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Paper 1 Study Guide for IB Psychology Biological Level of Analysis (LOA): Outline principles that define the biological

al level of analysis Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies) SAQ

Principles: Definitions/Key Concepts: 1) Behavior is genetically based 1) It is logical to believe that 2) Animal research can provide evolution may play a key insight into human behavior role in behavior 3) There are biological 2) As animal behavior can be correlates of behaviors. similar to those of humans, we cannot draw direct conclusions 3) It should be possible to find a link between a specific biological factor and a specific behavior.

Research: 1) Curtis et al. (2004) internet survey-77000 participants, 165 countries. Finding: disgust levels were most strongly elicited for those images which threaten ones immune system. Disgust levels were higher in younger people. Woman had higher disgust reactions than men = idea that disgust as a key to successful reproduction. 2) Rosenzweig and Bennett: rats and environment, enriched or not, toys or alone. Sacrificed to find that cortex= thicker, frontal lobe= heavier. Ethics: animals suffered and were killed. Is it worth harming animals to find solutions for humans? rats humans when oxytoncin in rats is taken away = new mothers rejected their young. When injected: females

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demonstrated nurturing behavior towards other rats young. Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of SAQ/Essay analysis Research Method: Experiments Experiment: Experiments. Aim: the purpose of the Researchers have good study, what will be studied. control over variables in lab Case studies experiments. Hypothesis: predicts the relationship between IV and This experiment explains the DV effects of brain pasticity on behavior. Independent variable: the variable that causes the Animals humans, cannot change to the dependent perform controlled variable experiments on humans, humans brains are all Dependent variable: the different due to environment thing that changes due to and genetics, what to independent. consider enriched Eg Rosenzweig and Bennett environment for human. (1972): rats and Not natural = ecological environment= effect on validity, colors may brain plasticity. Lab exaggerate activities in experiment. Rats and environment, enriched or brain, creates big risk not, toys or alone. Sacrificed Rich data is obtained to find that cortex= thicker, Case studies: frontal lobe= heavier. Natural environment Case study: Rich data Taking an individuals personal Provide insight into a unique history in order to make a phenomenon. (eg Phineas diagnosis through interviews,

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observations etc. Real life senarios. Eg: Phineas gage: localization of brain function and behavior.

gage) at BLO brain damage. Deeply personal Time consuming.

Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of SAQ/Essay analysis Ethical issue: Related Research: James olds: rats experiment Rats received electrical stimulation on the nucleus accumbens by pressing a level. Rats would rather walk across electrified grids to Rosenwzeig and Bennett: get to pleasure leaver than food or drink. rats Rats and environment, enriched or not, toys or alone. Sacrificed to find that cortex= thicker, frontal lobe= heavier. Ethics: animals suffered and were killed. Is it worth harming animals to find solutions for humans? rats humans Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain SAQ Key Concepts/Definitions: Accident affected his intellectual ability and emotional control. Case study: Phineas gage Frontal lobe: personality and social behavior. Paul Broca Found that people suffering from damage in the left frontal lobe were unable to understand and make grammatically complex sentences. Case study on Tan(only word he could say) after death, autopsy revealed brain damage which led to the idea that the disability was the result of a specific brain trauma. Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human SAQ behavior Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Neurotransmission the method Serotonin: sleep & emotion. Marazziti et al: 20 in love, 20 obsessive by which messages are sent to the compulsive disorder (OCD), 20 normal ie: not in love. Serotonin level brain so that people can respond (blood) in love = ocd. to stimuli. Kasamatsu and hirai: aim: how sensory deprivation affects the brain. Neurotransmitters: the bodys Monks in mountain for 72 hours no talking, eating or drinking. After 48

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natural chemical messengers who hours = hallucinations = Serotonin level increase which activated transmit information form one hypothalamus and frontal cortex. Therefore sensory deprivation = neuron to another. release of serotonin. Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behavior SAQ Oxytocin: feelings of attachment in Research: when oxytoncin in rats is taken away = new mothers rejected touching. their young. When injected: females demonstrated nurturing behavior Vasopression: touching, sex, towards other rats young. emotions Winslow et al: prairie voles, have sex more than necessary for reproduction, when males were given a drug to lower the effects of vasopressin, they lost their devotion to their mates and no longer protected them from potential suitors. This shows that vasopressin plays an important role in males attachement and feelings. Crit: animalshumans. Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes SAQ/Essay Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: Genaine quadruplets Since they were identical they Bullying shared the same genes, therefore they were destined to all develop schizophrenia but environment influenced at what age they would be diagnosed. Short term: anger, depression, suicidal thoughts and feelings. Long term: low self-esteem, trust issues. Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour SAQ/Essay Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: Davidson: 8 budhist monks who the point of the study is that were highly experienced in ongoing practice of meditation meditation (10000 hours) and 10 (cognitive element) can actually volunteers who has been trained in change the way the brain functions meditation for a week. Told to (physiology).

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meditate about love and compassion. Using PET scan to see the number of gamma waves (linked to higher reasoning faculties) in their brain during meditation. As soon as they stopped meditating, the volunteers gamma levels returned to normal, but for the monks did not. Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies (for example, CAT, investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour. Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: fMRI: measures oxygen in blood. Kim and Hirsch used fmri to provides 3D pictures of brain research how the brain processes structures, using magnetic field language in bilingual individuals. and radio waves. Shows brain People bilingual since child : used activity and which part of the brain same region in brocas area for is being activated. both languages. People bilingual PET scan: scan monitors glucose later in life: used larger area of metabolism in the brain. Used to brain adjacent to the area used for identify brain abnormalities such the first language. as tumors. Davidson monks (see above)

Which led Davidson to deduce that meditation could have significant long-term effects on the brain and the way it processes emotions.

PET, fMRI) in

SAQ/Essay

Critical Thinking: Scanner is not a natural environment for cognition (ecological validity) Colors exaggerate the activity Brain areas activate for different reasons.

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With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does inheritance influence behaviour? Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Based on correlation studies: how Twins raised apart vs together. different variables may co-vary Findings: 70% of intelligence Minnesota Twin studies can be attributed to genetic (bouchard et al.) inheritance. Genaine quadruplets Since they were identical they shared the same genes, Matsuzawa (chimps) therefore they were destined to all develop schizophrenia but environment influenced at what age they would be diagnosed. Researcher taught monkeys numbers 1-9. Humans and monkey, seated an computer monitor, shown numbers then replaced by blank squares and they had to remember the location of the number. Human: increase of errors with speed of disappearance chimps: no change.

genetic

SAQ/Essay

Outline one evolutionary explanation of behaviour. Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: -Darwin/evolution - Curtis et al. (2004) internet -some traits passed on to increase survey likelihood of survival 77000 participants, 165 countries.

Critical Thinking: Bouchard: Relied on media coverage to recruit participants Ethical consideration about the way he reunited the twins No adequate control of contact between twins prior to study We cannot assume that twins that were raised together have the same environment. Adv: it did show how genetics directly influence behavior. Genaine quadruplet: mental illness ran in the family, ie Mr Genain mother. Matsuzawa: psychologists argue that it is necessary for chimps to have good memory so they can remember food resources or danger in natural environment. SAQ/Essay Critical Thinking: 1. Confirmation bias 2. Little is known about the behavior of homo sapiens, so

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-Natural selection, adaptation -Disgust response *One behavior that has been explained in terms of evolution is the human disgust response. -Origins of attractions -Helping behaviors

Finding: disgust levels were most statements about how strongly elicited for those images humans used to be are which threaten ones immune hypothetical system. Disgust levels were higher 3. Evolutionary arguments in younger people. Woman had often underestimate the role higher disgust reactions than men of culture = idea that disgust as a key to 4. Survey successful reproduction. -Wedekind: MHC genes, dirty shirt study. -Kin selection theory/selfish gene theory Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behaviour. SAQ/Essay Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: More research in genetics are case Minesota twin study: (Bouchard) Relied on media coverage to studies, therefore researchers psychological assessment of recruit participants bias, participants expectations. identical and fraternal twins Ethical consideration about Confidentiality and privacy, separated in early life and reared the way he reunited the physical or psychological harm to apart. The psychological twins participants through sharing of assessment included multiple No adequate control of personal information. Informed measures of personality, mental contact between twins prior consent. abilities, values, interests, to study psychomotor skills, reading, We cannot assume that spelling, and writing. The medical twins that were raised assessment involved a psychiatric together have the same interview, a medical life history, a environment. standard blood battery, and even detailed dental and periodontal exams. This massive study provides many examples of separated identical twins showing remarkable similarities.

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Cognitive Level of Analysis (LOA): Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies) Definitions/Key Concepts: 1) Stereotyping: having a fixed idea about someone = prone to discriminate 2) Cognitive psychologists study cognition in the laboratory as well as in daily context 3) Schemas- a network of knowledge, beliefs and expectation about particular aspects of the world. SAQ

Principles: 1) Human beings are information processors and that mental processes guide behavior 2) The mind can be studied scientifically 3) Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors

Research: Schema theory: Anderson and Pichert: aim: investigate if schema processing influences both encoding and retrieval. First participants heard a story about two boys who decided to stay away from school one day; instead then went to the home of one of them because the house was empty on Thursday, the house and objects in it were being described. You were either a house-buyer or burglar. Recall was directly linked to the schemas. Was performed in a lab = control = ecological validity?

Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of SAQ/Essay analysis Research Method: Description: Advantages and Limitations at cog Case studies Taking an individuals personal LOA: history in order to make a Natural environment, deeply Example at cog LOA: diagnosis through interviews, personal Clive wearing suffers from observations etc. Rich data but time amnesia. MRI= damage to consuming

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hippocampus

Research Method: experiments

Description: Aim: the purpose of the study, what will be studied. Example at cog LOA: Hypothesis: predicts the Anderson and pichert (schema relationship between IV and DV Independent variable: the variable that causes the change to the dependent variable Dependent variable: the thing that changes due to independent. Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis Ethical issue: Related Research:

Provide insight into a unique phenomenon. (eg Clive wearing) at BLO brain damage and memory. Advantages and Limitations at cog LOA: variables are controlled in a lab, but poses ecological validity questioning as it is not a natural environment. However the strength of this experiment was the variable control, which enabled the researchers to establish a causeand-effect relationship on how schemas affect different memory processes. SAQ/Essay

Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies. Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: A cognitive schema can be defined Anderson and pichert: aim: as networks of knowledge, beliefs, investigate if schema processing and expectations about a influences both encoding and particular aspect of the world. retrieval. First participants heard a Used to explain memory story about two boys who decided

SAQ/Essay Critical Thinking: Seems useful for understanding how people categorize information, interpret stories, and make inferences, among other things. Also contributed to the

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processes: encoding (transfer of sensory information into meaningful memory) -> storage -> retrieval.

to stay away from school one day; understanding of memory instead then went to the home of distortions and social cognitions. one of them because the house LIM: it is not entirely clear how was empty on Thursday, the house schemas are acquired in the first and objects in it were being place and how the influence described. You were either a cognitive processes. Cohen says house-buyer or burglar. Recall was its concept is too vague to be directly linked to the schemas. useful. Was performed in a lab = control = ecological validity? Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process (for example, memory, SAQ/Essay perception, language, decision-making) with reference to research studies. Key Concepts/Definitions: a model Research: Critical Thinking: attempts to describe complex Brain damage patients: HM or ADV of MSM: phenomena, they are constantly Clive Wearing. Because of brain It under-emphasizes changing. damage to hypothalamus, they are interaction between the incapable of transferring new Multi-store model: stores. information between short term 1)memory consists of a STM and LTM are more and long term memory. number of separate stores complex and less unitary Craik and Lockhart suggested that 2)memory processes are than the model assumes. information could be processed or sequential Mere rehearsal is too simple encoded at Shallow, Deeper and Memory stores: attention, coding a process to account for the Deepest levels. and rehearsal. transfer of information from a. eg. Is the word FISH in lower Sensory -> short-term -> longSTM to LTM case or capital letters? term (shallow least probable to Levels of Processing : the be remembered) extent to which you b. Does the word STYLE rhyme rehearse will be directly with 'pin'? (deeper more proportional to how well you chance to be remembered ) remember it. Also the depth c. Is the word PANCAKE a form or level at which we process of transport? (deepest information determines its

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place in LTM and also how well we recall that information.

most chance of being remembered) Craik & Lockhart suggested that semantic processing can operate at different depths of analysis, some being more complex than others which they referred to as Elaborate Semantic Processing.

Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process SAQ Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: case studies: How brain damage affects Clive Wearing: damage to the frontal region and hippocampus makes memory. Hippocampus: formation him unable to transfer new information into long-term memory. of explicit memories. HM: doctors decided to perform surgery on his brain in hope of stopping him from suffering from epileptic seizures. Ever since he couldnt transfer new info into LTM. MRI showed that there was damage to the hippocampus, amygdala and other places which helps to explain brain function. Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process SAQ/Essay Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: they could not Different cultures/environment Cole and Scribner, aim: investigate have the same list of words affect cognitive processes such as memory strategies in different because of language and culture memory cultures. Compared recall of words differences. US vs Liberia. Normally, practice = increased recall. But not the case in Liberia unless the children had attended school for several years. After 15 practice trials, the remembered only 2 more items. Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour SAQ/Essay

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Key Concepts/Definitions:

Research:

Critical Thinking:

With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive process SAQ/Essay reliable Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: Bartlett argues that memory is Bartlett asked participants to read Laboratory experiment = problems reconstructive and that schemas a native American story. After 15 with ecological validity. The more influence recall. minutes, the participants were complicated the story, the more asked to reproduce the story from likely it is that elements will be memory. Findings: it was difficult forgotten or distorted. People try for people from western cultures to to find a familiar pattern in reproduce because of its experiences. According to Bartlett unfamiliar style and content. Story memory is a n imaginative became shorter, distorted, and reconstruction of experience. conventional.

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Discuss the use of technology in Key Concepts/Definitions: Neuro-imaging techniques allow researchers to obtain images of brain functioning and structures. PET: measures important function in the brain such as blood flow. Used to detect tumours or memory disorders. MRI: measure oxygen in blood, and when an area of the brain is active it uses more oxygen therefore we can clearly see what part of the brain is used for different cognitive processes. To what extent do cognitive and Key Concepts/Definitions: Cognitive: memory and interpretation Biological: biological structures and pathways -role of appraisal

investigating cognitive processes Research: Critical Thinking: Longitudinal study, 53 normal participants, they found that individuals showed early signs of reduced metabolism in the hippocampus were associated with the development of Alzheismers disease later on.

SAQ/Essay

biological factors interact in emotion SAQ/Essay Research: Critical Thinking: The Emotional Brain (1999) It is hard to see the interaction of LeDoux: pathways of the brain. the brain structures because it can Short route: thalambus -> only be seen through technology amygdala = quick emotional response; long route: thalambus -> cortex -> hippocampus -> amygdala Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process SAQ/Essay Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: it is hard to Flashbulb theory. Brown and Kulik. The participants recalled the death accurately test to see if there is a This theory suggests that there of John F Kennedy most vividly. difference in brain activity in may be a special neural 80% said that they had flashbulb events like these because you mechanism with triggers an memories associated with a cannot predict when something is emotional arousal because the personal shock such as death of going to happen. Culture

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event is unexpected or extremely important. Which would explain why people remember exactly where they were and what they were doing on 9/11.

close relative.

difference ie: only Americans would remember JFK assassination. Neisser suggested that the memories are so vivid because they are rehearsed and reconsidered after event.

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Socio-cultural Level of Analysis (LOA): Outline principles that define the socio-cultural level of analysis Explain how principles that define the socio-cultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies) Definitions/Key Concepts: 1) The bio and cog systems that make up the individual are embedded in an even larger system or interrelationships with other individuals. 2) Culture = norms and values that define a society. 3) People do not only have an individual identity, but also a collective or social one. (conformity, Asch) Research: SAQ

Principles: 1) Human beings are social animals and we have a basic need to belong 2) Culture influences behavior 3) Because humans are social animals, they have a social self 4) Peoples view of the world are resistant to change

Discuss how and why particular level of analysis Research Method: Naturalistic osevration: Overt - know they're being observed

research methods are used at the socio-cultural OReilly (2000) study on british expatriates in spain. She had to spend time among them and carried out interviews and observed their behavior in many different situations and found that

SAQ/Essay

Researchers bias. People may not trust, confidentiality ADV: high ecological validity as collection of data takes place in natural environment. Used to get data for unusual cases. LIM:reactivity,

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Research Method: Naturalistic Observation Covert - do not know they are being observed When Prophecy Fails (Festinger et al., 1956)

LIM: Researcher must gain trust of the participants, which is done through deceit. Does not obtain informed consent. Difficulty taking notes, and often have to rely on memory, therefore researchers bias may occure. Time consuming. ADV: good for research on people who would probably not accept to be observed. Detailed knowledge that would usually be hard to obtained (look at paper 3 study guide) Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the socio-cultural level SAQ/Essay of analysis Ethical issue: Related Research: Participants are decieved When prophecy fails (festinger et al.) (see above) Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Attribution: how people interpret Errors in attribution (see next box) and explain casual relationships in the world Situational factors: something to do with external factors SAQ

they were happy with their life in spain. In order to guarantee that they would discuss their life openly with her, she had to develop a trusting relationship, and had to be non-judgmental. Description: in Chicago, there was a religious cult that believed that the world would end on 21 December. Finstinger decided to become a member of the cult to be able to observe. When nothing happened, the observed members conversation and they concluded that God did not destroy the world because of their prayers.

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Dispositional factors: something to do with personal factors. Discuss two errors in attributions Fundamental attribution theory (lee et al.) Self-Serving bias, Lau and Russel (1980) SAQ/Essay Research: aim: if participants would overestimate the role of disposition factors in an individuals behavior and underestimate situational factors, participants were randomly assigned to either be the game show host, the contestants or audience. Audience was the asked to rank the intelligence of the people who had taken part. Show host was ranked most intelligent even though they knew that the person had been randomly assigned to that position and that he had written the questions up himself. in soccer games, player and coaches tend to take credit for win based on dispositional factors ie: being in good shape, hard work put in, natural talent; and losses to situational factors, ie: injuries, weather or referee. This helps our selfesteem, Criticisms: Laboratory: problems with ecological validity. Sampling, students are not representative sample therefore findings cannot be generalized. Students also see people of authority asking question in class.

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Evaluate social identity theory, Key Concepts/Definitions: Tajfel assumes that individuals strive to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their selfesteem, based on either personal identity or various social groups. Therefore people can boost their self-esteem through personal achievement or affiliation with successful groups

making reference to relevant studies SAQ/Essay Research: Critical Thinking: SIT fails to take boys previously acquainted were into account the environment of then separated into 2 teams. They the participants. it does not were given sets of matrices and accurately predict human behavior were told to that they were to and tajfels experiment shows a allocate which numbered boy lack of mundane realism. the would be rewarded with what theory explains a range of social amount of money based on a phenomena from supporting a matrix. The results showed that soccer team to prejudice and when a student was confronted discrimination. Does not predict with an in and out-group member, human behavior. in-group favoritism occurred, therefore creating out-group prejudice. But when they faced two in-group or two out-group members together, they divided the rewards equally. Cialdini et al. after a win people were more likely to wear the team colors than after a loss, assuming that our need for a positive selfconcept will result in bias. Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behavior SAQ Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Stereotype: a social perception of Spencer et al. : the effect of stereotype threat on intellectual an individual in terms of group performance. Participants given a math test, women were under

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membership or physical attributes. stereotype threat that men were better at math than they were Campbell: personal experiences (common stereotype). He found that women in the experiment with individuals or groups, and significantly underperformed compared with equally qualified men on gatekeepers: media, parents and the difficult math test. However when he tested literature skills, the two other members. groups preformed equally well. Stereotype threat: according to Jane Elliott: the kids under stereotype threat, video. Steel a stereotype turns on spotlight anxiety, which causes emotional distress and pressure that may undermine performance. Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies SAQ Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Humans learn behavior through Bandura et al: children 3 -6. 1st group exposed to adult showing observational learning. Attention, aggression towards a Bobo doll. 2nd group observed a non-aggressice retention, motor reproduction and adult who assembled the toys. 3rd group served as control and didnt motivation. see any model. After watching the models, they were placed in a room with the toys. Then they were taken out and put into a different room with the bobo doll being told that the toys in that room werent for them. Findings: children from group 1 were significantly more aggressive, verbally and physically. Eron: longitudinal study for 15 years. Found a positive correlation between the number of hours of violence watched on tv by elementary school children and the level of aggression demonstrated when they were teenagers. Discuss the use of compliance techniques SAQ/Essay

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Compliance: The result of direct pressure to respond to a request. Reciprocity: the social norm that we should treat others the way they treat us. Door-in-the-face technique: people are more likely to accept a second request because they feel that the person has already lowered the request in order to accommodate to them.

Research: Cialdini et al: asked university students if they would be willing to chaperone a group of juvenile delinquents to the zoo, 83% refused. Another time they asked if they would be willing to sign up to work for two hours per week as counselor for a minimum of two years-no one agreed to volunteer. But when they followed up the students refusal with the request to take the juvenile delinquents to the zoo, aprox 50% agreed to do it. Commitment: Cialdini argues that Cialdini et al. : they asked firstonce people make a choice or take year psychology class to volunteer a stand, they will encounter to take part in an experiment at 7 personal and interpersonal am, only 24% were willing to pressures to behave consistently participate. In a second group, with that commitment. they asked the same favor, but Low-balling: when you commit to this time they were not told a time. something without knowing all the Of these, 56% agreed to take part. details, and when you find out that When they were told that they it may come to a detriment to you, would have to meet at 7am (and you still go with it because you feel that they could back out if they committed to it. wished) no one backed out of their commitment. And 95% showed up the day of. Evaluate research on conformity to group norms Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Conformity: the tendency to adjust Asch: to what extent would people

Critical Thinking: Daily life eg: when a salesperson lowers the price of a product or service because the customer is more likely to make a purchase (straw market).

Daily life eg: someone asks you if tomorrow you can take them to the airport, you say yes. They call you later on and ask if you will be there to pick them up at 5 am, and you agree because you dont want to let them down.

SAQ/Essay Critical Thinking: Low ecological validity, does it

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ones thoughts, feelings or behavior in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual or group.

conform to a wrong answer if the response from the other members of the group was false? 6 confederates dressed like business men. 75% agreed with incorrect responses at least once. The less number of confederates the less likeliness to conform.

really reflect reality? Only one culture was studied. Participants were deceived, and made to feel anxiety about their performances.

Discuss factors influencing conformity SAQ/Essay Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Critical Thinking: group size asch: 1 confederate = 3% sometimes larger groups can conformed, 2 = 14%, 3 = 32%. actually lower conformity unanimity Conformity was most likely confidence when all confederates agreed. If self-esteem one disagreed, even if it was the appearance of the also an incorrect answer, the confederates participant was significantly less likely to conform When individuals feel that they are more competent to make decision with regard to a field or expertise, they are less likely to conform. Stang: found that participants with high self-esteem were less likely to conform to incorrect answers. Spencer: when aschs study was replicated with engineers

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and medical students, conformity rates were almost nil. Define the terms culture and cultural norms SAQ Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Cultural norms are behavior Kuschel: culture cannot be seen but we can see the manifestations of patterns that are typical of specific culture. groups. Passed down through Lonner: culture can be defined as common rules that regulate generations by observational interactions and behavior in a group as well as a number of shared learning. values and attitudes of the group Hofstede: a mental software is shared by members of a sociocultural group. Examine the role of two cultural Key Concepts/Definitions: Dimensions are the perspectives of a culture based on the values and cultural norms. 1) Individualization - everyone is expected to look after themselves) 2) Collectivism - people an integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which provides them with support and protection. dimensions on behavior Research: Markus and Kitayama argues that perceiving boundary between the individual and the social environment is distinctly western in its cultural orientation, and that non-western cultures tend towards connectedness. SAQ/Essay Critical Thinking: Tribes in Africa rely on each other, versus people in America who dont.

Using one or more examples, explain emic and etic concepts SAQ Key Concepts/Definitions: Research: Etics are universal behaviors such Tahassum et al. conducted an interview about etics/emics and as depression. They compared emic definitions of depressive symptoms

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Marriage Concepts of intelligence Time The education of children Stress Emics are cultural-specific behaviors such as Specific definitions of marriage and intelligence What is valued in educating children How stress is experienced

from Pakistanis living in UK, with existing predominant etic descriptions uned by western psychiatrists treating patients with depression. They found an etic (culturally universal) description of the mental disorder centering on physical symptoms. 63% viewed aggression as a main symptom of abnormality. Because Pakistan in collectivist and emphasizes politeness in social behaviors, any form of aggression is seen as abnormal. So in Pakistan aggression is an emic (specific) symptom of depression. Although they did identify many of the same symptoms such as stress.

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