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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Definition of automobile Encyclopedia Britannica online, Accessed April 18th, 2012 Primary Benz Carl, Lebensfahrt eines deutschen Erfinders Erinnerungen eines Achtzigjhrigen, Erstdruck: Leipzig (Koehler \ Amelang) 1925(German) http://www.zeno.org/Naturwissenschaften/M/Benz,+Carl+Friedrich, Accessed March 13th, 2012 Out of this autobiography I used several statements and pictures (Figure 19). Especially the comments, published in newspapers, show the public opinion about Benz idea and how the people reacted to his trips and test drives. It is stated that it was not easy for Benz to find buyer. Since this book was never published in English, my father helped me to translate the passages.

German Auf einmal aber kommt das Verhngnis in Gestalt der ersten Panne. Langsamer geht der Wagen, und jetzt? Richtig, regungslos bleibt er stehen. Der Lenker steigt ab, kniet nieder, bastelt und flickt. Die Menschen sammeln sich an, lcheln und lachen. Das Staunen und Bewundern schlgt um in Mitleid, Spott und Hohn. Wie hier beim ersten Male, so entspann sich bei jedem Steckenbleiben in der Stadt oder spter drauen in den Drfern eine Debatte vernichtendster Kritik. Eine Spielerei, die nichts ist und nichts wird, meinten die einen. Wie kann man sich in so einen unzuverlssigen, armseligen, lautlrmenden Maschinenkasten setzen, wo es doch genug Pferde gibt auf der Welt und die elegantesten Kutschen und Droschken obendrein, sagten die anderen. Schade um den Mann, meinten die Sachverstndigeren, er wird sich und sein Geschft ruinieren mit dieser verrckten Idee. Und ein treuherziger Berliner gab mir den wohlgemeinten Rat: Wenn ich einen solchen Stinkkasten htte, wrde ich zu Hause bleiben. Auch hat Benz einen Benzinwagen gebaut, welcher auf der Mnchener Ausstellung Aufsehen erregte. Diese Anwendung der Benzinmaschine drfte indessen ebensowenig zukunftsreich sein, wie die des Dampfes auf die Fortbewegung von Straenfuhrwerken.

English Suddenly the calamity comes in the form of the first 'breakdown'. The car goes slower, and then? Right, he stops motionless. The driver descends, kneels down, tinkers and repairs. Folks are gathering, smiling and laughing. The astonishment and admiration is changing into pity, mockery and scorn. Like the first time, a debate of most destroying criticism is starting. This happened in the city and also later outside in the villages. 'A gadget which is of no relevance and never will be anything' are the thoughts of some. 'How can one put himself into such an unreliable, poor, loud, noisy machine, when there are enough horses in the world and the most elegant carriages and cabs?' ... 'What a shame for this man' and the more practical thought: 'He will ruin himself and his business.' A citizen of Berlin gave me a piece of good advice: 'If I would have such a stinky box, I would stay at home."

Also Benz built a gasoline car, which caused a sensation at the Munich exhibition. This application of a gasoline machine might have no more future than those road carts propelled by steam.

Als bei den Versuchsfahrten von der Fabrik an der Waldhoffstrasse aus verschiedene Pferde durchgingen und die Behrden davon Kenntnis erhielten wurde das Herrenfuhrwerk verboten und die Gendarmerie beauftragt, vor dem Fabriktor Wache zu halten, damit wir nicht mehr herausfahren knnten. Wohin ich komme - Allgemeines staunen und bewundern, berall wird der Kraftwagen zum sensationellem Ereignis, aber ein Kufer findet sich nicht im weitem deutschen Vaterland

During the trail trips, starting at the factory in the Waldhofstrasse, some horses bolted the authorities were notified. The car was forbidden and a constable was assigned to stand guard in front of the factory gate, so that we could not drive out. Where ever I go everywhere the motor wagon is admired and creates astonishment and it is a sensational event, but a buyer is not present in the entire German fatherland.

Benz, Carl. German patent. Fahrzeug mit Gasmotorenbetrieb Januar 29th, 1886 (German) Figure (12) http://www.dreiss.de , Accessed February 3rd, 2012 The patent shows the description of the automobile and since it was granted to Benz this is evidence that he was the first who published his idea.

Benz, Carl U.S. Patent Self Propelling Vehicle June 26th, 1888 (English) Figure (14) http://www.google.com/patents/US385087 , Accessed February 3rd, 2012 This document is evidence that Benz was the first who published his idea of a self propelling vehicle in the U.S.

Benz, Carl Patent Pivot Steurung DRP Nr. 73515 Figure (23) http://www.benzinsider.com/2008/02/day-in-historycarl-benz-and-his-double-pivot-steering/, Accessed February, 3rd, 2012

Benz, Carl: A New Bicycle 1867, German History in Documents and Images (English / German), Source: Lebensfahrt eines deutschen Erfinders Erinnerungen eines Achtzigjhrigen, translated by Erwin Fink http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/113_Benz_New%20Bicycle_13.pdf , Accessed March 13th, 2012 Tells about how Benz hung on to his idea of a self propelling vehicle and that he was inspired by bicycles.

Siebert, Paul. Ein Pionier der Verkehrsmotorisierung J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, Mnchen - Berlin 1943 (German) Abundance of information are in this book. It tells about the whole life of Carl Benz. I scanned several pictures and tables and used them in the website. The newspaper article about the exhibition in Munich and the drives in the city were translated with the help of my father Martin Schuerfeld. My Grandfather transcribed the letter, written by Bertha Benz, which I translated. o Post Card Bertha Benz (28) o Drive through Munich (29) o Sales per year (30)

Daimler Chrysler AG, Stuttgart. Benz Patent Motor Car No.1 1886 The Birth of the Automobile (English) COM/CL 1676-0012*02-01/12030 http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/24-681/handouts/mesh-based%20modeling/first-car.pdf, Accessed March 3rd, 2012 This source contains a translation of the newspaper article, which was published one day after Benz made one of his test drives. This counted as the first public record of the new invention. This paper shows also how Benz was driven to have a functional vehicle when he applied for the patent.

Berkebile Don H. The 1893 Duryea Automobile In the Museum of History and Technology, www.gutenberg.org, Accessed February 23rd , 2012 o Engine and Flywheel (15) From Karl Benz und sein Lebenswerk, Stuttgart, 1953, (Daimler-Benz Company publication) o Phantom Illustration of Benz First Automobile (16) From Carl Benz, Father of the Automobile Industry, by L. M. Fanning, New York, 1955 o Patent Drawing (17)

Secondary Internet Bertha Benz Memorial Route (German) http://www.bertha-benz.de/index.php?inhalt=home , Accessed February 10th, 2012 I used this site to get information on Bertha Benzs car ride from Pforzheim to Mannheim and her involvement in the history in the company of her husband. Books Hug, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Joachim; Krautkrmer Geschichtliche Weltkunde Band 3 Von der Zeit des Imperalismus bis zur Gegenwart Verlag Diesterweg Frankfurt am Main - Berlin Mnchen 1979 ISBN 3-425-03313-1 (German) In this German school book I found the information about the salary of people in the late nineteen century.

Images Daimler Benz AG, Stuttagart o Benz Motorwagen (1) www.mercedes-benz.de, Accessed January 2nd, 2012 Greece terracotta model of a wagon (2) http://www.greek-thesaurus.gr/athens-museum-general-collection.html, Accessed January 2nd, 2012 Bridgeman Art Library Steam engine (3) http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Steam-Powered-Car-Invented-by-NicolasJoseph-Cugnot-Posters_i4051828_.htm, Accessed January 2nd, 2012

Post stamp 75 years of Otto engine. (4) Deutsche Bundes-Post 1950 http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:DBP_1952_150_Otto.jpg&filetimestamp=20080804232503 , Accessed January 3rd, 2012

4-stroke engine (5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:4StrokeEngine_Ortho_3D_Small.gif, Accessed January 3rd, 2012

Auction Team Brecker, Otto Engine (6) http://www.breker.com, Accessed January 3rd, 2012 Automuseum Ladenburg ,Carl Benz (7) http://www.automuseum-ladenburg.de/ , Accessed January 3rd, 2012 Mercedes Blog, Benz Motorwagen (8) http://mercedesbenzblogphotodb.wordpress.com/ , Accessed January 3rd, 2012

Springer Vieweg, Carl Benz (9) http://www.atzonline.de, Accessed February 12th, 2012 Bertha Benz Memorial Route, Berta Benz (10) http://www.bertha-benz.de/index.php?inhalt=home, Accessed February 10th, 2012

Car Magazine Carl Benz & Co. Factory (11) http://www.car-magazine4u.blogspot.com, Accessed January 5th, 2012

Daimler Benz AG Benz Stuttagrt http://et.mercedes-benz-clubs.com/mediawiki/index.php/Hauptseite/en, Accessed January 13th, 2012 o Patent Motorwagen (13) o Patent Motorwagen (20) o Patent Motorwagen Model 3 (21) o Benz Victoria (22) o Benz Velo (24) o Concept car (31)

Virtual 3D-CAD Model (18)http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/benz-patent-motorwagen-motor-enginemax/619784, Accessed January 13th, 2012

Schuerfeld, Jonas, Comic strip (25). Karl Benz Museum Ladenburg Hellweger Anzeiger Newspaper online Advertisement Patent Motorwagen (26) http://www.hellwegeranzeiger.de, Accessed February 20th, 2012

Mercedes Blog, Pharmacy (27) http://mercedes-benz-blog.blogspot.com/2008/06/bertha-benz-and-worlds-firstlong.html Accessed March 9th, 2012

Golden, David, (Getty) Lot of new cars (27) http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/gallery/2009/jan/16/unsoldcars?picture=341883529#/?picture=341884483&index=6, Accessed March 9th, 2012

Freyssenet, Michael: The start of a Second Automobile Revolution Corporate strategies and public policies in European Review of Industrial Economics and Policy online Graph Word production of cars (28) http://revel.unice.fr/eriep/index.html?id=3301, Accessed March 9th, 2012

Wikibooks Graph Cars per household (29) based on the data of: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Transportation_Deployment_Casebook/History_of_the_Automobile:_Ownership_per_H ousehold_in_U.S, Accessed March 9th, 2012

Smog L.A (30) http://www.engin.umich.edu/~cre/web_mod/la_basin/index.htm March 9th, 2012

Videos: Primary Sources Demonstration of a replica (5), http://www.mercedes-benz.tv/index.php, Accessed February 9th, 2012 Ford assembly line (4) http://sinsheim.technik-museum.de/de/de/ford-t-modell, Accessed February 9th, 2012

Secondary Sources: Replica of steam engine (1): http://www.youtube.com/user/PolypackInc?feature=watch, Accessed February 9th, 2012 Carl and Bertha (2): Benz on his automobile (4) Berthas ride to Pforzheim (6): http://www.mercedesbenz.tv/index.php (Carl und Bertha produced by ARD) , Accessed February 9th, 2012 Unesco http://www.mercedes-benz.tv/index.php, Accessed February 9th, 2012