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Following Reconstruction, many southern leaders promoted the idea of a New South.

To what extent was this New South a reality by the time of the First World War? In your answer be sure to address TWO of the following. Economic development Politics Race relations

Economic Development: A. Industrial Development 1. Railroads connected the South to national markets but charged higher rates for transport of manufactured goods than raw materials moving from South to North i. Integrated rail network was established throughout the South. ii. Andrew Carnegie got railroads to charge higher freight rates through Pittsburgh plus pricing system that charged Birmingham steel an extra fee. 2. Steel and iron in Birmingham Alabama i. U.S. Steel bought out many Birmingham iron businesses 3. Memphis, Tennessee: lumber industry 4. Richmond: tobacco industry

B. Cotton Industry 1. Move the mill to the cotton (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama) August, Georgia called the Lowell of the South. 2. Textile workers were white and paid poorly. C. Freedmen 1. some opportunities for African Americans: railroads, construction, mines, iron and steel, tobacco factories 2. but workplaces were rigidly segregated or blacks had menial jobs 3. Poor blacks and whites: sharecropping, tenant farming, crop lien system 4. Some black farmers got land but less so in Deep South. D. Agriculture 1. growing cotton

E. Continued Poverty 1. wages in industries were low for blacks and whites 2. lowest paid coworkers were children 3. SOUTH STILL DEPENDENT ON NORTH FOR CAPITAL AND MANUFACTURED GOODS 4. northern financing dominated much of the southern economy

5. northern investors controlled three-quarters of the southern railroads 6. Reasons: THE SOUTHS LATE START AT INDUSTRIALIZATION, A POORLY EDUCATED WORKFORCE 7. failed to invest in technical and engineering schools as did the north

Race Relations 1) Redeemers dominated: white supremacy and business community 2) separating or segregating public facilities for blacks and whites as a means of treating African Americans as social inferiors 3) Civil Rights Cases of 1883: Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens: railroads, hotels, and other business in public. 4) 1896 Plessey v. Ferguson: the Supreme Court upheld a Louisiana law requiring separate but equal accommodations 5) Jim Crow laws: segregation laws: separated washrooms, drinking fountains, park benches 6) poll taxes, political party primaries for whites, grandfather clauses, 7) Cumming vs. Richmond County Board of Education 1899: Supreme Court upheld separate schools for blacks and whites 8) Ku Klux Klan 9) Lynching

1) Federal laws protected southern blacks from discriminatory acts by local and state governments. (13, 14, 15 Amendments) 2) saws a growth of black middle class: teachers, physicians, lawyers, nurses, working in banks and insurance companies 3) Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois