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Working with Groups & Community 2012 FOURTH SEMESTER SW 4 B 05 - WORKING WITH GROUPS & COMMUNITY Social Group

A common conceptualization of the small group drawn from the social work literature is ...a social system consisting of two or more persons who stand in status and role relationships with one another and possessing a set of norms or values which regulate the attitudes and behaviours of the individual members in matters of consequence to the group. A group is a system of relationship among persons. Therefore, group as a social system has a structure and some degree of stability in interaction, reciprocity, interdependence and group bond. Open social systems do not exist in a vacuum; they are part of and transact with their surroundings. Thus group is a collection of people who need each other in order to work on certain common tasks, and the social group work(er) provides a hospitable environment (agency setting) to achieve those tasks. Definition Conceiving of a group as a dynamic whole should include a definition of group that is based on interdependence of the members (or better, the subparts of the group). Kurt Lewin (1951: 146) A group is a collection of individuals who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree. As so defined, the term group refers to a class of social entities having in common the property of interdependence among their constituent members. Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander (1968: 46) Types of Groups There are various ways of classifying groups, for example in terms of their purpose or structure, but two sets of categories have retained their usefulness for both practitioners and researchers. They involve the distinctions between:
1. Primary and Secondary groups; and 2. Planned and Emergent groups.

Primary and Secondary Groups Charles Horton Cooley (1909) established the distinction between 'primary groups' and 'nucleated groups' (now better known as secondary groups): Primary groups are clusters of people like families or close friendship circles where there is close, face-to-face and intimate interaction. There is also often a high level of interdependence between members. Primary groups are also the key means of socialization in society, the main place where attitudes, values and orientations are developed and sustained. Characteristics: 1 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012

Physical proximity Small in size Stability Similar status Self interest towards group Mutual sharing between individuals
Secondary groups are those in which members are rarely, if ever, all in direct contact. They are often large and usually formally organized. Trades unions and membership organizations such as the National Trust are examples of these. They are an important place for socialization, but secondary to primary groups. Characteristics:

Large in size Formal and impersonal relationship Active & Inactive Indirect relationship Goal oriented State of individual
This distinction remains helpful especially when thinking about what environments are significant when considering socialization (the process of learning about how to become members of society through internalizing social norms and values; and by learning through performing our different social roles). The distinction helps to explain the limited impact of schooling in important areas of social life (teachers rarely work in direct way with primary groups) and of some of the potential of informal educators and social pedagogues (who tend to work with both secondary and primary groups - sometimes with families, often with close friendship circles). Planned and Emergent Groups Alongside discussion of primary and secondary groups, came the recognition that groups tend to fall into one of two broad categories:

Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Planned groups. Planned groups are specifically formed for some purpose either by their members, or by some external individual, group or organization. Emergent groups. Emergent groups come into being relatively spontaneously where people find themselves together in the same place, or where the same collection of people gradually come to know each other through conversation and interaction over a period of time. (Cartwright and Zander 1968). As Forsyth (2006: 6) has put it People found planned groups, but they often find emergent groups. Sometimes writers use the terms 'formed' groups and 'natural groups' to describe the same broad distinction but the term 'natural' is rather misleading. The development of natural groups might well involve some intention on the part of the actors. More recently the distinction between formed and emergent groups has been further developed by asking whether the group is formed by internal or external forces. Thus, Arrow et. al (2000) have split planned groups into concocted (planned by people and organizations outside the group) and founded (planned by a person or people who are in the group). They also divided emergent groups into circumstantial (unplanned and often temporary groups that develop when external forces bring people together e.g. people in a bus queue) and self-organizing (where people gradually cooperate and engage with each other around some task or interest). Social Group Work Social group work is a method of social work which develops the ability of individuals through group activities. It is a distinct way of helping individuals in groups based upon and growing out of the knowledge, understanding and skill that is general to all social work practice. Social group work is concerned with the social development of individuals. Practice of group work requires a deep knowledge about how humans interact in groups. Definition Social group work is a psycho-social process which is concerned no less than with developing leadership ability and cooperation than with building on the interests of the group for a social purpose. (Hamilton 1949). Social group work is a method through which individuals in groups in social agency settings are helped by worker who guides their interaction in programme activities so that they may relate themselves to others and experience growth opportunities in accordance with their needs and capacities. (Trecker 1955). As an educational process generally carried as an in leisure time with voluntary groups with the aid of a group leader under the auspice (support) of an agency for the satisfaction of the social needs of individuals and for the development of legitimate group goals. (Stroup 1960) Social group work is a method of social work, which helps individuals to enhance their social functioning through purposeful group experiences and to cope more effectively with their personal, group and community problems. (Konopka) 3 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Historical Developments in America Social group work began as 'group work' with its own unique history and heroes. It was not part of the mainstream of professional social work, which in the early days was synonymous with casework, as far as the method was concerned. The ideological roots of social group work were in the self-help and informal recreational organisations, such as YMCA, YWCA settlement, scouting, Jewish Centres in U.S.A. and democratic ideals that all should share in the benefits of society following the Industrial Revolution. Social group work was also influenced by progressive education as it developed in Europe and stressed the use modern and liberal techniques in group learning. The major thrust of early group-serving agencies was toward the normal rather than the maladjusted person who would seek service primarily during his 'leisure' hours. He came for recreation, education, enjoyment and the development of special skills and interests. Group work was then not geared towards individuals with particular problems. The person with severe problems who appeared in the group was incorporated as much as possible with his peers or was referred for individual attention to a casework agency or psychiatric clinic. The first course in group work was offered by the Western Reserve University in the U.S.A. in the early 1930s. There was then great preoccupation and focus on the activity and programme of the group. This, unfortunately, in many ways held back the flowering of group work as a theoretically sound method within social work. In 1935 Grace Coyle, as the Chairman of the newly established section of social group work of the National Conference of Social Work, began to clarify that group work was a method within social work and that recreation and education were other fields (professions) which might include group work as a method. The focus then gradually moved from doing activities to talking activities which was understood at that time as leading more quickly towards self-understanding, insight and behavioural change. In the 1940s, with the efforts of persons such as Grace Coyle, Clara Kaiser, Wilber Newsetter, Gertrude Wilson and Helen Phillips, group work was more fully rooted within the profession of social work and began to be taught in many more schools in the USA. Soon the American Association of Group Workers was established, which brought out regular ly a professional publication called The Group. Several new text-books had been published that served to formalise the thinking of the day. By the early 1950s the method developed its own distinctiveness and was introduced in most schools of social work throughout the U.S.A., Great Britain, Canada and other parts of the world. Social group work now wrested itself from the field of social psychology and also distinguished its methodology from group psychotherapy. It moved into many 'specialized' settings previously reserved for the practice of casework to serve problem clients. It developed a refined and sophisticated set of techniques as the National Association of Social Workers and the Council of Social Work Education produced new documents and publications in group work. Gisella Konopka, William Schwartz and Dorothea Spellman were the new group work 4 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 writers. They urged that group work cease following the path of casework development and move to identify and elaborate its own therapy and practice. Thus group work obtained a new depth and vision. Its competence is reserved neither for dysfunctioning individuals alone nor for the range of services to maximise potentials; it can be used for a range of services. In the late 1960s, Ruth Smalley's new text book "Theory for Social Work Practice" whose uniqueness rests in the fact that it is the first book to present a unified theory applicable to casework, group work and community organisation, made a breakthrough in social work education by emphasizing the commonalities of the three methods. The seventies and eighties saw the method of group work being utilised in new innovations such as the laboratory method, sensitivity training, encounter groups and many movements like trans-actional analysis, gestalt therapy and so forth. Other Influences that shaped Social Group Work Practice Historically, we can distinguish many significant thought systems developed in the western hemisphere, particularly in America and Europe, which have given direction and content to the conceptual framework of social group work from its inception till the present date. These are: 1. The ethical, social and theistic beliefs embodied in the Judeo-Christian religions; 2. The humanitarian thinking of the late nineteenth century which found expression in the social settlement movement in England and later in America; 3. The educational philosophy of John Dewey and his followers who formulated the theories of progressive education; 4. The theories of certain early sociologists, particularly Durkheim, Simmel, Cooley and Mead, who saw in the small group the key to studying the relation of the individual to society; 5. Recent basic research in small group theory by social scientists such as Kurt Lewin, Moreno, Elton, Mayo and Merton; 6. Contemporary developments such as the interaction theory which conceives of the group as a system of interacting individuals, the system theory which views the group as a system of orientation, interlocking positions and roles, Communication and equilibrating processes, empiristic statistical orientation which maintains that the concept of group dynamics should be discovered from statistical procedures rather than pure theory, and makes considerable use of procedures developed in the field of personality testing, and formal models orientation which attempts to construct these models with the aid of mathematics in order to deal vigorously with some -rather limited aspects of groups; 7. The democratic ethic not only as it applies to a political system, but as it permeates all forms of social relationships, and as expressed in the writings of authors such as Mary Follet and Edward C. Lindeman;

Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 8. General psychology orientation wherein the influence of each of the major theories of motivation, learning and perception can be seen, important contributions to the study of groups having been made in this area by Asch, Festinger, Heider and Krech and Crutchfield; 9. The psychoanalytic school of psychiatry initiated by Freud resulting in a growing interest in group psychotherapy elaborated by writers such as Bion, Schiedlinger, Stock and Thelen; 10. The liberation theories especially those of Paulo Freire, and the culture of silence which have arisen in Latin America; 11. The school of liberation theology in the last decade (giving new interpretations to the Bible and Christian doctrine in the light of prevalent socio-economic structures) which has inspired and fostered activist movements amongst the Christian missionaries; 12. The values, principles and methods of social work as the profession within which social group work as a method has developed. Historical Developments in India India has a long history of social work and social welfare. There is evidence of the group approach being used in charity, imparting religious education through the oral tradition, mobilising the people for the freedom struggle against the British, social reform and, more recently, in typically indigenous welfare strategies such as the Sarvodaya and Bhoodan movements. However, the history of group work as a method of social work practice can be seen only in the context of social work education in India. Group work began with the founding of the first School of Social Work in 1936, viz, the Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work. In 1947-48 the second school was established in Delhi and, for the first time, as part of an already established University. This is significant because it meant recognition of the academic status of social work education, and of group work as one of its courses. Within less than two years a third school was established as part of the University of Baroda, which had a fairly strong sequence in group work. It developed and published some of the first records of group work practice in India in 1960. The Association of Schools of Social Work in India, jointly with Technical Cooperation Mission (U.S. A) laid down minimum standards for group work. Throughout India in schools of social work, group work found a place in all of them along casework and community organisation. There was no specialisation in the methods courses as in American social work education. The theoretical framework and its practice model was mainly American and until recently, few attempts were made to indigenize it. Group work which could have played a significant role in some of the major social development programmes launched in the earlier plans remained ineffective, since the relationships between social work education and these programmes were at best peripheral and the points of contact and integration are only now being appreciated and to some extent taking place. Furthermore, because of the location of schools of social work in urban areas, professional group work practice remained, until recent times, primarily urban. 6 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Objectives of Group Work Group work helps to achieve the overall objectives of social work through its own specific objectives which are:

to assist individuals in their maturation; provide supplemental emotional and social nourishment; promote democratic participation and citizenship; and remedy individual and social disorganisation or maladjustment through group
intervention strategies. Purpose of Social Work with Groups In 1964 the Committee on Practice of the Group Work Section of the National Association of Social Workers proposed that group work was applicable for the following purposes:

corrective/treatment; prevention; normal social growth and development; personal enhancement; and citizenship indoctrination.
Common needs addressed by social work groups include:

coping with major life transitions; the need to acquire information or skills; the need to improve social relationships; the need to cope with illness; the need to cope with feelings of loss or loneliness.
Principles of Social Group Work While group work shares with other methods of social work, generic principles such as respect for the individual, non-judgemental attitude and objectivity, out of its own philosophy and skill evolve basic principles specific to this method which guide the worker. Change is brought about through the establishment of purposeful growth-producing relationships between the 7 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 worker and group members and among the members themselves. Sometimes this may require an appropriate modification of the group interactional process and its components (such as bond, leadership, isolation, scapegoating, sub-groups, conflict, hostility and contagion) to create a conducive atmosphere. The group worker encourages each member to participate according to the stage of his capacity thus enabling him to become more capable and confident in the process of problem solving. The worker also makes judicious use of limitations to direct and control the behaviour of members to obtain the optimum interaction. Most important is the differential and purposeful use of a programme according to the diagnostic evaluation of individual members, the group purpose and appropriate social goals. Well-chosen programme media provide opportunities for a new and differing experience in relationships and accomplishments. Group work demands an ongoing evaluation of the progress made by each individual and the group and, finally and most important of all, a warm and disciplined use of self on the part of the worker. Treckers 10 Principles of Social Group Work 1. The Principle of Planned Group Formation Group is the basic unit through which the service is provided to the individual, consequently, the agency and the worker responsible for the formation of group or the acceptance into the agency of already formed groups must be aware of the factors inherent in the group situation that make the given group a positive potential for individual growth and for meeting recognizable needs 2. The Principle of Specific Objectives Specific objectives for individual as well as group development must be consciously formulated by the worker in harmony with group wishes and capacities and in keeping with agency function 3. The Principle of Purposeful Worker Group Relationship A consciously purposeful relationship must be established between the worker and the group members based on the workers acceptance of the group members as they are and upon the groups willingness to accept help from the worker because of the confidence the members have in him and in the agency 4. The Principle of Continuous Individualization In group work it is recognized that groups are different and that individuals utilize group experience in a variety of ways to meet their differing needs; consequently, continuous individualization must be practised by the worker. Groups and individuals in the group must be understood as developing and changing. 5. The Principle of Guided Group Interaction In group work the primary source of energy which propels the group and influences the individuals to change are the interaction and reciprocal responses of the members. The group 8 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 worker influence this interaction by the type and the quality of participation 6. The Principle of Democratic Group Self Determination In group work the group must be helped to make its own decisions and determine its own activities, taking the maximum amount of responsibility in line with the capacity and ability. The primary source of control over the group is the group itself 7. The Principle of Flexible Functional Organization In group work, the group worker guides the group by setting up an organization to meet the group needs. The organization thus established should be understood by the group members, should be flexible and encouraged only if it meets the felt need of the members. The organization should be adaptive and should change as the group changes. 8. The Principle of Progressive Programme Experiences In social group work, the program experiences in which the group engages should begin at the level of the member interest, need, experience and competence and should progress in relation to the developing capacity of the group. 9. The Principle of Resource Utilization In social group work, the total environment of the agency and the community possess resources which should be utilized to enrich the content of group experience for individuals and for the group as a whole. 10. The Principle of Evaluation In social group work, continuous evaluation of process and programmes in terms of outcomes is essential. Worker, group and agency share in this procedure as a means of guaranteeing this greatest possible self fulfilment Social Group Work Process I. In-take (The Planning Phase) Pre group planning - Here the worker has to focus his thinking on the individual member i.e., consider their motivations and expectations for joining the group. This phase is subdivided into the following activities:

Recruiting Members - Through the agency, contacting members directly,

accepting referrals, through mass media, meeting people at church or hall, contacting other social service agencies, etc.

Composing the Group - Planned group formation, considering the homogeneity

and heterogeneity of the members.

Orienting the Members - By means of interviews and discussions, clarifying the

9 clients expectations; allowing members to ask questions during the orientation Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 process; familiarizing the members with the group procedure.

Preparing the Environment - Three aspects should be considered here:

Physical Setting - Room size, seating arrangements, furniture, carpet, lamps, work tables etc. These physical arrangements convey the agencys recognition of its clients or agencys regard for its members. Financial Support - Expenses incurred for the arrangement of meetings or programmes, rooms and other physical arrangements, etc. In case of group therapy we can collect fees from the members. Special Arrangements - Minimizing the barriers which prevent members attendance, for example, meeting place, transportation, safety of the meeting place, comfortable seating etc.

II. Study & Diagnosis (The Beginning Phase) This phase is most important because an impression gets created in this phase. The first meeting stimulates the members and they all have their own expectations based on their previous group experience. The tasks involved in this stage are:

Introduction of Members
The introduction should not be artificial. It should make the members comfortable and it should be in a creative manner, so as to leave behind a lingering interest for its members. Common expectations may form through this introduction.

Stating the purpose and functions of the group

It should include, presenting a positive and hopeful image of what can be accomplished in the group; narration of successful experience and thus stating the purpose of the group; giving information about the agency; linking the agencys functions, workers function etc. and if possible make a mention about the limitations of the group.

Creating a climate or opportunity for members feed back

Praise the members feelings and thoughts. Consider them seriously. Give values for their word attitudes etc. Make it clear that group is meant to serve their needs.

Facilitating members motivation

Even while stating the purpose of the group, the motivation would have taken place; narrating successful events will facilitate this motivation.


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Setting goals
Set common goals and individual goals and if the group is a matured one then the goals can be discussed with them. III. Treatment (Middle Phase) The actual social work process takes place in this phase, it involves: a) Leading the group

Preparing for group meetings - Providing the agenda and deciding the programme. Structuring the groups work - It implies beginning and ending meetings in time.
Making use of the end of the meeting for summarizing. Not including any new agenda at the end. However, too much emphasis on structure may decrease member commitment and initiative.

Helping members to achieve goals - Create awareness of goals or agencys purpose.

The group worker has to analyze or check or identify members obstacles to their development.

Monitoring and evaluating the groups progress - This implies concurrent evaluation.
It requires feedback to the worker and is useful in developing and changing treatment plans. b) Intervention Intervention may be at intra-personal level, or inter-personal level or environmental level.

Intrapersonal level: Here interventions are focused on members values, beliefs,

thoughts, emotions etc.

Inter-personal level: Here the focus is on members relationship with others. Environmental level: Helping with material resources or providing some aids.
Sometimes referring them to some other persons. Behavior modification on the part of the family members. c) Problem-solving approach

Minimizing irrational beliefs about problematic situations Creating a willingness to work on the problem Wiping out inhibiting tendencies
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Using members perceptions and experiences on the problem Brain storming and freewheeling and avoid criticism-quality emphasis. Re-arranging and improvement of ideas for deciding the treatment.
IV. Ending Phase It includes termination and evaluation stages. a) Termination Termination may be of two types: Planned termination and Unplanned termination. Conditions for termination:

End the group when objectives are fulfilled When mutual aid and trust are strong among the member (cohesiveness) Termination can take place when members independent functioning is promoted to
certain level.

Termination may result in making referrals.

b) Evaluation (The ending Phase) According to Trecker, Evaluation is that part of social group work in which the worker attempts to measure the quality of groups experience in relation to the objectives and function of the agency. Evaluation may be centered upon: 1. Individual growth,
2. Program content, or on 3. Workers performance.

Purpose of Evaluation:

Evaluation is essential because it enables the worker to discover to what extent group
has achieved its objectives.

Evaluation enables the group to see both strengths and weaknesses and it helps to
discover points at which group members need to alter their procedures.

Evaluation helps to formulate new objectives and to renew unsuited objectives. Evaluation helps the group worker to adjust and modernize his methods of working
12 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 with group.

Evaluation can be stimulation to greater professional growth. Evaluation can be an extension of the learning process because its very nature is
scientific and its aim is educational. Group Formation There are a number of stages or phases in formation of a social work group. Ken Heap (1985) discussed these as group formation and planning, the first meetings, the working phase; use of activities and action; and the termination of the Group. According to Douglas (1979) there are five stages viz; conceptualization, creation, operation, termination and evalution. He has discussed these as the functions of leader while Toseland and Rivas (1984) discussed the stages under planning phase, beginning phase, middle phase and ending phase. Reasons for Group Formation
1. Locality/Geography - You may join a group based on the fact that it is in the local

2. Gender You may join a group according to whether you are a male or female based

on social etiquette.
3. Shared Interest/Common Goal These groups may form because group members

have a particular interest such as a hobby, artistic or sporting talent and or a common goal.
4. Security Being part of a group provides us with a sense of security. They may be

formed in order for members to gain a feeling of security such as neighborhood watch groups. They also share a common interest. 5. Sexuality Groups may be formed on a persons sexuality. For example gay and lesbian groups. 6. Specific Needs This type of group forms in responses to a particular need, it may be temporary and the group disbands when the need is met. 7. Social Interaction Groups may be formed with a primary goal of social interaction including a gathering at a party, work social club or a mothers group. 8. Culture The group may form from a particular culture to enjoy communicating in a native language, eating traditional food and experience activities familiar to this culture. Stages of Group Development The Forming Storming Norming Performing - Adjourning model of group 13 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results. This model has become the basis for subsequent models. Stage 1 - Forming "Trying to find my place." Group begins to experience:

Feelings of excitement, anticipation, and optimism; also feelings of suspicion, fear,

and anxiety about the job ahead

Identification of its reason for existence Self-orientation Identification of the task to be accomplished Exploration and discovery of how to interact with one another as a group
As the group forms and matures, natural leaders will emerge. The members in these roles will change several times during this phase of group development. Tasks for a group worker:

Establish base level expectations Identify similarities Agreeing on common goals

Stage 2 Storming "Hey! I've got something to say here!" Some group behaviors and attitudes:

Negativity Dissatisfaction Hostility Crisis mode

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Adjustment anxiety
Differences and suppressed tension begin to surface Members further define the energy level they dedicate to the task or project at hand. Tasks for a group worker:

Identifying power and control issues Gaining skills in communication Identifying resources
Stage 3 Norming "We're all in this together!" Some group behaviors:

Cohesion around shared goals Resolution of conflict More acceptance of diversity in the group Reconciliation; show of affection Re-evaluation
Members have seen the coming together (forming), the semi-separation (storming), and now they have reconciled themselves to working together (norming) despite their differences with a new definition of purpose. Tasks for a group worker: Members agree about roles and processes for problem solving. Stage 4 Performing "Getting Things Done" Some group behaviors:

Cohesiveness Teamwork Leadership


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012

The group is starting to utilize its newly found "norms of trust," and can begin focusing on the service to be done; there should be enough drive, creativity, and cohesiveness to take on most tasks. Tasks for a group worker:

Achieve effective and satisfying results Members find solutions to problems using appropriate controls
Stage 5 Adjourning "Now What?" Possible group feelings or reactions:

Negativity Dissatisfaction Hostility Purging Crisis

The group is realizing the end of service is near; it has been a year of sharing and growing with each other and now members are going to separate. For many, the group has been a safety net and truly has become their community.


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012

Group Dynamics 17 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 The forces that result from the interactions of group members are often referred to as group dynamics. Because group dynamics influence the behaviour of both individual group members and the group as a whole, they have been of considerable interest to group workers for many years (Coyle, 1930, 1937; Elliott, 1928). It was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that the Research Centre for the group dynamics was founded in 1945 and later in 1948 was moved to the University of Michigan. It was founded by Kurt Lewin to study group decision, group productivity, group interaction, group cohesiveness and group communication. The underlying assumption was that the laws of the group behavior can be established independently of the goals or specific activities of group irrespective of the structure of the group. A variety of experiments later on by Herbert Spenser, Allport , Georg Simmel , put forward the concept of group dynamics as a technique of fostering the conciliation between individuals and groups with an idea to formulate principles which underlie group behavior , and devise principles of group decisions and actions. Features of Group Dynamics:

Group dynamics is concerned with group .Wherever a group exists the individuals
interact and members are continuously changing and adjusting relationship with respect to each other. The members of the group may interact , may be in state of tension , may be attracted or repelled to each other , may seek the resolution of these tensions and return to equilibrium after the resolution.

Changes go on occurring like introduction of the new members, changes in leadership,

presence of old and new members and the rate of change fast or slow. The groups may dissolve if the members are not enthusiastic about the goals; they have no faith in the ideology and do not identify themselves with the group. This means that the cohesiveness in the group has decreased.

There may be rigidity or flexibility (cohesiveness or conflict) that influence a group

dynamics. If the members get along well there is smooth sailing for the group and if there is conflict it leads to problems. A rigid group may not change and lacks adaptability to change. But the members if are able to solves the problems, the equilibrium can be maintained. The conflict and tension if increases within the group, this can cause an open flare up and strong measures are urgently.

The group organization is essential. It leads to greater group effectiveness,

participation, cooperation and a constructive morale. The leader will be effective only if the group is organized and stable. Some degree of organization is essential for effective functioning of the group and depends on the proportion of the well-defined roles members have in the group. The organized group is one with every member having specific roles and acting towards other members in the prescribed manner.

Dynamic group always is in continuous process of restructuring, adjusting and

readjusting members to one another for the purpose of reducing the tensions, 18 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 eliminating the conflicts and solving the problems which its members have in common. The changes may take within a group and it is interesting to study the way the change do occur. The frequent changes indicate the capacity of the group to change and adapt. One of the workers most important tasks is to help groups develop dynamics that promote the satisfaction of members socio-emotional needs while facilitating the accomplishment of group tasks. Four dimensions of group dynamics are of particular importance to group workers in understanding and working effectively with all types of task and treatment groups: 1. Communication and interaction patterns 2. Cohesion 3. Social integration and influence 4. Group culture Communication According to Northen (1969), Social interaction is a term for the dynamic interplay of forces in which contact between persons results in a modification of the behaviour and attitudes of the participants. Verbal and nonverbal communications are the components of social interaction. Communication is the process by which people convey meanings to each other by using symbols. Communication entails:
1. the encoding of a persons perceptions, thoughts, and feelings into language and other

2. the transmission of these symbols or language, and

3. the decoding of the transmission by another person.

As members of a group communicate to one another, a reciprocal pattern of interaction emerges. The interaction patterns that develop can be beneficial or harmful to the group. A group worker who is knowledgeable about helpful communications and interactions can 19 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 intervene in the patterns that are established to help the group achieve desired goals and to ensure the socio-emotional satisfaction of members. Communication can be verbal, nonverbal, or written. Whereas members of face-to-face groups experience verbal and nonverbal communications, members of telephone groups experience only verbal communications, and members of computer groups experience only written messages. Communication can also be synchronous, that is, back and forth in real time, or asynchronous, that is, not within the same time frame. Asynchronous communications occur in computer groups where members may respond to messages after they are posted on bulletin boards or in chat rooms. Communication as a Process The first step in understanding and intervening in interaction patterns is for the worker to be aware that, whenever people are together in face-to-face groups, they are communicating. Even if they are not communicating verbally, their nonverbal behaviours communicate intended and unintended messages. all communications are intended to convey a message. Silence, for example, can communicate sorrow, thoughtfulness, anger, or lack of interest. In addition, every group member communicates not only to transmit information but also for many other reasons. Kiesler (1978) has suggested that people communicate with such interpersonal concerns as 1. understanding other people,
2. finding out where they stand in relation to other people,

3. persuading others,
4. gaining or maintaining power, 5. defending themselves, 6. provoking a reaction from others,

7. making an impression on others,

8. gaining or maintaining relationships, and

9. presenting a unified image to the group. Many other important reasons for communication could be added to this list. For example, Barker and colleagues (2000) highlight the importance of relational aspects of communication such as cooperation, connection, autonomy, similarity, flexibility, harmony, and stigmatization. In addition to meanings transmitted in every communication, the worker should also be aware that messages are often received selectively. Selective perception refers to the screening of messages so they are congruent with ones belief system. Individual group members have a unique understanding of communications on the basis of their selective perception. Selected screening sometimes results in the blocking of messages so that they are not decoded and received. Napier and Gershenfeld (1993) suggest that the perception of a communication can be influenced by: 20 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 1. life positions that result from experiences in early childhood, 2. stereotypes,
3. the status and position of the communicator, 4. previous experiences, and

5. assumptions and values. Thus, what might appear to a naive observer as a simple, straightforward, and objective social interaction might have considerable hidden meaning for both the sender and the receiver. Group workers are in a much better position to intervene in the group when they have a full understanding of the meanings of the messages being communicated and received by each member. It is particularly important for the worker to pay attention to the nonverbal messages that are communicated by members. Body language, gestures, and facial expressions can provide important clues about how members are reacting to verbal communications. Members may not want to verbalize negative feelings, or they may just not know how to express their feelings. When workers are attuned to nonverbal messages, they can verbalize the feelings conveyed in them. This, in turn, may encourage members to talk about issues that they were previously only able to express nonverbally. Communications can also be distorted in transmission. Distortion is represented as interference. Among the most common transmission problems are language barriers. To prevent distortions in communications from causing misunderstandings and conflict, it is also important that members receive feedback about their communications. Feedback is a way of checking that the meanings of the communicated messages are understood correctly. For feedback to be used appropriately it should:
1. describe the content of the communication or the behavior as it is perceived by the

group member,
2. be given to the member who sent the message as soon as the message is received, and

3. be expressed in a tentative manner so that those who send messages understand that the feedback is designed to check for distortions rather than to confront or attack them. Interaction Patterns Patterns of Group Interaction

Maypolewhen the leader is the central figure and communication occurs from the
leader to the member and from the member to the leader

Round robinwhen members take turns talking

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Hot seatwhen there is an extended back-and-forth between the leader and one
member as the other members watch

Free floatingwhen all members take responsibility for communicating, taking into
consideration their ability to contribute meaningfully to the particular topic The first three patterns are leader centered because the leader structures them. The fourth pattern is group centered because it emerges from the initiative of group members. In most situations, workers should strive to facilitate the development of group-centered rather than leader-centered interaction patterns. In group-centered patterns, members freely interact with each other. Communication channels between members of the group are open. In leadercentered patterns, communications are directed from members to the worker or from the worker to group members, thereby reducing members opportunities to communicate freely with each other. Group-centered communication patterns tend to increase social interaction, group morale, members commitment to group goals, and innovative decision making (Carletta, Garrod, & Fraser-Krauss, 1998). However, such patterns can be less efficient than leader centered patterns because communication may be superfluous or extraneous to group tasks (Shaw, 1964). Sorting out useful communications can take a tremendous amount of group time. Therefore, in task groups that are making routine decisions, when time constraints are important and when there is little need for creative problem solving, the worker may deliberately choose to encourage leader-centered rather than group-centered interaction patterns. To establish and maintain appropriate interaction patterns, the worker should be familiar with the factors that can change communication patterns, such as:

Cues and the reinforcement that members receive for specific interactional exchanges The emotional bonds that develop between group members The subgroups that develop in the group The size and physical arrangements of the group The power and status relationships in the group
Cues and Reinforces Cues such as words or gestures can act as signals to group members to talk more or less frequently to one another or to the worker. Workers and members can also use selective attention and other reinforces to encourage beneficial interactions. For example, praise and other supportive comments, eye contact, and smiles tend to elicit more communication, whereas inattention tends to elicit less communication. So that all members may have a chance 22 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 to participate fully in the life of a group, workers may want to reduce communication from particularly talkative members or encourage reserved members to talk more. Emotional Bonds Positive emotional bonds such as interpersonal liking and attraction increase interpersonal interaction, and negative emotional bonds reduce solidarity between members and result in decreased interpersonal interaction. Attraction and interpersonal liking between two members may occur because they share common interests, similar values and ideologies, complementary personality characteristics, or similar demographic characteristics (Hare et al., 1995). Hartford (1971) calls alignments based on emotional bonds interest alliances. For example, two members of a planning council might vote the same way on certain issues and they may communicate similar thoughts and feelings to other members of the council on the basis of their common interests in the needs of the business community. Sub Groups Subgroups form from the emotional bonds and interest alliances among subsets of group members. They occur naturally in all groups. They help make the group attractive to its members because individuals look forward to interacting with those to whom they are particularly close. The practitioner should not view subgroups as a threat to the integrity of the group unless the attraction of members within a subgroup becomes greater than their attraction to the group as a whole. There are a variety of subgroup types, including the dyad, triad, and clique. Also, there are isolates, who do not interact with the group, and scapegoats, who receive negative attention and criticism from the group. Subgroups occur naturally because not everyone in a group interacts with equal valence. The formation of intense subgroup attraction, however, can be a problem.
1. Subgroup members may challenge the workers authority. 2. They may substitute their own goals and methods of attaining them for the goals of the

larger group.
3. They can disrupt the group by communicating among themselves while others are

speaking. 4. Subgroup members may fail to listen to members who are not a part of the subgroup. Ultimately, intense and consistent subgroup formation can negatively affect the performance of the group as a whole (Gebhardt & Meyers, 1995). Size and Physical Arrangements


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 As the size of the group increases, the possibilities for potential relationships increase dramatically. With increased group size there are also fewer opportunities and less time for members to communicate. a reduced chance to participate leads to dissatisfaction and a lack of commitment to decisions made by the group. Increased group size also tends to lead to subgroup formation as members strive to get to know those seated near them. The physical arrangement of group members also influences interaction patterns. Members who sit across from each other, for example, have an easier time communicating than do members on the same side of a circle who are separated by one or two members. Power and Status Two other factors affecting communication and interaction patterns are the relative power and status of the group members. Initially, members are accorded power and status on the basis of their position and prestige in the community, their physical attributes, and their position in the agency sponsoring the group. As a group develops, members status and power change, depending on how important a member is in helping the group accomplish its tasks or in helping other members meet their socio-emotional needs. When members carry out roles that are important to the group, their power and status increase. When a member enjoys high status and power, other members are likely to direct their communications to that member (Napier & Gershenfeld, 1993). Group Cohesion Group cohesion is the result of all forces acting on members to remain in a group (Festinger, 1950). Cohesion is a multifaceted concept that, depending on the context, can be viewed along many dimensions:
1. task and social cohesion, 2. vertical and horizontal cohesion, 3. personal and social attraction,

4. belongingness, and 5. morale (Dion, 2000). People are attracted to groups for a variety of reasons. According to Cartwright (1968), the following interacting sets of variables determine a members attraction to a group. Reasons for Members Attraction to the Group:

The need for affiliation, recognition, and security The resources and prestige available through group participation Expectations of the beneficial and detrimental consequences of the group
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The comparison of the group with other group experiences

Cohesion can affect the functioning of individual members and the group as a whole in many ways. Research and clinical observations have documented that cohesion tends to increase many beneficial dynamics. Effects of Cohesion

Expression of positive and negative feelings (Pepitone & Reichling, 1955; Yalom,

Willingness to listen (Yalom, 1995) Effective use of other members feedback and evaluations (Yalom, 1995) Members influence over each other (Cartwright, 1968) Feelings of self-confidence and self-esteem, and personal adjustment (Seashore, 1954;
Yalom, 1995)

Satisfaction with the group experience (Widmeyer & Williams, 1991) Perseverance toward goals (Cartwright, 1968; Spink & Carron, 1994) Willingness to take responsibility for group functioning (Dion, Miller, & Magnan,

Goal attainment, individual and group performance, and organizational commitment

(Evans & Dion, 1991; Gully, Devine, & Whitney, 1995; Mullen & Cooper, 1994; Wech, Mossholder, Steel, & Bennett, 1998)

Attendance, membership maintenance, and length of participation (Prapavessis &

Carron, 1997) It also should be pointed out that cohesion can have some negative effects on the functioning of a group. Cohesion is a necessary, albeit not sufficient, ingredient in the development of group think. According to Janis (1972) group think is a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in group, when the members strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. In addition to encouraging pathological conformity, cohesion can lead to dependence on the group. This can be a particularly vexing problem in intensive therapy groups with members who started the group experience with severe problems and poor self-images. Social Integration and Influence


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Social integration refers to how members fit together and are accepted in a group. Groups are not able to function effectively unless there is a fairly high level of social integration among members. Social order and stability are prerequisites for the formation and maintenance of a cohesive group. Social integration builds unanimity about the purposes and goals of the group, helping members to move forward in an orderly and efficient manner to accomplish work and achieve goals. Norms, roles, and status hierarchies promote social integration by influencing how members behave in relationship to each other and by delineating members places within the group. They lend order and familiarity to group processes, helping to make members individual behaviors predictable and comfortable for all. Norms, roles, and status dynamics help groups to avoid unpredictability and excessive conflict that, in turn, could lead to chaos and the disintegration of the group. Too much conformity and compliance resulting from overly rigid and restrictive norms, roles, and status hierarchies can lead to the suppression of individual members initiative, creativity, and intellectual contributions. At the same time, a certain amount of predictability, conformity, and compliance is necessary to enable members to work together to achieve group goals. Therefore, it is important for workers to guide the development of norms, roles, and status hierarchies that achieve a balance between too little and too much conformity. Norms Norms are shared expectations and beliefs about appropriate ways to act in a social situation such as a group. They refer to specific member behaviours and to the overall pattern of behaviour that is acceptable in a group. Norms stabilize and regulate behaviour in groups. By providing guidelines for acceptable and appropriate behaviour, norms increase predictability, stability, and security for members and help to encourage organized and coordinated action to reach goals. Norms result from what is valued, preferred, and accepted behaviour in the group. Norms develop as the group develops. Norms develop directly as members observe one anothers behavior in the group and vicariously as members express their views and opinions during the course of group interaction. As members express preferences, share views, and behave in certain ways, norms become clarified. Because norms are developed through the interactions of group members, they discourage the capricious use of power by the leader or by any one group member. They also reduce the need for excessive controls to be imposed on the group from external forces. Roles Roles are closely related to norms. Whereas norms are shared expectations held, to some extent, by everyone in the group, roles are shared expectations about the functions of individuals in the group. Unlike norms, which define behaviour in a wide range of situations, roles define behaviour in relation to a specific function or task that the group member is expected to perform. 26 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Roles continue to emerge and evolve as the work of the group changes over time (Salazar, 1996). Roles are important for groups because they allow for division of labour and appropriate use of power. They ensure that someone will be designated to take care of vital group functions. Roles provide social control in groups by prescribing how members should behave in certain situations. Performing in a certain role not only prescribes certain behaviour but also limits members freedom to deviate from the expected behaviour of someone who performs that role. Status Status refers to an evaluation and ranking of each members position in the group relative to all other members. A persons status within a group is partially determined by his or her prestige, position, and recognized expertise outside the group. To some extent, however, status is also dependent on the situation. In one group, status may be determined by a members position in the agency sponsoring the group. In another group, status may be determined by how well a member is liked by other group members, how much the group relies on the members expertise or how much responsibility the member has in the group. It is also determined by how a person acts once he or she becomes a member of a group. Because status is defined relative to other group members, a persons status in a group is also affected by the other members who comprise the group. Group Culture Group culture refers to values, beliefs, customs, and traditions held in common by group members (Olmsted, 1959). According to Levi (2001), culture can be viewed as having three levels. At the surface, symbols and rituals display the culture of the group. For example, in Alcoholics Anonymous groups, members usually begin an interaction by saying their first name and by stating that they are an alcoholic. At a deeper level, culture is displayed in the way members interact with one another. For example, the way conflict is handled in a group says much about its culture. The deepest level of culture includes the core beliefs, ideologies, and values held in common by members. When the membership of a group is diverse, group culture emerges slowly. Members contribute unique sets of values that originate from their past experiences as well as from their ethnic, cultural, and racial heritages. These values are blended through group communications and interactions. In early meetings, members explore each others unique value systems and attempt to find a common ground on which they can relate to each other. By later meetings, members have had a chance to share and understand each others value systems. As a result, a common set of values develops, which becomes the groups culture. The groups culture continues to evolve throughout the life of the group. Group Morale Morale refers to the level of group functioning as well as the unity and solidarity of the group. It stands for team spirit, loyalty among its members devotion to the ideals of the group and a desire to perform at the highest pith of Endeavour. There is determination on the pair of the 27 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 individual member of line per and if need to be die for the group. He shows the capacity to bear hardships for the sake of the common cause without gambling. Morale is not a summation of affects from different sources and whole group that get integrated; the group which has a high morale is held together by internal cohesion, rather than external force the least amount of quarrels and jealousies are found among its members. It is also characterized by adaptability of its members to changing circumstances and successful adjustments to them. Similarity of goals among the members log ally to the groups leads the also quite common and positive desire among the members to which for and work for the well being of the group is an apparent feature. In healthy and vigorous group life morale plays a very important role. Tendency to breaking into several antagonists sub groups, tendency to indulge unhealthy, victims, tendency to create conflict between the ideals of the individual members and those of the group as a whole etc are signs of law morale. Positive goals, a sense of advancement towards the God, satisfaction of felt needs, an understanding of the relationship between present activities of the goal, feeding of security as well as capable leadership may be said to be developments of morale. Definition The mental and emotional condition of an individual or group with regard to the functions or tasks at hand. A sense of common purpose with respect to a group. The level of individual psychological well being based on such factors as a sense of purpose and confidence in the future. Meaning of Group Morale The quality of the unit and solidarity in the group, the co-operation which exists among its members, the way in which the group as a whole reacts to particular situations and so on. The person who is most concerned with the morale of the group is the leader of that group. Importance of Group Morale Morale is the state of mind or attitude of an individual or group towards the work and environment i.e., towards the superior, fellow members of the group and goals of the organization as well as the task assigned. A favourable attitude is an indication of high morale, while an unfavourable attitude indicators low morale. Further high morale leads people to attach greater importance to group goals as compared with their personal goals. On the other hand, low morale leads to inefficiency, waste, low productivity, unrest and indiscipline among employees. Factors Determining Morale 1. Objectives of the organization 28 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Leadership Group members Job satisfaction Structure of organization Compensation Advancement and promotional opportunity Living conditions and health Working environment

The group morale is the most important characteristic of any social group for the survival of a group; the group morale is one of the most important necessities. It is not very easy to define group morale. Determinants of Group Morale 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Structure of the group Functions of the group Positive goals Sense of advance towards goal Time perspective Equality of sacrifice or gain within the group Feeling of solidity Feeling of identification and involvement Group values Economic conditions Negative determinants Satisfaction of accessory needs Level of aspiration and level of achievement Encouraging group identification.

Group Worker 29 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Group worker is constantly operating at two levels the client as an individual and the group as a social system, whose influence can be utilized to develop client abilities, modify selfimages and perspectives, resolve conflicts and inculcate new patterns of behaviour. These changes must be stabilized beyond the duration of the group experience if they are to gain significance. The results of group work intervention are to be assessed, then, in terms of improved performance in these social role areas in the client's life and not merely in terms of changed behaviour within the group. Role of Group Worker In social group work, the group worker enables a group to function in such a manner so as to achieve the aims of social progress. From this point of view, the social worker has to discharge many functions, main among them are as follows:

To provide opportunity for progress to each individual in accordance to his ability and

To assimilate individuals with their group. To encourage individual towards his progress To make individuals conscious about their rights and duties. To enable the group with regard to the determination of aim and the course of progress To encourage good will and friendship between various groups. To encourage the development of democratic principles. To make adjustment between individual needs and social resources. To give proper attention on individual progress.
The conduct the above roles, the following skills are essential for a group worker: 1. Establishing Purposeful Relationship The group worker must be skilful in gaining the acceptance of the group and in relating himself/herself to the group on a positive professional basis. Helping individuals to accept one another and join with the group is the common aim. 2. Skill in Analyzing the Group Situations Analyzing or judging the developmental level of the group and needs has to be done. The worker should help the group to express ideas, workout objectives, clarify immediate goals and see both the potentialities and limitations of the group. In short, thinking clearly about group problems, findings, causes and working for a solution. 30 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 3. Skill in Participation with the Group The group worker must be skilful in determining, interpreting, assuming and modifying his own roles with the group. The worker should also help participating members to locate leadership and take responsibilities for their own activities.
4. Skill in Dealing with Group Feeling

The group worker should adjust group procedures and plans to meet the feelings and desires of its members. Here the worker must be able to control his own feelings about the group and the watch the group with objectivity. The worker should also be skilful enough in helping the group release their own positive and negative feelings. 5. Skill in Programme Development The group worker must guide the group to reveal and understand the groups interest and needs. Also the worker must be skilled enough to develop programmes for the participation of the group. 6. Skill in Using Agency and Community Resources The worker must be helpful in locating and providing all the help required to the members of the group, available within the agency and also refer the members to specialized services in community. 7. Skill in Evaluation The worker must have skill in recording the development process of the group and also use these records in helping the group to review its experiences as a means of improvement. Community Community is a contributor of resources and allies and provider of pitfalls and opponents. Community is a place, where, the need for change, the effort to make that change and the resistance to change co-exists. Types of Communities 1. Interest Community: Communities we need to know/ the people who are involved in our particular action. 2. Need or Benefit Community: Consists of people who currently experience the problem or could benefit from its resolution. 3. Action Community: Consists of people who recognize or could easily recognize that a problem exists and are willing to work to resolve it.(change agent) 4. Target or Response Community: Consists of people whose policies, actions or inactions somehow perpetuate the problem. 31 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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5. Peripheral Community: The wider community

Community Organization Community organization refers to:

structure or stage of development as in the organized and unorganized community, field of practice such as Planning Social Welfare Services, Federated fund raising

as a method -A way of working on as orderly and conscious basis to effect defined and
desired objectives and goals. Definition Community organization is the process of dealing with individuals and groups, who are or may become concerned with social welfare services or objectives, for the purpose of influencing the volume of such services, improving the quality or distribution or furthering the attainment of such objectives National Conference on Community Organization, USA. Community Organization means a process by which community identify its need or objectives finds the resources (Internal & / or External) to deal with these needs or objectives, takes action in respect to them, and in so doing extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community - Murray G Ross. Community organization is described as the orderly application of a relevant body of knowledge, employing practicewisdom and learned behaviour through characteristic, distinctive and describable procedures to help the community to engage in a desirable procedure to achieve planned change towards community improvement National Association of Social Workers. History of Community Organization In a broad sense we can say wherever people have lived together; some form of organisations has emerged. These informal associations of people always tried to do good to the people in need and protect the rights of the society. On the contrary the history talks about the formal organizations which were set up for the welfare of the community. The first efforts at community organization for social welfare were initiated in England to overcome the acute problem of poverty, which led to beggary. The first effort of its kind was the Elizabethan poor law (1601) in England, which was set up to provide services to the needy. Another important landmark in the history of community organization is the formation of London Society of organizing charitable relief and repressing mendicancy and the Origin of the settlement house Movement in England during 1880. Historical Developments in USA 32 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 In fact, these movements had a major impact in the United States of America. In 1880 the Charities organization was set up to put rational order in the area of charity and relief. The major community organization activities in the United States could be classified in to three periods: Phase I: The Charity organization period (1870-1917) This era is the beginnings in social welfare in USA. The first citywide (COS) Charity organization Society was established in the Buffalo in 1877 in USA. This movement was started with the influence of London Charity organization established in 1869. In USA, Rev. S. H. Gurteen, an English priest who had an association with London Charity association and had moved to Baffalo in 1873 gave the leadership to this movement an English priest who had an association with London Charity association and had moved to Baffalo in 1873. Within a short span of six years the COS had reached to more than 25 American cities. Charity organization was concerned about two things:

Providing adequate personal services to families and individuals in need Take steps to address the issues/problems in social welfare.
Apart from this services the COS also took initiatives in promoting co-operation among the various welfare agencies. From this movement of charity organization emerged many other such service oriented organisations i.e. Social service exchange, Community welfare councils, councils of social agencies Phase II: The rise of Federation (1917 to 1935) It is period where we can see the growth and development of chests and councils. It started with the rise of war chests in 1917 and ended with the enactment of social security act, which set the stage for development of the public welfare programs in 1935. A large number of chests and councils came up after world war 1.The American Association for Community Organization was organized in 1918 as the national agency for chests and councils and it later became known as community chests and councils of (CCC) America. The Cincinnati Public Health Federation, established in 1917 was the first independent health council in American City. It is in this period that the American Association of social workers organized in 1921, the first general professional organisations, set up its training for the social workers and others who specialized in community organization. A community chest is a voluntary welfare agency, co-operative organization of citizens and welfare agencies, which is the powerful local force for community welfare origination that handles large funds. It has two functions. It raises funds through a community -wide appeal and distributes them according to a systematic budget procedure. Secondly it promotes co-operative planning, co-ordination and administration of the communities social welfare. Phase III: Period of Expansion and professional Development (1935 to present time) 33 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 It is in this period that we see the greater use of the community organization process in the field of public welfare. A marked significance of this era is the establishment of Federal Security Agency where we see the maximized involvement of the Govt. in welfare programs. In 1946 the agency was strengthened and re-organized following which in 1953 Department of Health, education and Welfare was established. Another important factor of the period is about the professional development that took place. Some of the important professional developments are:

The National Conference of Social work in 1938-39 undertook a study on community

organization, which later publicized the nature of "Generic Community welfare organization". Based on this another study took place in 1940, but due to America involvement in World War II an active program could not take off.

In 1946, at the National conference of social work in Buffalo, the Association of the
study of community organization (ASCO) was organized. The main objective was to improve the professional practice of organization for social welfare. In 1955, ASCO merged with six other professional organisations to form the National Association of social workers. Community organization has been recognized as integral and important aspect of social work education in the American Association of Schools of social work education. At present there is an active committee of Council on social work education involved in the production of teaching materials in community organization.

The first contemporary textbook on community organization titled "Community

Organization for social welfare " published in 1945 has been written by Wayne McMilen's .

Another development in the history of community development is seen in the wake of

World War II. Wartime needs were very special and crucial. During this time many councils and community war services came to the forefront. Among them (USO) united service organization is of prime importance as it was the union of many forces that served the needs of the military personnel and defence communities. The other striking characteristics of the period is the immense increase in the volunteer service i.e. defence council, American Red Cross and USO which co-ordinated and recruited the volunteers.

Another development that took place at the wartime is the growth of closer relationship
between labour and social work, which is considered as great significance to community origination. The other developments that took place after the World War II are as follows that are very specific to community organization area as follows:

The rehabilitation of the physically and mentally challenged

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Mental health planning, problems of the aging Prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency.
In order to address these issues separate bodies were set up and we see the entry of international agencies in the field of community origination. The present situation in community organization is the emergence of the new community development programs, which aims at providing, services to the less developed areas in the international social welfare. Therefore the present agenda is on working with the whole community and a greater emphasis on self -help. Historical Developments in the UK Baldock (1974) has summed up the historical development in U.K. by diving it in to four phases. The First Phase: (1880-1920) during this period the community work was mainly seen as a method of social work. It was considered as a process of helping the individuals to enhance their social adjustments. It acted as major player to co-ordinate the work of voluntary agencies. The Second Phase: (1920-1950) this period saw the emergence of new ways of dealing with social issues and problems. The community organization was closely associated with central and state Govt.'s program for urban development. The important development in this period was its association with community association movement. The Third Phase: (1950 onwards) it emerged as a reaction to the neighbourhood idea, which provided an ideological phase for the second phase. It was period we see the professional development of social work. Most of the educators and planners tried to analyze the shortcomings in the existing system. It was also a period where the social workers sought for a professional identity. The Fourth Phase: It is a period that has marked the involvement of the community action. It questioned the very relationship of the community work and social work. It was thus seen as period of radical social movement and we could see the conflicts of community with authority. The association of social workers and the community were de-professionalised during this period. Thus it was during this period the conflictual strategies that were introduced in the community work, although even now there is no consensus on this issue (Baldock 1974). Historical Developments in India A historical account of the community organization is not available in India, as there has been only a rare documentation on social work literature in general and community organization in particular. Community organization has its roots in the Charity organizations in the United States. They realized the need of the people and tied to organize the people to coordinate their work. The main activities were social welfare, raising funds, seeking enactment for the social legislation 35 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 and co-ordination of welfare activities. The spirit behind all these activities was charity. In India, the very concept of charity is deep rooted in the religious philosophy. Even before the commencement of the social work education in India in 1937, the community work was in place. But in the first phase from 1937 t0 1952 the community work was in a dormant stage. During this period the social work was in its infancy and not many were employed in the community settings because. There were hardly any jobs that provided an opening for community organization. Professionals preferred to work in casework settings. It was in 1952 the community development project was launched in India and with this we find the emergence of a new era of community work. The basic objective of community development in India was to awaken the rural people of their needs, instilling in them a sense of ambition for better life and making them aware of their right and power to find a solution for their problems. According to Mukerji (1961) Community development is a movement designed to promote better living for the whole community with the active participation and if possible with the initiative of community" According to him community development can be divided in to two process: 1. Extension education 2. Community organization. Extension education was expected to improve the quality of human beings by improving his/her knowledge and skills. By community organization Mukerji had in mind the setting up of three institutions in the village: Village Panchayat, The village co-operative and The village school During this period the thrust of the community work remained rural where as social work remained urban in character. From 1970 onwards we could see a new trend in the community work practice. The social workers expanded their scope and operational area from their traditional approach of casework to other developments fields. For example people working with school children started working with the community. The Ngo's and voluntary organization adopted a community approach. This shift has in-fact led to the use of process of community work. By and large the community work has remained welfare -oriented. The current phase of community work in India is experiencing a growing dissatisfaction with its own practice or rather the outcome of its practice. So efforts are on to create alternate ways of working with communities. In-spite of these, the professionals is involved in a variety of projects in both rural and urban areas to promote better living for the community. Another trend in the community work is the involvement of the Business houses in promoting welfare in their neighbourhood. This is commonly known as CSR. (Corporate social responsibilities) The business houses i.e. Tats, Escorts, and some of the multinational companies too have joined in this venture. This trend has attracted many professionals in this field 36 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 The main objective of community development is to develop village communities by methods, which will stimulate, encourage and aid villagers themselves to do much of the work necessary to accomplish the desired goals. The changes conceived and promoted should have the involvement of the people and should be acceptable to them and put in to practice by them. Objectives of Community Organization 1. Analyzing resources services available to meet needs. 2. Gaining facts about human needs. 3. Synthesis, correlation and testing of facts. 4. Relating facts about needs to facts about available services. 5. Bringing into participation in all phase of the process, individuals and representatives of group concerned. 6. Fostering interaction of attitudes and representative view points with the objective of reaching agreement through mutual understanding. 7. Stimulating citizen interest in social problems and creating motivation for action through participation and education. 8. Determining priorities 9. Developing and improving standards of service. 10. Identification of gaps or duplication of services. 11. Adjusting or eliminating existing services or developing new services to meet needs. 12. Enhancing community understanding through education. 13. Mobilizing support moral and financial. Principles of Community Organization In the literature of community organisation we find various sets of principles. Dunham (1958) has presented a statement of 28 suggested principles of community organisation. He grouped them under seven headings: 1. Democracy and social welfare, 2. Community roots for community programmes,
3. Citizen understanding, support, and participation and professional service,

4. Cooperation, 5. Social Welfare Programmes, 37 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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6. Adequacy, distribution, and organisation of social welfare services, and

7. Prevention. Ross (1967) outlined specific principles the elementary or fundamental ideas regarding initiation and continuation of community organisation processes. These principles have been discussed in terms of the nature of the organisation or association and the role of the professional worker. The twelve principles identified by Ross are: 1. Discontent with existing conditions in the community must initiate and/or nourish development of the association. 2. Discontent must be focussed and channelled into organisation, planning, and action in respect to specific problems. 3. Discontent which initiates or sustains community organisation must be widely shared in the community. 4. The association must involve leaders (both formal and informal) identified with, and accepted by, major sub-groups in the community. 5. The association must have goals and methods and procedures of high acceptability. 6. The programmes of the association should include some activities with an emotional content. 7. The association should seek to utilize the manifest and latent goodwill which exists in the community. 8. The association must develop active and effective lines of communication both within the association and between the association and the community. 9. The association should seek to support and strengthen groups which it brings together in cooperative work. 10. The association should develop a pace of work in line with existing conditions in the community. 11. The association should seek to develop effective leaders. 12. The association must develop strength, stability and prestige in the community. Keeping in mind the actual practice situations in India Siddiqui (1997) has worked out a set of 8 principles. 1. The Principle of Specific Objectives 2. The Principle of Planning 3. The Principle of Peoples Participation 38 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 4. The Principle of Inter-group Approach 5. The Principle of Democratic Functioning 6. The Principle of Flexible Organisation 7. The Principle of Optimum Utilisation of Indigenous Resources 8. The Principle of Cultural orientation We are trying to interpret some of the principles from the available sets of principles for guiding our practice community organisation in Indian context. 1. Community Organisation is means and not an end: As discussed earlier the community organisation is a process by which the capacity of the community to function as an integrated unit is being enhanced. In this sense it is a method or a means to enable people to live a happy and fully developed life. It refers to a method of intervention whereby a community consisting of individuals, groups or organisations are helped to engage in planned collective action in order to deal with their needs and problems. 2. Community Organisation is to promote community solidarity and the practice of democracy: It should seek to overcome disruptive influences, which threaten the well being of the community and the vitality of democratic institutions. In community organisation discrimination and segregation or exclusion should be avoided and integration and mutual acceptance should be promoted. 3. The clear identification of the Community: Since the community is the client of the community organisation worker, it must be clearly identified. It is likely that there are several communities with which he/she deals at the same time. Further it is important that once the community is identified the entire community must be the concern of the practitioner. No programme can be isolated from the social welfare needs and resources of the community as a whole. The welfare of the whole community is always more important than the interest or the well being of any one agency/group in the community. 4. Fact-finding and needs assessment: Community organisation programmes should have its roots in the community. Proper fact-finding and assessment of the community needs is the prerequisite for starting any programme in the community. It is generally desirable for local community services to be indigenous, grass-roots developments rather than imported from outside. Whenever possible, then, community organisation should have its origin in a need felt by the community or by substantial number of persons in the community. There should be vital community participation, and essential community control, of its development. While facilitating the process of community organisation, the programmes should be initiated, developed, modified, and terminated on the basis of the needs of the community and on the basis of the availability of other comparable services. When the particular need for a service is met, the programme should be modified or terminated. 39 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 5. Identification, mobilization and utilization of the available resources: The fullest possible use should be made of existing social welfare resources, before creating new resources or services. In the absence of resources/services the worker has to mobilize the resources from various sources such as community, government, non-government agencies, etc. While utilizing the indigenous resources it must be recognised that these resources may sometimes need extensive overhauling before they will meet certain needs. Apart from mobilizing physical resources, indigenous human resources should be put to optimum use.
6. Participatory planning: The community organisation worker must accept the need for

participatory planning throughout the process of community organisation. It is important that the practitioner prepares a blue print in the beginning of what he/she intends to do with the community. This is done with the community taking into consideration the needs of the community, available resources, agency objectives, etc. Planning in community organisation is a continuous process as it follows the cycle of implementation and evaluation. The planning should be on the basis of ascertained facts, rather than an expression of guesswork, hunches, or mere trial and error methods. In order to foster greater participation it is necessary to analyse the impeding factors and take timely steps to remove them. Instead of forcing people to participate in all the issues, they should be encouraged to participate at a level, and about issues, in accordance with their capacities. It must be noted that the people will participate if they are convinced of the benefits of the programme.
7. Active and vital participation: The concept of self-help is the core of community

organisation. The community members participation throughout the process of community organisation should be encouraged from the standpoint both of democratic principle and of feasibility that is, the direct involvement in the programme of those who have the primary stake in its results. Selfhelp by citizen or clientele groups should be encouraged and fostered.
8. Community right of self determination should be respected: The Role of the community

organisation worker is to provide professional skill, assistance, and creative leadership in enabling peoples groups and organisations to achieve social welfare objectives. The community members should make basic decisions regarding programme and policy. While the community organisation worker plays a variety of roles in different situations, he is basically concerned with enabling peoples expression and leadership to achieve community organisation goals, and not try to have control, domination, or manipulation.
9. Voluntary cooperation: Community organisation must be based upon mutual

understanding, voluntary acceptance, and mutual agreement. Community organisation, if it is to be in harmony with democratic principles, cannot be through regimentation. It should not be imposed from above or outside, but must be derived from the inner freedom and will to unite all those who practice it. 40 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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10. The spirit of cooperation rather than competition, and the practice of coordination of

effort: Community organisation practice should be based on the spirit of cooperation rather than competition. The community organisation practice has proved that the most effective advances are made through cooperative effort. It is by the coordinated and sustained programmes attacking major problems rather than through sporadic efforts by different groups. The emphasis on collaborative and cooperative attitudes and practices does not imply elimination of differences, of tension, or of conflict. In fact we have to recognize that these latter forces give life and vitality to a movement. It must be understood that such conflict can be disruptive and destructive, or it can be positive and creative. What is important for the community organisation worker is that he/she identifies such forces and appropriately modifies them to what is beneficial to community as a whole.
11. Recognition and involvement of indigenous leadership: Community organisation as it

has been described requires the participation of the people belonging to the community. However everyone in the community cannot be involved in face-to-face contact with all others in the community; therefore it is important to identify and recognize the leaders (both formal and informal) accepted by various groups and subgroups in the community. Inclusion of the respected and accepted leaders with whom the major subgroups identify provides a major step in integrating the community. This further makes possible initiation of a process of communication which, if it becomes effective, will nourish and sustain the process of community organisation.
12. Limited use of authority or compulsion: Invoking the application of authority or

compulsion may sometimes be necessary in community organisation. But it should be used as little as possible, for as short a time as possible and only as a last resort. When compulsion must be applied, it should be followed as soon as possible, by resumption of the cooperative process.
13. The dynamic and flexible nature of programmes and services: This principle is basic to

sound community organisation. Social welfare agencies and programmes must be responsive to the changing conditions, problems, and needs of community life. Community is a dynamic phenomenon, which constantly changes and thus the needs and problems also keep changing. Therefore it is necessary that the programmes and services are flexible enough.
14. Continuing participatory evaluation: As programmes are developed to meet community

needs, some time must be set aside for evaluation of the process. Regular feedback from the community is important. Criteria must be set up for evaluation of the programmes, to see how effective the action has been and what has been accomplished. Phases in Community Organization


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Steps of Community Organization Community organisation has a series of steps. By following these steps one would be able to apply the different principles, methods and models of community organisation. People/Community 1. Are they in a difficult situation?

If No - get out and go to other locality

2. Did they express it?

If Yes - make the people to realize it

3. Did they analyse the problem for its magnitude, symptoms and causes?

If No - enable them to analyse it

4. What is their level of consciousness?

The above first four stages or steps are the basic steps to make the community to attain the required capacity to identify, analyse and understand the needs and problems of the community. This could be otherwise called as Assessment of Needs and Problems of the community. Community organiser has to know about the needs and problems. At the same time he has to enable the people to make an assessment of the needs and problems. In order to do this the community members have to come forward and express their views for further action individually or collectively. In this process the people get empowered by way of acquiring the skills of analysis and raising the levels of consciousness.
5. List the Problems All the identified needs and problems of the community are listed

by the community with the help of the community organiser. This is a process which makes the people to understand their own situation. Realization of the needs and problems will bring awareness about their own situation. The involvement of the community in identifying the various needs and problems will increase the participation of the people. The problems in different settings are likely to differ and hence accordingly the identified problems are listed.
6. Give Priorities All the needs and problems cannot be considered together for further

action. Therefore all the needs and problems are analysed for its severity, magnitude, symptoms and causes based on which they are ordered and priority is given to the needs and problems. The community after having identified the needs and problems, analyze them and give priority and the order in which they have to be taken up for further actions.
7. Select a Problem From the priority list most urgent problem which needs to be taken

up immediately is selected. All the problems cannot be approached simultaneously 44 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 therefore there is need for selecting any one problem to initiate further action. Based on the order of priority the first in the list is taken up for working out solutions.
8. Redefine the Problem The selected problem is redefined for better understanding by

the community. For better planning the problem has to be analysed and defined before taking any further step in addressing the problem. Many times one may look at a phenomenon as a problem by its appearance or at the peripheral level, instead it has to be further analysed as to what is the real problem. Does it affect the normal functioning of the community? How many people are being affected? How are they affected? If nothing is done towards this how it will disturb the community? These are some of the questions by which we can easily analyse and redefine the problem.
9. Formulate Achievable Objective The redefined problem is converted into achievable

objectives which will be considered for further action. At times the objectives have to be split into many parts so that they could be converted into programmes and activities towards fulfilling the needs and solving problems. Let us assume that illiteracy is a problem in a community. It is further analysed that majority of the people of the locality have not gone to school in their childhood. One of the reasons for that was that there was no school in their locality. At present a school has been constructed and teachers are appointed. Now non availability of the school is not the reason for illiteracy. It is further analysed and found that the children are not sent to the school. Though there were many children in the school-going age, the parents do not send them to the school because the teachers are not regular on the one hand, and on the other, when the teachers are present they do not teach the children. In this situation the general problem externally appears to be illiteracy but its root cause is the defective functioning of the school.
10. Work out the Alternatives Based on the objectives the different ways and means are

to be found out by the community through brainstorming. One should not be content with a problem with one solution because it will limit the practice of community organisation. In order to solve the selected problem the community has to generate maximum number of alternatives to address the problem. There could be many such alternatives to pin-point attention on the problem and initiate direct action to solve the problems on a long-term basis.
11. Select an Appropriate Alternative Among the proposed alternatives one of the best

alternatives is selected for tackling the selected problem. To solve a problem there could be many ways but there may be one best and suitable way or method by which the problem could be easily solved. Such options should be selected. While selecting an alternative one has to start with softer approach and in a sequence. If the lower level approach fails apply the next one and even that one fails then select the next one and nothing works out finally we may resort to social action methods and may be at times we may have to resort to strong measures.


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12. Work out a Plan of Action In order to realize the selected alternative an action plan is

proposed in which the responsibilities are assigned and a tentative organisational structure is prepared. The time frame, resources needed and personnel involved are decided at this stage.
13. Mobilization of Resources To implement the plan of action the required resources are

to be assessed, identified and mobilized. The resources may be in terms of time, money, manpower and material. An estimate is made and the sources are identified for mobilization. Many times man power resources alone may help to arrive at a solution. Therefore the community has to have a thorough understanding of the uses of manpower due to which people by themselves may come forward to offer themselves for further action. Apart from this any other resources have to be mobilized internally and if it is not possible, only then think about getting them from external sources.
14. Implement the Plan of Action After having made a plan of action along with the

resources, the plan is implemented. The implementation takes care of the time and resources towards fulfilling the fixed goals. While implementing the plan of action the involvement of the people and their active participation by accepting the responsibilities has to be ensured. The people have to be prepared and guided to become a partner in the problem solving process.
15. Evaluate the Action The implemented plan is evaluated to find out the success and

deviation of the action against the objectives. Any shortfall or any undesired results are identified and the reasons for the deviancy are discussed. The positive and desirable results are to be appreciated. The evaluation can be made as an ongoing component of working with the community. It could be organised either at periodical level or at the end of the activity either within the organisation, by the organisational personnel or by an outsider or an expert. The task is not complete unless the evaluation is completed.
16. Modification Based on the evaluation, necessary modifications are decided and

introduced. In order to bring about a permanent solution to the selected problem, it is to be tackled affectively with the modifications suggested. These modifications are proposed in order to find a permanently solution to the given problem.
17. Continuation The modified action plan is implemented and continued. 18. Select the Next Problem Once the selected need is fulfilled the next problem is

selected from the priority list. Methods of Community Organization Arthur Dunhams Classification of CO Methods
1. Methods of Planning and Related Activities:


Fact Finding Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Analysis Evaluation Planning

2. Methods of Group Decision Making and Co-operative Action:

Meeting Practice Conference Committee Practice Negotiation Organization including Mass Organization

3. Methods of Communication:

Education Consultation Public Relations Formal Written Communication Formal Oral Communication The Interview

4. Methods of Promotion and Social Action:

Promotion Legislative Promotion Non Legislative Procedural Social Action Direct Action Exerting or Invoking Authoritative Action

5. Methods of Financing and Fund Raising:

Fund Procurement by Governmental Agencies Fund Raising by Voluntary Agencies Federated Financial Campaigning Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH


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Joint Budgeting

6. Methods of Administration:

Administrative Activities of Agencies concerned with Social Planning. Administration of Common Services or Community Organization Recording.

Fact Finding Fact-finding includes activities designed to aid the discovery, ascertainment, assembling, compilation and recording of facts. Most community problems are sustained by a wide variety of factors, and some are more influential than others. The challenge is to locate the major factors that have an effect on the problem requiring correction. To meet this challenge effectively, it is essential to gather relevant facts regarding the background of the problem. In gathering information on the problem, the Community Organizer may be faced with two difficulties: obtaining too much information that may prove to be irrelevant; identifying too little information from normal sources.

Good judgment must be used to distinguish noise (meaningless data) from information that helps in analyzing a problem. Similarly when information is not easily available, concerned individuals may be required to use ingenuity, functioning like good investigative reporter by checking out leads. With the advice of the knowledgeable researchers, special studies may need to be conducted as part of the fact-finding process. Following are the techniques normally adopted for fact finding: 1. Documentation (Recording / Compilation of information), 2. Formal Hearing (to find out how representative citizens think on a particular issue or proposal), 3. Action Research (Research combined with some other type of action programs), 4. Demonstration projects (to find out whether a certain program will work or how effective a particular type of program) and
5. Keeping abreast of new developments and new information in regard to certain

subjects. The following facts can be collected in a community:


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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1. External Conditions and Factors (Levels of socio-economic development and its

relationship to the area, Location advantages, Govt policies & Programs)

2. Characteristics of the Area (Land resources Soil & Water Human Resources,

Quantitative---Age, Sex, Religion, Education, Literacy)

3. Social & Institutional Structure (Familial Corporate Units (Families-House),

Associational Corporate Units (Caste), Territorial Corporate Units (Panchayat Raj). Categoric Units (Religion))
4. Delivery System For Social & Economic Services (Economic i.e. Extension, Credit,

Marketing, Education, Health, Family Planning, Nutrition)

5. Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Marketing (Road, Electricity, Irrigation,

Telecommunication) Analysis Analysis is the application of the six basic analytical questions i.e. what, whom, where, when, why and how? What is the problem? Where does it exist? Who is affected by it? When does it occur? What degree it is felt?

Analysis lies midway between fact finding and planning. It involves collection of data, exploring the content of the data, breaking up the content or problem, examining the inter relationships between the constituencies. The purpose of analysis is to gain insight, and understanding. Planning can scarcely exist without analysis. A sound plan normally implies that the planner has the facts and that the facts and the problem have been analyzed as a basis for the formulation of the plan. In a nutshell, analyzing community problems is a way of thinking carefully about a problem or issue before acting on a solution. It first involves looking for possible reasons behind a problem, and checking out whether those reasons are true. Then (and only then) does it involve identifying possible solutions, and implementing the best ones. The techniques for analyzing community problems are easy to state. They require simple logic, and sometimes the collection of evidence. Steps to Analyze a Community Problem
1. State the problem, in general terms


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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2. Give specific examples of the problem 3. Think of reasons for the problem 4. Find the most probable reason

5. Identify solutions 6. Choose the best one 7. Implement the solution 8. Evaluate the solution Community Survey Community Survey is a method by which quantitative facts are collected about the social aspect of a communitys position and activities. By survey method the Community Organizer can assess existing services and resources in an area of need as well as gaps in service. Surveying both service agencies and community residents, asking them how they perceive their unmet needs can identify potential demand for service. Steps in Community Survey: Planning the survey Executing the survey

Community Empowerment Community Empowerment is the process of increasing the capacity of individual or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. Empowerment is the process focused on the capacity building of the people to initiate; sustain and own the development of the people. It makes awareness on the potentialities and channelizes to use it and creates overall development. Empowerment = Giving strength and confidence.

Definition Community Empowerment is the giving of confidence, skills and power to communities to shape and influence what public bodies do for or with them Community Empowerment is the method of giving strength and confidence to the community regarding their potentialities and capabilities for working their own. Features of Community Empowerment 50 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Decision making power Having access to information and resources for taking proper decisions Ability to exercise assertiveness in collective decision making Ability to learn skills Positive thinking on the ability to make change Ability to change others perceptions by democratic means Increasing ones positive self image and overcoming stigma

Process of Community Empowerment Intervention Action Intervention being made Planning On community needs, problems, ideas and discussions. Consciousness Raising conscientisation self evaluation done Social / collective Action Working out the plans.

Areas of Community Empowerment 1. Empowerment of women a. Individual development of women b. Increasing collective capacity / capability of women c. Creates collective self help groups 2. Empowerment of self help groups 3. Rural development a. New job opportunities b. Housing c. Decentralization of power 4. Empowerment of Tribals awareness generation 5. Poverty alleviation 6. Child and Youth Welfare 7. Welfare of the weaker section 51 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 Barriers to Community Empowerment 1. Lack of information and understanding 2. Language barriers 3. Lack of confidence or skills 4. Lack of formal qualifications 5. Increased level of accountability 6. Difficulties in the recruitment and retention of volunteers 7. Time consuming 8. Lack of community space 9. Lack of accountability and transparency 10. Political involvement 11. Lack of time Benefits of Community Empowerment Delivering better, more efficient services Better democracy and accountability Strong, resilient and cohesive communities Improved partnership working Motivated staff Involving communities can be help make partnerships more accountable

The Role of the Community Organizer The Community Organizer is a facilitator, animator, enabler and catalyst. As a Facilitator, the CO "provides" a process which will help the community discuss their situation, identify and prioritize issues and problems, identify solutions and formulate and implement plans to resolve the key issues and problems. The facilitators responsibility is to ensure that members of the community communicate and are satisfied with and committed to the decisions taken. As an Animator, the CO helps the community discover and use all its self-help potentials for creative and constructive team work. The animator stimulates people to think critically when 52 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 identifying problems and finding new solutions. He/she motivates the people to share their concerns, information and opinions, set goals, make decisions and plan action. As an Enabler, the CO helps initiate a process of "liberation of initiatives." The enabler helps release the creative initiatives of the people and ensures that the development agenda evolves as part of the process of change and is not imposed. She/he also ensures that dependency is reduced through cooperative action and social education. Finally, the CO is a Catalyst, who hastens the process of change. The catalyst is successful when the organizing process has been fully internalized by the people. The community organizer also serves as a model, not only in words but also in deeds. Skills of an Effective Community Organiser

Problem Analysis One of the major tasks of the community organiser is to assist the people in arriving at a solution to the problem. The organiser is capable of identifying the problem and making the people also to identify, analyse, give priorities, select an appropriate priority, mobilize resources, make a plan of action, implement, monitor, evaluate, modify and continue. Resource Mobilization Any problem of the community while working out the solution requires resources. The resources may be in terms of manpower, money material and time. On the one hand the organiser is aware of the availability of the resources within the community or outside the community and on the other makes the people to identify the sources of resources and the way to tap such resources. Conflict Resolution Problems of the community involves the people affected by the problem and the others who are the causes for the problem. Therefore there could be a conflict between these two groups or between the people and the system. The organiser is equipped with the skill for identifying the conflicting situation and making the people to understand the conflict and then work out the ways and means to find solutions to the conflict. Organising Meeting Communication within the community and between the community and the organiser is most important. There needs to be transparency in the dealings for which formal and informal meetings have to be organised and information shared. The sharing of information enables sharing of responsibility and decision making. Writing Reports Documentation of the events for future reference and follow up is absolutely essential. Any communication or any written representation and the report of the dealings have to be recorded. This task is either done by the community organiser or delegated the task to someone else. Networking In a community while working with the people the participation of the people strengthens or increases the power of the people. At times support from like Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH


Working with Groups & Community 2012 minded people or organisation has to elicit so that a pressure is built against the oppressive force. This helps to create pressure and increase the bargaining power for which networking with other people and organisations is done by the community organiser.

Training Capacity building of the people and the personnel of an organisation is important while working with the community. In the process of capacity building the community organiser has to be a good trainer. The community organiser has to use his training ability and skills in this regard.

Community Development According to United Nations, community development deals with total development of a developing country that is their economic, physical, and social aspects. For achieving total development community organisation is used. Some Important Aspects:
1. Democratic Procedures - Democratic procedures deal with allowing all the community

members to participate in decision-making. It is possible to achieve this by community organisation. The selected or elected members or representatives are helped to take decisions. Democratic procedures help people to take part in achieving community development goals. Community organisation method permits democratic procedures for peoples participation.
2. Voluntary Cooperation Voluntary cooperation means that the people volunteer for

their participation. For this they are convinced. They should feel that they should involve themselves in the process of development without hesitation. This attitude is supported by community organisation method. Peoples emotional involvement is necessary to make success of the community organisation method. If discontentment about their conditions is created, then people will volunteer for participation. Community organisation emphasizes the discontentment aspect only to make them initiate peoples participation.
3. Self-Help - Self-help is the basis for community development. Self-help deals with the

capacity of mobilizing internal resources. Self-help is the basis for self-sufficiency and sustainable development. In community organisation self-help is emphasized. Community organisation is relevant to community development because both emphasizes the self-help concepts.
4. Development of Leadership - Development of leadership is an important aspect in

community development. Leadership deals with influencing and enabling people to achieve the goals. Community organisation also emphasizes leadership. With the help of leaders the people are motivated to participate in action. Community organisation is a relevant method to develop and use leadership. This is applicable for community development also. 54 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

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5. Educational Aspects - Educational aspects in community development means helping

people to know, learn, and accept concepts of democracy, cooperation, unity, skill development, effective functioning etc. In community organisation also the above mentioned aspects are considered very important. The process of community organisation emphasizes education of the community. Thus both are emphasizing the educational aspects for the progress of the community. Thus community organisation and community development are interrelated and mutually supportive. Community organisation and community development both emphasize democratic method and self-help principles. Thus they are relevant. So in all community development programmes community organisation method is used as implementing method. Difference between Community Organisation and Community Development There are many similarities between community organisation and community development. But for theoretical purpose it is possible to differentiate community organisation and community development. 1. Community organisation is a method of social work but community development is a programme for a planned change. 2. Community organisation emphasizes the processes, but community development emphasizes the end or goals. 3. Community organisers are mostly social workers and social change agents, But community development personnel can be from other professions including agricultural experts, veterinary experts, and other technical experts. 4. Community organisation is not time bound. It is achieved step by step according to the pace of the people. But community development is time bound and time is specified for achieving the development objectives. 5. In community organisation peoples participation is important. But in community development peoples development is important. 6. In community organisation governments and external agencies assistances are not important or needed. But in community development external assistance from the government or other agencies is considered important. 7. Community organisation is a method of social work and this method is used in many fields. But unlike community organisation community development is considered as process, method, programme, and movement for planned change. 8. Community organisation is used in all the fields but community development is used mostly in economic development and for the development of living standards of the people. 55 Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH

Working with Groups & Community 2012 9. In community organisation planning is initiated by the people through their participation. But in community development planning is carried out by an external agency mostly by the government.
10. In community organisation people are organised to solve their problem. But in

community development goals have to be achieved and for that people are organised.
11. Community organisation is universal to all communities. But community development

programmes differ from people to people depending upon whether the area is rural, urban or tribal, and other characteristics of the area. Even though there are differences, both are interrelated. The relationship is so close, so that community organisation process and principles are accepted fully. Both are like two sides of the same coin. The ideal community development takes places where community organisation method and its various steps and principles are effectively put into practice.


Mrs. Jinu Abraham, Asst. Professor, Social Work Dept., LISSAH