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: IV SUBJECT NAME: Software Quality Management SEM : VII UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE QUALITY Part (2 marks) 1. What is quality? 2. Define software quality? 3. What are the views of quality? 4. Give the definitions of quality? 5. What is quality as per ISO? 6. What are the reasons for software becomes problematical? 7. Give the traditional waterfall lifecycle model. 8. What is hierarchical model? 9. Give the schematic hierarchical view of software quality. 10. Mention the two hierarchical models. 11. What are the areas addressed by McCalls model? 12. Mention the criteria of quality defined by McCalls model? 13. Draw the GE model. 14. How the quality criteria interrelate? 15. What are software metrics? 16. What are the types of software metrics? 17. What are the seven criteria for good metrics? 18. What makes a good metric? 19. Define MTTF as a measure of reliability 20. What re the problems with metrics? 21. Give the relationship between criteria and measurable properties. 22. What are problems highlighted by Gilb with the implementation of methods? 23. What are the attributes of Gilbs work? 24. List out the Gilbs attributes with its sub attribute. 25. Define Workability. 26. Define availability. 27. Define adaptability. 28. Define Usability. 29. Mention the Dicksons classification of reliability criteria. 30. What is GQM model? PART-B 1. What are the views of quality? Explain in Detail the views of quality. (16) 2. Explain the hierarchical model of Quality. (16) 3. a) Plain in detail the GE Model. (08) b) Plain the Boehm model. (08) CS1020 SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT 4. Explain how the software quality can be measured and the problems associated with them. (16) 5. Explain the work of Gilb. (16) 6. Explain in detail GQM model. (16)

Unit-II SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE Part-A (2 Marks) 1. What are Quality tasks? 2. What is SQA Plan? 3. Define Software quality Assurance (SQA). 4. List out the Teams and Responsibilities. 5. What makes the QA work minimal? 6. What are the factors affecting the SQA effort? 7. List out the seven keys to Leadership. 8. What are the ways of killing the Quality Assurance? 9. What are the Characteristics of Software quality assurance? 10. List out the elements of Documentation. 11. What is SRS? 12. What is SDD? 13. What are the steps in Document Distribution? 14. Draw the Documents Documentation plan worksheet. 15. Give the Reviewing description template. 16. What are action Items? 17. List out the special responsibilities of Technical Review Process. 18. What is software inspection? 19. What is walkthrough? 20. What is audit process? 21. Write short notes on Document verification. Part-B 1. Explain in detail the Quality tasks and responsibilities. (16) 2. Explain in detail about the Documentation. (16) 3. Explain the Procedural description template and Action items (16) 4. Explain in detail the CMM Compatibility of Reviews and audits. (16) 5. Explain the management review process. (16) 6. Explain the technical review process. (16) 7. Explain the types of reviews. (16) 8. Explain the software inspection process. (16) 9. a) Explain walkthrough process. (8) b) Explain the Audit process. (8) 10. a) Explain the Document verification and validation. (8) b) Explain the factors affecting the SQA effort. (8) Unit- III QUALITY CONTROL AND RELIABILITY CS1020 SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT Part A (2 Marks) 1. What are the Ishikawas basic tools in software development? 2. What is Fish Bone diagram? 3. Draw the Cause and effect diagram of Design Inspection.

4. What are CASE tools? 5. Define error detection efficiency. 6. Define Defect removal efficiency. 7. Define TDCE and PCE 8. What is Defect Injection 9. What are the activities associated with Defect injection and Removal. 10. Write short notes on Defect Prevention process. 11. What are reliability models? 12. What is Rayleigh mole? 13. Define CDF and PDF in Rayleigh model. 14. What are reliability growth models? 15. What are the classes of Reliability Growth models? 16. List out the Reliability Growth models. 17. Define Jelinski Moranda model. 18. Define LittleWood model 19. Define Goel Okumoto imperfect debugging model. 20. Define Goel Okumoto Nonhomogeneous Poison Process model(NHPP) 21. Define Musa-Okumoto Logarithmic Poison Execution Time model. 22. Define The Delayed S and Inflection S. Part-B 1. Explain in Detail about the Ishikawas basic tools in software development (16) 2. a) Explain in detail about the CASE tools. (8) b) Explain the Defect Prevention Process. (8) 3. Explain the Defect removal Effectiveness. (16) 4. Explain the Reliability models. (16) 5. Explain in detail about the Rayleigh model. (16) 6. Explain Reliability growth model for quality assessment (16) Unit-IV QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Part-A (2 marks) 1. What is QMS? 2. Define TQM 3. What is QIP? 4. What are the elements of QMS? 5. What is statistical process control? 6. List out the procedures in a QMS. 7. Mention the SPC techniques and its purposes. 8. Write short notes on principles of Rayleigh model framework 9. Compare the Scenarios of Inspection Effort / Defect Rate. 10. What are the activities of Reliability growth models? 11. What are the key metrics and models? CS1020 SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT 12. Define Lines of Code 13. Define Halsteads Software Science. 14. Define Cyclomatic Complexity. 15. Write short notes on Syntactic constructs.

16. Write short notes on Structure metrics. 17. What is customer satisfaction analysis? 18. What are the survey methods of Customer satisfaction? 19. Write down the advantages and disadvantages of survey methods Part- B 1. Explain in detail the elements of QMS. (16) 2. Explain the Rayleigh model framework. (16) 3. Explain the Reliability Growth models. (16) 4. Explain the complexity metrics and its models (16) 5. Explain Lines of Code and Halsteads Software Science. (16) 6. Explain in detail the Cyclomatic Complexity (16) 7. a)Explain Syntactic constructs (8) b) Briefly explain structure metrics. (8) 8. Explain in detail the Customer satisfaction surveys / analysis. (16) Unit V QUALITY STANDARDS Part-A (2 Mark Question) 1. What are the needs for standards? 2. What are the fundamental principles of ISO 9001 standard 3. List out the ISO 9000 series of quality management standards. 4. Mention some of the clauses of ISO9001 standard. 5. What are the three levels of Document control clause? 6. Write short notes on Seeking Accreditation 7. Give the structure of ISO9000 3 standards 8. What are the key areas of guidance given by ISO 9000-3 standard? 9. What are the requirements of ISO9001? 10. What is the impact of ISO9000 11. What is CMM? Or write short notes on CMM. 12. What are the five levels of SEI CMM? 13. What are the five stages of CMM 14. What is CMMI? 15. Write short notes on Six Sigma concepts. Part- B 1. Discuss in detail about the needs for standards (16) 2. Explain the ISO9000 series standard (16) 3. Explain the ISO9000-3 standard for software development. (16) 4. Explain in detail the CMM Model (16) 5. Explain the CMMI Model (16) 6. Explain the Six Sigma Concepts. (16) CS1020 SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUESTION BANK ,CS1020 SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUESTION BANK IMPORTANT QUESTIONS,CS1020 SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2009. Eighth Semester (Regulation 2004) Computer Science and Engineering CS 1020-SOFTWARE QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Seventh Semester Regulation 2005) Answer ALL Questions Part A - (10x2=20 marks) 1. Define Software Quality. What is it from the user's point of view? 2. List out atleast four important measures of maintainability. 3. State four quality attributes due to Gilb. 4. What is the need for software quality assurance plan? 5. What are the Ishikawa's seven basic tools? 6. Explain briefly the significance of time between failure models and fault count models. 7. What is problem tracking report (PTR) model? 8. Define cyclomatic complexity. What is its use is software? 9. What are the main standards of ISO 9000 series? Where do you make use of these standards in software development? 10. What are the six sigma limits? Explain their importance in quality management. PART B-(5x16=80 marks) 11. (a) Discuss in detail the hierarchical models of Boehms and McCall. Explain the significance of these models in software development process. (or) (b) Explain the purpose of Goal-Question-Metric (GQM) model. Suppose the development team has as its goal "improve effectiveness of testing". Use GQM approach to suggest relevant questions and measures that will enable you to determine if you have met your goal. 12 (a) What are the important quality tasks to be performed for effective Quality Management? Discuss issues and remedies in quality assurance management. (or) (b) Discuss the techniques used by quality auditors for software explain the importance of each technique. 13. (a) Bringout salient features of Rayleigh model. Discuss the significance of this model in the reliability analysis of the software. How does it provide a framework for quality management? (or) (b) Explain clearly the concept of defect removal effectiveness and its importance in the software development. How the metrics associated with defect removal effectiveness help in quality planning and management. 14. (a) What are the important components of Quality management system? Discuss how the reliability growth models are useful for quality management system. (or) (b) What are the module design metrics used in practice? Discuss the significance of these metrices. 15. (a) Discuss the need for quality standards. Do they ensure the adequate quality? Explain ISO 9000-3 standard for software development. (or) (b) Write short notes on the following: (i) Capability Maturity Model (CMM). (ii) Comparison of ISO 9000 and CMM.

CS 1632 SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE 2 Marks Sample Questions and Answers 1. Define quality. Quality is the degree of goodness of a product or service or perceived by the customer. Quality concept is the way business organizations perform their business activities that focuses on two things. 2. What is quality cost? The expenditure incurred by the producer, by the user and by the community associated with the product and service quality. 3. What are the building blocks of total quality management? Management commitment, customer focus, process focus, continuous improvement, benchmarking, teams, supplier teaming, employee involvement, training of employees, inventory management, communication. 4. What are the 7 QC tools? 1. Check sheet 2. Graphs 3. Histograms 4. Pareto charts 5. Cause and effect diagrams 6. Scatter charts 7. Control charts 5. What is business process reengineering? BPR is the search for, and the implementation of, radical change in business process to achieve breakthrough results Define Quality Function Deployment. 6. Define Quality Function Deployment. QFD is a systematic and structured planning tool which is used to convert the voice of the customer into appropriate requirements. 7. Define six sigma. Six sigma is a highly disciplined process that helps the enterprise to focus on developing and delivering new perfect products and services.

8. What are the uses of arrow diagram? Arrow diagrams help in scheduling the activities so that any project can be completed in the best possible way. It will provide a time sequential action plan for all the tasks that are to be carried out in a project. 9. What are the different dimensions of quality? Performance, features, reliability, conformance, durability, serviceability, aesthetics, perceived quality and reputation, response. 10. What is external failure? Costs of correction methods adopted to meet quality standards after reaching the customers. 11. What are the uses of control charts?. 1. Monitoring the process. 2. Identifying the state of statistical control 3. Finding the reasons for out of control. 4. finding out of mean and variation 5. identifying the randomly occurring variations 12. Steps involved in the bench marking process. Decide the function to be benchmarked, look into and understand the current performance, plan, study the other players in the market, learn from the data that you have collected, implement the findings. 13. What is statistical process control? Statistical process control procedures are designed to divert attention from individual data and focus on the system as a whole. SPC is used to measure and control the degree of variation in material, service, process and product. 14. Define TQM. Total quality management is customer oriented management philosophy and strategy. It is centered on quality so as to result in customer delight. 15. What is quality planning? Quality planning refers to the activities that establish the objectives and requirements for quality. 16. What is quality improvement? QM aims at attaining unprecedented levels of performance which are significantly better than the past level.

17. What is quality management? Quality management comprises all activities of the overall management function that determine the quality policy, objectives and responsibilities, and implement them by means such as other quality planning, quality control, etc. 18. What are the benefits of QFD? 1. Reduces product development time 2. Reduce engineering costs 3. Reduces the time to market. 4. Improves design quality 5. Improves customer satisfaction. 6. Reduce quality costs. etc. 19. What is internal benchmarking>? Internal benchmarking compares best practices followed in different departments with in a company instead of looking other companies. 20. What are the four ps focused on effective software project management? 1. People, 2. Product, 3. Process, 4. Project 21. Define software configuration management. SCM is a set of activities that have been developed to manage change throughout the life cycle of computer software. 23. What are CASE tools? CASE is the use of computer based support in the S/W development process. Tools used to assist in this way are known as CASE tools. 24. What are function-oriented metrics? Function oriented software metrics use a measure of the functionality delivered by the application as a normalization value. Since functionality can not be measured directly, it must be derived indirectly using other direct measures. 25. Define white box testing? White box testing sometimes called as glass box testing is a test case design method that uses the control of the procedural design to drive test cases. 26. What are the steps implied by statistical quality assurance? 1. Information about s/w defects, 2. An attempt is made to trace each defect to its underlying cause, 3. Using the pareto principle, 4. Move to correct the problems that have caused the defects.

27. Define Verification and Validation. Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that s/w correctly implements a specific function. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the s/w that has been built is traceable to customer requirements. 28. What is RMM plan? The risk mitigation, monitoring, and management plan documents all work performed as part of risk analysis and is used by the project manager as part of the overall project plan. Once the RMMM has been documented and the project has begun risk mitigation and monitoring steps commence. 29. What are the qualities team leaders should posses? Motivation, organization, ideas and innovation, problem solving, managerial identity, achievement, and influence and team building. 30. What is an agile team? Agile software development encourages customer satisfaction and early incremental delivery. Agile team Is a highly motivated project team which adopts informal methods, and overall development simplicity. 31. What are the categories of activities connected with measurement process? Formulation, Collection, Analysis, Interpretation and feedback. 31. What are the different measurable characteristics of an OO design? Size, complexity, coupling, sufficiency, completeness, cohesion, primitiveness, similarity, volatility. 32. What are the measures of software quality? Correctness, maintainability, integrity usability. 33. What is metrics evaluation? Metrics evaluation focuses on the underlying reasons for the results obtained and produces a set of indicators that guide the project or process. 34. What is software quality assurance? Software quality assurance is a planned and systematic pattern of actions that are required to ensure high quality in software. 35. What is SQA group? SQA group consists of many different constituencies like software engineers, project managers, customers, salespeople and the individuals which are having software quality assurance responsibility.

36. What are the activities associated with SQA group? Planning, oversight, record keeping, analysis and reporting. 37. What are the different SCM features? Versioning, dependency tracking and change management, requirements tracing, configuration management, audit trails. 38. What are reactive risk strategies? Reactive strategy the software team does nothing about risks until something goes wrong. 39. What are the characteristics of software risks? Uncertainty and loss 40. What is software availability? Software availability is the probability that a program is operating according to requirements at a given point in time. 41. What are the management responsibilities regarding ISO 9001 requirements? Management commitment, Customer focus, Quality policy, Planning, Responsibility, Authority, Communication, and Management review. 42. Define SPICE. SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEvelopement) standard defines a set of requirements for software process assessment. The intent of the standard is to assist organizations in developing an objective evaluation of the efficacy of any defined software process. 43. What is MALCOLM BALDRGE award? MALCOLM BALDRIGE award is the most prestigious quality award in the United States. The award is given annually to recognize U.S companies that exceed in quality management and quality achievement. 44. What are the ISO 9000 series of quality management standards? ISO 9000, ISO9001, ISO9002, ISO9003, ISO9003, ISO9004 45. Define CMM. The capability maturity model (CMM) for s/w is a widely accepted set of guidelines for developing high performance s/w organizations. 46. What are the capability levels defined in SPICE? Level0: Not performed, 1: Performed informally, 2: Planned and tracked, 3: Well defined, 4: Quantitatively controlled, 5: Continuously improving.

47. What are the types of accreditation? First party, Second party, Third party. 48. What are the components of the ISO 9000 series to which SPICE is related? ISO 9001, ISO 9000-3, ISO 9004-4., ISO DIS. 49. What is and assessment instrument? An assessment instrument is a tool, or set of tools, used during the performance of an assessment to assist the assessor in obtaining reliable, consistent and repeatable results. 50. What are the goals of SPICE project? 1. developing a working draft for a standard for software process assessment 2. conducting industry trials of the emerging standards. 3. promoting the technology transfer of software process assessment into the software industry world wide. 51. What are the benefits that an international standard will provide to industry? 1. Software suppliers will submit to just one process assessment scheme. 2. Software development organizations will have a tool to initiate and sustain a continuous process improvement 3. Programme managers will have a means to ensure that their software development is aligned with, and supports, the business needs of the organization. 52. What are the benefits of ISO 9000 verification? 1. Provides know-how for establishing a quality management system. 2. Certification has become the minimum requirement of quality for any tender. 3. It is a status symbol for the organizations. 4. Improves products and services. 5. Improves employee morale. 53. What are the events associated with quality management? Establishing, Documenting, Implementing, Maintaining, Continuously improving its effectiveness. 54. What are the documents required to implement quality management system in an organization? 1. Quality policy and quality objectives 2. Quality manual 3. Document to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes 4. Records.

55. What are the pre-requisites for employees? Education, training, skill, experience 56. What are the requirement of internal auditing? 1. Set up an internal audit program 2. Develop an internal audit procedure 3. Plan internal audit procedure. 4. Perform regular internal audits 5. Take corrective action. 57. What are the different organizations to which the Malcolm Balridge award is given? 1. Manufacturing 2. Service 3.Small businesses 58. What are the different process maturity levels? 1. Initial 2. Repeatable 3. Defined 4. Managed 5. Optimizing 59. Who are the steps organizations has to take to improve their software capabilities?? 1. Understand the current status 2. Develop a vision of the desired process 3. Establish a list of process improvement actions. 4. Produce a plan to accomplish the required actions. 5. Commit the resources to execute theplans. 60. What are the requirements of ISO 9001: 2000 standard? 1. Demonstrate ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements. 2. Enhance customer satisfaction. 61. What are the different principles of software assessment? 1. Start with a process model 2. Observe strict confidentiality

3. Involve senior management 4. Keep an open mind and a level head 5. Focus on action 62. Who are the different inspection participants? 1. The moderator 2. The producers 3. The reviewers 63. Define software engineering process. The total set of software engineering activities needed to a users requirement into software. 64. Define software process architecture. A framework within which project specific software process are defined 65. Define software process model. One specific embodiment of a software process architecture. 66. Define software process. The set of activities, methods, and practices that are used in the production and evolution of software. 67. What are the critical software process issues? Quality, product technology, Requirement instability and complexity. 68.What are the different process model views? Organizational view and Control and measurement view. 69. What are the drawbacks of water fall model? 1. It does not adequately address changes. 2. It assumes a relatively uniform and orderly sequence of development steps. 3. It does not provide for such methods as rapid prototyping or advanced languages. 70. What are the different levels of software process models? U process models, A process models and U process models 71. What are the different types of software tests? 1. Unit testing 2. Integration testing 3. Function testing 4. Regression testing 5. System test

72. Define testing. The process of executing a program with the intention of finding errors. 73. Define debugging. Diagnosing the precise nature of a known error and then correcting it. 74. What are integration tests. Integration tests verify the interfaces between system parts suchas modules, components and subsystems. 75. What are regression tests? Regression tests run a subset of previously executed integration and function tests to ensure that program changes have not degraded the system. 76. What are installation tests? Installation tests validate the instability and operability of the users system. 77. What are the major test plan elements? 1. Establish objectives for each test phase 2. Establish schedules and responsibilities for each test activity 3. Determine the availability of tools, facilities, and test libraries. 4. Establish the procedure and standards to be used for planning and conducting the tests and reporting the test results. 5. Set the criteria for test completion as well as for the success of each test. 78. What should be the qualities of assessment team members? The assessment team members should all be experienced software developers, and one or more should have experience in each phase of the software process. 79. What are the different risks associated with a software process? Schedule conflict, inadequate support and lack of follow through. 80. What are the basic objectives of inspections? 1. To find errors at the earliest 2. To ensure that the appropriate parties technically agree on the work. 3. To verify that the work meets predefined criteria. 4. To formally complete a technical task 5. To provide data on the product and the inspection process. 81. Why defect prevention is crucial to the software process? Finding and fixing errors accounts for much of the cost of software development and maintenance. Also the process of fixing defects is even more error prone than original

software creation. 82. What are the principles of software defect prevention? 1. The programmers must evaluate their own errors 2. Feedback is essential part of defect prevention 3. There is no single cure all that will solve all the problems. 4. Process improvement must be an integral part of the process. 5. Process improvement takes time to learn. 83. What are the different steps of software defect prevention? Defect reporting, Cause analysis, action plan development, action implementation, performance tracking and starting over. 84. What are the different errors for which defect prevention analysis is required? Technological, Organizational, Historic, Group dynamic, Individual and others. 85. What are the different ways in which CMMI represents a process meta model? As a Continuous model and as a staged model 86. What is PSP? The personal software process emphasizes personal measurement of both the work product that is produced and the resultant quality of the work product. 87. What are the different framework activities defined by PSP model? Planning, High-level design, High level design-review, development and postmortem. 88. What is postmortem in PSP? Determining the effectiveness of the process using the measures and metrics is defined as postmortem. 89. What are the objectives of TSP? 1. Build self-directed teams that plan and track their work. 2. Show managers how to coach and motivate their teams. 3. Accelerate software process improvement 4. Provide improvement guidance to high maturity organizations. 5. Facilitate university teaching of industrial grade team skills. 90. What are the framework activities defined by TSP? Launch, high level design, implementation, integration, and test and postmortem. 91. What is cleanroom software engineering?

The clean room process emphasizes rigor in specification and design, and formal verification of each design element using correctness proofs that are mathematical based. It also emphasizes statistical quality control. Cleanroom software engineering is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards. 92. What are the tasks associated with cleanroom strategy? Increment planning, Requirements gathering, Box structure specification, Formal design, and Correctness verification. Code generation, inspection and verification, statistical test planning, Statistical use testing and certification. 93. What are the different boxed used in cleanroom software engineering? Black box, State box and Clear box 94. What is state box? The state box is a simple generalization of a state machine. The state box uses a data abstraction to determine the transition to the next state and the action that will occur as a consequence of the transition. 95. What are the different models require for cleanroom software engineering certification? 1. Sampling model 2. Component model 3. Certification model 96. What is object oriented systems development methodology? Object oriented systems development is a way to develop software by building self contained modules or objects that can be easily replaced, modified and reused. Furthermore, it encourages a view of the world as a system of cooperative and collaborating systems. 97. What are the reasons for the necessity of object orientation? 1. Higher level abstraction 2. Seamless transition among different phases of software development. 3. Encouragement of good programming technique. 4. Promotion of reusability 98. What is UML? Unified modeling language (UML) is intended to be a universal language for modeling systems, meaning that it can express models of many different kinds and purposes, just as a programming language or a natural language can be used in many

different ways. 99. What are the different diagrams defined in UML? Class diagram, Use-case diagram, Behavior diagram, interaction diagram, sequence diagram, collaborative diagram, statechart diagram, activity diagram, implementation diagram, component diagram, deployment diagram. 100. What is classification? Classification is the process of checking to see if an object belongs to a category or a class. 16 MARKS 1. Explain Quality Function Deployment in detail. Introduction what is QFD? QFD team Benefits of QFD customer satisfaction, reduce implementation time, promotes team work, provides documentation House of quality effectiveness, advantages, importance to customer, target value, scale up factor, sales point QFD process Conclusion. 2. Describe in detail the standardization procedure of benchmarking. Introduction Definitions - Reasons for benchmarking Process function, understanding performance, planning, internal benchmarking, competitive benchmarking, process benchmarking, learning from data, using the findings, Advantages of benchmarking Conclusion. 3. Explain how software quality assurance is ensured in a software firm. Quality concepts quality, quality control, quality assurance, cost of quality Software quality assurance- background issues, SQA activities Software reviews Cost impact of software defects, defect amplification and removal Formal technical reviews the review meeting, review reporting and record keeping, review guidelines, sample-driven reviews- Formal approaches to SQA Statistical SQA, Software reliability. 4. Explain the seven basic quality control tools in detail. Statistical process control- 7QC tools- check sheet graphs Histograms bar charts cause and effect diagrams Inter relationship diagrams control charts Definition, steps example and applications. 5. Explain software project management in detail. The management spectrum Effective project management focuses on 4 Ps the people, the product, the process, the project- people- the players, team leaders, the

software team, coordination and communication issues the product Software scope, problem decomposition The process- melding the product and the process, problem decomposition The project W5HH Principle Critical Practices risk management, empirical cost and schedule estimation, metric based project management, eaned value tracking, defect tracking, People aware program management. 6. Explain how software quality assurance is ensured in a software firm Quality concepts quality, quality control, quality assurance, cost of quality Software quality assurance- background issues, SQA activities Software reviews Cost impact of software defects, defect amplification and removal Formal technical reviews the review meeting, review reporting and record keeping, review guidelines, sample-driven reviews- Formal approaches to SQA Statistical SQA, Software reliability. 7. What are the different software testing tactics? Explain. Testing fundamentals - Basis path testing flow graph notation, independent program paths, deriving test cases, graph matrices Control structure testing Black box testing Graph based testing method, equivalence partitioning, Boundary value analysis, Orthogonal array testing Object oriented testing methods White box testing Testing methods applicable at the class level Interclass test case design Testing for specialized environments, architectures, and applications _ Testing patterns. 8. Write detail notes on risk management. Reactive and proactive risk strategies software risks risk identification assessing overall project risks risk components and diagrams risk projection developing a risk table assessing risk impact risk refinement risk mitigation monitoring and management. 9. Write detail notes on ISO9000 series of quality management standards. The purpose of standards The ISO9000 series The contents of the standard seeking accreditation An assessment of the ISO9001 standard- ISO90003:notes for guidance on the application of ISO9001 to software development ISO9000-3 The impact of ISO9000 and TickIT- survey design Questionnaire format Impact of organization size upon uptake of third party accreditation Historical development of third party accreditation Reasons for not having

external accreditation The effect of business type and size for organizations using QA procedures Reasons for developers seeking or not seeking an external QA standard 10. Account on CMM in detail. Introducing Software Process Maturity - The Evolution of the CMM, Immature versus Mature Software Organizations, Fundamental Concepts Underlying Process Maturity, Total Quality Management and the CMM, Customer Satisfaction, Benefits and Risks of Model-Based Improvement - The Software Process Maturity Framework - The Structure of the Capability Maturity Model Interpreting the CMM - Using the CMM - The Key Areas for Level 2: Repeatable - Process Areas for Level 3: Defined - The Key Process Areas for Level 4: Managed - The Key Process Areas for Level 5:Optimizing.. 11. Give a detail note on SPICE in detail. Principal goals SPICE document Capability levels not performed, performed informally, planned and tracked, well defined, quantitatively controlled, continuously improving Award categories leadership, strategic planning, customer and market focus, information and analysis, human source focus, process management, business results Overview of award process Relationship to other international standards. 12. Write detailed notes on Malcolm Baldrige award. Categories of organizations Quality award Award criteria 13. Explain how software process assessment helps software organizations to improve themselves. Assessment overview Assessment phases Five assessment principles Start with a process model, observe strict confidentiality, involve senior management, keep an open mind and level head, focus on action The assessment process forming an assessment team, self assessment considerations, assessment ground rules, assessment team training, the on-site period Assessment conduct implementation consideration. 14. Explain the testing phase of software development in detail. Definitions testing, verification, validation, debugging The seven types of software tests Testing methods Software testing principles The axioms of testing The proper role of testing Types of software tests Unit testing

Integration testing Function testing Regression testing System test Test planning The test files The success criteria Test development Test coverage techniques Test execution and reporting Test tools and methods Real-time testing The test organization. 15. Give detailed description about software process assessment. Assessment overview assessment phases Five assessment principles the assignment process assessment conduct implementation considerations. 16. Explain software inspections in detail. Types of reviews Inspection objectives basic inspection principles the conduct of inspections inspection training reports and tracking other considerations initiating an inspection program future directions. 17. Explain OO methodology in detail. OO system development Object basics OO system development life cycle Rumbaugh, Booch, Jacobson methodologies Patterns Frameworks OO analysis classification, identifying object relationships, attributes, and methods OO design designing classes, access layer, view layer Quality assurance system usability and measuring user satisfaction 18. Write detailed notes on the techniques for error cause analysis and defect prevention. Defect prevention not a new idea Why defect prevention is crucial to the software process The principles of software defect prevention The steps of software defect prevention - defect reporting error cause categories cause analysis The cause analysis meeting The action team Tracking action progress Prevention feedback - Process changes for defect prevention Defect prevention considerations The role of tools and technology The costs and benefits of defect prevention - Managements role. 19. Account on clean-room software engineering. The clean-room approach The clean-room strategy functional specification black-box, state-box and clear-box specifications clean-room design design refinement and verification advantages of design verification clean-room testing statistical use testing certification. 20. Write notes on TSP and PSP. Personal software process framework activities planning high-level

design high-level design view development postmortem. Team software process framework activities launch High-level design implementation integration test postmortem.