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36 3, assume that two waves of light in air, of wavelength 400 nm, are initially in phase. One travels through a glass of layer of index of refraction n1= 1.6 and thickness L. The other travels through an equally thick plastic layer of index of refraction n2= 1.5. (a) What is the least value L should have if the waves are to end up with a phase difference of 5.65 rad? (b) If the waves arrive at some common point after emerging, what type of interference do they undergo? ssm

n2 Fig. 36-3 Two light rays travel through two media having different indexes of refraction. n1

Solution:

(a) The phase difference between two light waves can change if the waves travel through different materials having different indexes of refraction. It can be given by: ( ) Where k is the wave number and is the optical path difference between the two waves traveling in two media of thickness L and refractive index of n 1 and n2, respectively. Therefore, ( )( ( ) ) ( )

(b) The waves arrive at some common point after emerging, with a phase difference of 5.65 radians is equivalent to 0.8992 wavelength (1 wavelength=2 radian). Since 0.8992 wavelength is between 0.5 wavelength (for fully destructive interference) and 1.0 wavelength (for fully constructive interference), but closer to 1.0 wavelength. Thus, the waves would produce intermediate interference that is closer to fully constructive interference they would produce a relatively bright spot.

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9P. Two waves of light in air, of wavelength 600.0 nm, are initially in phase. They then travel through plastic layers as shown in Fig. 36-28, with L1 = 4.00 m, L2 = 3.50 m, n1 = 1.40, and n2 = 1.60. (a) In wavelengths, what is their phase difference after they both have emerged from the layers? (b) If the waves arrive at some common point, what type of interference do they L2 undergo? iiw Solution:

n2

(a) The light waves of 600 nm wavelength in air changes n1 when the waves travel through a material having different index of refraction. Fig. 36-28 Problem 9. L1 When the same waves travel through media of different thicknesses (L1 and L2) and indexes of refraction (n1 and n2), an optical path difference occurs which in turn results in a phase difference (shift) between the two emergent waves, given by: ( ( ) )

here, k is the wave number. Therefore, the phase difference after the light waves emerge from the layers will be: ( ) [( )( ) ( )( )

( )( )] The term ( )( ) is the optical path that the light has in air (n=1) outside medium of thickness L2. (b) The waves arrive at some common point after emerging, with a phase difference of 5.2339 radians is equivalent to 0.833 wavelength (1 wavelength=2 radian). Since 0.833 wavelength is between 0.5 wavelength (for fully destructive interference) and 1.0 wavelength (for

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fully constructive interference), but closer to 1.0 wavelength. Thus, the waves would produce intermediate interference that is closer to fully constructive interference they would produce a relatively bright spot.

13E. Suppose that Youngs experiment is performed with blue green light of wavelength 500 nm. The slits are 1.20 mm apart, and the viewing screen is 5.40 m from the slits. How far apart are the bright fringes?. ssm iiw Solution: The width is given by: of the bright fringes in Youngs double slit interference experiment

Where d is the slits separation which is D away from the screen on which the interference pattern is being observed. Thus, ( ( )( ) )

14E. In a double slit experiment the slits are separated by a distance equal to 100 times the wavelength of the light passing through the slits. (a) What is the angular separation in radians between the central maximum and an adjacent maximum? (b) What is the distance between these maxima on a screen 50.0 cm from the slits? Solution: (a) For a bright fringe of order m in Youngs double slit interference produced via slits of d separation and light of wavelength , the following equation is valid: ( )

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( ( ( )

50P. In a Newton rings experiment (see Problem 49), the radius of curvature R of the lens is 5.0 m and the lens diameter is 20 mm. (a) How many bright rings are produced? Assume that = 589 nm. (b) How many bright rings would be produced if the arrangement were immersed in water (n = 1.33)? Solution: (a) In Newtons rings experiment, the mth bright ring satisfies the relation: ( )

Incident Light

Lens diameter D equals the diameter of the last bright ring of the interference pattern. Therefore, one can write:

Air

( ( ) )( )

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(b) If the medium between the lens and the glass plate is not air (n=1), then the formula above should be as follows: ( ) ), the number of bright rings will be: ) ( ) ( ( )( ) Now, for water (

51P. A Newtons rings apparatus is to be used to determine the radius of curvature of a lens (see Fig. 36-34 and problem 49). The radii of the nth and (n+20)th bright rings are measured and found to be 0.162 and 0.368 cm, respectively, in light of wavelength 546 nm. Calculate the radius of curvature of the lower surface of the lens. Solution: ( )

SEC. 37-2 Diffraction by a Single Slit: Locating the Minima .page 913 1E. Light of a wavelength 633 nm is incident on a narrow slit. The angle between the first diffraction minimum on one side of the central maximum and the first minimum on the other side is 1.20 0. What is the width of the slit? Solution:

The location of the minima for the single slit diffraction due to a light of wavelength is given by: (

Dr. Qahtan Al-zaidi 5

)

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2E. Monochromatic light of wavelength 441 nm is incident on a narrow slit. On a screen 2.00 m away, the distance between the second diffraction minimum and the central maximum is 1.50 cm. (a) Calculate the angle of the diffraction of the second minimum. (b) Find the width of the slit. olution: The location of the minima for the single slit diffraction due to a light of wavelength is given by:

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7P. A slit 1.00 mm wide is illuminated by light of wavelength 589 nm. We see a diffraction pattern on a screen 3.00 m away. What is the distance between the first two minima on the same side of the central diffraction maximum? Solution:

27E. Suppose that the central diffraction envelope of a double slit diffraction pattern contains 11 bright fringes and the first diffraction minima eliminate (and coincide with) bright fringes. How many bright fringes lie between the first and second minima of the diffraction envelope? ssm

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Solution: For double slit diffraction pattern, dark fringes (minima) are produced when: ( ) And, at the same time, the angular locations of the bright fringes of the double slit interference pattern are given by the equation: ( )

Now, since there are a total of 11 bright fringes of the double slit interference

Diffraction Intensity Diffraction principal maximum n=0 m=0 m=1

m=2

Diffraction envelope

m=3

m=4

m=9

m=6 - m=5 m=7 /6 + m=6 m=11 m=12 Missing Orders m=6 and m=12 are bright interference missing orders

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pattern within the central peak (the principal maximum) of the diffraction, the number of bright fringes on one side of the diffraction central fringe is 5. The 6th order of the bright interference pattern coincides with 1 st order diffraction minima and therefore will be missed. Thus,

This means that the 6th, 12th, 18th,bright interference fringes will be the missing orders. So, the number of bright interference fringes lying between the first and second minima of the diffraction envelope (i.e., between the 6th and 12th interference missing orders) is only 5.

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31P. (a) How many bright fringes appear between the first diffraction envelope minima to either side of the central maximum in a double slit pattern if =550 nm, d=0.150 mm, and a= 30.0 m? (b) What is the ratio of the intensity of the third bright fringe to the intensity of the central fringe? Solution: (a) For double slit diffraction pattern, dark fringes (minima) are produced when: ( ) And at the same time, the angular locations of the bright fringes of the double slit interference pattern are given by the equation: ( )

For interference bright fringes appearing between the first diffraction envelope minima to either side of the central maximum in a double slit pattern:

Therefore: ( ( ) ) ( )

This means there is a total of 9 bright interference fringes within the 1 st diffraction maximum, i.e., 4 fringes on either side plus the m=0 bright interference fringe. Note that m= are missing bright interference orders.

32P. Light of wavelength 440 nm passes through a double slit, yielding a diffraction pattern whose graph of intensity I versus angular position is shown in Fig. 37-36. Calculate (a) the slit width and (b) the slit separation. (c) Verify the displayed intensities of the m = 1 and m = 2 interference fringes.

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Solution: (a) The slit width, a, can be calculated using the equation: ( )( ) (b) The slit separation, d, is determined as follows:

From the plot below, the 1st diffraction minimum (dark fringe), n=1, coincides with 4th interference bright fringe, i.e., the missing interference order m is 4. Therefore: ( )

(c) To verify the displayed intensities of the 1st (m=1) and the 2nd (m=2) interference bright fringes, the double slit intensity formula is used as follows: ( Now, for m=1,

8 7 6 Intensity mW/cm2 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2.5 5 degrees 7.5 10

)(

( therefore:

11

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)(

( ( )

( )(

) = therefore:

( ( ) )

( )(

) =

Page 916

33E. A diffraction grating 20.0 mm wide has 6000 rulings. (a) Calculate the distance d between adjacent rulings. (b) At what angles will intensity maxima occur on a viewing screen if the radiation incident on the grating has a wavelength of 589 nm? Solution: (a) The separation d between the rulings of a grating is called the grating spacing. If N rulings occupy a total width of w, then:

(b) The path length difference, between adjacent rays diffracted by the grating is an integer number (m) of wavelengths () that is, if: ( ) Therefore, for a given diffraction grating, the angle from the central axis of the diffraction pattern to any line of order m depends on the wavelength of the light being used. Thus, for the 0th order maximum lines m=0 and: ( )( ) ( ) * + Similarly, for the 1st ( ), 2nd ( maxima lines, the diffraction angles are as follows: ( ) * ( )( ), and 3rd ( ) ) order

12

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( (

) )

( (

)( )(

+ +

Note that the plus/minus sign is inserted because the diffraction grating spectrum is identical on either side of the central maximum line (m=0).

page 917

46E. The D line in the spectrum of sodium is a doublet with wavelengths 589.0 and 589.6 nm. Calculate the minimum number of lines needed in a grating that will resolve this doublet in the second order spectrum. See Sample Problem 37 5. Solution: For the sodium doublet to be barely resolved, must be their wavelength separation of 0.6 nm, and ave. must be their average wavelength of 589.30 nm. So the least (minimum) number of rulings for a grating to resolve the sodium doublet is: ( )( ) ( )

47E. A source containing a mixture of hydrogen and deuterium atoms emits red light at two wavelengths whose mean is 656.3 nm and whose separation is 0.180 nm. Find the minimum number of lines needed in diffraction grating that can resolve these lines in the first order. ssm ilw Solution: The least (minimum) number of rulings N or lines needed in a grating to resolve these lines in the first order (m=1) is: ( )(

Dr. Qahtan Al-zaidi 13

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48E. A grating has 600 rulings/mm and is 5.0 mm wide. (a) What is the smallest wavelength interval it can resolve in the third order at = 500 nm? (b) How many higher orders of maxima can be seen? Solution: (a)

Thus, the higher orders of maxima that can be seen are: ( ) ( )( ) 49E. Show that the dispersion of a grating is D = (tan )/. ssm Proof: The location of the maxima lines in the diffraction pattern of a grating is given by the following expression: ( )

Let us regard and as variables and take differentials of this equation. Thus,

For small enough angles, the differentials can be written as small differences, obtaining: ( ( ) )

14

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