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Single phase Induction Motor

Introduction
What is single phase induction motors?
is an induction motor having a squirrel cage rotor and a single phase stator winding.

Working Principle
Suppose the rotor is at rest and a single phase supply is given to the stator winding. Now the current flowing in the stator winding will produce a m.m.f with in the stator and this m.m.f induces a current in the rotor. Again the induced current inside the rotor will produce a m.m.f with in the rotor itself which is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction with the stator m.m.f. Thus the two m.m.f cancel out each other and as a result there will be no net torque acting on the rotor. There for the rotor will stay at rest. So due to this effect, we have to find another method to start the motor.

Types of Single Phase Induction Motors


Depending on the method used to start the motor : 1) Capacitor-start motors

2) Capacitor-run motors
3) Capacitor start-and run motors 4) Shaded-pole motors

1) Capacitor-Start phase induction motor


A capacitor-Start motor is a spilt phase induction motor with a starting capacitor inserted in series with the start winding creating an LC Circuit which is capable of producing a much greater torque. An Lc circuit refers to a circuit containing an inductor w/c connected together they can act as an electrical resonator w/c stores electrical energy.

Working Principle of single phase capacitor-start motor


In capacitor-start motors the capacitor enables the motor to handle heavy start loads by increasing the strength of the magnetic field created by the windings. The capacitor is individually mounted outside of the motor as a separate unit either on the top or side of the motor with a centrifugal switch located between the capacitor and the start winding. The switch connects the capacitor with the motor at startup and disconnects them when the motor has reached about 75% of its operating speed. And during startup period when the centrifugal switch is closed, capacitor-start motors typically deliver from 250-350% of the full load torque.

Equivalent circuit of capacitor-start motors

Types of single phase capacitor-start motor


Among this the basic types include:A) Single voltage externally reversible B) Single voltage non reversible

Applications of single phase capacitor-start motors


Capacitor-start from high torque (>175% full load) are used: Operation having high starting loads such as: - Elevators - Compressors & - Refrigerators

Capacitor-start moderate torque (<175% full load) are used: Operation having low starting loads such as:- Fans - Blowers & - Small pumps.

2) Capacitor run motors


Capacitor-run motors are motors having a capacitor connected in series with the start winding in order to increase the running efficiency. Capacitor-run motors use run-capacitors that are designed for continuous duty which are energized the entire time during operation of the motor.

Working principle of single phase capacitor-run motors


In capacitor-run motors, a run-capacitor is connected to the start winding of the motor and it constantly energizes the start winding while the motor is running. And this creates a 90o phase change between the start winding current and the run winding current making a two phase motor. As a result a rotating magnetic field is created within the motor which causes the rotor to rotate more efficiently.

Advantages and disadvantages of capacitor-run motors


Advantages
The capacitor remains in the circuit at all times thus no centrifugal switch is required. They can be designed to have low vibration and less noise under full load condition. If properly designed, they are more efficient than other type of motors.

Disadvantages
Since capacitor start motors have low starting torque they cannot be used in applications with severe starting conditions.

Application of single phase capacitorrun motors


are mainly used for applications requiring low starting torque and high efficiency such as:- Small compressors,
Pumps & Fans.

3) Capacitor start-and-run motors


Capacitor-start-and-run motors or permanentsplit capacitor motors are single phase induction motors having
capacitors connected in the circuit during both the starting and the running period. In this type of motors both the start winding and the run windings are permanently connected to the power source through a capacitor at all times.

Types of single phase capacitor startand-run motors


Depending on the number of capacitors used: 1. Single value capacitor start-and-run motors:

2. Two value capacitor start-and-run motors


The two values of capacitance can be obtained using two different methods. a. By using two capacitors in parallel b. By using a step up transformer

Advantage
Ability to start heavy loads Ability to develop 25% overload capacity Higher efficiency and power factor Extremely quiet operation

Applications of single phase capacitor start-and-run motors


Two value capacitor start and run motors are

frequently used in applications requiring variable speed such as : Air handlers, Blowers and Fanes.

Single value capacitor start-and-run motors are used in applications requiring low starting torque such as: Fans Blowers & Voltage regulators.

4) Shaded pole motors


A shaded pole motor is a single phase induction motor having one or more short circuited windings acting only on a portion of the magnetic circuit. Generally the winding is a closed copper ring embedded in the face of the pole together known as the shaded pole which provides the required rotating field for starting purpose.

Working principles of single phase shaded pole motors

Now when an alternating current is passed through the field or main winding surrounding the whole pole, the magnetic axis of the pole shifts from the unshaded part to the shaded part. which is analogous with the actual physical movement of the pole. As a result the rotor starts rotating in the direction of this shift from the unshaded part to the shaded part.

Advantages and disadvantages of single phase shaded pole motors


Advantages
Simple in construction Tough surface Reliable and cheap

Disadvantages
Low starting torque Very little overload capacity Low efficiency (5% for tiny sizes 35% for higher ratings)

Applications of single phase shadedpole motors


Because of its low starting torque, the shaded pole motor is generally used for Small fans, Toys, Hairdryers, Ventilators etc.

Generally when we construct single phase induction motors we must make sure we use appropriate capacitor. If a wrong capacitor is installed on a motor, the motor will not have equally distributed magnetic field and this will cause the rotor to hesitate at those spots with uneven magnetic field distribution and this causes:-Loud disturbing noise Increase in energy consumption Performance drop Overheat

Conclusion