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ULTRASONIC BASED DISTANCE MEASUREMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. ABSTRACT SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION 4.1. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS 4.2. MICROCONTROLLER 4.3. SENSORS 4.4. LCD 4.5. LED 4.6. CVAVR 5. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 5.1. ATMEGA8515 5.2. ULTRASONIC SENSOR (TS 601) 5.3. TRANSISTOR AS SWITCH 5.4. BUZZER 5.5. ISP PROGRAMMER
6. 7.

CODING BIBILOGRAPHY

ABSTRACT
Ultrasonic sensors are commonly used for a wide variety of non-contact presence, proximity, or distance measuring applications. These devices typically transmit a short burst of ultrasonic sound toward a target, which reflects the sound back to the sensor. The system then measures the time for the echo to return to the sensor and computes the distance to the target using the speed of sound in the medium. This project is used to measure the distance of the object. The ultrasonic waves spread in the air and hit the nearest object and reflected. The reflected signal from the object is received by the ultrasonic receiver. The received wave is given to the input of the microcontroller. Now the microcontroller compares the time between the transmitted signal and received signal and generates the corresponding pulse output which is equal to the distance of the object. This "ECHO" Ultrasonic Distance Sensor from Rhydolabz is an amazing product that provides very short (2CM) to long-range (3M) detection and ranging. The sensor provides precise, stable noncontact distance measurements from 2cm to 3 meters with very high accuracy. Its compact size, higher range and easy usability make it a handy sensor for distance measurement and mapping. The board can easily be interfaced to microcontrollers where the triggering and measurement can be done using one I/O pin. The sensor transmits an ultrasonic wave and produces an output pulse that corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By measuring the echo pulse width, the distance to target can easily be calculated. Here we are using 40 KHz ultrasonic sensors. Microcontroller is Measured the distance and that is displayed on the display 2x16 characters. The microcontroller will generate measurements using 8bit timer port frequency 40 kHz, which passes through inverters for amplifying the current and used to drive the ultrasonic transmitter that will broadcast the ultrasonic waves at 40 kHz. Simultaneously with the activation of the posting run 16bit timer that measures time by receiving the reflected signal. Sending a signal spread environment. After hitting the barrier is part of it is reflected and returns back to the

sensor. The reflected signal is detected by the receiver, at this time microcontroller acts as a input so it takes signal from receiver and it calculates the distance when the signal is coming from object to receiver and that distance is displayed on LCD 16*2 through microcontroller. This technology can be used for measuring: wind speed and direction (anemometer), fullness of a tank and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water. To measure the amount of liquid in a tank, the sensor measures the distance to the surface of the fluid. Further applications include: humidifiers, sonar, medical ultrasonography, burglar alarms and non-destructive testing.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

A T M E G A 8 5 1 5

LCD

ULTRA SONIC SENSOR

REQUIREMENTS: HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:


ATMEGA8515 LCD 16*2 ULTRASONIC SENSOR (TS601) TRANSISTOR BUZZER LED

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:
CVAVR-C COMPILER EMBEDDED C PROGRAMMING ISP PROGRAMMER

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

1 0

L U

P V 4 C3 A3 A3 A3 A3 A3 A3 A3 A 0 9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D C

R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 VCC

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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION DESIGNING:


Main intension of this project is to design an ULTRASONIC BASED DISTANCE MEASUREMENT using microcontroller. 1) Designing the power supply for the entire circuitry. 2) Selection of microcontroller that suits our application. 3) Selection of LCD 4) Selection of sensor Complete studies of all the above points are useful to develop this project.

POWER SUPPLY SECTION:


In-order to work with any components basic requirement is power supply. In this section required voltage level is 5V DC. Now the aim is to design the power supply section which converts 230V AC in to 5V DC. Since 230V AC is too high to reduce it to directly 5V DC, therefore we need a step-down transformer that reduces the line voltage to certain voltage that will help us to convert it in to a 5V DC. Considering the efficiency factor of the bridge rectifier, we came to a conclusion to choose a transformer, whose secondary voltage is 3 to 4 V higher than the required voltage i.e. 5V. For this application 0-9V transformers is used, since it is easily available in the market. The output of the transformer is 9V AC; it feed to rectifier that converts AC to pulsating DC. As we all know that there are 3 kind of rectifiers that is 1) half wave 2) Full wave and 3) Bridge rectifier

Here we short listed to use Bridge rectifier, because half wave rectifier has we less in efficiency. Even though the efficiency of full wave and bridge rectifier are the same, since there is no requirement for any negative voltage for our application, we gone with bridge rectifier. Since the output voltage of the rectifier is pulsating DC, in order to convert it into pure DC we use a high value (1000UF/1500UF) of capacitor in parallel that acts as a filter. The most easy way to regulate this voltage is by using a 7805 voltage regulator, whose output voltage is constant 5V DC irrespective of any fluctuation in line voltage.

SELECTION OF MICROCONTROLLER:
As we know that there so many types of micro controller families that are available in the market. Those are 1) 8051 Family 2) AVR microcontroller Family 3) PIC microcontroller Family 4) ARM Family To implement this application 8051 is some what difficult. So, that is the reason we are selecting AVR controller to fulfill our requirement. Here we are selecting ATMEGA8515 controller. If user want to implement any application using ATMEGA8515 some basic connections are required. Those are: 1) power supply section 2) pull-up resistors for PORTS 3) Reset circuit 4) Crystal circuit 5) ISP circuit (for program dumping)

SELECTION OF LCD:
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin, flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector. Here

LCD is used for only debugging purpose. Ultrasonic sensor values are displayed n the LCD.

SELECTION OF SENSOR:
A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. Here in this project I selected TS 601 ultrasonic sensor used to measure the distance.

CIRCUIT OPERATION:
This project is used to measure the distance of the object. The ultrasonic waves spread in the air and hit the nearest object and reflected. The reflected signal from the object is received by the ultrasonic receiver. The received wave is given to the input of the microcontroller. Now the microcontroller compares the time between the transmitted signal and received signal and generates the corresponding pulse output which is equal to the distance of the object. This "ECHO" Ultrasonic Distance Sensor from Rhydolabz is an amazing product that provides very short (2CM) to long-range (3M) detection and ranging. The sensor provides precise, stable noncontact distance measurements from 2cm to 3 meters with very high accuracy. Its compact size, higher range and easy usability make it a handy sensor for distance measurement and mapping. The board can easily be interfaced to microcontrollers where the triggering and measurement can be done using one I/O pin. The sensor transmits an ultrasonic wave and produces an output pulse that corresponds to the time required for the burst echo to return to the sensor. By measuring the echo pulse width, the distance to target can easily be calculated. Here we are using 40 KHz ultrasonic sensors. Microcontroller is Measured the distance and that is displayed on the display 2x16 characters. The microcontroller will generate measurements using 8bit timer port frequency 40 kHz, which passes through inverters for amplifying the current and used to drive the ultrasonic transmitter that will broadcast the ultrasonic waves at 40 kHz. Simultaneously with the activation of the posting

run 16bit timer that measures time by receiving the reflected signal. Sending a signal spread environment. After hitting the barrier is part of it is reflected and returns back to the sensor. The reflected signal is detected by the receiver, at this time microcontroller acts as a input so it takes signal from receiver and it calculates the distance when the signal is coming from object to receiver and that distance is displayed on LCD 16*2 through microcontroller.

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

Embedded systems are electronic devices that incorporate microprocessors with in their implementations. The main purposes of the microprocessors are to simplify the system design and provide flexibility. Having a microprocessor in the device helps in removing the bugs, making modifications, or adding new features are only matter of rewriting the software that controls the device. Or in other words embedded computer systems are electronic systems that include a microcomputer to perform a specific dedicated application. The computer is hidden inside these products. Embedded systems are ubiquitous. Every week millions of tiny computer chips come pouring out of factories finding their way into our everyday products. Embedded systems are self-contained programs that are embedded within a piece of hardware. Whereas a regular computer has many different applications and software that can be applied to various tasks, embedded systems are usually set to a specific task that cannot be altered without physically manipulating the circuitry. Another way to think of an embedded system is as a computer system that is created with optimal efficiency, thereby allowing it to complete specific functions as quickly as possible. Embedded systems designers usually have a significant grasp of hardware technologies. They use specific programming languages and software to develop embedded systems and manipulate the equipment. When searching online, companies offer embedded systems development kits and other embedded systems tools for use by engineers and businesses. Embedded systems technologies are usually fairly expensive due to the necessary development time and built in efficiencies, but they are also highly valued in specific industries. Smaller businesses may wish to hire a consultant to determine what sort of embedded systems will add value to their organization.

CHARACTERISTICS:

Two major areas of differences are cost and power consumption. Since many embedded systems are produced in tens of thousands to millions of units range, reducing cost is a major concern. Embedded systems often use a (relatively) slow processor and small memory size to minimize costs. The slowness is not just clock speed. The whole architecture of the computer is often intentionally simplified to lower costs. For example, embedded systems often use peripherals controlled by synchronous serial interfaces, which are ten to hundreds of times slower than comparable peripherals used in PCs. Programs on an embedded system often run with real-time constraints with limited hardware resources: often there is no disk drive, operating system, keyboard or screen. A flash drive may replace rotating media, and a small keypad and LCD screen may be used instead of a PC's keyboard and screen. Firmware is the name for software that is embedded in hardware devices, e.g. in one or more ROM/Flash memory IC chips. Embedded systems are routinely expected to maintain 100% reliability while running continuously for long periods, sometimes measured in years. Firmware is usually developed and tested too much harsher requirements than is general-purpose software, which can usually be easily restarted if a problem occurs.

PLATFORM:
There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs. This in contrast to the desktop computer market which is limited to just a few competing architectures mainly the Intel/AMD x86 and the Apple/Motorola/IBM Power PCs which are used in the Apple Macintosh. One common configuration for embedded systems is the system on a chip, an application-specific integrated circuit, for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design.

TOOLS:
Like a typical computer programmer, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers and debuggers to develop an embedded system. Those software tools can come from several sources:

Software companies that specialize in the embedded market Ported from the GNU software development tools. Sometimes, development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. Some designers keep a utility program to turn data files into code, so that they can include any kind of data in a program. Most designers also have utility programs to add a checksum or CRC to a program, so it can check its program data before executing it.

OPERATING SYSTEM:
They often have no operating system, or a specialized embedded operating system (often a real-time operating system), or the programmer is assigned to port one of these to the new system.

DEBUGGING:
Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator, or some type of debugger that can interrupt the micro controllers internal microcode. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works. The CPUbased debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. Developers should insist on debugging which shows the high-level language, with breakpoints and single stepping, because these features are widely available. Also, developers should write and use simple logging facilities to debug sequences of realtime events. PC or mainframe programmers first encountering this sort of programming often become confused about design priorities and acceptable methods. Mentoring, codereviews and ego less programming are recommended.

DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:


The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframes computers or minicomputers.

START-UP:
All embedded systems have start-up code. Usually it disables interrupts, sets up the electronics, tests the computer (RAM, CPU and software), and then starts the application code. Many embedded systems recover from short-term power failures by restarting (without recent self-tests). Restart times under a tenth of a second are common. Many designers have found one of more hardware plus software-controlled LEDs useful to indicate errors during development (and in some instances, after product release, to produce troubleshooting diagnostics). A common scheme is to have the electronics turn off the LED(s) at reset, whereupon the software turns it on at the first opportunity, to prove that the hardware and start-up software have performed their job so far. After that, the software blinks the LED(s) or sets up light patterns during normal operation, to indicate program execution progress and/or errors. This serves to reassure most technicians/engineers and some users.

THE CONTROL LOOP:


In this design, the software has a loop. The loop calls subroutines. Each subroutine manages a part of the hardware or software. Interrupts generally set flags, or update counters that are read by the rest of the software. A simple API disables and enables interrupts. Done right, it handles nested calls in nested subroutines, and restores the preceding interrupt state in the outermost enable. This is one of the simplest methods of creating an exocrine. Typically, there's some sort of subroutine in the loop to manage a list of software timers, using a periodic real time interrupt. When a timer expires, an associated subroutine is run, or flag is set. Any expected hardware event should be backed-up with a software timer. Hardware events fail about once in a trillion times. State machines may be implemented with a function-pointer per statemachine (in C++, C or assembly, anyway). A change of state stores a different function into the pointer. The function pointer is executed every time the loop runs. Many designers recommend reading each IO device once per loop, and storing the result so the logic acts on consistent values. Many designers prefer to design

their state machines to check only one or two things per state. Usually this is a hardware event, and a software timer. Designers recommend that hierarchical state machines should run the lower-level state machines before the higher, so the higher run with accurate information. Complex functions like internal combustion controls are often handled with multi-dimensional tables. Instead of complex calculations, the code looks up the values. The software can interpolate between entries, to keep the tables small and cheap. One major disadvantage of this system is that it does not guarantee a time to respond to any particular hardware event. Careful coding can easily assure that nothing disables interrupts for long. Thus interrupt code can run at very precise timings. Another major weakness of this system is that it can become complex to add new features. Algorithms that take a long time to run must be carefully broken down so only a little piece gets done each time through the main loop. This system's strength is its simplicity, and on small pieces of software the loop is usually so fast that nobody cares that it is not predictable. Another advantage is that this system guarantees that the software will run. There is no mysterious operating system to blame for bad behavior.

USER INTERFACES:
Interface designers at PARC, Apple Computer, Boeing and HP minimize the number of types of user actions. For example, use two buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear, one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry"). A touch-screen or screen-edge buttons also minimize the types of user actions.

Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. Designs should consider using a status light for each interface plug, or failure condition, to tell what failed. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select- the user can glue on the labels for the language that she speaks.

For example, Boeing's standard test interface is a button and some lights. When you press the button, all the lights turn on. When you release the button, the lights with failures stay on. The labels are in Basic English. Designers use colors. Red defines the users can get hurt- think of blood. Yellow defines something might be wrong. Green defines everything's OK. Another essential trick is to make any modes absolutely clear on the user's display. If an interface has modes, they must be reversible in an obvious way. Most designers prefer the display to respond to the user. The display should change immediately after a user action. If the machine is going to do anything, it should start within 7 seconds, or give progress reports. One of the most successful general-purpose screen-based interfaces is the two menu buttons and a line of text in the user's native language. It's used in pagers, medium-priced printers, network switches, and other medium-priced situations that require complex behavior from users. When there's text, there are languages. The default language should be the one most widely understood.

MICROCONTROLLERS
Microcontrollers as the name suggests are small controllers. They are like single chip computers that are often embedded into other systems to function as

processing/controlling unit. For example the remote control you are using probably has microcontrollers inside that do decoding and other controlling functions. They are also used in automobiles, washing machines, microwave ovens, toys ... etc, where automation is needed. Micro-controllers are useful to the extent that they communicate with other devices, such as sensors, motors, switches, keypads, displays, memory and even other micro-controllers. Many interface methods have been developed over the years to solve the complex problem of balancing circuit design criteria such as features, cost, size, weight, power consumption, reliability, availability, manufacturability. Many microcontroller designs typically mix multiple interfacing methods. In a very simplistic form, a microcontroller system can be viewed as a system that reads from (monitors) inputs, performs processing and writes to (controls) outputs. Embedded system means the processor is embedded into the required application. An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM. Example: printer, keyboard, video game player Microprocessor - A single chip that contains the CPU or most of the computer Microcontroller - A single chip used to control other device Microcontroller differs from a microprocessor in many ways. First and the most important is its functionality. In order for a microprocessor to be used, other components such as memory, or components for receiving and sending data must be added to it. In short that means that microprocessor is the very heart of the computer. On the other hand, microcontroller is designed to be all of that in one. No other external components are needed for its application because all necessary peripherals are already built into it. Thus, we save the time and space needed to construct devices.

MICROPROCESSOR VS MICROCONTROLLER: Microprocessor:


CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate

Designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expensive versatility general-purpose

Microcontroller:
CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports for applications in which cost, power and space are critical single-purpose

SENSORS

A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. They are used for various purposes including measurement or information transfer. An electronic sensor is any device that uses electricity to sense a change in physical quantity, and then through a voltage change, send a signal to a device that captures this information. Some sensors measure properties directly, other sensors measure properties indirectly, using conversions or calculations to determine results. Sensors are generally categorized by the type of phenomenon that they measure, rather than the functionality of the sensor itself. There are many different things to measure -- heat, light, humidity, sound, level, weight etc. each of these requires a different sensors. There are so many kinds of sensors.

MECHANICAL SENSORS:
Mechanical sensors measure a property through mechanical means, although the measurement itself may be collected electronically. An example of a mechanical sensor is a strain gauge. The strain gauge measures the physical deformation of a component by experiencing the same strain as the component, yet the change in resistance of the strain gauge is measured electrically. Other types of mechanical sensors include:

Pressure sensors Accelerometers Potentiometers Gas and fluid flow meters Humidity sensors Ultrasonic sensors

ELECTRICAL:
Electrical sensors measure electric and magnetic properties. An example of an electrical sensor is an ohmmeter, which is used to measure electrical resistance between two points in a circuit. An ohmmeter sends a fixed voltage through one probe, and measures the returning voltage through a second probe. The drop in voltage is proportional to the resistance, as dictated by Ohm's Law. Other electrical sensors include:

Voltmeter/Ammeter Metal detector RADAR Magnetometer

THERMAL:
Although all thermal sensors measure changes in temperature, there are a variety of types of thermal sensors, each with specific uses, temperature ranges, and accuracies. Some types of thermal sensors include:

Thermometers Thermocouples Thermistors Bi-metal thermometers

OPTICAL:
Optical sensors detect the presence of light waves. This could include light in the visible spectrum, or outside the visible spectrum, in the case of infrared sensors. Some types of optical sensors include:

Photo detectors Infrared sensors Fiber optic sensors

Interferometers

OTHER TYPES OF SENSORS:


There are many other types of sensors:

Radiation sensors, including Geiger counters and dosimeters Motion sensors, including radar guns ,Infrared detectors and speedometers Acoustic, including sonar and seismometers Gyroscopes Microphones Video cameras Hall Effect probes (magnetic field) Remote control devices Photocells Sensors may be simple physical measurement systems, or complex

electronic devices requiring sophisticated data acquisition systems. No matter the type of sensor, input type, or output type, every sensor has inherent characteristics that allow the user to select the right sensor for the task at hand.

SENSOR CHARACTERISTICS:
Some sensor characteristics include:

Input Range Output Range Accuracy Repeatability Resolution

INPUT RANGE:
Input range is the maximum measurable range that the sensor can accurately measure. For example, a compression load cell may have an input range of 0 - 5000 pounds. The load cell cannot accurately measure "negative", or tensile loads, or compressive loads greater than 5000 pounds. Generally, quantities outside of the input range can be measured, but characteristics such as accuracy and repeatability may be compromised when the input is outside of the specified range.

OUTPUT RANGE:
Output range generally refers to electronic sensors, and is the range of electrical output signal that the sensor returns. However, the output range could be a physical displacement, such as in a spring scale, or rotation, such as in a clock-style analog thermometer. The output range is related to the input range by the conversion algorithm specific to the sensor type, and the algorithm may include factors based on the calibration of the specific sensor.

ACCURACY:
Accuracy actually refers to the amount of error, or inaccuracy that may be present in a sensor. Accuracy can be stated as a unit of measurement, such as +/- 5 pounds, or as a percentage, such as 95%. In most cases, increased accuracy results in an increased cost for a sensor.

REPEATABILITY:
Repeatability, as the name implies, refers to how often a sensor under the same input conditions will return the same value. If a sensor is designed to be used over and over again, it is important that the output value is accurate over every measurement cycle for the life of the sensor. Repeatability is determined by calibration testing of the sensor using known inputs.

RESOLUTION:
Resolution is the smallest unit of measurement that the sensor can accurately measure. Some transducers return output signals in discrete steps, and therefore the resolution is easily defined. Resolution can be stated as a unit of measurement or as a percentage. For electronic sensors, resolution is also dictated by the resolution of the signal conditioning hardware or software. These qualities are common to all sensors, no matter what characteristic is being measured. All of these traits must be considered when selecting the right sensor for the specific needs of a test.

APPLICATION OF SENSORS:
Sensors Applications covers all major fields of applications Commercial sensors like Temperature sensors, Pressure sensors, Micro sensors, Microsystems and integrated electronic sensors etc. More and more utilization of microcontrollers in different areas also increase the use of sophisticated, low cost sensors. In Household applications sensors are used in modern washing machines, dish washers, dryers, freezers as well as in cooking, domestic heating, air conditioning or small appliances results in reduction of electricity, water or detergent consumption, less noise emission, increased efficiency and higher user comfort. In Medical Applications like Glucose Biosensors, Coagulation Rate Biosensors, Cholesterol Biosensors and Others in laboratories etc. Remote sensors include film photography, Infrared, charge-coupled devices, and radiometers. The Remote Military applications include strategic systems for early warning of intercontinental ballistic missile launches, methods for the detection of atmospheric contaminants, such as poison gas, under field conditions, aids for the precision

delivery of weaponry (including passive, active, and laser designator guidance techniques), and sensor systems for reconnaissance and surveillance.

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. Its uses include monitors for computers, televisions, instrument panels, and other devices ranging from aircraft cockpit displays, to every-day consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. Among its major features are its lightweight construction, its portability, and its ability to be produced in much larger screen sizes than are practical for the construction of cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an electronically-modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology, the discovery of liquid crystals, dates from 1888. By 2008, worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.

PIN DESCRIPTION:

PIN DESCRIPTION:
PIN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 SYMBOL VSS VCC VEE RS R/W EN DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 I/O ---I I I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O DESCRIPTION Ground +5V power supply Power supply to control contrast RS=0 to select command register RS=1 to select data register R/W=0 for write R/W=1 for read Enable The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus

VCC, VSS and VEE:


While VCC and VSS provide +5V and ground respectively, VEE is used for controlling LCD contrast.

RS (REGISTER SELECT):
There are two important registers inside the LCD. When RS is low (0), the data is to be treated as a command or special instruction (such as clear screen, position cursor, etc.). When RS is high (1), the data that is sent is a text data which should be displayed on the screen. For example, to display the letter "T" on the screen you would set RS high.

RW (READ/WRITE):
The RW line is the "Read/Write" control line. When RW is low (0), the information on the data bus is being written to the LCD. When RW is high (1), the program

is effectively querying (or reading) the LCD. Only one instruction ("Get LCD status") is a read command. All others are write commands, so RW will almost be low.

EN (ENABLE):
The EN line is called "Enable". This control line is used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data. To send data to the LCD, your program should first set this line high (1) and then set the other two control lines and/or put data on the data bus. When the other lines are completely ready, bring EN low (0) again. The 1-0 transition tells the 44780 to take the data currently found on the other control lines and on the data bus and to treat it as a command.

D0-D7 (DATA LINES):


The 8-bit data pins, D0-D7 are used to send information to the LCD or read the content of the LCDs internal registers. To display letters and numbers, we send ASCII codes for the letters A-Z, az and numbers 0-9 to these pins while making RS=1. There are also instruction command codes that can be sent to the LCD to clear the display or force the cursor to the home position or blink the cursor. We also use RS=0 to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD is ready to receive the information. The busy flag is D7 and can be read when R/W = 1 and RS=0, as follows: if R/W = 1, RS = 0. When D7=1 (busy flag = 1), the LCD is busy taking care of internal operations and will not accept any new information. When D7 = 0, the LCD is ready to receive new information. Note: it is recommended to check the flag before writing any data to LCD. LCD COMMAND CODES: CODE (HEX) 0X01 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION REGISTER CLEAR DISPLAY SCREEN

0X02 0X04 0X06 0X05 0X07 0X08 0X0A 0X0C 0X0E 0X0F 0X10 0X14 0X18 0X1C 0X80 0XC0 0X38 0X30 0X28 0X20

RETURN HOME DECREMENT CURSOR(SHIFT CURSOR TO LEFT) INCREMENT CURSOR(SHIFT CURSOR TO RIGHT) SHIFT DISPLAY RIGHT SHIFT DISPLAY LEFT DISPLAY OFF,CURSOR OFF DISPLAY OFF,CURSOR ON DISPLAY ON,CURSOR OFF DISPLAY ON CURSOR BLINKING DISPLAY ON CURSOR BLINKING SHIFT CURSOR POSITION TO LEFT SHIFT CURSOR POSITION TO RIGHT SHIFT THE ENTIRE DISPLAY TO THE LEFT SHIFT THE ENTIRE DISPLAY TO THE RIGHT FORCE CURSOR TO BEGINNING OF 1ST LINE FORCE CURSOR TO BEGINNING OF 2ND LINE 8-BIT INTERFACE, 2 LINES, 5*7 PIXELS 8-BIT INTERFACE, 1 LINE, 5*7 PIXELS 4-BIT INTERFACE, 2 LINES, 5*7 PIXELS 4-BIT INTERFACE, 1 LINE, 5*7 PIXELS

CURSOR ADDRESSES FOR LCDS:


16x2 LCD 80 C0 20x1 LCD 80 20x2 LCD 80 C0 20x4 LCD 80 C0 94 D4 40x2 LCD 80 C0 NOTE: All data is in HEX. 81 C1 81 81 C1 81 C1 95 D5 81 C1 82 C2 82 82 C2 82 C2 96 D6 82 C2 83 C3 83 83 C3 83 C3 97 D7 83 C3 84 85 C4 C5 through through through through through through through through through 86 C6 93 93 D3 93 D3 A7 E7 A7 E7 through through 8F CF

ADVANTAGES:

LCD interfacing with 8051 is a real-world application. In recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LEDs (seven segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs). This is due to following reasons: The declining prices of LCDs.

The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs, which are limited to numbers and a few characters. An intelligent LCD displays two lines, 20 characters per line, which is interfaced to the 8051.

Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU to keep displaying the data. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the pn-junction, as in the common LED circuit. This effect is a form of electroluminescence.

Like a normal diode, the LED consists of a chip of semi-conducting material impregnated, or doped, with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carrierselectrons and holesflow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon.

The wavelength of the light emitted, and therefore its color, depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or nearultraviolet light. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. Advances in materials science have made possible the production of devices with ever-shorter wavelengths, producing light in a variety of colors. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. This means that much light will be reflected back in to the material at the material/air surface interface. Therefore Light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development. Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. Many of the LEDs produced in the 1970s

and 1980s are still in service today. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25,000 to 100,000 hours but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly.

Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials; the following table shows the available colors with wavelength range and voltage drop. Color Infrared Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Purple Ultraviolet White Wavelength (nm) > 760 610 < < 760 590 < < 610 570 < < 590 500 < < 570 450 < < 500 400 < < 450 multiple types < 400 Broad spectrum Voltage (V) V < 1.9 1.63 < V < 2.03 2.03 < V < 2.10 2.10 < V < 2.18 1.9 < V < 4.0 2.48 < V < 3.7 2.76 < V < 4.0 2.48 < V < 3.7 3.1 < V < 4.4 V = 3.5

ADVANTAGES OF LEDS:
LEDs have many advantages over other technologies like lasers. As compared to laser diodes or IR sources LEDs are conventional incandescent lamps. For one thing, they don't have a filament that will burn out, so they last much longer. Additionally, their small plastic bulb makes them a lot more durable. They also fit more easily into modern electronic circuits.

The main advantage is efficiency. In conventional incandescent bulbs, the lightproduction process involves generating a lot of heat (the filament must be warmed). Unless you're using the lamp as a heater, because a huge portion of the available electricity isn't going toward producing visible light.

LEDs generate very little heat. A much higher percentage of the electrical power is going directly for generating light, which cuts down the electricity demands considerably.

LEDs offer advantages such as low cost and long service life. Moreover LEDs have very low power consumption and are easy to maintain.

DISADVANTAGES OF LEDS:
LEDs performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating environment. LEDs must be supplied with the correct current. LEDs do not approximate a "point source" of light, so cannot be used in applications needing a highly collimated beam. But the disadvantages are quite negligible as the negative properties of LEDs do not apply and the advantages far exceed the limitations.

CODE-VISION AVR
Assembly code is used for one or more of three reasons: speed, compactness or because some functions are easier to do in assembler than in a higher level

language. It is well known that using a high level language always results in the faster program development but there are times when, for the reasons stated above, one wants to use assembly language. The Code Vision AVR C Compiler, like other compilers meant for microcontroller development, has an easy interface to assembly language. Assembler code may be imbedded anywhere in a C program.

FEATURES:
Installing and Configuring Code Vision AVR to work with the Atmel STK500 starter kit and AVR Studio debugger. Creating a New Project using the Code Wizard AVR Automatic Program Generator Editing and Compiling the C code Loading the executable code into the target microcontroller on the STK500 starter kit. INTRODUCTION: This is an introduction to the user through the preparation of an example C program using the Code Vision AVR C compiler. The example, which is the subject of this application note, is a simple program for the Atmel AT90S8515 microcontroller on the STK500 starter kit.

PREPARATION: Install the Code Vision AVR C Compiler by executing the file setup.exe. It is assumed that the program was installed in the default directory: C:\cvavr. Install the Atmel AVR Studio debugger by executing the file setup.exe. It is assumed that AVR

Studio was installed in the default directory: C:\Program Files\Atmel\AVR Studio. Setup the starter kit (STK500) according to the instructions in the STK500 User Guide. Make sure the power is off and insert the AT90S8515 chip into the appropriate socket marked SCKT3000D3. Set the XTAL1 jumper. Also set the OSCSEL jumper between pins 1 and 2. Connect one 10 pin ribbon cable between the PORTB and LEDS headers. This will allow displaying the state of AT90S8515s PORTB outputs. Connect one 6 pin ribbon cable between the ISP6PIN and SPROG3 headers. This will allow Code Vision AVR to automatically program the AVR chip after a successful compilation. In order to use this feature, one supplementary setting must be done: Open the Code Vision AVR IDE and select the Settings | Programmer menu option. Make sure to select the Atmel STK500 AVR Chip Programmer Type and the corresponding Communication Port which is used with the STK500 starter kit. Then press the STK500.EXE Directory button in order to specify the location of the stk500.exe command line utility supplied with AVR Studio. Select the c:\Program Files\Atmel\AVR Studio\STK500 directory and press the OK button. Then press once again the OK button in order to save the Programmer Settings. In order to be able to invoke the AVR Studio debugger/simulator from within the Code Vision AVR IDE one final setting must be done. Select the Settings | Debugger menu option.

SHORT REFERENCE: PREPARATIONS:


1. Install the Code Vision AVR C compiler 2. Install the Atmel AVR Studio debugger 3. Install the Atmel STK500 starter kit

4. Configure the STK500 programmer support in the Code Vision AVR IDE by selecting: Settings->Programmer-> STK500.EXE Communication Port 5. Configure the AVR Studio support in the Code Vision AVR IDE by selecting: Settings>Debugger-> Enter: C:\Program Files\Atmel\AVR Studio. GETTING STARTED: 1. Create a new project by selecting: File->New->Select Project 2. Specify that the Code Wizard AVR will be used for producing the C source and project files: Use the Code Wizard? ->Yes 3. In the Code Wizard AVR window specify the chip type and clock frequency: Chip>Chip: AT90S8515->Clock: 3.86MHz 4. Configure the I/O ports: Ports->Port B- >Data Direction: all Outputs->Output Value: all 1s 5. Configure Timer 1: Timers->Timer1- >Clock Value: 3.594 kHz->Interrupt on: Timer1 Overflow->Val: 0xF8FB 6. Generate the C source, C project and Code Wizard AVR project files by selecting: File | Generate, Save and Exit-> Create new directory: C:\cvavr\led-> Save: led .c ->Save: led.prj->Save: led.cwp 7. Edit the C source code 8. View or Modify the Project Configuration by selecting Project->Configure-> After Make->Program the Chip 9. Compile the program by selecting: Project->Make 10. Automatically program the AT90S8515 chip on the STK500 starter kit: Apply power>Information->Program. AVR Chip Programmer Type: STK500-> Specify Directory: C:\Program Files\Atmel\AVR Studio\STK500->

ATMEGA8515 FEATURES:
High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit Microcontroller RISC Architecture

130 Powerful Instructions Most Single Clock Cycle Execution 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers Fully Static Operation Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier Nonvolatile Program and Data Memories 8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash Endurance: 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock bits In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation 512 Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles 512 Bytes Internal SRAM Up to 64K Bytes Optional External Memory Space Programming Lock for Software Security Peripheral Features One 8-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture Mode Three PWM Channels Programmable Serial USART Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator On-chip Analog Comparator Special Microcontroller Features Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator External and Internal Interrupt Sources Three Sleep Modes: Idle, Power-down and Standby

I/O and Packages 35 Programmable I/O Lines 40-pin PDIP, 44-lead TQFP, 44-lead PLCC, and 44-pad QFN/MLF Operating Voltages 2.7 - 5.5V for ATmega8515L 4.5 - 5.5V for ATmega8515 Speed Grades 0 - 8 MHz for ATmega8515L 0 - 16 MHz for ATmega8515

Pin Configurations

OVERVIEW:
The ATmega8515 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock

cycle, the ATmega8515 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction

executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. The ATmega8515 provides the following features: 8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes EEPROM, 512 bytes SRAM, an External memory interface, 35 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, two flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, Internal and External interrupts, a Serial Programmable USART, a programmable Watchdog Timer with internal Oscillator, a SPI serial port, and three software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and Interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the Register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption. The device is manufactured using Atmels high density nonvolatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash allows the Program memory to be reprogrammed InSystem through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By combining an 8bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega8515 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications. The ATmega8515 is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools including: C Compilers, Macro assemblers, Program debugger/simulators, In-circuit Emulators, and Evaluation kits. Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized.

PIN DESCRIPTIONS: VCC:


Digital supply voltage

GND:
Ground

Port A (PA7...PA0):
Port A is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The PortA pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

Port B (PB7...PB0):
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

Port C (PC7...PC0):
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

Port D (PD7...PD0):

Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

Port E (PE2...PE0):
Port E is a 3-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port E output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port E pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port E pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.

RESET Bar:
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 18 on page 46. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.

XTAL1:
Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2:
Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier

TS 601 INTRODUCTION OF TS601:

NT-TS601 Using a non-contact ultrasonic measurement techniques as a module, about 2cm less and more than 3.3m Accurately measure the distance of objects and can be. TS601 of a single I / O pin to use the connection because the micro-controller and the robot easily, Industry and can be used to measure the distance.

FEATURES:
Distance measurement range of about 2 cm ~ 3.3 m Measurement tolerance: 2 cm Ongoing response time: 20 ms minimum per

In a narrow range of ultrasound can measure the precise distance. One I / O pin interface by the way, bi-directional TTL pulse 5V TTL can be connected to the microcontroller. Input trigger: Positive TTL pulse / typical l5 s Output pulse: Positive TTL pulse / min up to 110 s ~ 19.0 ms

PIN CONNECTIONS OF SENSOR:


TS601 with a male 3-header pin is configured. GND - ground Vcc - +5 VDC SIG - signal I / O pin Regular 2.54 mm (100 mil) to the pin spacing you can easily connect to the board. MCU I / O pin, and between NT-TS601 SIG pin 1k ~ 10 k resistor is recommended to be enclosed.

SENSOR SPECIFICATIONS:
Measurement Principle: Ultrasonic Detection Application: Distance Measuring Input Power: +5 VDC Input current: 15 mA Sensor frequency: 40 kHz Operating Temperature: 0 ~ 70 Weight: 13g Size: 25 mm (H) x 50 mm (W) x 17.5 mm (D) image: 3-pin SIP (single in-line package)

SENSOR WORKING:
The minimum distance measured 2cm. First, the output pin of the MCU pins SIG of the TS601 Input trigger pulse (t1) will send you. TS601 Input trigger pulse of the SIG pin receiving TS601 in TX pin of the ultrasonic sensor Burst pulse is generated to 40 kHz. Output echo pulse until the Echo postpones (t2) and wait. Burst pulse is reflected in the body until it is checked Output echo pulse. MCU Output echo pulse width of the input received may be represented by measuring the distance. In order to measure again after waiting a minimum of 200 s or send Input trigger pulse.

Input trigger pulse t1 - 5 s

Output
Echo postpone t2 500 - 520 s Output echo pulse MIN. t3 110 - 140 s Output echo pulse MAX. t4 1.90 - 19.0 ms Burst pulse cycle t5 - 25 s

CONSIDERATIONS FOR USING THE SENSOR:


In the case of NT-TS601 down the street will not be measured. If at least closer than 2 cm (an arbitrary value, recognition) If you have far more than the maximum 3.3 m (3.3m recognized) a small angle of ultrasonic sensors on the surface is reflected toward the reflection does not a very small object that is not reflective of the ultrasound TS601 is located on the bottom of the case

OBJECT OF THE MATERIAL:


Sound absorbing materials and objects such as cotton is erratic enough to find the wave are not reflected. Outside or big the error of distance measurement in the natural environment can be high. Atmospheric temperature and Velocity is affected by the temperature of the atmosphere. Temperature of the atmosphere, if you know T expression Sonic velocity V = (331.5 + 0.60714 T) [m / s] Of the sensor's operating range of 0 to 70 error represents approximately 11-12%. Ambient temperature Speed of sound varies by the distance to the high precision measurement is needed if the temperature compensation.

THE APPLICATION OF THE PRODUCT:


The formula for the distance between objects Distance to object (D) [m] = velocity (V) [m / s] x hours (t) [s] = (331.5 + 0.60714 T) x (t / 2) Output echo pulse went the distance and coming back by time, so Output echo pulse of the actual distance is half of the time. Above, the distance between objects using the expression can be obtained. Port D of the signal measured using the 3 pin has an external interrupt. Reference temperature 25 degrees when the temperature of the environment, based on specific work will be requested to change the temperature value.

TRANSISTOR AS A SWITCH
The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and its presence is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Because a transistor's collector current is proportionally limited by its base current, it can be used as a sort of current-controlled switch. A relatively small flow of electrons sent through the base of the transistor has the ability to exert control over a much larger flow of electrons through the collector. When used as an AC signal amplifier, the transistors Base biasing voltage is applied so that it operates within its "Active" region and the linear part of the output characteristics curves are used. However, both the NPN & PNP type bipolar transistors can be made to operate as an "ON/OFF" type solid state switch for controlling high power devices such as motors, solenoids or lamps. If the circuit uses the Transistor as a Switch, then the biasing is arranged to operate in the output characteristics curves seen previously in the areas known as the "Saturation" and "Cut-off" regions as shown below.

TRANSISTOR CURVES:

The shaded area at the bottom represents the "Cut-off" region. Here the operating conditions of the transistor are zero input base current (Ib), zero output collector current (Ic) and maximum collector voltage (Vce) which results in a large depletion layer and no current flows through the device. The transistor is switched "Fully-OFF". The lighter blue area to the left represents the "Saturation" region. Here the transistor will be biased so that the maximum amount of base current is applied, resulting in maximum collector current flow and minimum collector emitter voltage which results in the depletion layer being as small as possible and maximum current flows through the device. The transistor is switched "Fully-ON". Then we can summarize this as: Cut-off Region: Both junctions are Reverse-biased, Base current is zero or very Saturation Region: Both junctions are Forward-biased, Base current is high

small resulting in zero Collector current flowing, the device is switched fully "OFF". enough to give a Collector-Emitter voltage of 0v resulting in maximum Collector current flowing, the device is switched fully "ON".

TRANSISTOR SWITCHING CIRCUIT:

An NPN Transistor as a switch being used to operate a relay is given above. With inductive loads such as relays or solenoids a flywheel diode is placed across the load to dissipate the back EMF generated by the inductive load when the transistor switches "OFF" and so protect the transistor from damage. If the load is of a very high current or voltage nature, such as motors, heaters etc, then the load current can be controlled via a suitable relay as shown. The circuit resembles that of the Common Emitter circuit we looked at in the previous tutorials. The difference this time is that to operate the transistor as a switch the transistor needs to be turned either fully "OFF" (Cut-off) or fully "ON" (Saturated). An ideal transistor switch would have an infinite resistance when turned "OFF" resulting in zero current flow and zero resistance when turned "ON", resulting in maximum current flow. In practice when turned "OFF", small leakage currents flow through the transistor and when fully "ON" the device has a low resistance value causing a small saturation voltage (Vce) across it. In both the Cut-off and Saturation regions the power dissipated by the transistor is at its minimum. To make the Base current flow, the Base input terminal must be made more positive than the Emitter by increasing it above the 0.7 volts needed for a silicon device. By varying the Base-Emitter voltage Vbe, the Base current is altered and which in turn controls the amount of Collector current flowing through the transistor as previously discussed. When maximum Collector current flows the transistor is said to be saturated. The value of the Base resistor determines how much input voltage is required and corresponding Base current to switch the transistor fully "ON". Transistor switches are used for a wide variety of applications such as interfacing large current or high voltage devices like motors, relays or lamps to low voltage digital logic IC's or gates like AND Gates or OR Gates.

BUZZER
Sound is simply a wave of varying air pressure. These pressure waves cause a thin membrane in the ear to vibrate and the brain interprets these vibrations as sound. A decibel (dB) scale is used to describe the sound pressure level (SPL) or loudness of a sound. In general, man's audible frequency range is about 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Frequency ranges of 2 kHz to 4 kHz are most easily heard. For this reason, most piezoelectric sound components are used in this frequency range, and the resonant frequency (f0) is generally selected in the same range too. Piezoelectric sound components are used in many ways such as home appliances, OA equipment, audio equipment telephones, etc. And they are applied widely, for example, in alarms, speakers, telephone ringers, receivers, transmitters, beep sounds, etc.

BUZZER:

The sound source of a piezoelectric sound component is the piezoelectric diaphragm. The piezoelectric diaphragm (bender plate) consists of a piezoelectric ceramic plate, with electrodes on both sides, attached to a metal plate (brass, stainless steel etc) with conductive adhesive. Figure below shows the construction diagram of a piezoelectric diaphragm.

The sound is created from the movement of the metal plate. Applying a D.C. voltage between electrodes of the piezoelectric diaphragm causes mechanical distortion due to the piezoelectric effect. The distortion of the piezoelectric ceramic plate expands in the radial direction causing the metal plate to bend shown in Figure below.

Extended Reversing the polarity of the D.C. voltage cause the ceramic plate to shrink, bending the metal plate in the opposite direction, shown in Figure below. When an A.C.

voltage is applied across the electrodes, the diaphragm alternates bending in the two directions. The repeated bending motion produces sound waves in the air.

Shrunk

AC Voltage Applied There are two ways to drive piezoelectric sound components: ExternalDrive and Self-Drive.

EXTERNAL DRIVE:
This drive method is typically used with edge mounted devices and uses an external oscillating circuit to produce sound. In this way the device can act as a speaker and produce frequencies over a specific bandwidth. This type of drive method is used when multiple tones are desired. Externally driven devices have found extensive use in watches, calculators, game machines, as well as appliances like microwave ovens, washing machines, and TVs.

SELF DRIVE:
This method is used with node mounted devices. The diaphragm has a feedback tab on one of the electrodes that is used in closed loop Hartley types of oscillation circuits. When the circuit is closed to the resonant frequency, the conditions for oscillation are met and the diaphragm produces a single high-pressure tone. This type of drive procedure will produce only one tone but will have the highest SPL possible from the buzzer.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
Driving Waveform: The piezo elements may be driven with sinusoidal, pulsed, or square waves. A sine wave will cause the device to operate at a frequency lower than the resonant frequency with a lower SPL. This is due to the loss of energy through the lag time between peak deflections. A square wave will produce higher sound levels because of the near instantaneous rise and fall time. Clipping of sinusoidal waveforms can result in frequency instability and pulse and square

waves will cause an increase in harmonic levels. A capacitor in parallel with the diaphragm can reduce the harmonics. DC Precautions: Subjecting the ceramic elements to direct current can cause them to depolarize and stop working. For this reason, it is best to drive the buzzers with an A.C. signal that has a zero D.C. bias. Blocking capacitors are recommended to prevent a bias. High Voltage Precautions: Voltages higher than those recommended can cause permanent damage to the ceramic even if applied for short durations. Significantly higher sound pressure levels will not be achieved by higher voltages before permanent damage is caused. Shock: Mechanical impact on piezoelectric devices can generate high voltages that can seriously damage drive circuitry, therefore, diode protection is recommended. SPL Control: It is not recommended to place a resistor in series with the power source since this may cause abnormal oscillation. If a resistor is essential in order to adjust the sound pressure then place a capacitor (about 1F) in parallel with the buzzer.

ISP PROGRAMMER
In-System Programming (abbreviated ISP) is the ability of some programmable logic devices, microcontrollers, and other programmable electronic chips to be programmed while installed in a complete system, rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior to installing it into the system. Otherwise, In-system programming means that the program and/or data memory can be modified without disassembling the embedded system to physically replace memory. The primary advantage of this feature is that it allows manufacturers of electronic devices to integrate programming and testing into a single production phase, rather than requiring a separate programming stage prior to assembling the system. This may allow manufacturers to program the chips in their own system's production line instead of buying preprogrammed chips from a manufacturer or distributor, making it feasible to apply code or design changes in the middle of a production run. ISP (In System Programming) will provide a simple and affordable home made solution to program and debug your microcontroller based project. Normally, the flash memory of an ATMEL microcontroller is programmed using a parallel interface, which consists of sending the data byte by byte (using 8 independent lines for the data, and another bunch of lines for the address, the control word and clock input). Many members of the Maxim 8051-based microcontroller family support in-system programming via a commonly available RS-232 serial interface. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output) and the RST pin, which is normally used to reset the device. ISP is performed using only 4 lines, and literally, data is transferred through 2 lines only, as in a I2C interface, where data is shifted in bit by bit though MOSI line, with a clock cycle between each bit and the next (on the SCK line). MISO line is used

for reading and for code verification; it is only used to output the code from the FLASH memory of the microcontroller. The RST pin is also used to enable the 3 pins (MOSI, MISO and SCK) to be used for ISP simply by setting RST to HIGH (5V), otherwise if RST is low (0V), program start running and those three pins, are used normally as P1.5, P1.6 and P1.7. After RST is set high, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be executed first before other operations can be executed. Before a reprogramming sequence can occur, a Chip Erase operation is required. The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every memory location in the Code array into FFH. Either an external system clock can be supplied at pin XTAL1 or a crystal needs to be connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The maximum serial clock (SCK) frequency should be less than 1/16 of the crystal frequency. With a 33 MHz oscillator clock, the maximum SCK frequency is 2 MHz.

0 . 1 U F / 3 5 1V 0 0 K

GND

G N D V 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 9 2 8 2 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 C O N 3 5 2 4 1 3 0 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 G N D 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 G I O I O I O I O 0G A 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 N 7 V G O I O I 0 I O I 4 H C B 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 C C2 1 A1 B1 A1 B1 A1 B1 A1 B1 2 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 4 C C

A B A B A B A B D

1 3 5 7 9

2 4 6 8 1

G N D

In the above figure we can see the ISP programmer connections using 74ls244

DB-25 Male pin description:

Pin no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Name GND TXD RXD RTS CTS DSR GND CD ---

Direction

Pin Description Shield Ground Transmit Data Receive Data Request to Send Clear to Send Data Set Ready System Ground Carrier Detect Reserved

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

--STF S.CD S.CTS S.TXD TCK S.RXD RCK LL S.RTS DTR RL RI DSR XCK TI

Reserved Select Transmit Channel Secondary Carrier Detect Secondary Clear to Send Secondary Transmit Data Transmission Signal Element Timing Secondary Receive Data Receiver Signal Element Timing Local Loop Control Secondary Request to Send Data terminal Ready Remote Loop Control Ring Indicator Data Signal Rate Selector Transmit Signal Element Timing Test Indicator

74LS244:
The 74LS244 is used to work between PRINT ports to the chips AT89S52. We cannot observe 74LS244 on the PCB which is AT89S52 located. It hid in the joint between PC and 6 transmission lines. The 74LS244 pin configuration, logic diagram, connection and function table is on the below.

EXAMPLE: CONNECTING THE PROGRAMMER TO AN AT89S52

AT89S8252 microcontroller features an SPI port, through which on-chip Flash memory and EEPROM may be programmed. To program the microcontroller, RST is held high while commands, addresses and data are applied to the SPI port.

ATMEL ISP FLASH PROGRAMMER:


This is the software that will take the HEX file generated by whatever compiler you are using, and send it - with respect to the very specific ISP transfer protocol - to the microcontroller. This programmer was designed in view of to be flexible, economical and easy to built, the programmer hardware uses the standard TTL series parts and no special components are used. The programmer is interfaced with the PC parallel port and there is

no special requirement for the PC parallel port, so the older computers can also be used with this programmer.

SUPPORTED DEVICES:
The programmer software presently supports the following devices AT89C51 AT89C2051 AT89S8252 AT89S51 D87C52 AT89C51RC AT89C1051 AT89C55 UD87C51 AT89S53 AT89C52 AT89C4051 AT89S52 AT89C55WD

Note: For 20 pin devices a simple interface adapter is required. The ISP-3v0.zip file contains the main program and the I/O port driver for Windows 2000 & XP. Place all files in the same folder, for win-95/98 use the "ISPPgm3v0.exe"File, for win-2000 & XP use the "ISP-XP.bat" file. The main screen view of the program is shown in fig below.

Following are the main features of this software:

Read and write the Intel Hex file Read signature, lock and fuse bits Clear and Fill memory buffer Verify with memory buffer Reload current Hex file Display buffer checksum Program selected lock bits & fuses Auto detection of hardware The memory buffer contains both the code data and the EEPROM data for the devices which have EEPROM memory. The EEPROM memory address in buffer is started after the code memory, so it is necessary the hex file should contains the EEPROM start address after the end of code memory last address. i.e., for 90S2313 the start address for EEPROM memory is 0 x 800. The software does not provide the erase command because this function is performed automatically during device programming. If you are required to erase the controller, first use the clear buffer command then program the controller, this will erase the controller and also set the device to default setting.

ISP PROGRAMMER PICTURE:

CODING

/** COMPILER DIRECTIVES **/ #include<mega8515.h> #include<delay.h> /**LCD PIN DEFINITIONS**/ #define lcd PORTA #define rs PORTA.1 #define en PORTA.3 #define SIG PIND.2 #define SIG1 PORTD.2 #define buzzer PORTC.1 /**LCD FUNCTIONS DECLARATIONS**/ void init(); void lcdcmd(unsigned char); void lcddata(unsigned char); void str(char flash *); void lcdint(unsigned int); /** VARIABLE DECLARATIONS **/ float dist; bit flag=0; unsigned char counter; // External Interrupt 0 service routine interrupt [EXT_INT0] void ext_int0_isr(void) { flag=1; } //its only for i/P we ll give PIN //for O/P we ll give PORT

// Timer 1 overflow interrupt service routine interrupt [TIM1_OVF] void timer1_ovf_isr(void) { counter++; } /** MAIN FUNCTION **/ void main(void) { unsigned long int cnt,i; float result; PORTA=0x00; DDRA=0XFF; DDRB.1=0; DDRD.2=0; DDRC=0xFF; PORTC.1 = 0; init(); lcdcmd(0x80); lcdcmd(0xC0); str("DISTANCE MEASURE"); delay_ms(1000); while(1) { buzzer = 0; //LCD INITILIZATION FUNCTION CALLING //IST LINE DISPLAY //DISPLAY STRING //2ND LINE DISPLAY //DISPLAY STRING //initially we put on 0 //for O/P DDR put into high // initial value for timer1 // initial value for interrupt

str("ULTRASONIC BASED");

TIMSK=0x80; GICR|=0x40; MCUCR=0x03; EMCUCR=0x00; //INT1: Off GIFR=0x40; //INT2: Off //INT0: On //INT0 Mode: Rising Edge

// Global enable interrupts #asm("sei") DDRD.2=1; SIG1=0; delay_us(250); delay_us(250); SIG1=1; delay_us(5); SIG1=0; delay_us(195); 195 DDRD.2=0; give distance to uc TCNT1=0; cnt=0; counter=0; while(!SIG); TCCR1B=1; //we have to wait up to sig=1 after it comes out of loop //count intialization as a zero //Again we are going to change D2 pin as a i/p for we have to //SIG1 high //give delay 5us //SIG1 low //ll wait upto 200us after SIG goes to high for that give delay //SIG1 acts as a O/P when DDRD=1 //SIG1 low //give delay 500us

while(SIG); TCCR1B=0x00;

// when SIG=1 it enters into loop

cnt = TCNT1 + (counter)*65536; result=(((float)cnt*0.125)/20000.0);

dist=(349.7142*result); lcdcmd(0x01); lcdcmd(0x80); str("OBJECT DISTANCE:"); lcdcmd(0XC0); lcdint(dist); str("."); lcdint((dist-(int)dist)*10); str(" cm"); if(dist>150) { for(i=0;i<3;i++) { buzzer = 1; delay_ms(300); buzzer = 0; delay_ms(300); } } delay_ms(1000); } } /** INTEGER LCD FUNCTION **/

void lcdint(unsigned int x) { unsigned int i=0,a[5],c=0; if(x!=0) { while(x>0) { a[i++]=x%10; x=x/10; c++; } for(;c>0;--c) { lcddata(a[c-1]+0x30); } } else lcddata('0'); }

/**LCD INITILIZATION FUNCTION DEFINITION**/ void init() { lcdcmd(0x28); lcdcmd(0x28); lcdcmd(0x0C); lcdcmd(0x06); lcdcmd(0x01); } //4BIT-MODE //DISPLAY ON CURSOR OFF //SHIFT CURSOR TO RIGHT //CLEAR THE SCREEN

/**LCD COMMAND FUNCTION**/ void lcdcmd(unsigned char var) { lcd = ((var & 0xF0) | 0x08); //RS=0,RW=0 lcd = 0; lcd = ((var << 4) | 0x08); lcd = 0; delay_ms(1); } /**LCD DATA FUNCTION**/ void lcddata(unsigned char var) { lcd = ((var & 0xF0) | 0x0a); //RS=1,RW=0 lcd = 0; lcd = ((var << 4) | 0x0a); lcd = 0; delay_ms(1); } /**LCD STRING FUNCTION**/ void str(char flash *p) { while(*p) lcddata(*p++); } //RS=1,RW=0 //RS=0,RW=0

BIBLIOGRAPHY TEXT BOOKS REFERED:


1. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems by Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Pearson Education. 2. 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, programming and application by KENNETH JAYALA 3. ATMEL 89s52 Data sheets 4. Hand book for Digital ICs from Analogic Devices

WEBSITES VIEWED:
www.atmel.com www.beyondlogic.org www.dallassemiconductors.com www.maxim-ic.com www.alldatasheets.com www.howstuffworks.com www.digi.com www.wikipedia.com