.. ommended you as 1 the tailor comes.. I have sent for you because my friends have rec- As soon to cloth that I like 4 . Den fattige her om brb'd. Don't you see that altogether too tight under the arms. even if it should cost the suit now is. 4 conies). nagot annat.. (we shall be ready). WS. (he (he knew nothing).. (but 6 ) you is will have to change it. kusiner komma icke att besoka oss i bb'rjan pa juli . . you must let me try. As 10. . He does not believe what you say. You must hurry the coat that you can send it home on 7 Friday. D. He went out of the house without saying 14 a word. . (but) i slutet av till September i stallet. vanda mig before). 14. he has done nothing but play 10 11. please 2 send him up 3 2. a The finer and more durable the a little cloth more. 5 may order 3. . 11. Yara fortare. nor I either 13 . 12. enar 376. mannen sade. ty 5 . att (one believes the contents to be). . Since you cannot do it. The dearer the food suffer. 1. to 378... As is. icke desto 10.. Since you and change it so 8 went away yesterday. 15. 9.. Han . Jag tordes ej (I had never seen him 16. I me so often. lare . desto 14. 12. (he is hungry). 7. (he did not 'be- come. 5. If you have samples of suit. He did his work so well that all were pleased 9 with it. 13. . 7. mindre 3 . 8. Ju fb'rr . me. 379.. We have not gone away. desto vardeful. 15. Ju (he played) en van ett 4 tyngre det ar. for I shall leave the city on Saturday. . nor 13 shall we. note. Have }ou . the more the poor 16.. . The boys had seatlong . 13.244 tat EXERCISE. An 1 an en annan.. *372. ed themselves at the table in order to 12 study.

380. 9. . 1. 2 please. 12 380. durable valuable Ha. -en. to suit. Give at least three equivalents for the English *Tycka om can be used in the sense of like about both animate and inanimate objects alska. ledo. surprised o'verraskning. 8. I. nothing but. to take en underrattelse. satisfied riklig. to cherish afjects (also about objects like home. trick -t. -t. b.VOCABULAKY. sample. tion varaTctig. fattig. -t. to compen- sit. narrow. perhaps. sitta. to change dvenledes. -t. I. 380. to indicate. -at. att hamnas pd ndgon. ete. likewise o'verrasfcad. arm sanda av'. att ana. 3. fit to (insep. and 373. to suffer en mottagare. ett prov. "Swedish uses the supine will do here. torts. -t. (Pi. suttit.) 'Either of the three equivalents for the future Which are they ? 9Nojda or belatna. ) av' siinda. to receive satt. test dispatch beldten. only about animate objects. -n. poor trdng. passa. vardefull. 1 245 18. tight fine tvng. to love. I. ingen annan an. surprise ingenting annat an. to send. "373. to have a presentiment narsluten. 18 369. 9. ana.). confidence tordes. 'Either pa or om. "In analogy with as soon as. fatherland. to dare Jiamnas (dep. : VOCABULARY. (insep.). take the place of ett spratt. . omf (See 342 and note 1. 5. -ar.). -t. inclosed fit arm. 15 380. 15 thought of how we can help him? dence in 15 what he does. lida. -et. but. fin. IDIOMS: 1. er'hdlla er'satta sate. generally only about animate obhdlla av. instead of the infinitive. .) "Use present of verb with kanhdnda. . note 2. -et. fection for. 10. -er. . I. recipient dndra. ett fortro'ende. to no one 2. -ar. "Use infinitive. to grumble lidit. informa- revenge ett innehdll. heller. What form does pa require? What. leka. toras. heavy -r. content (s) knota. to play led. I have no confi- Far god och. -t. -et. lata revenge oneself upon somebody. "349. abundant sutto.

why. Interjections. hurra! hurrah! hu! whew! 1. (3) now? har jag visst. and the be classed as interjections. may (1) Kommer han he come soon? snart? Ja. hu.LESSON XXXIX. det Yes. by the addition of da and visst: Ja may sometimes be rendered I har jag inte sagt dig detf Well. haven't told you so. The affirmatives ja and negative nej. Jo is used in answer to a negative question or in answer to a question or statement implying doubt: 382. reprimand interjections are often followed by da: usch da t fy da! Usch expresses disgust and disgust. he will. certainly Shall Ska ! vi fara (doubt) ? Jo visst! we go? Certainly NOTE. These . ! A number ffott I ! of other words and ! such as is look! 2. certainly. yes. . fy. puh. Ja and jo are often strengthened . Yes. horror. Will (2)Du har I I val icke tid nu? Jo. ja visst. det don't suppose you have time have. by well: ja. 381. oppression and discomfort. no. yes jo da. jo. The most common interjections are: ack! alas! oh! ah! aha! ah! aj! ouch! fy! shame! whew! 7m/ ha! halld! hello! hysch! hush! klatsch! crack! kras! smash! kratsch! crash! o/oh!0! ojl ouch! paff! pang! hejl hey! hejsan! heigh-ho! bang! hm! hm! NOTE jections. Se upp halt good look out! Vdlan' ! ! halt to ! hjdlp ! help ! Se dtir ! very well! Aj the usual interjection express pain. gb'r han. yes. plask! splash! ptro! whoa! puh! usch! whew! ve! woe! expressions are also used as interhell ! hail etc. jo visst.

just look! Nej. 384. se ddr! Why. no indeed. sorrow. inte alls. an interjection extensively used in Swedish. nej. visst inte or inte alls: Nej da. Nej is often strengthened by da. menace. 247 383. anger. cerIt has other tainly not. sa vackert! How beautiful ! . vad sdger du? You don't say! Nej. as joy. nej visst inte. is made to express almost any emotion. etc. Jasd. you don't say! etc. It may be rendered by so.INTERJECTIONS. oh! is that so? ivell. not at all. idiomatic uses: Nej.

Linng Street. omitted when the noun is not used in an absolutely general way: han har guld. Klippiga Bergen. of the articles Some of the most important uses have been given already. The definite postpositive article is used: (a) With abstract nouns. the Baltic. (d) gatan. see 178. a hundred crowns a week. he has gold (partitive). (g) Instead of possessive adjective. The following summary may be THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. With many names of rivers. mdnniskan dr sJcapelsens krona. (e) With names of streets: Linnegatan. OdenOden Street. useful.APPENDIX. Note omission of next Monday. guldet dr ej sd nyttigt som jdrnet. pd mdnda- Monday. Osiers jon. gen. Cb) With names of seasons and days of the. the crown of creation. With names of places of public and official resort: i i kyrkan. nouns of material and class: leve friheten. long live freedom. week: sommaren dr slut. oceans. In a distributive sense where English uses the indefinite In temporal expressions the noun is preceded by a preposition. at (in) or to school. two crowns a meter. lakes. in or to church. twice a year. tvd gdnger om dret. The Use 1. in the spring. infor article. (f) skolan. generally i or om: tvd Jcronor metern. the Rocky Mountains. om vdren. hundra Jcronor i veckan. The article is NOTE. Lake Superior. mountains: Ofre sjon. of the Articles. . (c) article in expressions like om mdndag. in court. gold is man is not as useful as iron. on summer is ended. ratten.

in the former case also before a noun denoting nationality. m sago i gat. any) or as & simple predicate: har ni pengarf penningen (general) dr upphovet the cause of much evil. station in life. etc. in a hurry. On the other hand the indefinite article is more frequently omitted: (a) Before an unmodified noun denoting vocation. Note such forms as nagra fd. -et. in a tearful voice. he is a soldier. Sivedish Grammar. It may be omitted in a few instances (cf. 17 . THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. toothache. with a trembling hand. same: samme gosse. rector? (See 142. The prepositive article is as a rule used in connection with the postpositive article when the noun is preceded by an adjective. oldier. ett sddant. such a. he is a brave s. used alone. I have a headache. han dr soldat. what a. he spoke as a soldier and not as a statesman. tht remarks on the prepositive article. he is a royal councilor.APPENDIX. money is the samme. a.) 2. . -et. 4. a few. is e>< omitted : . 2). he is a teacher of Swedish han svensk sprdkldrare would mean he is a Swedish teacher of langiiages NOTE. in haste. Cb) After Do you have money? But till mycket ont. kungligt rad. 126. etc. The definite postpositive article is omitted: (a) With nouns used as partitives (some. har kyrkoherden trdffat honomf Have you met him. vilken. som same boy that we saw yesterday. mdngen. rank character. I have received an answer. If the noun and modifier form a set phrase the indefinite article han ar han ar svensk sprdklarare.. ft thus appears that the definite article is used more widely than in English. But we must say: han ar en tapper soldat. 249 (h) With titles used alone in address: vill doktorn vara sd god och komma? Please come. (b) Often in phrases: i hast. jag har huvudvdrk. or connected by som. med darrande hand. tandvdrk. me& grdtande stamma. jag har fdtt svar. doctor. vilken man han dr! What a man he is! (c) en sddan. han talade som soldat och ej som statsman. 3. many a.

Under. 6. sttinger. soner. pincers . . (b) Verbal abstracts of the same form as the verb after dropping the infinitive ending -a. daughter en fader. -el and -er (plur. son spdng. REMARK. jdrnet. -skap (plur. -eum. goose en hand. are given. det vackra Stockholm. the calling. -n). hand ledamot. tiinger. root foot-bridge son. stad. -a -e skrika. (in concrete nouns). brother en dotter. rotter. Neuter are: (a) Almost all names of continents. father en fot. kallet. fire-brand en en broder. border rot. countries. Stockholm. (pi. fine brand. natter. the cry. eri. female names. fotter. and all words not real substantives but used as such: det mdktiga Amerika. -on. staver. . gdss. with or without change of vowel: fallet. skriket. stave stang. rander. book man. dottrar. Note* on Inflection of Nouns. Only the rules for determining the neuter gender In regard to masculine and feminine nouns it will suffice to say that sex names follow the sex male names being masculine. man (manner) man moder. Nouns ending in ande ende at dome 1 1 . louse and. the powerful America. mother mus. . -n). some en en en en en en en en en en en en en en en bot. broder. -an 2 . In abstract nouns. Originally masculine or feminine names of inanimate objects or abstracts are now classed as common gender (Swedish realgenus or den-genus). The following nouns modify the vowel also double the final consonant: in the plural. boter. the beautiful det sko'na. 5. duck bok. Other\vise common gender. letters of the alphabet. stader. foot en gd$. bocker. feminine. (pi. city stav. moss. member en en ZMS. Grander. pole tdng. the beautiful. loss. places. spanger. J -ment. kalla. derived from (c) 1 1 falla. metals.) 2 -um.=sing. hdnder. VOWEL MODIFICATION IN THE PLURAL. the iron. ledamoter.350 APPENDIX. fader. Rules of Gender. the fall. night rand. modrar. mouse natt.=sing) -turn. ! .

utensil. pedigree snubbor. easy life vagnar. corresponding to dif- ferent senses of the singular: en en en en bors. molds gang. furaldrar.APPENDIX. doft. behalf. vacation flnanser. shapes gdnger. the following being the most important: FIRST DECLENSION. parents goddagar. trimming fragrance snitt. chaff entrails dthdvor. scolding hdvor. snubbing sddor. 7. skrofler. staffs borser. gifts inalvor. vegetables musikalier. formar. intrigues scrofula finances specerier. 8. pd (d) ndgons vagnar. drill brarn. Some nouns occur only in the plural. gestures. music (written) umgalder. groceries gronsaker. goods. staves SINGULAR LACKING. scolding sndsor. beak. blood bolster. gdngar. purses form. stavar. paths stav. border. ranker. Some nouns may have either common or neuter gender: the most important of these are: 9. manners SECOND DECLENSION. bannor. DOUBLE PLURALS. bill bolster paraply'. bourses former. parasol borr. borsar. umbrella parasoll'. 251 Some nouns have double plurals. annaler. annals ferier. ndbb. tool cut . in behalf of somebody THIRD DECLENSION. times staver. taxes DOUBLE GENDER. redskap-. dues utskylder. blod. anor.

Conversational Swedish presents many peculiarities in pronunciation. pronounced tro'litt. are often pronounced o or e. tragg&rd. 'bedja giva are generally shortened to ta. So also final -t in mycket and litet. what did you say? Va(d) menar duf What do you is mean? -t in the supine of verbs of the Fourth Conjugation dropped in conversation in many parts of Sweden: tagi (hard or soft g) for tagit. where stg^= sJi. and saja. ge. are. Another common colloquial form for de is di. ste'nitt. shaving tack. stony. Colloquially dem is always pronounced as if written dom. Ar and aro. muslin . 10. 1 span. bliva. and saga are practically always pronounced as if written maj. . etc. gastgivare. sig. dra. be. In certain parts of Sweden. so is also att when it is the sign of the infinitive: jag skulle tycka honom. garden. : Al'PENDlX. is. (l>) Det often drops the t in pronunciation. skrivi for skrivit. I should like to see him. Wi. ha. Irregularities in Conversational Pronunciation. among which are the following: (a) The words mig. (i) Verbs of the First Conjugation often drop the ending -de of the past tense in conversation: jag tala I med honom i gdr. taga. thanks common gender when used in a 2 'Generally fingrar in the plural. ste'nigt. Always collective sense redskapen. spoke to him yesterday. saj. (g) Final (h) Skall is generally pronounced ska. ddj. the utensils. (c) Adjectives ending in -t -ig neuter (d) (e) in pronunciation: tro'ligt. draga. I om att (d) traffa (f) Vad very often drops d in conversation: Va(d) fbe)falls? beg your pardon. innkeeper. especially in Stockholm. are (j) There are a number of familiar words which softened in conversation by the dropping or assimilation of a consonant: tradgdrd. dig. generally drop g before the probable. hava. dom is used for de. Och is generally pronounced d.252 finger finger musslin'.

(c) Gender nouns ending in -n preceded by a vowel often have the definite form the same as the indefinite: han stfir pa grdsplanen (pronounced grasplan). the houses. . fageln sitter pd grenen (pronounced gren). thus becoming like nouns of the Fourth Declension: hus-ena. namn-ena. see 140. 2o:> (Jc) The plural ending -or of the First Declension is often pronounced ~er: vecka(or). he stands on the lawn. plural in conversation. vecker. and -na. met with The most common grammatical The singular irregularities in the (a) spoken language are here noted: of a verb regularly takes the place of the def. 'et ('t). c. (~b) Neuters of the Fifth Declension take -ena in the form of the plural instead of -en. the names. the bird sits on the branch. Grammar. Irregularities in Conversational 11.APPENDIX. (I) For enclitic pronouns 'en.

STRONG AND IRREGULAR VERBS. INFINITIVE .

be 255 named . beta.Al'I'KNDIX.

sink .25G sjunka.

tvi.APPENDIX. 257 wash .

) are gender nouns. sep. I. For the principal parts of irregular and Parts of speech are strong verbs the list on page 254 should be consulted. business anvdnda. alltid. st. design. III. arbetare. request prep. st. lib. druggist alle'na (gen. abborre. and accented variable prefix. ankare (n-* -^. address adresse'ra. work workingman arm . entirely. -n. polite att.). v.-ier. only the gender of neuter nouns is designated . adress'. audience automobile automobilforbindelse.). accented var. arbeta.. adjo'. st. lish v. of. -er. regard.). found. ana. prefix anblick. inter- ankomma. punish akt (invar. adressat'.. designated only in cases of ambiguity. v.. SWEDISH-ENGLISH. ..VOCABULARY. In the vocabulary. public. serious alltsd. thus. I. that. -er. -er. arrive good-bye address addressee anse.. suspect. insep. -ar. use building aga. -ar. -er. (n. v. estab- add anliinda.). otherwise annons' (annongs'). notice alldeles.. alone i . face plot. sight. lib. -ar. agreeable. -er. advertisement apote'kare. angendm. I. so allvarlig. store affdrsbyggnad. perch adde'ra. quite anticipate annars.). placard. seriously sign) amerikan'.. apt it'. -er. -er. I. break off . affur'. . conj.Ua. spectacle anfortro. adv. always arreste'ra. etc. artig. v. -r. def. anchor arrive avbryta. rupt. notice business. consider. (infinitive allvarligt. pleasant anhd. appetite in allmdnhet.. from. sober. I. general alls. by. at all arm. intrust auditorium automobil'. I. anliigga. American an-. connection by automobile av. arrest to consequently. grave. anslag (n. irr. irr. all nouns not marked (n. think ansikte (n..

). relate beromd. bite bekvdmlighet. besoka. -ar. I. amount avlfigsna (sig). background backwards exist. v. irr. receive ben (n. n. ask for st.. praise av. glossy . -er. keep. behind bank.VOCABULARY. -lutna. sep. consist bakgrund. -ar. st. . shiny. Ha.. betjaning. v. I. dispatch avundsjuk. avliJpa.. -ar. bank bara. (n. biljett'kontor' fice bit. I la. treatment behdlla. lib. deliberate. v. remove.).). (n. order besdttning. beratta. beldpa sig to amount bemdktiga sion of sig. -et. please behandling. (n. satis- go away. crew visit barmhar'tig. watering place bake baker . turn out avsiinda. acquainted. ticket of- en an acquaintance bekvam. -romt. bemota. merciful child barn (n. beldten.). bestdlla. 250 (n. bedja (om). I. demand. bevista. bifall bil.).. convenience -er.. treat. beftnna sig. mean. unaccented insep. -at. -ar. . education (n. smooth. signify population betunka.). demand behaga. Ha. . I. betyda. bjudning. send away. of treat. bone.. befalla. lib. lib. retain attend behova. lib. invitation.. piece ient bita. be-. no servants. belopp fied beliist. bakllinges. command st. begara. applause "auto" bildad. I. back . avgd. lib. depart refl. n. pray. lib. bakom. pay pi. deceive v. prefix irr. mountain famous stand (a badort. lib. irr.. no pi. def. -er. -ar. Ha. cultured bildning. lib.). -er. v. besok betala..). Ha. st. sep. leg . I. envious well-read (till). visit I. . need bekant. v.ar.. cheat. conven. considera take into tion taga i . culture. known. reflect begaran. party blank. consider. comfort. take posses- B backa. bestd. only test). be (health attendance betraktande (n. bagare. beromma. request sig.. I. and place) befolkning. .. comfortable. bad baka. bath berg (n.). bedraga..

good. . carry porter Momma. dit. lighten flower -er. -ar. cigarr'.). . -er. I. sprout . dikt.) bras pd. (art. bread drickspengar droska. st... diver''se divide'ra. -ar. drama no plur. hurry .). remain. drama drink (pi. date'ra. drama dricka. fine. def. cigarrhandel. daily bonde. . v. daily dagsljus (n. -stdder.). heal. deltaga. fractions (math. besides.). dwelling. take after. dokto'rer. doctor dotter. doktor. use off thither (pi. bdra. cigar black (n. lib.).). bra (adj.). dwell. Ila. -ar. bonder. cure part st. bostad. only). brush dar- aagngen away borta. of passive) olixtra.. modest bldsa. book dag. daylight dal. break brddska. ceremony blow -er. that. bryta av'.) the letter carrier poem dish direkt'. v. diverse divide brdk (n. I. III. (n. valley over there dam. brdttom. beginning only blygsam. brother disk. it. (adv. and adv. letter brevbarare. ha . favor be in -a brdtt. .). (n. sep. droja. VOCABULARY. hurry brod (n. both. day . I. . bed -or.. D daglig (adj.och. I. cigar store cigarr Jiandlare.). -samma. blott. peasant. datum del. -or. -er. st. brodd. village cab delay bygga. I. at the side of brev (n. best blom'sterrabatt'. v. away from home. trouble.) the dessutom.). counter. -er.). begin borjan (no. I. biirare. table borsta. daughter dram.). . v. it. participate den(pron. -ar. ink bo. flower borja. bo'cker. only). bro'der. date residence bota.). -ar. v. I. C ceremoni'. in addition det (pron. farmer bord bort. bust. well. st. dottrar. (art. .. delay.). st. be (aux.3GO bliva. pi. live boJc. lib..and drojsmdl (n. become. (n. cigar dealer . build bdde. lady date data. direct broder. . quite bredvid'.. by.). -er. bruka. take (time) . tip(s) by.

-or. dumbom.). elegans' (elegangs'). remember ersatta. precious dalig. -er. prefix st. impers. -er. -er. fast (conj. this afternoon ail. fabrik'. dum. darhem'ma. -ar. mistake v. epic er-. death fader (far). efterkomma. n. wicked ddr.. bad. I. die (adj. solid. v. fool erbjuda. fast. variable prefix. export on it (them) v.). is eftermiddag.. according to more . father familjefest. dyrbar. -er. drive.VOCABULARY. ekono'misk. electrical nice. (pi. opposite en. v. over there thereupon.. set the table accented insep. irr. st. fine. a. I. duka.. although ej. erhdlla. after i st. travel ) and accented comply come efter. impers. -bommar. hoist the flag Here. det ftnns. financial eld. . . compensate europe'isk. dep. fara cfter. everybody enligt. go along (drive. v. ett.. do. and adv. although fattas. I. vad digf What ailing you? poor . v. experience receive.). lack conflagration ferier fin. erinra.). def. because emot (prep. only en rat. firm. after farbror. there fira.). adv. vacation find. fader. fel (n. against. expensive. offer foolish erfarenhet. irr. get sig. celebration one fisk. uncle ship. st. I. -ar. door fara. to replace. v. felas. delicate st. family festival familj'.. vessel fartyg. hissa flaggan. . remind. at home thereafter. fast komma -ar. (are) celebrate fish is firande (n. several. I.. dumma. afternoon. European exporte'ra. fast. endast. with... kill family travel. flagga. poor. there durbar darpd. duell'. I. I. -ar. factory dod. go dorr. v. ehuru. emedan. dozen dussin (n. prep. dott dod. an. 1 ta.). error. -er. flag. lack. -bro'der. dep. not fattig. v. fire. finna. elegance elektrisk. med'. duel episk. dead (-or).. doda.). stupid..

-er. fram. flytande. fotbollag variable prefix. v. fodelsedag. flyta. fdrdig. promi- fdglar. . foljande. be born Frans. at lib. foremost. I stamp (put on France and Ila. fasten v. . also collectively. fotbollspel (n. (pronounced -ar.. French. st. fullsatt. get. I. -er. wife. in the future. later framme (adv. before for. ha . n.). franska. ready fdsta.. -or. for a birthday folja. ransom. foljaktligen. -er. museum -n. v. -er. III. crowded crowded Ar. prefix. fonster (n. hand framracka.).). irr. have comfirst pany framst. ago frimarke (n. fruc'- diligent flod. fritt. birthday.). frukt.). fill. I.262 flicka. indecl..). folja med'.). freeze public school haul v.. reach forth. adv. irr. v. -ar.. girl VOCABULARY. -at. perish by frost fryspunkt. frikopa. also collective frukt. window open for (prep. foreign. or rdcka fram'. inquire fort (adv. prep. lib. (modal). fly. . future franke'ra.. re- ceive fdgel.. Francis. . have a birthday fyrtio.. football game . /riser' salong. team or -match. river flitig. deem friluftsmuseum air (n. n. follow French language fri.). people folkskola.. people. forth. forsla. -ar.sedan. forty fa. dep. freezing point frdga (efter).). healthy fru. till fddelsedagen. barber shop Mrs. I. move . -er.. fast. -er. frysa bort'. foot (n. for. (n. ask a question. forward framdeles. n. bird field nent framtid. and accented . fot. frukost flow kost). indecl. v. free sep. adv. lib. stamp) Frankrike fodas. fullpackad. frammande. flowing. fruit frysa. (n.. stamp . fotter. st. re- accompany consequently following . fylla. lady. fait may . n. . fresh. nation. continue football jran. fluent flytta. and accented var.). from strange. at destination. quickly fortsatta. . folk (n). hold out framstfiende. -or. Frank fransk. breakfast pi. flee frisk.

intr. tonished fordldrar. lib. become propose . ahead . till.). I. -ar. prefix forarglig.). first -stader. until late. before for-. ligation fiirbjuden. lib. fortjdna. also Ila. forstad.. foredrag (n. forlora. pd formiddagen. v undertake author forfattare.. forstd. -ar. def. try charming fortjusande.). mycket. parents .. formak (n. poison forhindra I. for'orsaka. forestallning. prohibited fordraga. condition. prep. st. I. too much for-. forran forsena.... forst. lib. -ar. form forvdnas. to be as- cold (sick- ness) only. earn forsoka. accented insep... before before. st. usually insep. oversleep performance foretaga (sig) st. union. -r. v. relation. adv. forsumma. terrible forstdndig. suppose formd... sensible fiirstora. forenoon. I. excellent I. connection. cause. neglect. etc.). destroy I. perish tolerate. v. (money) forslag (n. occasion varandra. lose . lecture forening. prefer forelasning. reconciled fore-Sid-. delay forsiktig. I. relative Ha. v. society dictate. . unaccented insep.VOCABULARY. (oneself) forvandla. I. forskotte'ra. be able. v. n. cause to be before. for (adv. -kylt. forklada (sig). foredraga. too. . ob-bjudet. prevent forfolja. induce forolyckas.). (conj. catch cold forkyld. I. forsova. suburb understand forfiirlig. prefix. st.) forhdllande (n. v. (train. annoying. and accented var. change. III. forsona. pi. dep. I.). n. scribe st. v. v.. lib. in the fore- noon formoda. lecture cautious I. having a cold forkylning. trans- forkyla sig. irr. wise. bear with one another fore. parlor formiddag.. -ar.. former I. I. n. prefix.). foreskriva. i to -n. miss meal. advance . first. bjudna. disguise fortrdfflig. v. forr (adv. v. vexatious forbindelse. forre(a). pursue furgifta. -ar. reconcile. st. pre- proposition refl. dep.. tr.

of a unit gunga. run. en gang. home. gdss.). grade. path . hand degree gren. merchant harrow quick. and adv. half-sole halvvags (adv. boy hamn. a through. . -ar. pi. lib. glad. observe glad. glass glasogon. quite.264 VOCABULARY. irr. -ar.)..).). helgdag. vegetables gul. spectacles glida. rock. halvsula. v. gamla. yellow hatt. pi.. it gd upp'. st. go . oats hedersman. holiday hellre. yesterday gds. grass grasmatta. gladden halvtimme. glatt. happy H hals. he hand. half hour joy glomma. guest has the form igenom st. v. Gotha Canal Goteborg (n. III.. v. grds (n.. kanal. trade. sudden . give.). only. goose galla. I. n. be a question of (irr. entirely garante'ra. honor hcl. branch . old time (in counting) once walk. st. immediately genom or ige'nom (prep. en man . handla. -or. glide half -ar. gdst. . -ar. merchant grata. hand baggage om. v. handbagage.).). harbor. as adverb akt' pd. port grad. go. guarantee gata.). gora make giva. forget floor golv (n. -or. glddja. gd home . gdr.). n. def. i the highest han. swing . rise hem (n. cry hastig. the watch is running v. Gothenburg Goto. act. concern. gdr. rapid. -ar. harv. ho'gsta in degree. gammal. hat havre (n. I. value. home hem (adv. . irr. -ar. gossar. halfway gosse. gladje. no v. gd. rather icke. ganska. whole. it have lib. lawn gron. i -er. do. treat about gro. -ar. sprout grosshandlare. throat Jialv.). -er. hander. yesterday gdrdag. I. -t. det gar won't work klockan gdr.. wholesale handlande. gang...). weep. gen (adj. street -ar. -man. glas (n. green gronsaker. I. neck. near (of a road) genast. -er. notice. . pi.

polite dating hyra. Ha.. right. . st. lib. she hast. ibland'. lective. fetch Mnda. listen to ho'r pd mig. her. respect hearty. cordial glorious. last hustru. htinga. lib. -ar. how (n. historia. to be called. listen to me . in. fall (n. till hojd. height. I. (at somebody's herre.). v. I. to hos. in all directions i Mr (prep. Mister. -ar. homelike Jiennes. hair i'akttaga. hemifrdn. autumn day accommo- hovlig. hogra. . case herr. vehement hemtrevlig. to find hamnas.). greet halsa pd' (hos).). take venge hamta. event hdndelsevis (adv.). keep I Mil (n. violent. story hitta. lib. happen re- hjalp. health -er halsa. nice. Mrt. -ier. heart hanseende Mr. corner i hus fall.. n. observe hard.VOCABULARY. by. -ar.). help Jijalpa. I. hard sometimes IS Sicedish Grammar . hotel hund.). dog hungrig.. v. -ar. hoppa. "kind. with. make home) a call my name is Carl halsning. half halsa. from 265 hemma. here harlig. (n. greeting hinna. handelse. hill hons (n. hold. -n. hope v.. hopp (n. greet Ml'sa pd. jump hoppas. in. hotelV (n. v. attain. jag Jieter Karl. hjartforlamning. I.). direction. hire hovlighet. hostas. lib. dep. politeness Mlla. rent. headache hygglig. def. dep. wife huvudvark. magnificent hon. hear hora pd. chicken. in of hope the house hog. -er. cozy. hang (n. have time do or get to I. dt alia hold.). history.. by chance hjarta (n. . master. col- honorar' (n.). -r. gen. -r. hungry hur. in address (noun). . fee . . -ar. hostdag. horn house host. hiilft. help -n.. -ar. to st. v.). gentleman heta. irr. into st. at home home haftig. v. horse .. . heart -ar. chickens hora.). . I. to the right . high hoger.). failure hjartlig.

board. -at. yes illumine'rad. intet. sep..). no. within inomhus (adv.. sep.). so. intyg (n. deposit under- kamma. prep. inse. nothing inledp (n. inlosa. accented var. before inne (adv. pier cold I. arrive st. v. I. sport idrottspark. grow cold call I. room and board inbegripa. -or. Italy prefix. bad. inackordering. contents contain K kaffe kail. v. of ingen. jdrnvdgsolycJca. cash accident jdrnvdgsstation. innehdlla. ilia (adv.. Christmas. into ju. kasta. ... -or. -n. just juste'ra. till Christmas ..). jul.). irr.). Ice (n. innan (conj. . -er. -er.. ingen. v. prefix. at include v. cloak karaktdr'. back Ita'lien igenMnna.266 i'drott. in. v. inom (prep.). . det var that was too bad -at. also boarder. ja. no one. station -er. v.. just. you "know. to see. invdnare. stand not intet. prefix innehdll (n. inside inne-. and accented -ar. testimonial inhabitant -ar. comb inte. again. adjust n. or inget. quay. VOCABULARY. I. irr. * .). st. -er. irr. coffee innestd. no. illuminated jasd (pronounced jas'sd). adv. infinna sig. perhaps kappa. lib. interesting interest throw kasta ut'. . interested intrcssant'. kallna. Jiel var. v. character kapten'.). perhaps kan'ske. adv. to come. athletic field igen'. throw out . . tive). captain intres'se (n. redeem. I. sep. intresse'rad..). -er. -er. st. yes the -ar. (with the comparato be sure . n. jdmrande.. is. n. n.). recog- hollow ilia. remain (money in a bank) kaj. nize i'hdliff. kalla. railway railway railway purchase to Ila. you don't say! Is that so? jo. indoors insiitta. (n. in.. and accented var. . jdrnvdgs'biljett. vid for Christmas. nothing kanhdn'da. ticket plaintive -er.).

church a finish . Jclar. cash kontor (n. young chicken . -ar. . knock. and accented var. body) kunna. I. cabman kvalitet'. -er. kylig. ren. flour mill konduktor'. -er. kontant. pd dor- way) Tcusin' -er. -er. -er. be able Kungsgatan. -ar. kilogram . -er. I.). with) know (acquainted . society klass. artist . (rail- knacka. suit kilometer klack. krage. stitution (of kulle. kollide'ra. knock at the door knappast. kostym'.. komma konsert'. circle. v. in the evening kyckling. re- cook. boil I. -ar. korrespondent' '. -ar. I. quality knota (over). (modal) can. pi. strength. only. -ar.VOCABULARY. -ar. chilly kyrka. King's Street kupe. maining kvarlamna. kilo kosta. klandra. Kvart. en kvarts timme. heel (of shoe) klaga (over). -er. konstndr'. -ar. card kdnna. n. cup korg. collide sep. fight to spondent kort (o long and close) . basket . corre- -or. kvar. -er. short I. klen. cost -er. i gar last night. . adv. I. cat kilo. -ar. pd kvdllen. kldder.). lib. klassisk. evening. konst. hook crown -er. credit letter of clear class krets. hardly knappndl. in'. -or. -er. clothes compartment cousin driver. kdmpa die ut'. -er. complain kraft. change dress klimat' (n.. come come in conductor pi. office kopp. criticise kredit'brev (n. prefix. concert tricks art. leave be- komma. -er. -ar. krok. classic Arena. n. dress kldda sig. pin kusk. dress (oneself) kldda om' sig. I. behind. I. -ar. katedral'. lib. kort . -ar. weak kroppskonstitution. trunk koka. collar power . -ar. a quarter of an hour kvdll. left over. st. -er.). -ar. r er. gram kilome'ter. hind kvarn. cathedral katt.). quarter. Ha. (n. shear kldda.). I. (o short and open). hill con- climate klippa. cut. grumble koffert. know. (n.

quiet lycka. Idsebok.). -er. irr. may lova. literature (n.). logar. lie /ifc Idrare. n. lange. of Idng. lynne gott (n. lagenhet. country house lantbrukare. -bocker.). allow. vacation kopa. drawer Una. permission. v. .. (n. praise lugn (adj. good humor Idda. let.). buy (ticket) ransom loge. -or. le. box.. mend. -n. lib. lead Idgga bort'. I. calm. lesson Idsa (biljett). ledsen. successful v. I. slow farmer vice Idsa. Ila. long Idngre. play st. n. love kold (n. London with kdrlek. lander. Zefca. borrow in Idng. promise. drive (from school).). -or. losen. Idngsam. VOCABULARY. landsatta.. v. lazy irr. lib. v. -or. -samma. I. -at. as lilla.. land. sad.). to do or be done opportunity put away smile ledsna. light no pi. . lot. live lida. lycklig. irr. (just) def. succeed happy obey -n.). -er. long (n. pupil pi. teach.). like. I la. def. -ar. leva. Idrt. reader Idxa. sorry lek.. lakare. n. dep. v. cold lov (n.268 klinna till'. light. small life Idsa upp'. lamb steak laga. happiness. . cause no neuter. .. comp. physician Idmna. country. . v. via ashore landskap lantstalle (n. ttv little. -er. also upp'ldsa. bring to pass lammstek. play. I. candle jus (adj. have to fd lov. game Ha. liten.. litet. lib. fortune lyckad. country. leave lange (adv. v. recite litteratur.' n. Idsa. ledset. humor. lib. land.). lend.. learn teacher (adj. longer Idra. buy kora. learned lika (adv. Idrjunge. I la. det.. last.). I. landscape land . lock Idta. read sra4. ljus I . irr. leda. load. in the pd i lan- lyda. -or. steamer . lyckas.). be acquainted londondngare. irr.). suffer ligga. alike lard. threshing floor . def. v. st.

). (indef. museum meta. mistake misstaga sig. Indian corn -ar.). var. lib. miller mdl (n. early in the i morning maneuver fair (n. prefix. they -er. mottaga. n. also emot. band def. morgon. noun. dining room matsedel. angle middag. while mejeri'smor (n. man man manschett'. 269 M maj. moder. make. man. st. morning paper morse. entail (conj. def. mean mer(a). with.). flour . min. .. along. ripe n. goal. prefix. III. -ar. muntra.. mycket. mogna. remem- na. indecl. middle.). mate mala. mitt. meal mdnad. etc. mottagningsrum re- medan room -ar. very mynning. -ar. may hur mar nif feel. butter mulna. man. bill of fare med. myck- minnas. -er.). tidigt pd morgonen. match. -ar. mena. multiply mun. musical musikkdr. noon. v. . mellan (emellan). mycket (adv. -er. merry museer.). -ar. mouth munter.. more I. -er. adversity i mat. month mdndag.. -ar. lib. bring. food -ar. mycken. between men. ripen def. I. to-morrow morgontidning. Monday mdtt (n. adv. morning. in the middle mjol (n. mjolnare. mother measure .). ception mo'torbdt. I. be mistaken mistake misstag (n.). receive mottagare. pron. . . this (past) noon museum (n.). one. minute miss'taga. and accented matsal. lib. modern mogen. much (of river.VOCABULARY. and accented var. marJcnad.). prep. but multiplice'ra. dinner. v. munnar. manovre'ra. n. against motgdng. mouth cannon) nozzle . moget. marknadsstdnd at a fair booth morgon. music musikalisk. -sedlar. this morning mot. motor boat become cloudy I. -er. creamery recipient (n. musik'. grind modern'.). mogna. i (modal). How are you? mitten. ber minut'. medfora. modrar. May majs. prep. . i middags. cuff I. md ma. I. my dep. mitt. morgnar.

reciprocal. not stamped. certainly. oense (indecl.). also insignifi- noga (adv.270 VOCABULARY. mobler. n. def. . newness.). some ndgonsin.). person mdsterskap (n.). accurate norr (noun and adj. form only). and pron. name -ar. . piece of furniture mojlig. human being. present ndsta. indecl. ned. nytt. pleasure amusement. ever namligen. north. -grant. novelty.). now-a-days (n. careful. n. nature naturligtvis (adv. -ot. last ndrvarande. morJc. n. denominator when motas. -at. night. that is possible mojligen. (n. insignificant -er.. inclosed natt. obetydlig. namely namnare. I. and prep. namnteckning night nattsndlltdg signature i . n. def.. next. officer now for tiden. at variance officer'. enough nog. -slutet. news nyligen. almost nod. . n. obetydlighet. officer's nu cloak nummer . recently nyss. of course contented -n. any. and predicate indecl. mdnniska. approach namn (n. natter.ota. pi. -or.). distress nojd. -er.. following ndstan. n. trifle och. suppose adj. northern nu. noje (ik). cance. I. ny. possibly to say. champ. ndgra (adj. meet (one another) ndr (adj. numret. m. nej (adv. cap Ha. often . ni. and ocksd. -or. ndrsluten.). -slutna..). no you accented prefix of negation -t. down (polite address) I o-. nearness. dark -or. now nag on.). no'jt. -er or -are. not prepaid ofta. near ntirhet. def. officerskappa. nog. nyhet.). vicinity N ntirma sig. careful (ly) noggrann. ndr. near ndra (adv. number new ofrankerad. meet mossa. bite natur'. indecl.). predicate adj. just ionship mo'bel. . night express nappa.

person -or. celebrated mentioned. pair. five o'clock sharp packa.). n. trouble Wednesday . plan -ar. about.. passa. word chairman . -er. preach predikan. -samma. unpack fern. play (theatrical) plan I. ont. olycka. pestilence. livery uneasy -er. money pen person'. poskicde- ord (n. angry onsdag. conj. patient om. exactly. -er. I. torment. plan. favorable oliJc. ac- n. misfortune passagerare. bad. parcel security.. and prep. . umbrella passenger.). evil. -er. harmless ovanlig. introduce predi'ka. prefix. pack packa upp'.. prescribe ka pa posten. ombord. opera. pant. omojlig. concerning pengar. park.).). unfortunately passande. plocka.). plane' ra. unusual postanvisning. ing plats. check (trunk) -staplar. potato precis'. I. plaga. circulation pjas. and cented var. -er. -ar. money or- (colloquially often -ar). pi. if. -er. mail. plante'ring. aboard pessimistisk pessimistic om'komma perish (see komma). def. -er. around omlopp (n. pi. I. ogynnsam. un- paraply (n. -ar. n. place.VOCABULARY. der pota'tis. pest. be proper . I. ordine'ra. different -or. sermon presente'ra (for). orolig. couple. principle ett par (n. -or. penna. omtala. about. mail poste restante. sep.). -er. no. . opera polis'konstapel.). . I. -er. post office. plague piller (n. fit. liceman post. forfeit . tell -at. Olympic patient'. par. impossible down sore. pick I. . -er. proper olympisk. pallet' (n. relate. ond. tag plant sit omtalad. reason impatient oskadlig. polette'ra. suit. prep. ordforande.. around. princip'. 271 -n. precis kloc- kan I. I. general orsak. unlike.). pill omkring (adv. price . otdlig. traveler olyckligtvis. a couple of pris (n. pain.

I. roa prescription sig. rumor Ryssland (n. advice. reach. st. reputation. rekommendationsbrev (n. VOCABULARY. already regna. no. -ar. aim. I. I la. timid. Russia rdd (n. fish-line radd for. -rar. ringa pd' (hos). -er.. ) correct. program promene'ra. -gram(n.). tear. restaurant -ar. -er. -ar.). I. restaurangvagn. test (pi. be sufafraid. car resultat (n. . diffi- restaurang'.272 program' . travel. call. lib. v.). recommend. ha roligt.). I. dot (adv. rev. register rekommenderad. order. afraid of . v. -or. lib. reda (-0 in compounds). I. (n. room -n. ring insig- upon pdminna. I. adorn praktig. quite pryda. revolver. rich riklig. sample. protest abundant I. have the means to . reason- consult i able rest. -er. R raka. ha rdd. row I. remind pa. pd. call (somebody) ruin'. redan. rye bread . brisk recept' rock. know about. amuse oneself rask. direct right. met. rikta. result ficient resvdska. indecl.. I. Ha. culties. scratch ro. to meet one last. n. registered ropa. ta pA. take a walk proteste'ra. -er.). on. magnificent. lib. -ar. riktig. rowboat amusing. prov. ruin rullning.). point. I. valise rddd. lib. ha pd. advise resa. splendid punJct. part (theatrical) shout. letter of recommendation rekommende'ra. resona'bel. have fun roll. irr.. go rdda. def. nificant ringa. . dining another rlicka. . svdrigheter. ring ringa. . trip rdgbrod rddfrdga. rain rengora. -or. journey. ring up riva. raka. rain . clean resa. meet. def. -at. fine.)..) ring. -ar. revolver rik.). I. -ar. III. rdkas. (n. quick.). coat roddbdt. -abla. find out regna. decorate. n. get (into) get into remainder -er. rolling rum rykte (n. -er. rolig. humble. shave (n.

side. motion. miss skicka in'. smoking riirande. v. damage dam- salt (n. selves her-. conversation converse. then. lake salong'. sjostrand. movement. sedan. since. conspire skepp irr.. (n. accented. right. v. description. thereupon.). v. -at. seasick sjorofvare. sailboat segla. senare. -er. sjo. voice sin. six sida. I. v. lose time (watch) sakta (adv. slow down. send skicka ~bort'. for semes' ter. sig. slowly sal. se' pd. thing.VOCABULARY. -or. till sist. chat . v.). -er. of I.). sit S sak. n. see. n.. injury. skillful se ut'. -ar. rdkning. sceneri' I. vacation sen. sjosjuk. skildring. I. sedlar.. them- exercise rust. save count bill. bill (adj. at last sitta. (the) same sammansvdrja (sig). (prep.). look (appearance) sed. -er. -ar. sick sjukdom. ship dis- skicka. (conj. possessive. I. -ar. be right rdtt. drawing room. scenery look at. (n. calculating. insep. after.. -ar. send in skicka ut'. ha segelbat. sjunka. rod. rdkna. skadad aged ske. -er. -er. sjunga. sing sink sakta (sig). prefix. sjuk. last.). st. -rar. irr. samtala. -strdnder. counting rdtt rdtt. lack. samma. hall sea. red . compartment rokare. I. . matter sju. when. -or. after sedel. rddda. semester. later sex. se. I. III. seven -ar.).. salt sam-. reflex. -ar. concerning -r. -er. send away.). him-. irr. after. feel loss st.). custom portrayal . auditorium shore skada. page itself. 3d pers. together happen . sickness sakna. late smokers rokning. send out skicklig. rorelse. sist. miss. samtal (n.). n. sail smoke smoker rokkupe. ro'ka. injured. (adv. lake pirate .

bread and butter. cry write skriva om'. fall asleep blow. I. seat owe hurry skynda sig. . cut (fashion. I. skating rink please snulltdg (n. st. sorry . fast snar. tuition plain skolkamrat. grief sorglig. skona. difference. strike in. st.. -er. skate. smoke- Ha. I. skraddare. st. sno. -or. finally. skina.). and st. strike skinka. butter laugh skriftlig.274 skillnad. v. of. summer. close.). shout. solsken (n. -r. caress smutsig.). sorrow. gd to school (attend) go slappa. v. school-mate forest . -er. -or. -ar. rewrite skridsko. written skratta. stroke . shine shut slutligen.) as (rel. -er. sluta. v. v. sna6&. def. skate. -ar. sockret. I end close. slut (n. soner. -ar. . -or. coin slott (n.). last summer somna.). carelessness . quick. . castle fight soppa. dirty skomakare. sugar so/fa. v. (conj. trifle skorsten.. relative slarv (n). i be ashamed (of) skota.. sko. who. end. shirt skjuta. son slagsmdl (n. protect skyldig. smiilta. shoemaker spare -ar.. sla. shoot i slakting. in. skriva.). vara skyldig. lib. guilt. debt skydda.. st. guilty. (n. melt stack smor I. which. kind. difference between VOCABULARY. v. slatt. snail. skola. slice skjorta. st. socfcer(n. -ar. -er. sko. that. Ha.). speedy skridsnart.). skammas (for). -er. -ar. out skolavgift. sad. soup sorg. sunbeam som dep. v. skrika. let go. ham skiva. v. good. quick. sandwich. skog. sltippa ut. rapid.. taste smeka. pd. smaka. -or. smdsak. Ha.). smorgds. skridskobana. man- sommar somrar. hurry skynda. I. somras. let -er. (irr. pron. dka . at last sld. -or. shoe . sunlight solstrdle. snow tailor express train skuld. -r.). sofa. school. take care age slag (n. slant. Ha. I.. son. var . -or.). soon snitt (n. -or. chimney.

so sow so that sd att. -er.. step svar (n. soon stria. -trar. em- magnificent stormig. chair . in your place stop. . lib. springpojke. laundry stude'ra. save a flag) stroke spatser'tur. stay. also svalde. spratt ett (n. indecl. die (on the battle field) springa. mirror. stone stiga. lower (of spare. grand. st. sten. pitching (ship) stanna. I. st. -ar. while. svara. iron. I. trick. irr. print stjdla bort'. proud n. v. get up. sister sd. shut stdrk'saker. .. game spela play . . steal svdrighet.). -ar.). lib. busy. play a trick on st. force std till'. fall. v.). steak weak . coming stupa. . Ila. stjdlpa. spela. irr. station (washing) supe.). poor. stundande. indecl. v. city erence to health). III. (n. stdder. stormy strand. ne sig i spegeln. studier. shore strax. I. stor.). . -er. -n.. v. Swedish. seem synnerligen. -er. sprdk (n. laundry station'. -er. strength. strife. stiga from'. style.).. v. st. dep. stampning.). Sweden svar. ed street car -n. be (with ref- stackars. place. svalja. take a walk strykning. i ert . upset stol. large storartad. -ar. spegel. great. state only.. I. strong stat. piece styrka. spdrvagn. enter stiga upp'. difficult. -er. remain stdnga. 275 st. Swede serious difficulty Sverige (n. step forth answer answer svensk (adj. play. v. fight ploy syster. ironing strykinrdttning. I. supper svag. om en kort in a short while -er. -ar. stark... stiga pd'. hur star det till? How are you? stdlle (n. sova. stek.. especially stolt. -er. run errand boy language stycke (n. -ar.). look in the mirror study study studium stund. close.. strdnder. swallow synas.VOCABULARY. -artat. struggle. n. -ar. walk. speglar. rise stil.. v. wretchstad. pi. (n. -ar. spel (n. svalt.). gora en . sysselsdtta. Ila. v. . sleep stryka. sd.). I. -ar.

senger boy telefone'ra.). Ha. 'tavla. lib. tell -er. tappa. -ar. v. allow. i ther- sang. bed. early sasong'. sdkra. . I back and irr. sot. sdlunda. occaat the vid forsta occasion . v. toothache tanke. tillsammans..). def. wipe dry . siillskap. .. . I. spend tillfdlle sion. tidtdbell'. . empty. place sutta sig. telegraph saker. tjog torn. prefix. irr. way satta. .). sodra. rare termome'ter. I. right v. -er. v. only. consequently sdng. grieve sweet (n. theater. go to bed sarskilt. ta. teatrar. seat. hall.). v. talrik. numerous ha ont i timme. seek. pass... to. adv. bench satt (n. speech. take taga upp'. permit permission . -or. singing. -er. season sate (n). pd. -n. time table tidning. number tambur'. gd mometer tid. until. st. go to the theatre telegraf. till. newspaper beggar manner. chance. I. gd pd saga. set. -er. seam somnig. pd. tennis sullsynt. tillbringa. som. -n. st. telephone . tilldtelse. southern soka.276 VOCABULARY. sure of cer- seldom club stings. and accented var. torka. -r. have a toothache tandvark. tilldta. -er. telegram telegram (n. st. speaking. teatern. belong to be the tillkomma. n. market place off. song dt (till).).). society. put.). I. -ar. picture.. take up tal (n. tdnderna. -ar. of faga. sleepy sondag. tennis. def. irr. def. thus. sure. . cant torg (n. lib. picture tomma. sommar. -er. tander. mestelegram'bud (n. befit. sit down prep. look at score va- tjugu. tain sallan.. drop painting (n. v. (n. first mourn. Sunday sorja. together tillverka. look for tillbaka. twenty thought lose.. tand. separate time. -ar. till -metrar. look. manufacture vestibule tills (conj. tooth. say. I. tiggare. teater.). n. on time tidig. sott. tavelgalleri' gallery dry torka av'. tillhora.). until -ar. hour .. . -er. titta.

conduct. -r. conduct oneself. probably tyvdrr'. promoted uppfora. U under. def. in twain. neglect tired itu. dis- uppfora sig. frequent tdvla (om). uppldsa. across tvaft. ilia om. compete (for) to'ras (modal). trogna.VOCABULARY. tyst. -er. and accented one another trdnga sig from. ty. think (of) tat. III. trevlig.). entertain. underrdttelse. un- pleasant trdng. n. Ila. support I. and accented prefix. tvdtta. like. sep. prefix. build for. tdmligen (adv. German German language . information tu (tvd). quite. turn. -er. def. troska. trdffas. n. I. -er. vestigate Ila. union upp. have a fine ha det home. trott. cover taljare. nice. v. traffa. tedious. heavy undersoka. like fancy. . etc. Ila. troget. v. garden meet. narrow. two tvist. up . torr. boring. tunga. st. underldta. pleasant. beneath. see reciprocal. examine. tycka. unfortunately . hesitate union'. quarrel tvd. two tvdrgata. tveka. trevligt. -at. n. because Ila. lib. wash (ing) wash think. under. n. tur. numerator tr&kig. waiter uppassare. in- apart. believe trogen. -or. st. thresh . moved up. trip.. om'. see meet. dragna. trddgdrd. -er. fairly tdnka (pa). -brant.). erect. train tacka. I. adv.).. underhdlla. crowd up. . n. uppbrand. burnt up uppdragen. tung. asunder underbar. behave tyg (n. silent time. tvenne. -or. cloth tyngd.. -et. make a way for oneself var. dare. wound up iippflyttad. tyska. two. etc. wonderful undra. performance . faithful troligen. lib. -ar. -er. n. tro. tongue wonder var. cross street tvdrs (over). crowded tree trad (n. tag (n. may -ar. recite . weight uppforande (n. 277 dry tysk.). Ila. prep. luck I.).

execution utgift. each.. become beside. to last. VOCABULARY. Ha.). v. na. adj. janitor. sep. v. ut. urspdra.. express utvdg. abroad. esteem sep. -er.. varsebliva. st. prefix. endure vara (v. loosen at- utrdtta.).. . usually utbryta. lasting. every utflykt.). uppmarksam. I. stroll out. . I.. utsliten. expedient exercise practice. prep.. -er. each. busy. waiter .). I. vanligen. aware of vart... indecl. foreign water . outside cept utrikes.. I. durable varje. def. def.. warm excellent of. st. var. I. play (a game) utmana. irr. challenge utmarkt. utan. -ar. . st. weapon var. (draft) uttaga. publish. to be varaktig. adj. . flowers) utstdlla. to adopt sep. lib. -et. v. and with- vandra. (soil) I. take out originate upptaga. and accented adv. watchmaker derail excuse adv. indecl. -et. n. I. out -er. tentive -samma. out (motion) vakna. up. I. I. n.278 uppluckra. carriage urmakare. Vasa Street vatten (n. vacker. uppsikt. st. to arise. water vattna. usual. utom. expense v. I. ursakta. to take uttrycka. upptagen. draw uppsta. ex- whither and indecl. to carry out. awaken vaktmdstare. view -et. upprndrksamhet. found uppsats. n.. establish. ac- complish def. utsikt.. def. I. Vasagatan. excursion utforande (n. ware. varm. by heart st. utgiva. v. wagon. I. picnic. wander. sep. ute. sep. vackra. att vara utantill. adj. -ar. supervision uppsTcatta. -slitna.. v. -or. bring a contest to a close. adv. pretty vagn. sep. vapnet. open n. -spruck- composition (about leaves and exhibit.. everyone vara. break out vapen (n. common def. spend var och en.. sep. -er. lack vanlig. attention upprdtta. every utkdmpa. utova. worn out utsprucken. I. adopted occupied. edit.. merchandise vara..

oenevolence valja. spring.). dka. field vdrfcst. I. I. steamboat trip steam engine . and accented by vid. wide withvidare. left. turn. n. adv. ride dker.). -ar. steamer -r. utan var. draw a draft en exchange vdxelkontor (n. vdcka. lib. exchange visst. A d. I. show office sure. vitt.). (n. careless vdrdsloshet. wait (for) rest vdntsal.. importance viktig. spring festival vdt. -er.. prep.). further. utstdlla vdxel. dngmaskin. last I la. Ila.VOCABULARY. -er. -er. waiting vardefull. Y ypperlig. -or.). work verkligen. kind to vdnskap. spring nurse. viss. turn back. . dkrar. really vete (n. last var. elect vdlsigna. choose. want . -rar. directly vikt. . change. prefix. valbargad. I. story. vdnstra. dldrar. ras. wish. and accented insep. dngare. winter.). veranda. prefix. surely... wine vint- vasnas. n. make noise vinge. . to be sure vistelse. dngbdtsforbindelse. will. friendly.. intend.) . -r. I. . age vdrda. grow draft. . at. i apartment vdras. vdxlar. 279 porch verk (n. v. winter hat visa. vdnlig. I. st. vanner. lib. etc. carelessness incur Alder. vdtt. van. n. vdrd vdrld vdxa. wake up weather well to do -at. worth -ar.. i (n. vanster. loaf of vid. wing vinter. vdrt. -er. def. valuable room vilja (v. v. wet . -ar. adv. tion by steamer connec viider (n.). dngbdtstur. friendship vdnster. excellent vykort (n. take care of vdrdslos. certainly visserligen. friend vdnda. wheat vdlgorenhet.). tal card vdning. -ar. I la. important vila. dep. -er. certain vdxla. I. to the left till out further ado. ha. world vin (n. vdnta (pa). -ar. (I villkor condition mute).). turn around mot. bless vetebrod (n. on ddraga sig. sojourn souvenir pos. sig. -ar. white bread. kind. contract. winter vinterhatt. weight. prep. charity.

om. likewise tita. -ar. parative) overruskning. nevertheless age dndra. prep. -n. opinion dtaga sig. onskan. prefix. omsesidig. surprise -ar. 60on. year anniversary dsikt. owner egg dgg (n. overvaka. trip across. over overldgga.).. -er. itervdnda. prefix. again.. remain 60a (n. intend deliberate an.). oculist ogonldkare. indecl..). olycksfall on account of. -n. riklig accident. according a. yet. overweight ENGLISH-SWEDISH. addera . undertake dter. utrikes abundant. lib. agare. apple urende (n. to. eye . than (n. irr. sep.). eat o. I. eighty moment ogonblick (n. I. (after a com- dverraska. I.. wish oppna. island dterstd. rakning. foljaktligen able. surprise voy- dndamdl purpose sig. till foljd av acquainted. noble iiga. folja med (over) accomplish. Swedish coin over. open ore (n. dnnu. I. ddla.. accordingly. arnna. return dtmins'tone. about. VOCABULARY. tvars accompany. meadow overvikt. vanja across.. tindd. skildring. st. irr. I. ett . v. I. and accented var. change. . own . med anledning av. enligt an.280 dr (n.. bekant accustom. olycka. adv.. be kunna account. adv. sep. st.). convince supervise dng. -or. overresa. v. the Swedish-English vocabulary must be consulted. def. at least ditto. utratta add. mutual onska. -or. return drsdag. still. one's change mind overtyga. v. en. v. wish . omkring abroad. -ar. yet. ddel.). -n. lib.. and accented var. For particulars of declension and conjugation. errand d'venledes.). yet apple (n. back dterldmna. I. .).

svara any.sedan arrive. nastan alone. nagot appetite. generally def. arm around. och angle. besoka. allena along (as in come ). arrestera om ago. adress address. ga i kyrkan amerikansk attention. as. ibland amount. (n. bifall again. . upptaga. bifall apple. automobile. vid (time. fraga (efter). nagon. noje amusing. forvanad. till among. address. skamsen. . omkring. belopp uppmarksamhet uppmarksam amount ha to. hos attain. rikta air. astonished. artist. eftermiddag.). rad advise. emot. age. med land ask. alder mot arm. efter approach. auditorium author. en annan advance (money). forarglig answer.VOCABULARY. angenam. lika ashamed. church. radd (for) afternoon. aim. hinna attend (visit). arsdag motgang advertisement. American (adj. forfattare amuse. arrest. forskottera adversity.). i almost. hostdag 19 Grammar . bedja (om) . bevista. attentive. amerikan. apple after. any longer. annons advice. redan also.). ocksa although. konstnar to be . adressera addressee. anniversary. rada annoying. luft som (for) alike.. ehuru. ankomma. roande. be already. nagonting. anlanda vara agreeable. pryda another. antaga meta adorn. for. alltid forvanas at the at. this eftermiddag. fastan altogether.. allow. narma sig approval. tillata skammas ashore. i applause. uppna. art. fattas konst article. roa. . behaglig ail (impers. adressat 281 amusement. langre anything. place) house of. igen against. automobil autumn day. in the pa eftermiddagen afraid (of). aptit . roligt Swedish amuse oneself. bland. artikel. alldeles always. adopt. rolig and. belopa sig to audience.

282 aware. ga bort. stiga pa' boarder. branch. sla.och beginning. beggar. of what became himf Hvad blev det av honom? cloudy. to go away. bryta . belated.) utom. bita. (e)mellan big. brod break. . both. forsenad.. matsedel band. elak badly. blasa bless. begynna bada. sen belief. bliva. vara. bell. lana av both. bake. bast between. bank barber shop. how are youf Hur star det till? bear. become. dartill best. baklanges bad.) fore. . mulna sang. borjan. become of. kost board and room. blond beat.). . sate and forth. bed. besegra (in games) beautiful. lana. ljus. musikkar bank. vacker because. to be away (out). back fram och tillbaka belong (to). ty board (fare).) beside. vara borta in. fodd. rakning of fare. before (adv. man- niska . tillbaka. trakig born. tro. be . bit. bank. tro believe. in the i borjan behind. baka baker. gosse bakom vasen human . bort. borja. fond backwards. ga till stand fo'das befit. korg be. inackordering boil. ben book. (adv. boy. bird. dessutom. passa. nappa (of fish) napp (of fish). fagel birthday. borta. gren bread. (conj. go to . bara blonde. inackordering board (a train).) for. varse. backa background. beg. ond. valsigna blow. tillhora bench. band. frisersalong basket. ilia utom bredvid.) boring. forr. away. vid. emedan. tillkomma (prep. back (v. tigga. bade. borrow from. bite. dalig. bagare bill sedel. (except) besides (prep. tiggare begin. tro pa klocka B back. fodelsedag bite. bok booth. skon. stor bill. sangs koka bone. bliva varse to VOCABULARY. forut. being. bagge. bakgrund.. and. innan bedja om borrow.

skota careful. barmhartighet. aktsam. sparvagn renhet captain.). vaxla( money) character. vagn carry. slarv cargo. kyckling child. forsiktig cease. varda. kontant cash (v. bryta av. call. barmhartig. med celebrate. lugn kunna vagn. bara hamta bring along. be . beta rande charity.). avbryta break out.). smor kopa bredvid by. fira nad men.). (adj. bryta ut breakfast. viss chair. branna burnt up. polettera chicken. borsta bygga building. vardslos. omtalad celebration. slarvig . rakning cab. utmana droska cabman. brunett. saker. break off. broder brunette. chairman. kusk calculation. cheat. bringa. karaktar kalla on. (hos). inlosa castle. mb'rk med cash (noun).VOCABULARY. upphora business building. business. uppbrand build. samtala skotsel. (after a negative. kort charming. buy. andra. call balsa p. katedral cause (noun). masterskap chance. be charge. do a good gora goda affarer cautious. by chance. chilly. bedraga omsorg care (v. yard. firande certain. care (noun). orsak cause (v. affar. noggrann barn kylig careless. samtal chat (v. handelsevis change. vid. affarsbyggbut. frukost bring. hons. firad. stol butter. fororsaka . fortjusande chat (noun). car. kapten card. last carriage. begara charitable. utan) celebrated. carelessness. tillfalle. fora brother. 283 vardslb'shet. ordforande challenge. byggnad burn. katt cathedral. avsluta. valgo- soka called. sluta. check. brush. medfora. slott cat. valgo- calm can.). championship.

horn cost. klassisk clean. kylning collar. infinna sig koka kylig come comfort. klocka close (noun). korrespondent cordial. klader cloth. mulen. konsert tillf orhallande condition. close (v. uppforande conduct (oneself). kostym costly. ci- Christmas. slut connection. stanga tyg clothes. kollidera adraga sig (as a comb. sammansvarja (sig) cloudy. cold (noun) for- continue. sluta. fortroende conflagration. befalla common. innehall coffee. hjartlig coming. mynt. rakna counter. kostbar costume. belona. vanlig company. bekvam correspondent. radfraga mulna coat. cleanly. become . klaga (over) comply. anga. klar conductor.). samtala conversation. constitution. klimat clock. innehalla contents. galla concert. ersatta dealer. renlig clear. kosta command. betraktande consist. compartment. cigarr. tavla complain. trost comfortable. count. klass classic. eldsvada olimate. krage collide. uppsats concern. konduktor confidence. cool. valja VOCABULARY. uppfora sig . jul church. ren compete. frammande (guests) dyrbar. fortsatta contract. forbindelse consequently.) kail. kroppskonstitu- rock tion contain. consult. kommande. kupe" compensate. stundande corner. slant (adj.284 choose. disk . efterkomma composition. omlopp stad class. city. komma (to a place). samtal cook. sallskap. come. besta (av) conspire. foljaktligen consideration. stand conduct (noun). kyrka cigar. garrhandlare circle. allman. kaffe coin. brand. kamm sickness) converse. cirkel circulation.

dead.) ned- deck. country house. lantstalle couple. fortjana design. a great deal. dack . dividera do. ett par course. en hel del doctor's mottagningsrum handlande dear. bedraga down for (adv. doktor ket. forstora die. namnare deposit. sed cut (noun). par. a couple of. flitig avmeja dining car. insatta derail. daglig middag direct. drojsmal deliberate. garan demand (v. crowd. overvaga anhallan. naturligtvis cousin. honorar dog. diligent. be- demand (noun). prick. annorlunda difference. lust destroy. dod deal. D daily.). debt. country. datum date (v. of course. manschett do culture r kultur cultured. hall. snitt cut(v. grad delay (noun). bildad cup. hemtrevlig betanka. deceive.) ned. beskrivning deserve. skicka bort dispatch. del. kar. forklada -dismiss. tvargata description. 285 pa degree. myc- doctor. dotter day. datera daughter. dod dealer. gora office. dag daylight. anslag. direkt damage (v. besattning cross street. kusin cozy. fullsatt. kopp svar svarighet cure (v. matsal dinner. olik. fullpackad cuff.). landet in the . dorr dot. dagsljus direction. anhalla denominator. skada dark. skara. different. land. hund punkt door. (prep. avsanda diverse. gang. difficulty.).VOCABULARY. dyr (price) death. riktning dirty smutsig disguise. skillnad difficult. klippa. bota custom. mork date.). mejerismb'r crew. monster desire (noun). folkmassa crowded. urspara creamery butter. onskan. kurs.). restaurangvagn dining room. skuld doctor's fee. diverse divide.

rad empty. draga. ro- electric. utova. uppratta errand. fordraga. kvall every. examine. precis earn. uppratta esteem. dram. erfarenhet medfora enter. VOCABULARY.). under- drama. sparsam.) ti-- early digt (adj. afton. afven evening. komma export (v. belt och ballet entrust. noje enough. apotekare dry. rita drawing room. vara enjoyment. utflykt excuse (v. tappa (lose) druggist. drama draw. exact. kejsare employees. uttrycka express train. varje. antingen elect. betjaning exercise (v. valja exchange. examinera.). kora uppfora. utforande exercise relse (noun). isynnerhet establish. besta. attio either (conj.). var och en (adv. varaktig dwelling. ypperlig ata economical. europeisk even. utgift slut. agg eighty. anfortro envious. envar. salong dress. noggrann exactly.dozen. medel. var each. fortjana eat. slappa ned. torn expense. dussin draft. expensive. vanta expedient. europS. nog entail. duell durable. till och med. ekono- except.). fel.286 . byta. ande endure. fortramig.) tidig. in oga . snalltag eye. arende drop. bostad errand boy. noga. avundsjuk erect. anlagga. torr duel. rora expect. intrada. end (noun). hallande entirely. entertain. klada (sig) drink. var.). roande. uppskatta European. elektrisk elegance. ova. exportera express (v. ursakta execution. roa vaxel entertaining. misstag especially. utbyta excursion. underhalla. utom misk egg. ovning. elegans emperor. varje everybody. undersoka excellent. aricka drive. springpojke error. dyr experience.

first. fool. in battlefield) foremost. forskrackt finna. flee.) force. vanlig general delivery. fransk friend. fort. formogenhet fraction. find. golv flour. fotbollspel football team. allman. stupa on the foreign. miljefest forenoon. poste stante generality. slagsmal. lek blomma: sterrabatt fluent. forest. vanskap finally. utrikes formiddag. fisk fit. fa- family. familj. aker van fight (noun).) for.VOCABULARY. frost. foljande food. feel. ryktbar farmer. tradgard general. fly floor. folja garden. vanligen . kraft. freeze. fader brak (arithmetic) France. field. full. lycka. vidare future. antligen frightened. fall. langre. lantbrukare fast fast fault. vacker eldsvada framme forst frukt fish. vanlig fylla friendship. hitta from. framst festival. (conj. trevlig. allmanhet re- following. ty faithful. blom- spel. fin. (immovable). mat generally. friendly. fri honorar kanna fetch. flytande folloio. flyta floiver. strid fill. framtid flag. frost fruit. eld. fotbollag factory. mjol flow. fast fel father. Frans free. fine. pa formiddagen famous. fee. front. fabrik fair (noun). slutligen. frysa freezing point. fire. skog forget. beromd. in front. glomma (speed). (i)fran front. full passa flagga further. ansikte football game. bed. marknad (fall for (prep. fa. styrka f or. trogen falla. Frankrike Francis. hastigt fortune. game. 287 narr face. the forenoon. nagra (fa) French. fryspunkt a few. frammande. hamta feiv.

Gota kanal Gothenburg. tysk Germany. hatt God. erhalla.). resa. framme hand baggage. kulle him. klack (of shoe) height.). glad. hjalpa her (gen. halvtimme half-sole. stiga upp girl. lada gras . tveka H habit.). high. headache. I am glad. hamn hard. gron greet. giva glad. f. get up. lycklig. hojd. skinka hand. mal harmless.288 German. bar hesitate. ga. halsning heart failure. fara goal. blifva grumble. knota guest. Goteborg granary. and obj. halsa greeting. handbagage hang. han Gotha Canal. harlig go. svar . kora he. stor green. VOCABULARY. ske happiness. farval. hogt. hennes. god. halsosam hear. hire. giva akt pa heel. hogligen. hjartforlamning heavy. halft (noun) highly. honom w. bans . hanga flicka give. lycka happy. glas glide. gast 0ttiZ. hand. hill. hog mycket vana bar halv (adj. utantill . sorg grind. snail good-bye. sig here. hall. make . Gud good. huvudvark health. gas haul. Twiir. henne herself. glida happen. halvvags hyra 7m. tung heed. mala (become) grow. skuld guilty. forsla. hal. fa. hojd 0nef. skyldig help (noun). hard. hjalp help (v. himself. hora heart. sig halvsula halfway. glorious. lyda. till hands. at . oskadlig hat. hjarta. bekomma tambur ham. halsa healthy. det gla- der mig glass. vaxa. by . adjo goose. glad gladja harbor. Tyskland get. frisk.

inbjuda inbjuaning iron (v. at . humor. otalig important. humanity. rac- 289 visa hold (noun). intresse interested. honest. lynne hungry. kilogram.). intend.VOCABULARY. ihalig home (noun). kilometer kind (adj. kilogram. helgdag induce. genast impatient. kunna know about. immediately. 6 it. veta. hurry up. krok hour. hos human. out. is K keep.). skynda journey. manniska being. kanna till . sarad. (v. kanna. behalla. narsluta inclosed. history. resa gladje (v. det Italien Italy. avbryta hotel. vilja interest (noun). bus. skadad hollow.). hurry sig (v. hem. strykning invitation. viktig inclose. intresserad timme (noun). halla om sjuk illuminerad illuminated. obetydlighet obetydlig hem insignificant. skynda. narsluten include. kilo kilometer. joy. island. if. King's Street. mansklig. arlig hook. stryka ironing. flitig information. hall hold (v. halla.). amna. bradska. invanare injured. hotell introduce. konung. bjuda. ink. presentera (for) house. ill. hungrig hurry (noun). be in ha brattom a .). ka fram holiday.).). obekvamt kung Kungsgatan knock (v.). mansklighet. knacka know. insignificance. black hemma home (adv. underrattelse inhabitant.). invite. house of. intressant interrupt. hope hope hopp hoppas at the interesting. vanlig kind (n. forma. snail. hoppa just ice. innesluta. historia indicate. slag king. skynda pa I jump just. industrious. inbegripa inconvenient.

) (adj. avresa. tion. lie. letter. sprak Lapland. harlig. (adv. lake. stryksaker long (v. blicka.). last.). . manga . impers. manovrera lektion mindre lata lesson. lyssna. forlora. live. litteratur little. lagga pa pos. kaka lang. storartad mail (noun). till ten vanster left. langta long expected.). lange vantad look. sen. hora p& lite(t) landscape. look lawn. racka last night. atminstone minst. se pa.). tappa lead (v. kvarlamna lecture. as tycka om to. ga M leave behind. language. gora. line (fishing).290 VOCABULARY. forsenad laundry. long. satt. lend. sjostrand like lamb steak lammstek land (noun). lana less. bo borda (v. last liten. strykinrattning (place) laundry. at. langre late. (att). ditbrev. landsatta (tr. stryka (flag) luck. fattas. forelasning to the left. laxa. leva. i i loaf.).). bara. lake shore. se ut (ap- pearance) for. sist. Lappland large. tillverka many. let. brev. lara learned. kre- lack. ligga ljuga liv insjo life. post mail (v). a little. of of credit. manner. felas recommendarekommendationsbrev lady. magnificent. lamna. lock. love.) likewise.). fora learn. soka efter. leta efter lat lose. lange Monday. afvenledes like. landa (intr. rev listen. titta. tur lower. vara. dam sjo. (adv. vanster. land land (v.) lik. grasmatta lazy. make. manniska maneuver (v. sakna.). last fjol. man. man. lard least. taga ned. stor load. i mandags longer. last year.. landskap literature.) last (adj. fa (induce) (att) forma kvarlamnad ben leg. lasa gar kvall. lie. . karlek lycka. at leave (v. vis manufacture.

telegrambud middle. bredvid nice. traffa melt. underbar messenger boy. make tjana pengar . to-night. behova neglect. kunna meadow. hygglig. bo never.). de make may. narhet need. mountain. place. herr modern. morgontidning larm . tidning next. movement. spel mutual. moder motor boat. pengar. nyheter newspaper. betyda means. market mate. to-morrow. nyhet news. sb'rja mouth. mun.) nara nearness. laga mention. mal mother. i kvall night express. morgon. ang meal. musik.) nar. (adv. rnest. spegel misfortune. sakna. misstaga (sig) Mister (Mr. torg most. namligen. vasen. misstag mistake (v. night. nast next to.). mer. namna. modern modest. aldrig kvarn mjolnare minute. rriin N namely. mota. mycket multiply. mycken. mitt (i mitten) my. and prep. munter miraculous. fiesta most people. for- new. handlande merciful. underlata nest. smalta (v. flytta . medel by means medelst measure. mynning (cannon.VOCABULARY. berg mourn.). paper. mirror. miller. trevlig money order. nej. barmhartig museum. omsesidig merry. glad. minut mill. of. forsumma. olycka miss. i morse: i morgon. . forsumma mistake (noun). this . museum music. omtala merchant. nattsnalltag no (adv. ogonblick Monday. postanvisning month. blygsam moment.) ingen noble. multiplicera mend. mandag money. natt. adel noise. river) move. manad more. matt meet.). fa. motorbat mean mena. that is to say nature. snail. (adj. natur near (adj. rorelse verk much. flere morning. ma. ny newness.

VOCABULARY. ursakta parents.). officer often. formak roll gammal pa en. ute nothing. office (v. betala patient. vara skyldig O oats.).) passage. upptaga oculist. newspaper. opera pa middagen north (noun) norr. foraldrar parlor. ingenting. own. tal numerator. nu number. nummer. tillfalle pain occupied. iakttaga occasion.) norra (def. (flowers) (v. museet not. norra (def. (adj. gora ont painting. pair. bonde . lyda observe. forbi patience. ett. bara. kvar. sleep. paket pardon. ordning.). tid- offer office. passagerare gang oppen. talamod patient pay.292 noon. uppsta Northern Museum. talig. or. en passenger. olympisk on. park.). only) northern. tillbringa (indef. of. sida P obey. tavla occupy. only).j. palats om erbjuda kontor affarsbyggnad building. utspruc- past (prep. del.). ej Nordiska otherwise. namnare numerous. annars out. pron. nordlig opinion. icke. sysselsatt. sysselsatta. and adv. there. darborta. inte. paper. varsebliva over. (theater) participate. ning parcel. on board. ut. agare havre pack. aga owner. over. intet notice (v. blott open kep (adj. lagenhet annars order (noun). middag. upptagen (v. (sig) forsova now. papper. packa page. bestalla originate. eller. tanke opportunity. par ogonlakare palace. Olympic. 6'ppna open peasant. plaga. endast. av. malning. talrik overweight. tillfalle. befalla. deltaga pass. only. ombord one. overvikt owe. overresa man once. park part. opera. reda order (v.). officer. at . ofta old. mening.

place. trevlig please. tryck. diktare. tillata person. bit power. stycke. pessimistisk pest. principle. folk polite. lakare picture gallery. jamrande prescribe. penna people.). torbjuda poison. fattig. knappnal sjorovare pray. plan plan (v. take the of. aning. ganska angenam. praktisera. gen. veranda port. vacker. foredraga. hovlighet. forbjuden . plantera. i pitching. makt practice (v. plats. ana (adv. sit present (adj. dikt poet. person. tavelgalleri pick. dot program. spel. befolkning porch. behag. placard.) tamli- play (v. plats. program prohibit. troligen point. forestalling perhaps. dyrbar of. preach. dalig performance.. kraft. kanhanda permission. kanske. predika preacher.). lov permit. aitig 293 politeness. ordinera. foreskriva prescription. have a . ova. piller beromma pin. plakat in the prefer. manniska pessimistic. stackars. foreskrift. pen. recept plan (noun). bedja pirate. behaga print. frimarke office. trolig probably. hellre stallet for. leka. stampning anslag. pjis (theater) pleasant. pest population. barare portrayal. postkontor potato. utova praise. predikant precious. artighet perch. abborre poor. stallning possible. planera plant. stil pleasure.VOCABULARY. poliskonstapel prohibited. punkt. pris . lek. prevent. formoda. (heist) +verb ersatta plaintive. hamn porter. noje poem. potatis pick upp. tro sig pretty.). princip skald probable. mojlig physician. forgifta policeman. narvarande presentiment. mobel pill.). forhindra price. spela play (noun). hovlig. tillatelse. plocka post postage stamp. presume. behaglig. taga upp piece. piece of furniture. skildring position.

mottaga recently. purchase pursue. regn rain (v. snar.). inse really. allmanhet. letter of. forbliva. larjunge foljd av reasonable. Mersta ransom (v. racka. rest remember. allman. komma ihag receive. rekommenderad regulate. betrakta quarrel (v. alldeles registered. regna ransom (noun). (noun). protest. lasa reader. nyligen reception room. reducera reflect. mottagnings- rum recipient. skydda protestera verkligen reason.). relate. reach out. . quickly. riktigt. till by reason of. forslag proposition. hyra reputation. lagga bort Q quality. justera beratta. satta reconcile. utgiva pupil. hellre rare. lova promoted. R railway. rather. ganska. publik public (adj.294 prominent. fbresla proposal. snabb. erinra sig remind. befordrad propose. folkskola publish. jarnvag. resonabel recall. orsak. proud.). betanka (sig) regard. erhalla. accident. stan- na. upplasa torsona recognize. inlosa reduce. innesta rain (noun). fardig realize. trata quay. rask hastig. fort quiet. lasebok ready. rekommendera recommendation. forslag protect. slakting jarnvagsolycka remain. rod redeem. mottagare recite. lagga. omtala relation. paminna rent. igenkanna put away. kvalitet recommend. minnas. rac- ka fram read. anse. erinra (om). sallsynt snabb remainder. tyst quite. hastig. rykte . frikopa rapid. offentlig public school.).). inkop purpose. minnas. VOCABULARY reach. kvick. stolt public (noun). losen (money in bank) . avsikt forfolja put. framstaende promise (v. kaj quick. fa. forhallande relative. bliva. rekommendationsbrev red.

mogna rise. flera. salt anhalla. som sea. hoger. aterlamna tillbaka. ratt. se. sate. resultat retain. right. be to . saga v. ha the ratt till security. springa. ringa pa hos rink. rock gunga svar rolling.). see. seam. riva revolver. (coll. halsa (pa) respected. (tr. synas. skriva rich. atskilliga share (noun). vag (v. aktur ride (v. sjo. roddbat sermon. .). komma revenge. trakig sail. servants (at- row. ring ring up. sakerhet. rum tjanare. tjog atervanda hamnas scratch. strand road. sorglig. skina . Ryssland seven. rullning boat. skola score. room. traffa pant right. vila sig sample. betjaning service. ruin. tjanst. belaten.) return.). boat. soffa. det synes mig seldom. skicka bort send. it seems to me. salja mogen ripen. sju several. semester. skicka efter send away.) salt. respekterad rest (noun). del she. allvarsam. behalla say. plats ride (noun). sjoman shine. segelbat hon sailor. scenery. nojd save.VOCABULARY request (noun). hoger seek.). sorgsen. skicka send for. segla. rykte run. vila rest (v. predikan servant. skridskobana ripe. rida (horse). revolver rewrite. restaurang result. radda (rescue) restaurant. sensible. forstandig allvarlig. hav seasick. serious. termin upp bank. sceneri school. stiga semester. flod- river. spara. sjosjuk seat. ga (watch) avgora. ro. seem. begaran request (v. sallan sell. sb'ka ring. prov sandwich. S sad. flod. uppgora Russia. rik om aka . ruin rumor. begara salute. betjaning tendance) settle. smorgas satisfied.

sit. ropa. sink. sa be . nagonstades at sidan side. var slow. syster sex sitta souvenir postal. le smoker. skjuta shore. forening sofa. brodd sprout (v. since. son signature. somn sleep (v. namnteckning signify. blank ship. sakta small. fartyg shirt. so that. snart. sa. somnig slice (noun). sodra. skona speak. skridsko skate (v. starta. vy^ort sow. ond (cause) sing. jamn. stangd sick. tillbringa ut. nagot somewhere. skridskobana skate skillful. belagen.). idrott spring. sno snow (v. blank snow (noun). langsam slowly. rokare spring chicken. ibland some. speech. without ofrankerad start (v. sakta slow up. kyckling spring festival. sova sleepy. soffa sjuk sickness. shout.). skinande. strand short. varfest sprout (noun). sjukdom . asyn (-stans) son. 6m. liten smile (v. giva time. befinna sig lig- spare. . kort jasa societet. six. nagon somewhat. stanga shut. sa att society. skrika show. tal spend (money).). rokning smooth. sida. sjunga sjunka sorrow.). to the sight. sorg sorry. gro stamp. ga. skicklig sleep (noun). sang soon. mean emedan song. avresa . visa shut. sko shoot. syn. glasogon (noun). sometimes. sydlig sister. snoa so. aka skridsko skating rink. skiva splendid. borja.). tala spectacles. skjorta VOCABULARY smokestack. skorsten smoking. betyda. frimarke. anblick. situated.). soppa southern. skepp. sedan (time). shoe. strax sore.296 shiny. ledsen soup. praktig sport.

street. beratta. larare tear. sakerligen stormy. alsklig gata street car. tala om. ga ut take. station. telegram telegraph. after. sparvagn swing (v. trakig telegram. steal. studera stupid. sakert. sot. samtala taste. tio at. socker suffer. stiga fram still. taga. kvallsmat. kostym suit (v. tedious. to be nog. son dags last . angbat steam engine. snabb suddenly. till suit (noun). surprise (noun). time.). Sverige sweet. superintend. telephone. lyc- teach. berattelse. bod. stjala. sol i steak. passa suitable. saker. lida saga ten. tailor. solstrale Sunday. lyckas successful. sup6 sure. telefonera tennis. bras pa talk (noun). forstad succeed. svalja Sweden.). table. studium study (v. uppsikt supper. stark student. framgangsrik. vis. stil smaka suburb.). set the . stanna stek summer. riva kad sudden. stjala bort steamboat. gral strike. duka vandra strong. stanna store. kalla sun.VOCABULARY state. somras summon.).). tala. samtal talk (v. stormig story. sunbeam. dum skraddare a walk. frammande surprise (v. haftig. sla stroll. stat 29' last . bord. tennis 20 . styrka.). kralt strife. overraska swallow. overraskning vaning (of a house) strange. sommar. telegrafera tell. forth. plotsligt sugar. stiga. student study (noun). style. butik serligen surely. station stay. b'vervaka supervision. hastig. i up. droja. strid. gunga strength. lara teacher. annu stop. angare. promenera. sondag. angmaskin step (v. och ga. passande Swedish Grammar. omtala.

bemoabout. biljett. plaga true. tur twenty. tid. orolig unfavorable. theater. union unit. hinna U umbrella. gang time table. obetydlighet tur thermometer.298 terrible. olycklig unfortunately. paraply uncle. troska trip. skolavgift through. till. forfarlig VOCABULARY torment train. (conj. tala. dag fordraga uneasy. brak trouble (v. tanke thresh. genom throw. tillsammans tolerate. ogynnsam unfortunate. radd tip. termometer think. ta. olyckligtvis. forsoka throat. plaga test (noun). therefore. svarighet. fara travel (noun). dar treatment. resa. (dem. ordentlig turn (v. i kvall ocksa tand toothache. tva ganger two. tyvarr union. ne. tacka that. loge try. salunda ticket. unpack. for.). prov tag than. foretaga.). ataga sig time (counting). stad too. tunga to-night. i morgon tongue. resa treat. sedan there. sa. behandling t'iee. besvara. teater behandla. denna. tills (conj. tva time. renlig. spratt trifle. detta thought. farbror under. under understand. trott to-day. tycka this. packa upp unpleasant.) transform. (rel. tandvark town. handla om then. tidtabell timid. tanka. trakig until. thank. forvandla travel. sedan smasak. have . to-morrow. trad trick.) vanda (om) turn (noun). - - office.) denden dar. darfor thereupon. hals tuition. (en) hel tooth. darpa. drickspengar i tired. together. resa.) . bil- jettkontor tidy. (v. trouble (noun).) att da. besta. sann threshing floor. an som. tjugu twice. forsta undertake. kasta thus.

anvanda useful. vanligen up. tvatt. semester valise. vattna way. tvatt- ning watch. \asagatan vegetables.). besoka. vart .). ovanlig 299 W vagn wait. upon. stjalpa usage. oense various. vilja ha. vete off. vaga fartyg vestibule. onska. olika wealthy. sud- valbargad. vicinity. washing. tyngd weighty. rik Vasa Street. value (noun). overresa while (noun). ledig. stund whither. varst vessel. som van- usually.VOCABULARY unusual. vis variance. have a watchmaker. vie iv. viktig well.). besok (v. asligt wake . weapon. urmakare water (noun). sakna warm. spatsertur wander. set! use (noun). vantsal use (v.). (hos) voice. vanta (pa) ic agon. belast violent. galla valuable. varde. vatten water (v. bruk waiter. vanlig. when. wet. pa upset. tvatta u-ash. halsa pa vilkeu. tambur narhet weight. bruka. val. gronsaker vehement. haftig very. vecka iveigh. uppassare. vandra want (v. vikt. vader Wednesday. fickur. svag satt. vardefull . valdsam.). villa village. vacant. var which. utsikt villa. nytcig usual.) den visit visit (noun). torn vacation.) (rel. mycket. by haftig. vilken. (interrog. read. bra. with negative vidare. frisk. onsdag week. rost ivhile (conj. vapen weather. vag. weak. vakna walk (noun). vat wheat. nar where. som medan voyage. varm wash (v. vaktmastare ivaitlng room.). ferier. klocka resvaska dal valley. be at.

meet yellow. hustru wonder (noun). onskan wish (v. vinge winter. handlare wholly. vin worn worth out.300 who.). jo yesterday. utan within. 6'nska with. ni . gul yes. arbeta ivorkingman. undra wonderful. torka. without. i gar annu. verk work (v. utsliten worried. wise. arbete. wing. i vard write.) vem. hel wholesale grossmerchant. underbar word. (interrog. hos. du.) som. vintras last winter. orolig (adj.).). skriva Y wipe. varld wind up. VOCABULARY (rel. ord work (noun). skrika wish (noun). klok off. torka av year. ja. an. inom. draga upp window. innanfor yet. ar yell (v.).). fonster wine. arbetare world. anda you. vinter. belt och ballet wife. under wonder (v. vilken whole.

of nouns. of. 97. 2 . and proper. fourth. coordinating. 70. 318. synuse of. 68. . . nouns conjunctions. 129 . syntax of. see modal auxiliaries 143 . indefiAdjectives: declension. 132 uses nouns of measure. 241. 56 adjectives. 116 . Conjunctions. . 69. Infinitive. 180. 308 lute. nite. postposi- Apostrophe. . Genitive. remarks. 251 . Address. 127. 339. bliva. 38 . com- Date. . 4. use of indefinite declension. 144 . modal. 71. remarks on. 143. . . Gender. 299. 122 see . 303 by auxilof equality. prepositions with infinitive. remarks on Imperative. Future tenses: form. note. tax. Inseparable prefixes. definite. 371 general connectives. gender. 134. first. 302. 74 . 1. Auxiliaries: expresison of pure futurity. . 195 . definite. Cardinal numbers. 158. 188 varda. expressions of. 18. Articles. 243. foreign. Conjugation: 87. after. 35 . generic and abdistributive. 372 . Demonstratives. 255. Impersonal verbs. 374 . 187. note accentuation of. Interjections. 303. 64 and Foreign words. 204. 200 . app. 113 . pronominal. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives. . etc. . . 299. see g . is In general only the first of successive sections on the same topic Accentuation. 65. lata. . 338 . 317. 318. att omitted. musical. irregularities. 63 . 83 . position. interrogative. 341. 262. 127. 300. 136. in verbs. Deponent verbs. The reference is to sections. nouns. tiara. Dependent clauses. uses of. 45. adjective. 73 79 . 315 . 38. 130. 265 pronouns only. Cases. . syntax. 67. Modal 252 . . . 1 22. app. Declension. sing. adverbial . 344. 179 compared. 165. . 143 use of 294 present used for future. substitutes. second. prepositive. in. 23. Impersonal passive. 66. formations from. uses of. 55. app. see Pronouns 109. 110 . 364. of. Causative. Alphabet. senses of. of letter. . . 77 . 265 pronouns and adjectives. note 21. c. 201. for plur. Interrogatives. 80 fifth. app. see pronouns. 296. adverbs. indicated. 188. 291. 194. g. 39. . pronunciation of. 152. 76 . forms. 126 indefinite. 325 Imperfect. omission of the auxiliary Adverbs: form. 290 . 312 absoiary. v* adjectives. Compound verbs. in nouns. 381. . 2 . skola. to express purpose.CONDENSED INDEX OF SUBJECTS. demonstra. Accent. with 134 objective. . . 33. use of. 324 . 96 . Comparison. 131. . 216. Accent-stress. Measure. Capital letters. . 205. hava. 128 127 . third. 338. . 214 of. 62. 377. word order 104. 118. 270. 147. . verbs. Double forms. 135. . 190 omission 96. 133 . . Concord. foreign. adjectives of pronouns. 34 pounds. tive. . compared. 300 . a. simple words. 124 tive. 105 . stract. subordinating.

90 third tion. a. see demonstratives. with auxiliin -s. . interrogative. demonstrative. . 127 and fifth. 2. in address. utive. . app. 180 cent. 2. . 184 apparent or idiomatic meanfalse passive. 94. 250 . inseparable. 207. 241 . 290. past. of day. 315. Syllabication. Time 336. 1. 88. 134. Relatives. 35. 158 . 1. a. 179 nagonable verb-compounds. present. reflexive. 219 . 338 . . 14. (condition) unreal. 324 325 ordinal. 293. . 14. 51 compound sec words. . variable. of passives . Personal. . 265. remarks 222 . 299 of . questions. 80 . sion of. present. 172 reflexive conjugation. Separable prefixes. 183 substitute for. 2. 211. a . 172 . 224. omis- Omission. third. 211. . number. imperfect. 67. unreal conditions. 341. 104. foreign. first Possessives. of. Prepositions. note. 178. 335. quantity. for and fore. 230. position. : INDEX. 219 . 240. aries fbliva. 67. 187. . Verbs. substitute for. date. . form. note . second fourth conjugation. 163 . Pronominal adjectives. nouns 134. nouns. Perfect tense. 152 . 290. Pronunciation. of principal verbs. 180 . 50. 195 . declension. . 291. varda. 89 . use of title instead. reciprocal. 91. irregular : 207 . passive. 3. 88 . 204 Prefixes. etc. relative. 150. impersonal. 168 al. see . 97 conjugaconjugation. parts. . strong. 339. weak. 2 . 268. vara) . of strong and ir- regular verbs. use. 357. 324. 171 progressive-. verbal. article. 294 . reflexive. Tenses (uses). 348 . g gender. 351 . long m and n. 181 Passive. indefinite.302 Negatives. . c. Principal parts. 166 potential. 293 future. 127. 131. Nominative case. 2 Punctuation. of verb (normal. 186. 2 . Paradigms. ison bliva. Pronouns. Quantity. names. . 128. (forms). ac- verbs. 128. 126. note . uses of. adjectives. 165 concession. Weight. 290. . compound. Verbal nouns. . . inverted). . distrib- 316 absolute. of verbs for English Number. Paradigms. 77 Nouns. 245 list . 185 192 291 perfect. 331 . hard 13 modification. Subjunctive. pronoun. b . 174. 105 ond. 130. 139. Numerals. . secfirst. compar-s and with in . 104. . 136 . . Supine. ingenting. . 214 . 251 . 210 . pro- Umlaut. 250 indefinite. agent with passive. possessive sin. cardinal. auxiliary in dependent of prepositive definite clauses. 248. Weak verbs. in . 54. purpose. impersonmodal. Superlative. 338. . of measure. 360. . . reciprocal sense of the passive. Past tense. 76 fourth. Order of words. . 226. lieciprocal. 179. see nouns. personal. emphatic. . 6 ings. c. Proper nouns. position of object. 345 uses. Comparison . ting. 93 . Vowels. intensified. wish. note. 142 . 167 . 186 93. 55 app. . 233: past participle and supine. c . 130. 42. singular plural. 67. 2 object with variadverbs. app. 139 . etc. 'possessive. 164 171. 134. 230. 83 118 irregularities. . . strong and irregular Present tense. Participle. and soft. formations from. 292. 210 .

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SWEDISH NATIONAL SONGS .

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-L svii - C - to - ner Ma ra to - vi da. ._! vi da i to - ner -pa. bro-der. L'STT T rp-T. B " g . hjUrtat gloder.la kans-lor fo - gff " Di) i der. Marcia. hogt var fosterlandaka sang! b p p U " -*- -H TT Pul-sen briuner. > ** ._. rte& afcfc H 8ang-en ad- +-4 f . i I I Sangen ad-la kanslor foder. broder. hjar-tatanyckelhetersang.Dane liksom askan. f Zgl. i uer . L rrTTTTTJ Ma vi mm da Ma !. marsch framat annu en gang! i.-Jj Hi rt '^' " * Da-ne lik sum as-kan. J. STUNZ. . H.

f . ^:\:\ ^=t 4r r.ra fos . hand.sva ra tro-hets-e - den hand i hand. ~l F 1 1 f t> t v liv t \ 0" - it p vart och blod for Sver-ges a ra. r /#f-H .ter- AiiMiJ. hell ! dy . .r ^^ira^a^ P L f* .3==:toi4g sva tro-hets-e ra - den tro-hets hand - i e - den hand i hand.

LlNDBLAD. Marsch. ^fc-rriiizi^ rr . 0.Dalkarlasang.

ett bar - ^t^_f5ZR ligt land.ligt land. -Jn !^r_rjt=^ :^: r --. 4-^L -- lEiiEH Ett har .*-. -J- j -*:_ -* --.-*. : ocli ill - var bru -sa -*" diir fran trakt -t" till trakt.r decrease. I go .dys -ter prakt. a~~.de p da - la- "f f"f . T T > :r i X h _| H .

Var dof Var tin - - tar en blom . bla). mf 5ita 1. fc4 y #11 ^ * wm . 2.er var stra .ma nes en him . varm).mel sa skon (sa (sa skon).Mitt hemlands Andante. PFBIL.lar en vftl fa so - - gel len sa sa varm nojd nojd). var sjung . dal.

rit. -j&f ft 1 .

du fjiill-ho-ga Nord.Du Andante maestoso. da - tys ta. du fri a. - * f* J 1 -i-PU" ' i 3 fr-ft f= - Du gam la. gaxnla.ratditt i^t^fefe! x 31 n_a NL . du fria. 2. du a . mf 3E* 1.du Du tro -nar pa min-nenf ran forn-sto ra-dar. Folkmelodi fran Norrland.

M. BELLMAN. > .Fjariln vingad syns pa Haga. C.

den Din blom-ning. ' P P lyftsenh(3jdmothimlensrand.ae.din glans. vart hjarta rort en gang. mer alskad an var bygd.Maestoso.vart8ommarljus.din frojd. dim. allt. 3. fosterlandska sting.ody-raord! Ej 2. vad bar som syn.och -r* fr^i -7- 3& rt<.vartland. PACIDS.vartfos-ter-land.ejsauksendal. L.ejskolJ8eustrand. F. allt. s als - allt. varstjarDenatt. .skall mognaur sitttvang. kad an var bygd i nord. i /z dim. Vartland.ljudhogt. i> p- & ' : 1. hogre klinga skall en gang r> var hjarta rort en gang. allt. Vi al-ska va-ra strom-mars brusoch va-ra backarssprang. J. och hogre klinga skall var fosterlandska sang. an va-ra fii-ders jord. vad harsom syn. Rl'XEBERG.sluten an knopp. som sang an v&rt va-ra fit ders jord. urvar karlek skall gaopp ditt ljns.mer mor-ka sko-gens dyst ra sus.ditthopp.

. mod och morska man. Allegretto. Ill r\ Folkmarsch fran Orsa i Dalarne.Mandom.

IVAR WlD^BN. Hurtigt.Dalmarscti. M. M. af toQsattaren. J = 100. yrty/tr . AIT.

nar L. f mf ~f mf PM-^^ Hur latt =f= f^f^ -0 - det ar att vand-ra. I bro-der.Lifligore. med var-and-ra. at ff >r m c .

A K a tempo. .

la - la - la. E. A. Lr *1 I' j m * fP^ H*/^ ^s^ fie- kan sla takt mot byx-ans skinn! Hur ^ ^^ : H j. -== n== ^^ ^&r T sinn! brudgumsskank och brollopslust >-- i la la - la. :i2: ^^ at flickan - dim. da spel-man vSn-der a termed la - la - la. tra-la-la. Dalmarsch 4.-M H z med var-and-ra. * . I bro-der. niir * t ir J m * slan-tar-na i J 5 * |j. KARLFELDT. tra-la-la. . f mf m=f Hur T latt del &r att vand-ra. -*- * it kla - I - * ri-net-ten la - ter. la - la - la. tra-la-la.Lifligore. tra-la-la.tra-la-la. e rit.

OTTO LINDKLAD. Maestoso.Svenska kungssangen. ^ m . mf Ur svens-ka h jar-tans djup en gang en samfalld och en 1 /K r -.

.Varmiands-visan.

f > .Langtan Tempo di marcia. till landet.

2. sjo. ra sjo. ^4ndan<e con moto. |> ' & nat-tens tar .zur dans till - skif - tan - klar nad de.: 2 X i> I - gens la gor. span-na mor-ka pal-len ga sa sor - ge - 11 - ga. $= 1. gens lun-der.a .nor Har-pansljud. och i lun den dan-sa kiil-lor-ne. Folkmelodi. T. H. .^T till "t i_:i_fJ~ : tih"'>-p- jL f-f- Langtan landet 2. de --.lar i ho-nom sak-te-li . Nackens polska.ga gung-a fram pa den gro-nan kla - sal. vat-teo-fa-gelnslekkringfjardocho. lig - ga ang - ar i - na fu - i tras-tens sang ru- S ^f-Z ^ | 00000 r^ j-MSft^?: p : ff 33 da sko " t-l 4. SATHERBERG. A Djupt - i girs dott-rar ha -vet pa de-man-te-hal-len nac-ken vi .

ga star at 9id?=F=F-S K i. b ft % Nackens polska 2. nar havets kung ur gyllne gyll-ne bar. *c. J> ft -&- mr vA. ocb nac-ken sa sin sorg pa f y v t^t p * 35 ^fe=|b=ig ___Jjw_J5 L_i.ka fjar . och nac-ken sa sin sorg pa bar-pan slar. Kval-len har-lig star i so . 6 . nar havets kung ur gyll-ne bor-gen gar.dt PP i > P ft EE*E 6 . Fast bans 6 . 1 bor-gen gar. f 5^5 - *^*= tnnnTa tempo.ran en vag att do.ver nejden Fre-ja smyckar rar. ^ 3= sitt m ^ P P fcdt stor det lugn 6 .ver berg och dal. AFZELIUS. tt=4t :P=3= rfl. i . -r**- . A. bar-pan slar.ej en sus-ning. ing-en stjar-na ba-dar nattens drottning an. = P : t P svartan hog-tids-skrud. ii *:r dunk-la him-me-len. nar och fjarran.ver skog.

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A 000 666 352 .