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COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. FUMES AND GASES Inthe Welding Environment )iq AMERICAN

FUMES

AND

GASES

Inthe Welding Environment

)iq

AMERICAN WELMNG SOCIETY

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Fumesand Gases in the Welding Environment

A ResearchReport on Fumes and Gases GeneratedDuring Welding Operations

Research performedat Battelle-Columbus Labbratories under contractwith the American Welding Society and supported by industry contributions

Underthe direction of the AWS RESEARCH COMh&MZE ON, SAFETYAND HEALTH

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

AND HEALTH COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Edited by E Y Speight, Manager, Safety and

Edited by E Y Speight, Manager, Safety and Health, and H.C. Campbell,.Consultint

AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY

2501 NW 7th Streét, Miami, Florida 33125

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Library of Congress Number: 79-51875 International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-174-5

American Welding Society, 2501 N.W. 7th Street, Miami, FL 33125

01979 by American Welding Society All rights reserved

Note: By publication of this specification the American Welding Society does not insure anyone utilizing the specifica- tion against liability arising from the use of such specification. A publication of a specification by the American Welding Society does not carry with it any right to make, use, or sell any patented items. Each prospective user should make an independent inve3tigation.

Printed in the,United States of America

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Contents

Personnel

vii

Preface

ix

Supporting Organizations ContributingOrganizations

xi

Abstract

1

Introduction: Research Program on Improving the WeldingEnvironment

1

Overview of Fume Constituents

1

Survey of

Part

1. Fume Ventilation Data

2

Survey of

Part II.Fumés from Arc We1.ding Electrodes

3

Survey of Part II& Fumes from Brazing

Survey of PartV.Fumes from Oxygen Cutting

;

‘3

Survey of Part IV.Fumes from Thermal Spraying

4

4

Organization of this Report

5

ParfI.VentilationStudies

7

Introduction

7

Scope

7

Limitations

7

Program

8

Equipment, Materials. Procedure

8

List of Symbols Used in SectionsIA, IB.and IC

20

SectionIA. General Room Ventilation

21

Fluid Dynamic Considerations

21’

RoomVentilation

21

SectionIB.LocalVentilation

25

DataNeeded

25

CalibrationofEquipment

26

Experimentalprocedure

26

ExperimentalResults

i

26

SectionIC.Local Exhaust Studies

31 .

Calibration of Equipment

32

ExperimentalProcedure

33

ExperimentalResults

:

39

ApplicationofResultsofPartI

r

49

Question 1

50

Question2

:

52

Question 3

58

SummaryofPartI

.60 .

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Part II.Arc WeldingFumes and Gases

;

63

Introduction

63

Scope

65

Limitations

66

Program

66

Equipment. Materials, Procedure

66

SectionIIA.LaboratoryTest Method

68

Procedures.,

68

ChamberEvaluation

68

ExperimentalResults

69

SectionIII3. Fume Generation Characteristics of Arc Welding Electrodes

70

Baseline Data

70

Covered and Flux Cored Electrodes

73

Solid Electrodes

82

Section IIC. Effects of Process Variables on Fume Generation Rates

86

Current Effects

86

Current Density Effects

88

Arc Voltage-Arc Length Effects

91

Effects of Iron Powder Additions

92

Other Studies

93

SectionIID.Analytical

Studies

97

Analysis of Fume Fume Characterization

97

100

GasDetection

100

Section IiE.Effect of Humidity on Fume Sampling

104

SamplingArea

104

ExperimentalProcedures

105

ExperimentalResults

Summary of Part

II

 

105

108

Principal Fumes and Gases Present

108

Covered Electrodes

109

FluxCoredElectrodes

109

SolidElectrodes

110

Fume GenerationCharacteristics of Gas lüngsten Arc Welding

:

111

ProcessVariables

111

Otherstudies

112

Analytical Studies

112

Part III.Brazing Fumes and Gases

;

115

Introduction

115

Scope

115

Limitations

115

Program

116

Equipment. Materials. Procedure

116

SectionIIIA.Total Fume GenerationCharacterïstics

119

Flux Covered Melts

120

GasCoveredMelts

121

Ingot Weight Losses

123

SectionIIIB.Fume

Composition

123

Flux Covered Melts Gas Covered Melts

123

123

Discussion of Analytical Data

123

Ingot Composition and Weight Changes

126

Discussion

126

Filler Metal Handling and Surface Protection

127

Filler System

130

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TestChamber

 

130

AnalyticalProcedures

130

Summary of Part HI

130

Part IE Thermal SprayingFumes and Gases

131

Introduction

131

Scope

131

Limitations

131

Program

132

Equipment, Materials, Procedures

132

SectionIVA.Gas Combustion Spraying

133

Discussion

134

SectionIVB.Electric Arc Spraying

135

Discussion

135

Summary of Part IV

136

Part E Fumes and Gasesfrom Oxygen Cutting

137

Introduction

137

Scope

137

Limitations

137

Program

138

Equipment, Materials, Procedures

138

Section VA . Oxyacetylene Cutting

139

Cutting under Normal Conditions

139

Cutting at Various Gas Pressures

139

Cutting at Various Speeds

139

Section VB.Oxymethane Cutting

147

Cutting under Normal Conditions

147

Cutting at Various Pressures

147

Cutting at Various Speeds

147

Discussion

147

Fume composition

147

Fume Particles

148

Importance of Fume Generation Rates

148

Summary of Part V

149

Appendix A: Electrodes Used inPart Il. TablesAl to A3

155

Appendix B: TablesBI to B43 (TabularData on Fume Generation Characteristics of Electrodes Used in Part II9

161

Appendix C: TablesC1 to C4 (Summary of Original Data. Part Ill)

207

Appendix D: TablesDI

and 02 (LaboratoryData Sheetsfor Part LV)

213

Appendix E: TablesEI to E6 (LaboratoryData Sheetsfor Part V)

217

References and Literature Surveyed

225

Introduction. 1-6

225

PaFtI. 1.1-1.4

225

Part II. 2.1-2.24

225

PartIII,3.1-3.44

5

PartV,5.1,5.2

228

229

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Personnel

The authors, all employed at Battelle-ColumbusLaboratories:

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. R.M. Evans L. 3. Flanigan D. G. Howden K.W. Lee

R.M.Evans L. 3. Flanigan D. G. Howden K.W. Lee

.

R. G. Luce D. C. Martin H.E.Pattee R.E. Robinson

Contributor to the experimental studies: W. H. Stefanov

Edited by: E Y. Speight, American Welding Society H, C. Campbell, Consultant

AWS Research Committeeon Safety and Health

A. Lesnewich. Chairman E: Z Speight, Secretary R. C. Becker K.L. Brown (Fumes and Gases)* R.M.Gage . J. E: Hinrichs (Radiation) D.S. Janetka (Hazard Evaluation)* % C. Janes (HazardEvaluation)* Z Kilmer (AnalyticalMethods) J. O. Hayden (ThermalSpraying)* W;B. Meyer (ThermalSpraying)* R. % Niles (SamplingFumes and Gases)* R.L. Peaslee (Brazing)* A. K Platt F. Carl Saacke (ex oficio) N. B. Shankland (Noise)* P. Shaughnessy(Resisfance Welding)* H. Trabbold (Ventilation)* *ConsultingMember

Airco Welding Products Division American Welding Society InternationaIHarvester Company Lincoln Electric Company Union Carbide, LindeDivision A. O. Smith Corporation International Harvester Company U.S. Steel Corporation Airco Welding Products Hayden Corporation St. Louis MetallizingCompany EastmanKodak Company Wall Colmonoy Corporation CaterpillarTractor Company Airco, Incorporated Sciaky Brothers, Incorporated Chrysler Corporation Aircair Company

Research Finance Committee

C.H.Renicke, Chairman 1975-77 E. B. Scrbture, Chairman 1977- R.E. Bruggeman

A. Platt (resigned 1975) R.H. Schwegman

Chemetron Corporation Teledyne-McKay CaterpillarTractor Company

CaterpillarTractor Company General Electric Company

Vii

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W 0784265 0005335 b

Preface

The environment presented by welding, cutting, and similar operations is a concern to industry. Man- agement seeks to provide a safe and healthy working environment for welders, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970has added the force of law to this desire. Although fumes and gases associated with welding and cutting are the most obvious potential hazards, other factors-radiation, heat, and noise-must also be considered. Prior research for industry and for the American Welding Society has scarcely scratched the surface of this problem. Some work conducted has raised more questions than it has answered. Ppical of these questions are the following:

(i) Can fumes and gases be characterized on the basis of electrode classification? (2) Can simplified procedures be developed to evaluate the hazards presented by airborne contaminants? (3) What are typical noise levels associated with welding and cutting operations? (4) How can ozone and nitrogen dioxides be detected accurately in the presence of dense fumes? (5) Are fume concentrations affected in a predictable manner by the welding variables? (6) Can the health and safety of workers be protected without affecting productivity? Reliable data are clearly needed to demonstrate that welding operations are safe when carried out properly and do not constitute an unusual occupational hazard. To help industry, AWS proposed a continuing investigation at Battelle Memorial Institute-Columbus Laboratories to study the various environments to which welders are exposed, to quantiv them, to demon- strate means to cope with them in a safe manner, and to correlate laboratory and shop generated data. The processes to be studied were arc welding, oxyfuel gas welding and cutting, brazing, and thermal spraying. The investigation required funding at a rate of $150,000 per year for two years. Support was obtained from industry subscriptions, and progress reports were distributed to the sponsoring companies. This report summarizes work completed to September 1978, except for studies of the noises and radia- tions generated in arc welding and cutting. A research report on the nfeasurement of welding and cutting noise has ben published separafely as “Arc Welding and Cutting Noise” (Ref. i)*. Wo reports on radia- tion have been issued by the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency in cooperation with the American Welding Society and Battelle-Columbus Laboratories (Refs. 2 and 3) and a brief summary has been pub- lished in the “Welding Journal” (Ref. 4). All measurements shown in the tables and text of this report are given in the system (U.S. customary or S.I.) in which they were made, followed by an approximate S.I. conversion in parentheses if the meh- surement was in U.S. units. No conversions are considered necessary for scientific measurements made directly in metric units,

~

*Referencesare grouped togetherfollowingthe appendix.

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AWS

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078q2b5

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SupportingOrganizations

Airco WeldingProducts

A. O. Smith Corporation

Arcair Company Aicos Corporation Armco Steel Corporation AWS Detroit Section Babcock and Wilcox Company Cabot Corporation (Stellite Division) CaterpillarTractor Company

Champion CommercialIndustries, Incorporated Chemetron Corporation CombustionEngineering,Incorporated Dover Corporation(Bernard Division) Eastman Kodak Company

E. I. Dupont de Nemours

General ElectricCompany The Heil Company Hobart Brothers Company Huntington Alloys, Incorporated InternationalHarvester Company

J. I. Case Company Lincoln ElectricCompany Miller ElectricCompany Motor Vehicle ManufacturersAssociation National ConstructorsAssociation National Institutefor Occupational Safety and

Health (MOSH)

Sandvik, Incorporated SteelPlate FabricatorsAssociation, Incorporated Stoody Company Sun Shipbuildingand Dry Dock Company TeleáyneMcKay The Bane Company Union Carbide Corporation, Linde Division United StatesSteel VictorEquipment Company WABCO Constructionand Mining Group (American Standard,Incorporated) WestinghouseElectric Corporation

ContributingOrganizations

Alabama Oxygen Company AWS Central Texas Section AWS Cleveland Section AWS Houston Section AWS Los Angeles Section AWS New Jersey Section, AWS Philadelphia Section AWS Pittsburgh Section Bel Welding Supply Company, Incorporated Coastal Welding Supply

hdustrial Welding Supplies, Incorporated (Alabama) Iweco, Incorporafed Lake Welding Supply Company Lex Company, Incorporated McKenzie Repair, Incorporated Mineweld Company of Indiana, Incorporated €'rest-O-Sales and Service,Incorporated Rodgers Welding Supply Company SuburbanWelders Supply,Incorporated United Association

In addition to the supporting and contributing organizationsked above, 119other organizationscontributed amounts up to $500 each to the p~ogram.All contributionsare gratefully acknowledged.

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Fumesand Gases in the Welding Environment

A Research Report on Fumes and Gases GeneratedDuring Welding Operations

Abstract

The environment surrounding many welding processes containsfumes (particulate matter) that may be harmful (toxic) or relatively harmless and gases that may have pulmonary or non-pulmonary effects. This report sum- marizes five experimental studies and several literature surveys (conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute- Columbus Laboratories for the American Welding Society) to evaluate the extent to which ventilation may control the exposure of the welder to these fumes and gases and to investigate the nature of the various fumes and gases generated in arc welding, in brazing with silver-based filler metals, in thermal spraying, and in oxyfuel gas cutting. Comprehensive fume control requires exhaust flow rates adequate to reduce room contamination below criti- cal levels, or cross-draft ventilation (or air-ventilated helmets) to remove fumes from the welder’s breathing zone, or sómetimesboth. Tables in this report show what fumes and gases are generated by fourteen types of covered electrodes for shielded metal arc welding, seven electrodes for flux cored arc welding, eleven gas metal arc solid electrodes, two BAg-class brazing filler metals, seven spraying and surfacing metals, and three thicknesses of carbon steel plate severed by oxyacetylene and oxymethane cutting under various operating conditions. These data can be used in part to determine blower capacity and exhaust flow rates needed for ventilation.

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ventilation. COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Introduction The American Welding Society has sponsored a

Introduction

The American Welding Society has sponsored a two- year program, entitled “Improving the Welding Environ- ment ,” conducted by Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories. This book is a report ofthat research and consolidates the content of five topical reports on the program.

Overview of Fume Constituents

Fumes are particles formed by electrode (and base metal) constituents that are vaporized and subsequently condensed in the welding area. Because of their small size, fume particles may remain suspended in the aero- sol form for long periods. Since the particles have mass and size and are affected by air movement, electrical fields, gravity, diffusional forces, and other external forces, they tend to agglomerate into clumps that grad- ually settle on the floor and other surfaces. While sus- pended, however, they are inhaled by all persons in the vicinity. In addition to fume particles, there are also gases formed that have toxic effects. These include ozone, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide. The presence of fumes and gases in the welding en- vironment is a matter of concern to those responsible for the well-being of welding personnel. Some constitute a potential hazard to the health of the welder while others are merely a nuisance. Potential problems can be anti- cipated by estimating the concentrations of fume and gas

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0784265 0005338 3 W

2/FUMES AND GASES

constituents in the welding area and comparing these data to established exposurextandards. There are three basic ways to protect the welder from the fumes and gases generated in his or her vicinity:

(1) Isolate the welder from the fumes through the use of respirators and air suppliedhelmets. (2) Remove the fumes from the welder’s immediate environment by ventilation and exhaust ducts. (3) Reduce the quantity of fumes at the source through changes in the welding process or the conditions of welding. In.the broad view, both the welder and those in the

vicinity of the welding area must be protected from these fumes since no one should be exposed to accum- ulating concentrations of fumes and gases that are hazardous to safety and health. Accordingly, ventilation devices (method 2) are expected to become increasingly relied upon. Method 1 ignores the local environment, although it may be necessary to use it on particular tasks while keeping other personnel out of the contaminated area. Method 3 requires knowledge of the fume generat- ing characteristics of all available processes and pro- cedures and, in the long range, the developmentof fume- free processes. The cost of operating fume control devices (method 2)

Deter-

will be an important factor as energy costs rise

mining the most effective method of controlling fumes and gases generated during various welding processes will require iterative calculations of cost trade-offs that are a function of the concentration and characteristics. The level of control required will have a major effect on the cost, but in many cases more than one of the possible methods of control may need to be used in order to minimize costs.

Survey of Part I, Ventilation Studies

A major objective in studying the various welding processes was to generate data needed to design systems that will control the flow of fumes and gases. In order to meet this objective, it was necessary first to charac- terize the flow fields associated with fumes and gases generated by these welding processes. Then, theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to obtain the data used to define design curves for the performance of various local ventilation devices. TAJO series of ex- perimental studies were conducted:‘ local ventilation experiments were performed to define the effect that various ventilation conditions have on the welder’s ex- ,posure to welding fumes, and local exhaust exReriments were conducted to define the effect of various local ex- haust devices on the welder’s exposure to welding fumes and on the reduction in environmental contamination resulting from the collection of the fumes. Certain welding processes were studied to provide basic information on the fume generation characteristics of commonly used arc welding electrodes as a function of welding process, electrode classification, and selected

operating variables. This task emphasizes a comprehen- sive laboratory investigation of arc welding fumes to determine the rate at which they were produced with selected welding conditions in order to relate the fume generation rate to various electrode characteristics. More limited studies were also conducted to detect gases in the welding area, determine fume composition, and charac- terize fume particles in terms of size, crystalline struc- ture, etc. Such data will be useful to industry in planning industrial hygiene programs and determining ventilation requirements. The technical literature of the past two decades was reviewed for references to research conducted that sampled fumes and gases in the welding area, determined individual fume and gas constituents, and calculated concentrations of these constituents for comparison with recognized allowable limits. Many of these references were included in the AWS publication, The Welding Environment (Ref. 5). These investigations generally had limited objectives because they were undertaken to study the fumes associated with a particular welding application, to evaluate a specific electrode, to assess the performance of a ventilation system, or for some other definite purpose. The usefulness of .some of this work i questionable today because supporting data on weldin! procedures, sampling methods, and analytical techniques are often incomplete or totally lacking, None- theless, these studies are important because the results form the basis for much of today’s knowledge. The design of fume control systems was not examined during this study. The American Welding Society has identified 84 welding processes by letter designations for diverse welding applications. It is not practical (from cost and time viewpoints) to study all possible combina- tions of factors and develop design data specifically for each combination. The approach taken in this study was limited to experimental and theoretical efforts to gen- erate the information needed to design systems that will control the flow of fumes and gases generated during specific welding processes. The experiments to define the effectiveness of the exhaust devices were conducted using a simulator gas instead of the arc welding fumes and gases. The simulator gas plumes duplicated the thermal and fluid mechanic characteristics of plumes from welding operations and enabled the experiments to be conducted continuously over a long period of time under reproducible conditions. TAJO subsets of experiments were conducted to ensure that the pertinent thermal and fluid mechanic characteris- tics of the simulator plume were identical to those of the weld plume. These consisted of tests to characterize the weld plumes for various welding processes and tests to establish the simulator operating conditions required to duplicate the actual welding plumes. Theoretical analyses were conducted to define the overall room concentration level of welding fumes and gases in terms of the ventilation and weld fume gen- eration rates.

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Survey of Part II, Arc Welding Fumes and Gases

The key task in the AWS research program, “Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment,” was an investi- gation of the fumes and gases associated with conven- tional arc welding operations. This part of the program underscored the importance of these airóome contami- nants and the need to develop a comprehensiveunder- standing of factors governing their occurrence and be- havior in and around welding areas. Fumes and gases are produced during all arc welding operations. Their potential effect on the well-being of welding personnel is highly dqendent upon their amount and composition. More fumes, for example, are produced when carbon steels are welded with the shielded metal arc process than when austenitic stainless steels are welded in the same manner. On the basis of fume generation rate alone, the carbon steel welding operation appears to be poten- tially most harmful. Such may not be the case, however, because the fumes associated with the welding of 300- series stainless steels contain nickel and chromium com- pounds with threshold limit values (TLV’sB mef. 61) much lower than that of iron oxide, the principal con- stituent in the fumes produced during the welding of carbon steels. In other words, the concentrations of the nickel and chromium compounds associated with the welding of stainless steel may exceed allowable limits even though the fume generation rate is low. In evaluating problems associated with the welding environment, the foliowing must be taken into account:

(i)Welding process (2) Welding consumables (3) Welding conditions (4) Base metal (5) Characteristics of the welding area (size, height, air movement,etc.). In addition, some knowledge concerning the relathe hazards of specific fume and gas constituents is needed.

A limited number of welding processes was selected

to represent the family of welding processes because of

their common use and their wide range of fume genera- tion rates. The selected processes included shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and gas tungsten arc welding (GWW) operations. Commercially- available electrodes were used in this study at manu-

facturer-specified arc voltage and current conditions.

A comprehensive matrix of tests was selected and

followed to ensure versatility in the application of the results. Relationships were established between fume generation rate and various electrode characteristics (melting rate, metal deposition rate, etc.) to obtain data that could be used effectively by welding engineers, industrial hygienists, ventilation specialists, and others concerned with the health and safety aspects of arc weld- ing. Research was also conductedto investigate the fume

Introductionl3

generation characteristics of selected electrodes as a function of various process variables such as current, voltage, and arc length. During the course of this investigation, limited re- search on fume particle characterization, fume analysis, and gas detection during welding was included. No determination of the oxidation state of chromium in the fumes was attempted, however. Although fume charac- terization was an objective of the original program, budget limitations (especially in view of the expense of sophisticated analytical research) precluded a thorough analytical program, even though the need is recognized.

A NIOSH criterion document issued in 1975 and the

recent indictment of hexavalent chromium by OSHA identify certain compounds of chromium of value +6 as being carcinogenic(cancer-causing).It remains for some future program to determine the oxidation state of chro- mium in fumes from welding stainless steel. The con- centrations of Cr given in this report must be identified

as total Cr. Possibly two-thirds of the total Cr may be

hexavalent, of which 95 percent may be water-soluble and, therefore, noncarcinogenic;the remaining 5 perc,ent

of that two-thirds would be presumed to be insoluble

and carcinogenic. Analytical research coupled with fume and gas studies could improve our ability to reduce the quantity of fumes and gases generated at the source by varying the process

conditions. A limited amount of such research was in-

cluded in this program. The results are sufficiently useful

to indicate the value of further study.

Survey of Part 111, Brazing Fumes and Gases

Another purpose of the American Welding Society re- search program was to examine the fumes generated

during brazing. The broad objective of this task was to

show experimentally the relationship of off to the brazing filler metal used.

the fumes given

A literature search on brazingreferences was conducted

to leam the extent and usefulness of the bibliographic

data available. Study of this literature revealed the ade- quacies and deficiencies of the availableinformation. The experimental research program was developed

without benefit or knowledge of any published prior experience by other investigators. Its magnitude and scope were restrained by the availability of funds as- signable for brazing fume studies. The investigation was limited to the BAg-class filler metals which are predominantly silver but contain cop- per, zinc, and cadmium. It was directed toward deter- mining the fume generation characteristics of two filler metals having widely different cadmium contents: Ag- 15Cu-16Zn-24Cd (BAg- 1) and Ag-22Cu-20Zn-7Cd-1 Sn. These filler metals have similar melting characteristics and are used extensively in industry for torch brazing.

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4FUMES AND GASES

The research plan was designed to minimize the vari- ables caused by changes in flame shape, character, and position that occur during torch brazing. Therefore, pro- cedures similar to those used during welding fume studies were suggested. Total fume samples collected in the AWS-Battelle welding fume collection chamber were used to find the influence of brazing variables on the fume generation rates and quantities, The fume samples were analyzed by atomic absorption methods to determine how brazing variables affect fume composi- tions. Unfortunately, it became increasingly evident, as the program progressed, that the procedures chosen ‘did not provide the precision required for accurate measure- ment of brazing filler metal fumes. In the brazing studies, the small quantities of fume produced and its apparent extremely small particle size presented problems in filter choice, chamber design, sample weight-analysis balance, and sampling environ- .ments. To minimize these problems, a fume collection chamber having the least volume possible, containing an atmosphere that is inert or readily controllable, and which can be made part of a closed system is advised. Filters or fume collection media must be capable of col- lecting very fine particles (<lpm) and should be small enough to avoid masking of actual fume weights by large blank filter weights. Continuous sampling through an atomic absorption type of analyticalsystem appears worthy of consideration instead of filter sampling systems. Attention to the details of actual filler metal melting and fluxing practices is also required. Melt sizes, quan- tities of flux used, exposed melt surface areas, and heat- ing and cooling rates need attention. Melt size, par- ticularly with respect to exposed areas, may alter fume generation rates because of flux cover variation. Cru- cibles should be a metal that is wet by the filler metal to avoid flux collection around the melt. This implies combined weight determination that includes the cru- cible. Weighing exercises should include checks of flux losses in addition to filler metal losses. Ideally, all tests should begin in a cool chamber and heating furnace to minimize differences in heating and cooling rates. The closed chamber already suggested should eliminate any influence of humidity in the test area. Analytical procedures for fume analysis should be validated for the tests being conducted. An early phase of any analytical work should be directed toward deter- mining the chemical character of the fume (metal, ox- ides, soluble, insoluble, etc.). Early analytical work should include complete analyses. Subsequent analyses requirements may be relaxed when the whole story is known.

Survey of Part IV, Thermal Spraying Fumesand Gases

As another part of the program, Battelle investigated the fumes and gases produced by thermal spraying opera-

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

opera- COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. tions and the manner in which the nature of

tions and the manner in which the nature of the spraying process and the type of metal being sprayed affect their characteristics and the rate at which they are generated. Thermal spraying processes are used by industry to repair or build up worn parts and to produce coatings that resist oxidation, corrosion, wear, erosion, abrasion, or impact. In practice, finely divided metallic or non- metallic particles in the molten or semimolten state are sprayed on a suitable substrate to produce a dense, adherent deposit or coating. Thermal spraying encom- passes three distinct processes that are differentiated mainly by the manner in which the particles are produced and heated: (a) gas combustion spraying, (b) electric arc spraying, and (c) plasma arc spraying. These processes are characterized by relatively low deposition efficien- cies, moderate-to-high fume levels, and moderate-to- high noise levels. In the area of thermal spraying, research efforts were directed toward a study of the fumes associated with the most commonly used processes: gas combustion spraying and electric arc spraying. In each instance, the metal being sprayed was in the form of wire. The metals included in the investigation were mutually agreed upon by the AWS Research Committee and Battelle. Fume collection studies for thermal spraying were limited to those conducted at recommended spraying conditions. No work was done on detonation spraying, which is also included among the thermal spraying processes; it is a proprietary process and little is known about its characteristics.

Survey of Part V, Fumes and Gases from OxygenCutting

Finally, the fumes associated with oxygen cutting operations were investigated. These fumes occur as the result of the chemical reaction between iron and high purity oxygen and the process through which molten oxides and unoxidized metal are removed from the kerf by the cutting jet. Fume quantities are dependent upon the cutting process variables, base metal thickness, base metal composition, surface contaminants, and other factors. Fume compositions are governed by the com- position of the metals being cut and any coating that may be on the surface of the metal. To study the fumes associated with oxygen cutting operations, total fume samples were collected to accu- mulate data for use in determining fume generation rates and quantities relating fume generation rates to important process variables. Research was directed toward a study of the fumes produced during oxyacetylene and oxynatural gas (methane) cutting of carbon steel plate in thicknesses of 1/2, 1, and 2 in. (12.7, 25.4, and 50.8 mm) at condi- tions recommended by the cutting torch manufacturer. Also included were studies of the effect of selected process variables on fume formation rates.

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Although the potential problems presented by oxygen cutting fumes have long been noted, there are few ref- erences to this subject in the technical literature on safety and health. There is little information on the rate at which fumes are produced during oxygen cutting operations. The data obtained in the course of this in- vestigationonly partially fill this void. Additional research would be needed to more fully- characterize cutting fumes. Such research should include studies to determine the distribution of fume particles by size and examination of fume deposits with the scanning electron microscope. In this study, concentrations of major elements could not be determined accurately because of difficulty in interpreting the spectrographic record and because of the lack of suitable standards. As a result, concentrations of such elements are expressed in a range of weight percentages instead of discrete weight percentages. If more accurate compositional data are needed, optical emission spectroscopy should be supplemented by other analytical techniques such as atomic absorption analyses or wet chemistry methods. No study of arc cutting was made, although that was an original aim of the research program: Suitable equip- ment was not available at Battelle, and alternative loca-

Introductionl5

tions at which tests could run could not be identified by the Committee.

Organizationof This Report

Each of the five sections of the body of this report is organized in the foliowing format:

Introduction Scope Limitations Background (Part II only) Program Equipment, Materials, Procedure Description of Work (Organized under Section A, Section B, etc.) Discussion Summary Appendixes have been included at the end of the report which present the tabular data for Parts II, III, IV, and V in sequence. The references cited in the Preface, Introduction, and Parts I, II, III, and V have been grouped together follow- ing the appendixes. An index completes this compilation.

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0005342

2

W

~

-

.

Part I. Ventilation Studies

Introduction

The research performed by Battelle-Columbus Lab- oratories for this portion of the American Welding Society program obtained ventilation design data for use in con- trolling welding plumes. The study was conducted over a 6-month period that began in May, 1977. The plume control study was monitored by a committee appointed by the AWS Research Committee. About 250 tests were carried out in the course of this study. The results of the study show that various ventìla- tion methods can be used effectively to reduce the welder’s exposure to fumes and, conversely, that certain ventila- tion conditions can result in higher welder fume ex- posures than those experienced with no ventilation. Operating conditions for various local exhaust devices are specified in terms of a welder exposure factor and a room contaminationfactor which make them easy to use. The report is divided into three major subsections paralleling the three main areas of investigation: “Gen- eral Room Ventilation,’’ “Local Ventilation,” and “Local Exhaust Studies.” Included in each subsection, where appropriate, is a description of the test apparatus and procedures and a discussion of test results., These subsections are followed by a summary. The references are found following the appendixes at the end of this report compilation. An example problem is included in the report to show how the study results can be used. The example outlines

it should be kept

in mind that the results have a wide scope of application toward designing devices that can be used to control welding fumes and gases. Familiarity with the various experiments conducted during this study and the asso- ciated results will enable the reader to apply the results to a variety of welding problems in order to achieve cost-effectiveand environmentally acceptable control of welding plumes,

one possible application of the results;

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

the results; COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. scope Theoretical and experimental studies were combined to

scope

Theoretical and experimental studies were combined to generate data on the effect of ventilation air currents on fume concentrations in the welder’s breathing zone and to define the effectiveness of exhaust devices in reducing environmentalcontamination. One major series of experiments defined the fume concentration level in the breathing zone as a function of ventilation velocity and relative orientation of the ventilation source with respect to the welder using a large flow area source (4 x 4 ft. C1.2 x 1.2m]).

A second major test series used a simulatorgas instead

of the arc welding fumes and gas. The simulator gas plumes were identical to the weld plumes in thermal

and fluid mechanic characteristics and enabled the ex- periments to be conducted continuously over a long

period of time under reproducible conditions. %o

sets of experiments were conducted to ensure that the pertinent thermal and fluid mechanic characteristics of the simulator plume were identical to those of the weld plume: tests to characterize the weld plumes for various welding processes, and tests to establish the simulator operating conditions required to duplicate the actual welding plumes. Theoretical analyses were conducted to define the overall room concentration level of welding fumes and gases in terms of the ventilation and weld fume genera- tion rates. The results of these analyses combined with the results of the experimental studies provide the infor- mation needed to design effective systems for control of welding fumes and gases.

sub-

Limitations

The design of fume control systems was not examined during this study.

7

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0005393 4

FUMG MG AND GASES

Previous application of fume control methods to spe- cific welding processes has been limited because suffi- cient data are not available. Most of the quantitative information in the literature is very general, having been obtained at a time when the need to conserve energy and to control the welder and plant environments was not so

acute as it is today. However, in view of the large num- ber of recognizable welding processes and variations of them, it was not practical for this study to consider more than a few representative combinations of factors which may influence the ultimate design of ventilation equip- ment. A limited number 6f welding processes was selected as being representative of the family of welding processes because of their common use and their wide range of fume generation rates. The selected processes included shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and gas metal arc welding

(GMAW)

operations. Commercially-available electrodes

were used in this study at manufacturer-specified arc

voltage and current conditions.

Program

Ventilation provides a means for reducing to an ac- ceptable level the hazardous and noxious fumes and gases to which a welder may be exposed. Many tech- niques are available for controlling welding fumes and gases. These range from systems that employ natural convection to localized devices such as air-ventilated helmets. Examples of methods for controlling the welder’s exposure to fumes and gases include:

(1) General room ventilation (2) Overhead exhaust hoods (3) Portable local exhaust devices (4) Down-drafttables (5) Cross-draft tables (6) Extractors built into the welding equipment (7) Air-ventilatedhelmets Fluid dynamics were applied to the theory of the welding plume. The governing differential equation for the contamination level in a closed room was integrated to obtain an expression for the room contamination level as a function of time. Steady-state fume concentration levels were calculated for rooms of all sizes. Transient concentration levels were calculated for times prior to achieving steady-state conditions. Experiments were performed to determine the effect of air currents on these theoretical fume concentrations in the welder’s breathing zone (local ventilation). Ap paratus was developed to measure the reduction in operator exposure to contaminants, using two methods to measure the fume concentration level: weighing a filter and counting condensationnuclei, Sampling probes inside the welding helmet collected fumes at the level of the welder’s .mouth. Sampling efficiency of the probe was measured over a range of particle diameters. An air current generator was devised. Data were then

obtained with no ventilation and with variations in air speed and direction. Local exhaust studies evaluated the effect of collector configuration, collector location, and exhaust flow rate. Three types of experiments were conducted:

(1) Welding fume characterizations (2) Simulator characterizations (3) Inlet configuration studies

Equipment,.Materials,Procedure

Experimentalapparatus

The experimental apparatus used to measure the re- duction in operator exposure to contaminants resulting from the use of local ventilation included fume sampling equipment, an air current generator, and welding equip- ment consisting of a power supply, arc voltage and current instrumentation, and a welding table. The ap- paratus was set up in an area having a high ceiling and no natural drafts. Figure 1.1 is a schematic diagram of the experimental setup viewed from above the apparatus. Fume Sampling Equipment. l’ho methods were used ta measure the fume concentration level in the welder’s breathing zone: the filter weighing method, and the condensation nuclei counter method. The fume sampling system used in the filter weighing method of analysis is shown schematically in Fig. 1.2. The sampling technique was specified by the American Welding Society (AWS) as a standard procedure when using the filter weighing method (Ref. 1.1). The sampling system consisted of sampling probes, a filter and filter holder, a critical flow orifice, a pressure gage, and a vacuum pump. Essential features of the present sampling system are described below. ’lho sampling probes were installed inside the weld- ing helmet, positioned at the level of the welder’s mouth 1-1/2 in. (38 mm) on either side of the vertical centerline of the helmet. mo probes were used to obtain a less biased sample from the welder’s breathing zone by halv- ing the sample flow rate, thus reducing interference effects caused by the welder’s breathing. Figure 1.3 is a photograph of the helmet showing the sampling ports. These sampling probes were connected to the filter holder mounted on the outside of the helmet using a standard Y connector. In order to minimize any possible particulate losses through the sampling system, the inlet end of the probes was sharply machined, and relatively large tubing (1/4 in. [6.4 mm diameter]) was used. The distance between the inlet ends of the probes and the filter holder was about 4 in. (100 mm). Measurements of the sampling efficiency of this system showed it to be essentially 100percent efficient when collecting particles below approximately 0.05 micron (pm) in diameter and 97.0 percent efficient with 2 pm diameter particles. The filter holder used was a standard 25 mm in-li’ne holder (Model 1109, Gelman Instrument). Millipore

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Welding helmet

I=------ '1

I

I I Sampling

I probes

I

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COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

I I I I COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Blower generator Pressuregage Part I. VentilationStudies19

Blower

generator

Pressuregage

Part I. VentilationStudies19

Strip chart

recorder

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COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. AUS FGN*PT*I, 79 07842b5 00053'15 8 membrane filters (Model HA,

AUS

FGN*PT*I,

79

07842b5

00053'15

8

membrane filters (Model HA, Millipore Corporafion ' [Ref. 1.21) were used to collect the fume samples. The HA Millipore filter has a nominal pore size of 0.45 pm which meets the AWS specification. In addition, a pre- vious study (Ref. 1.3) showed that the fitration efficiency of a comparable filter (Model FH,pore size 0.5 pm) was essentially 100 precent for all particle sizes. An analytical balance (Model M5, Mettler Instrument) with a nominal sensitivity of 0.001 mg was used to weigh the filters before and after use. A simple repeatability check showed that the actual accuracy was about 0.005 mg. In order to avoid any moisture absorption or chem- ical reaction effects on the filter and sample weight, the filters were kept in a constant temperature, constant humidity room for at least one hour prior to weighing. When a blank filter was kept under this environment and the weight was measured, the data were repeatable within 0.015 mg over 24 hours. A similar experiment using a filter-plus-fume sample showed that the mea- surement was repeatable within 0.020 mg. Since the collected sample weight was always higher than 5 mg, the above variations were considered acceptable. In addition to the filter weighing method, a particle county was also used to determine fume particle con- centrations in the breathing zone. The particular instru- ment used was a condensation nuclei counter, Model B1033A-001G1, manufactured by the Environment One Corporation, designed for real time measurements of airborne particle number concentrations. In this instru- ment the particulate-laden air sample is saturated with water vapor and then adiabatically expanded to a low pressure, causing the water vapor to condense on the particles (which, in this case, serve as condensation nuclei) and form relatively large droplets. The concen- tration of these large droplets is then measured optically by light transmission. The instrument can measure fume particles in the size range of 0.002 pm and larger in diameter.The standard operating flow rate for the instru- ment is 3 liters per minute, which was only 10 percent higher than the filter sampling rate, as will be shown. The advantage of using this instrument was that it gave real time measurements while filter measurements only provide time average values. The counter was used be- cause it provided information on changes in particle concentration as a function of time. Of particular interest was the rate at which the fume concentration behind the helmet varied. Ar Current Generator. The air current generator was used to produce air currents or local ventilation across and around the table where the welding experiments were performed. Details of the air current generator plenum are shown in Fig. 1.4. The plenum was a ply- wood box, 4 ft x 4 ft x 1.5 ft (1.2 m x 1.2 m x 0.45 m), containing a thick, packed bed. A blower was mounted on the back side to force air through the assembly. The bed was filled with a foamed plastic packing material held in place with perforated plates. Measurements showed that the generator produced a uniform velocity

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Part I. VentilationStudieslll

Fig. 1.4 -Details of the air current generator

profile at the outlet face and over the welding area. The air velocity in the welding zone was measured during the calibration tests using a hot wire anemometer (Thermo-System, Inc., Model No. 1050). The variation in the velocity profile at a distance of 42 in. (1.09 m) from the outlet face of the generator was k 15 percent of the average velocity at 50 ftlmin (15.24 mlmin) and f 5 percent at 200 ftlmin (61.0 mlmin). The air velocity was varied by varying the blower speed, which made it possible to obtain any velocity between 30 and 250 ftlmin (9.14 and 76.20 mlmin). Flow direction relative to the

position, a horizontal bar was set up 14 in. (0.3U m) above the table and a guide hanger was attached to the welder’s helmet 4 in. (0.10 m) above the viewing win- dow, as shown in .Fig. 1.5. With this apparatus, the welder could move his head smoothly along the hori- zontal bar as the weld bead was made, but he could not move up and down or in and out. When the welder was in a welding position and his helmet was attached to the horizontal bar, his ear position was 13 in. (0.33 m) above the arc and 10 in. (0.25 m) away from the arc (horizontal distance).

welder’s normal welding position was obtained by rotat- ing the working table relative to the generator. Welding Equipment. Welding equipment used during these experiments included a dc power generator, a shunt

The test apparatus used to conduct the local exhaust

bar to measure arc voltage and current, and a welding

experiments included (a) local exhaust configurations,

table. The electrical output of the power supply was

(b)

fume simulator, (c) exhaust vacuum supply system,

monitored using a shunt bar arrangement which made it

(d)

welding setup, and (e) instrumentation. Components

possible to record electrical signals (mV) that were pro- portional to arc voltage and current. The data signals were recorded on a Honeywell Electronic 19 Strip Chart Recorder. Welding was performed using 5/32 in. (4 mm) diameter E6013 shielded metal arc electrodes.

of the apparatus used in the local ventilation experiments that were also used in the local exhaust experiments are not discussed in this section; these include the air generator and components associated with the welding setup.

A working table surface of 24 in. x 24 in. (0.61 m x

Local Exhaust C~~~figuii-ati~ais.A number of local ex-

0.61 m) at a height of 28 in. (0.71 m) was used in the studies. In order to maintain a consistent welder head

haust configurations were examined, including flanged ducts (3, 6, and 8 in. [76, 152, and 203 mm] diameters),

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07842b5 0005377 1

Vertical

suppwf bars

-Helmet ottochmenf

* Horizor

ita1 support bor

slots (single and double configurations), and two over- head hood configurations. The inlet configurationsof the flanged duct exhaust systems are shown in Fig. 1.6 for the 3,6, and 8 in. (76, 152, and 203 mm) diameter ducts. The flange size that was used is a recommended con- figuration set forth in Ref. 1.4. A section of sheet metal ducting was used for the exhaust inlet; the sheet metal section was connected to a flexible tube that was, in turn, connected to the vacuum supply plenum. The flanges were attached to the sheet metal ducts and sealed to

eliminate airleaks between the flange and the metal duct. Single- and double-slot exhaust configurations were examined during this study. Fig. 1.7 is a schematic of the slot configuration. Included in the drawings are the controlling dimensions for the two configurations ex- amined (slot dimensions were obtained from Ref. 1.4). The single-slot size was 1.20 x 24 in. (30.5 x 610 mm), which is approximately equal in area to a 6 ini (15%mm) diameter circular duct. The double-slots were each 0.6 x 24 in. (15.2 x 610 mm), having a total area equivalent to the single-slot and to a 6 in. (152 mm) diameter cir- cular duct. The flow area for the single- and double-slot exhaust configurations was made the same as the 6 in. (152 mm) diameter duct so that the face velocity at the exhaust inlet plane would be the same as that for a 6 in. (15%mm) duct at the same exhaust flow rate. 'ho overhead exhaust systems, overhead shelf and slanted overhead, were examined during this study. Fig. 1.8 is a schematic of an overhead exhaust system. The basic dimensions for the overhead and slanted overhead exhaust systems were identical, the only difference being in the location of the exhaust inlet. The overhead exhaust systems were set up by attaching an overhead shelf to the vacuum plenum section. The exhaust inlet size for both of these systems is shown in Fig. 1.8. When these configurations were tested, panels were installed on either side of the welding work area to duplicate a welding booth arrangement. The side panels helped in controlling the flow of air from a preferred directión.

Pume Simulation Apparatus. A qualitative analysis

was made of the characteristics of hot, buoyant plumes containing particulate matter of very small size. From this analysis it was concluded that, relative to the objec-

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to the objec- COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Metal tube -./ dF Note: Flange diameter

Metal tube -./

dF

Note: Flange diameter (dF) given below

3

(76)

(204)

Dimensionsin inches (millimeters)

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Part I. VentilationSfudiesll3 I- S -f Double Dimensionsin inches (millimeters) i- f Fig. 1.7-Details of
Part I. VentilationSfudiesll3
I-
S
-f
Double
Dimensionsin inches (millimeters)
i-
f
Fig. 1.7-Details of the slotted exhaust inlet configurations
(single- and double-slot)
Overhead shelf
7
I
Inlet plane for overheadshelf
exhaust, 13 in. x 25 in. (0.33 m x 0.64 m)
I
1
v457L-
\I
”,
‘/I
Inlet plane for slanted overhead
exhaust, 12 in. x 18 in. (0.30 m x 0.46 rn)
44
Vacuum plenum section
(1.12)
32
(0.81)
Note: Configurationwas tested with
and without side panels.
Total width of the hood
was 48 inches (1.22 m)
Dimensionsin inches (meters)
Work table
Fig. 1.8-Details of the overhead hood exhaust system
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14/FUMES AND GASES

tives of this study, the required simulation of actual welding plumes would exist if the temperatures within the two plumes were equal and the response of the two plumes to a given air current was identical. Equal tem- perature profiles would result in equal buoyancy and, therefore, equal upward velocities. Identical response to an air current would result when the mass flow rates were equal. The simulator was a device used to produce plumes representative of a broad range of those generated during actual welding. The reasons for using a simulator instead of actual welding plumes were twofold: it provided a means of obtaining a continuous, long-lasting plume that could be accurately reproduced and quickly changed to simulate different welding operations; and it permitted the use of a tracer gas that could be accurately mea- sured on a real time basis. The underlying consideration was to obtain the maximum possible amount of informa- tion and design data within restraints placed on the program. The apparatus designed, fabricated, and used to dupli- cate the flow of welding fumes in the vicinity of the welder included a gas heater unit, a gas supply system, and associated monitoring and control systems. Fig. 1.9 is a schematic of the apparatus used to dupli- cate the flow of welding fumes. The gas supply system included a two-bottle bank of nitrogen; a two-bottle

bank of carbon monoxide, and associated regulators and valves to control and select the desired gas. Nitrogen was used as an intermediate gas to bring the system up to operating condition and when CO was not being used (periods of time between test runs, etc.). The gas flow rate to the heater was controlled with a needle valve installed in the gas supply lines and was measured using a rotometer. The gas (CO or N2) was electrically heated by a heater designed and fabricated at BCL. A schematic of the heater assembly is shown in Fig. 1.10. Gas was intro- duced into the bottom of the heater and passed over electrically'heated elements as it flowed up through the heater. The gas temperature was monitored at the top of the heater in the stagnation chamber using a chromel- alumel thermocouple. The thermocouple output was re- corded and monitored on a strip chart recorder. At the heater outlet an orifice plate was used to obtain the de- sired initial plume size with various orifice plates used to duplicate different welding plumes. The heater shell was insulated to reduce heat losses. The heater operating temperature range was 100"F to 1200"F (38"C to 649"C) and was chntrolled using a 110volt (ac) variac controller. Vacuum Exhaust System. A system was set up to de- termine the effectiveness of various local exhaust sys- tems. It included a blower to move the desired amount of air, an orifice plate to measure the amount of air

i

CO gas

Regulator7

Gas

supply

N2

Regulator

K II

On-off valve

CO control vaive

>

Flow

meter

Valve (gas volume flow ratel

- On-off valve

c

Gas

heater

c

IJ

7 Orifice plate

Thermocouple

9- 110ac

Variac (heater

voltagecontrol)

Fig. 1.9-Schematic of fume simulator apparatus

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apparatus COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. - --``,`,``,,`,``,,,,,````,,`,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Document

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3/8 in. (9.5 rnrn)

"7 -1

f

ISin.

nm)

Part I. VentilationStUdiesll5

r Orifice plate

* Chromel-alumel

thermocouple

Metal pressure

shell

Thermal insulation

Electrical heaters

.e Mounting holes

Orifice

(04-

LM(45mm)

Splash plate

' i Gas inlet line

Section A-A

Fig. 1.10-Details of the gas heater

moving through the exhaust system, a CO sampling probe to measure the concentration level of CO in the exhaust duct, and a vacuum plenum to which the various local exhaust systems were connected. Fig. 1.11 shows the arrangement of hardware and instrumentation used in conducting the local exhaust sys- tem experiments. The simulator apparatus and local exhaust inlet configurations shown in Fig. 1.9 were discussed in previous sections. The duct type exhaust inlet configurations were at- tached to the vacuum plenum with flexible tubing so that the inlet could be positioned at various locations relative to the welding arc, or arc simulator location, or both (noted as welding area in Fig. 1.il). The vacuum exhaust plenum was connected to the blower with 12 in. (0.30 m)

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

in. (0.30 m) COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. diameter metal ducting. A flow-measuring orifice plate

diameter metal ducting. A flow-measuring orifice plate was installed approximately 12 ft (3.66 m) downstream of the vacuum exhaust plenum and 10 ft (3.05 m) up- stream of a 90 degree elbow in the ducting to the blower as shown in Fig. 1.11. The CO sampling probe was located 5 ft (1.5 m) downstream of the orifice plate. The blower outlet was exhausted to the atmosphere outside the laboratory. The orifice plate pressure differential and upstream pressure were measured using inclined and vertical water manometers. CO concentration levels were measured using a Beckman CO Analyzer, Mod& No. 315B. The vacuum exhaust plenum was fabricated using a 3/4 in. (19 mm) thick plywood sheet, reinforced with metal angles, The plenum was designed sufficiently

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16IFUMESAND GASES

Exterior wall of

Blower exhaust line

CO probe 1

COsupply

-

Flow meter

---

Exhaust inlet.-

Gas

heater

P, upstream pressure

IOrifice AP

CO concentration

I

Data

I

collection

I I

7

(1.2 m x 1.2 m x 0.46 m)

Helmet concentration

t’c

I

Fig. 1.U-Schematic of test apparatus used in the local exhaust experiments

large (4 x 4 x 1.5 ft [1.2 x 1.2 x 0.46 m]) to reduce non- uniformities in the velocity flow field at the entrance to the slotted and overhead hood configurations. Instrumentation. All of the instruments used in this study were off-the-shelf items. These included recorders, thermocouples, rotometers, CO analyzer, manometers, and sharp-edge orifices. The instrumentation was checked out after installation to ensure proper operation. mo probes were designed and fabricated at BCL for this study: the CO sampling probe used in the vacuum exhaust duct (12 in. [0.3 m] diameter) to measure CO concentration level, and a multi-sensor thermocouple probe to measure temperatures within the welding plumes and the plumes generatedusing the simulator. CO Probe. In order to determine the efficiency of the exhaust devices, it was necessary to measure the CO concentration level in the vacuum exhaust line. Fig. 1.12 is a schemafic of the CO probe usëd to obtain the gas samples. The sampling holes in the probe were sized and located according to conventional practice in order to obtain an equal volume (mass) sample for equal flow

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COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. areas in the 12 in. (0.3 m) diameter duct cross

areas in the 12 in. (0.3 m) diameter duct cross section. It was later verified by closing selected sampling holes that the CO concentration within the duct flow cross section was uniform. Orifice Meter. A standard sharp-edge orifice meter was used to measure the volume flow of gas that passed through the vacuum exhaust system. A 3.6 in. (91.4 mm) and an 8 in. (203 mm) diameter orifice plate were used to cover the range of gas volume flow rates. The cali- bration curves for both orifices are presented in Fig. 1.13. Temperature Probe. A temperature probe was used to measure gas temperatures in the plumes generated during arc welding and in the simulator plume. A schematic of the temperature probe is shown in Fig. 1.14. The tem- perature probe was positioned above the welding and simulator table so that the thermocouple array was in a horizontal plane. An array of eighteen chromel-alumel thermocouples was used to measure plume gas tempera- ture. This large number of thermocouples was needed because of the unsteady flow of the plume. The eighteen thermocouple output signals were recorded simultane-

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ously, with a CEC Light Beam Oscillograph, Model No. 5-124. The temperatures at various-distances from the arc were easily determined from the oscillograph traces. Photography. Pictures of the welding plume trajec- tories were taken as part of the characterization of the fwme flow field. The pictures were taken with an Orbit 4 x 5 in. (102 x 127 mm) camera using Polaroid Type s2 film. Welding Setup. The important aspects in setting up a welding operation in the laboratory are that field opera-

Part I. VentilationStudies117

tions are represenfed as closely as possible and that operational variables can be repeated in a controlled manner. A welding table having a working area of 24 x 24 in. (0.61 x 0.61 m) at a height of 28 in, (0.71 m) was set up in the laboratory and measurements were made relative to the arc location at the center of the work area. The workpiece was allowed to move opposite the weld direc- tion in a horizontal plane in order to maintain the arc in a constant location for the plume temperature mea- surements and plume deflection tests.

*

6.50 in. (165 mm) -

6.00 in. (152 mm) -

5.74 in. (146 mm) -

5.19

in. (132 mm) -

4.57

in. (116 mm) -c

3.85 in. (98 mm)

2.96 in. (75 mm)

12 in. (305 mm) diam.

10 holes 0.025 in. (0.635 mm) diam.

0.035 in. (0.889 mm) diam. hole

Connection to CO analyzer sampling line

Fig. 1.12-Details of the CO probe.

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181FUMESAND GASES

79

M

0789265 0005403 3

Pressure differential, Ah mm H20

Preccuìe differential, Ah in. H20

Fig. 1.l3-Calibration curves for the 3.6 and 8 in.(N.4 and 203.2 mm) diam. orifice plates

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b

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Part I. VentilationStudies119 '

4-tI2 in. pa(114 mm)

14 in. (356 mm) 4

Thermocouple --I

locations

Wire mesh (112 x 112 inch

[12.7x 12.7 mm])

r Chromel-alumel thermocouple wire

30 gage, bead size 0.020 in. (0.51 mm) diam.

/.

r.

fi

.Il-.I.l.i<.t,.,

Fig. 1.14-Schematic of the temperatureprobe

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FUMES AND GASES

List of Symbols Used in Sections IA, IB, and IC

AE

C

Co

Cco

= Local exhaust inlet area

= Concentration level (Equation 1)

= Contamination level in any ventilation air

= Carbon monoxide concentration level (Equation 5)

Coco =

Carbon monoxide level without exhaust (Equation 7)

C,

= Steady-state concentration level (Equation 3)

Cv

= Fume concentrationlevel in welder’s breathing zone

Cvo

= Fume concentrationlevel in welder’s breathing zone for zero ventilationvelocity

dE

= Local exhaust duct diameter (Fig. 1.6)

dF

= Local exhaust flange diameter (Fig. 1.6)

dj

= Orificediameter

-

Op

= Particle diameter (Equation 4)

f

= Fume generationrate

h

= Slot dimension (Fig. 1.7)

Ah

= Orifice differential pressure

m

= Particle mass concentration(Equation 4)

n

= Particle number concentration

APH

= Differential pressure

QAIR

= Air volume flow rate (Equation 3)

&CO

= Carbon monoxide volume flow rate (Equation 5)

= Local exhaust volume flow rate

= Gas flow rate through heater

= Ventilation rate (Equation 1)

= Slot spacing (Fig. 1.7)

= Gas temperature in heater

= Plume temperature, fume

= Plume temperature, simulator gas

= Plume temperature above orifice

= Zero ventilation velocity

= Local ventilation velocity

= Room volume (Equation 1)

= Horizontal distance from arc location

= Plume deflection distance

= Horizontal distance of local exhaust inlet from arc location (Fig. 1.40)

= Height above arc location

= Vertical distance of local exhaust inlet from arc location

= Room contamination factor (Equation 6)

= Welder exposure factor (Equation 7)

= Exhaust collection efficiency

= Angle between exhaust device and welder (Fig. 1.40)

= Local ventilationdirection (Fig. 1.23)

= Particle density (Equation 4)

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SectionIA. GeneralRoom Ventilationl21 Section IA. General RoomVentilation Fluid Dynamic Considerations The fumes and
SectionIA. GeneralRoom Ventilationl21
Section IA.
General RoomVentilation
Fluid Dynamic Considerations
The fumes and gases generated during welding opera-
tions are influenced by the operator and interact with the
ambient air currents resulting in a complex flow. The
nature of the welding process and the resultant unsteady
flow of the fumes and gases further complicate the flow.
In this study, the welding plume is defined as the
column of gases and particulate matter resulting from the
release of large amounts of energy in a very small vol-
ume, The particulate matter of importance in the control
of weld fumes consists of those particles whose motion
is governed by the hot welding gases and ambient air
currents.
Typically, the characteristic dimension of these
particles (effective diameter) is approximately 1 pm or
less.
To aid in understanding the physical processes of
importance in the generation and control of weld fumes
and gases, it is useful to consider the welding plume in
terms of zones. These zones are shown schematically
in Fig, 1.15 and are referenced from a horizontal plane
through the arc for convenience. Three major zones can
be identified: (a) arc zone, (b) welder zone, and (c) free
zone. The arc zone is the region where the plume flow
is predominantly controlled by the energy release and
subsequent heating that occurs from the electric arc.
The welder zone is defined as the region in which the
presence of the welder influences the plume flow. The
free zone is above the welder and is the region in which
the plume is influenced solely by room air currents.
The fume and gas flows in the arc zone are strongly
influenced by the arc discharge process and the intense
arc heating process. The path taken by the plume in this
zone is erratic (both vertical and horizontal trajectories)
and the fume and gas velocities are relatively high in
comparison to the corresponding velocities in the welder
and free zones. Control of the fumes and gases in this
zone requires external devices that can generate high,,
induced flow velocities in order to influence the high
fume and gas velocities. However, inducing high air
currents in the arc zone can have an adverse effect on
the quality of the weld.
The characteristic movement of the fumes and gases
in the welder zone is upward. The horizontal motion of
the plume induced in the arc zone damps out quickly and
is essentially zero by the time the gases and fumes reach
the welder zone. The plume velocities in the weIder zone
zone). Another important aspect of this zone is that the
welder can influence the flow pattern and resulting
plume trajectory. Thus, the influence of the welder on
the plume must be considered when analyzing the flow
characteristics within this zone. This zone can be
considered as extending from a few inches from the arc
(-3.5 inches [-80-130 mm]) to approximatelythe eleva-
tion of the top of the welder’s head. Plume velocities and
temperatures decrease in the welder zone as the fumes
and gases move upward. It is fairly easy to induce the
necessary air currents in this zone to deflect the plume
path so that the plume does not engulf the welder’s
helmet. In the welder zone, the plume must be controlled
to protect the welder.
As the welding fumes and gases continue to rise, a
well-defined plume is less apparent. In the region above
the welder’s head, the flow of fumes and gases is pre-
dominantly influenced by room air currents. The con-
centration of fumes and gases will decrease as the fumes
and gases mix with the ambient room air. The mixing
and diluting process involves many factors associated
with fhe room environment. For example, under cir-
cumstances of poor room ventilation, the fumes could
collect in the ceiling area. When the welding stops, the’
fumes would subsequently fall and contaminate the room
environment. Also a portion of the fumes would be
deposited on surfaces within the room (walls, floors,
ceiling, etc.). The long-term room contamination level
will depend upon the room ventilation rate, welding
process (amount of welding contaminates generated),
and the effectiveness of aiiy exhaust system used to
collect the welding fumes and gases.
Room Ventilation
are relatively low (- 100 to
500 ft./min [-30 to 150 m/
min]) and the gases and fumes would rise vertically if
they were not influenced by ambient air currents and the
presence of the welder. The major characteristic of the
plume in the welder zone is that the velocities (gases and
fumes) are low; therefore, the path of the plume can be
influenced by air currents of small magnitude (natural
room air currents can effect the plume trajectory in this
The bulk of the fumes generated during welding con-
sists of small particles that remain suspended in the air
for a considerable period of time. As a result, their con-
centration in a closed work area builds up over a period
of time, as does the concentration of any gases evolved
or used in the welding process. The particles will even-
tually deposit on the room walls and floor, but the rate
at which this occurs is extremely low compared to the
rafe at which they are generated by welding processes.
Since the particles tend to remain suspended in the air,
their concentra€ion can be controlled by general room
ventilation. In most cases, general room ventilation is
more effective in protecting personnel in the area around
the welding operation than it is in protecting the welding
operator.
General room ventilation may occur naturally, as
when doors and windows are open, or it may require
fans and blowers to force and direct the required amount
of air through the building or work room. Of course, the
effectiveness of general room ventilation is strongly
dependent upon the design of the system, be it natural or
forced ventilation. The locations at which fresh air is
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Welder zone

79

Z = 5 inches (0.13 m)

Arc zone

t=O inches

:

W

---

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ArcWeldinglocationtable-4

Fig. 1.15-Drawing of welding plume illustrating various zones

introduced and contaminated air is exhausted must be such that the welding fumes and gases are carried away and do not concentrate in dead zones. In some cases, it may be possible to locate the fresh air supply so the in- coming air provides the required protection for the weld- ing operator as well as for personnel in the general area. The concentration of fumes and gases that would exist in any closed room can be accurately calculated as a function of time. The governing differential equation for the contamination level in a closed room is given as

Equation 1: VR

dC

2

-(C

- Co)&,

+f

where C is the room contamination level, Co is the con- centration level in any ventilation air, VR is the room size, O,, is the ventilation rate, andf is the fume genera- tion rate. Equation 1 applies, assuming that the contaminant is uniformly spread throughout the room, that there is no loss of fume due to deposition on various surfaces (walls, floors, etc.), and that, if the room is ventilated, the ven- tilation air is uniformly distributed. If it is assumed that the ventilation air is free of any fume contamination, that is, Co = O, Equation 1 can be integrated to obtain the following expression for the room contamination level as a function of time.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

of time. COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. f Equation 2: ~(t) = 3.53 x 104

f

Equation 2: ~(t)= 3.53 x 104 5 (i - e -&,/VRt)

with the units for each of the variables being f - g/min, Q, - std ft3/min, VR - ft3,t - minutes, and C - mg/m The steady-state or maximum room concentration levels can be determined from Equation 2 by assuming an infinitely large time period.' With this assumption, Equation 2 reduces to Equation 3: C, = 3.53 x lo4f/& Steady-state fume concentration levels (C,) calculated using Equation 3 are shown in Fig. 1.16 and apply to rooms of all sizes. The concentrations presented in Fig. I. 16 can also be used to estimate room steady-state fume concentration levels if more than one welding operation is in progress. For example: assuming that there are five welding operators each generating fumes at a rate of approximately 0.6 g/min, and that room ventilation rate is 10,000std ft3/min (283.2 std m3/min)2,the room con- centration level would be 10 mg/m3 or 5 times the level for a single welding operation. Estimated fume genera- tion rates for various welding processes are presented in

1. The time requirid to achieve steady-state concentration levels depends upon theroom size and ventilation rate. 2. 'Std &'/min = standard cubic feet per minute, measured at 0°C and 1atm pressure.

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~

 

AWS FGW*PT*L 77

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~

-~

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~~~

~

~~

~

 

~

7c

6a

50

40

30

20

m

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.-8'

i-

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0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

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I

50

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2.0

Room ventilation rate, std m3/min

100

iill

200

I

300

I

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Section IA. GeneralRoom Ventilation123

500.

I

I

loo0

IlII

4.0

6.0

8.0

10

20

40

60

Room ventilation rate, std ft3/min x lo3

Fig. 1.16-General room ventilationrequirementsfor various welding fume generationrates

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24/FUMES AND GASES

-

2

-

c

O

,-

w

E

i-

oo

O

:

i-m

1.o

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

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2

x 0.06

C

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I.'

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0.04

0.02

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4.0

6.0 8.0

Arc time, min

10

20

40

Fig. 1.17-Estimated room concentration level as a function of time for various mom sizes and ventilationrates

Part II of this report, and the fume generation rates for a number of the more commonly used processes are given in Appendix A. Fig. I. 16 can also be used to determine steady;state concentration levels for arc times less than 100 percent, which is almost always the case. For arc times less than 100 percent, the time average fume gen- eration rate is used. The time average fume generation rate is obtained by multiplying the fume generation rate, as is shown in Appendix A, by the arc time expressed as a decimal. For example: if, in a one-hour time period, 25 minutes were spent in actual welding, then the arc time would be 25/60 or 0.42.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

or 0.42. COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Using Equation 2, transient concentration levels were

Using Equation 2, transient concentration levels were determined for time periods less than those required to achieve steady-state levels. Fig. 1.17 shows the room concentration level as a function of time. The concentra- tion level (C), is presented as a fraction of the steady- state value (CS),and the resulting ratio (ClCs),is plotted as a function of arc time and &/VR (system time con- stant). Therefore, in order to estimate room concentra- tion level as a function of time for a particular setup, it is necessary to use both Figs. 1.16and 1.17. To illustrate application of Figs. 1.16 and 1.17, the fume concentration in a room was determined assuming

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77

0784265 00054LO O m-

12 I

I

i

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I

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6" = 3000 std ft3/rnin (35 std m3/min) VR = 10,000 ft3 (283.2 m3f
10

f = 0.80 g/min

I

I

SectionZB.Local Ventilation125

I

I

I

I

i

N

E

\

F

-

e

8

26

C

O

I- *

e

w

a>

C

O

E-

5

IL

4

2

O I

O

2

4

6

Arc time, min

8

10

12

Fig. 1.lû-Room concentration level as a function of time for representative room conditions

a room volume of 10,000 ft3 (283 m3), a ventilation rate of 3000 std ft3/min (85m3/min), and generation of weld- ing fumes at a time average rate of 0.8 g/min. Fig. 1.16 shows that the steady-state concentration level for these conditions would be 9.5 mg/m.3 Referring then to Fig. 1.17, it can be seen that for the assumed conditions result- ing in a system time constant of 0.3, the room concentra- tion would be one-half of the steady-statevalue after about 2.5 minutes of continuous welding. Fig. 1.18 shows the room fume concentration level in mg/m3 as a function of time for this example.

Section IB. LocalVentilation

Data Needed

General room ventilation can effectively control con- tamination levels within a general area but, in many

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

but, in many COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. cases, does not provide the local control

cases, does not provide the local control needed to pro- tect the welding operator. Local ventilation is an effec- tive way of providing this protection. For those cases where either room size, arc time, or natural ventilation provides adequate control of general room contamination, only local ventilation would be needed to protect the welder. Since the data needed to design for local venti- lation are not available in the literature and cannot be accurately calculated, they were obtained experimentally. Experiments were performed to determine the effect of the air currents associated with local ventilation on the fume concentration level in the welder's breathing zone. The natural tendency of welding fumes is to rise ver- tically, due to heating of the air and gases in the immedi- ate vicinity of the electric arc. The welder's head is usually close to or in the plume above the arc; therefore, the welding fumes will flow around the helmet as they move vertically upward, and a portion of the fumes will also penetrate behind the helmet. The amount or concen- tration of fumes behind the helmet will be a function of

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~~/FuMF?~AND GASES

the welder’s position, the fume generation rate, and the local ventilation rate and direction. In the experimental studies, the reduction in welder exposurelevels was deter- mined over a range of air velocities and flow directions.

Calibration of Equipment

Critical Flow Orifice. The critical flow orifice was calibrated with a wet test meter. During orifice calibra- tion, the filter holder, loaded with a filter, was connected ahead of the orifice to duplicate the actual sampling flow condition. The flow rate for the orifice used was 2.7 literslmin when choked flow existed ticross the orifice. To ensure that the orifice-always operated with choked flow and to check for filter clogging during sampling, the pressure drop across the orifice was set and moni- tored with a pressure gage and installed downstream of the orifice as shown in Fig. 1.2. Condensation Nuclei Counter. The validity of using the condensation nuclei counter for measuring fume mass concentrations was confirmed as follows. Since the background aerosol concentration (-40 pglm’) is negligible compared to the particle concentration caused by welding (typically -30 O00 pg/m3), the mean par- ticle size should remain the same under various ventila- tion conditions. For these conditions, the mass concen- tration can be written as

Ir

Equation 4: rn = 6npp

where in

= particle mass concentration, mg/m3

n = particle number concentration, numberlm’

pp

-

= particle density, mg/pm3

Dp = particle diameter, pm In Equation 4, it is apparent that the number concentra- tion measured by the particle counter can be directly correlated to the mass concentration. Some measure- ments were performed to compare the counter output with the actual filter weighing. The comparison, shown in Fig. 1.19, demonstrates that mass measurements ob:

tained using a filter can, indeed, be linearly correlated with the counter output as indicated by Equation 4. .Therefore,the real time characteristics of this instrument were used advantageously in the subsequent tests to be described later. Initially, tests were performed using both the particle counting-method and the filter weighing method to mea- sure fume concentration levels. Usually, it was possible to obtain the particle counter data using only one elec- trode while five electrodes had to be used during the filter weighing measurements to obtain a sufficient sample for weighing. The two measurements were com- pared and checked for agreement with the calibration curve (shown in Fig. 1.19). The calibration curve was confirmed and subsequent data were taken with the con- densation nuclei counter.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc.

counter. COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Air Current Generator. The ventilation air velocity in the

Air Current Generator. The ventilation air velocity in the welding zone, 42 in. (1.07 m) from outlet face of the generator, was calibrated in terms of the pressure drop across the packed bed. The calibration curve is shown in Fig. 1.20. This pressure drop was subsequently used to set the air velocity during the experiments.

ExperimentalProcedure

In conducting the local ventilation experiments, sev- eral factors were maintained constant from run to run to eliminate their possible influence on the fume concen- tration level: (a) welder’s posture and head position, (b) initial base metal temperature, and (c) surface con- tamination. The one important uncontrollable variable was the unsteady flow pattern of natural convection created.by the welding arc. This resulted in some varia- tion in the measured values. In order to collect samples as representative and consistent as possible, the follow- ing setup and techniques were used. The welder’s head position was controlled by the hori- zontal bar attached to his helmet (see Fig. 1.5) which assured that his ear was 13 in. (0.33 m) above the arc and 10 in. (0.25 m) away from the arc horizontally. When more than one electrode was needed in order to obtain a measurable fume sample, the base metal was quickly moved after each electrode so the working spot would remain in approximately the same location for each electrode. Therefore, any of the spots coated with slag from the previous electrode were not welded over. All the above procedures were followed because it was found during shakedown tests that the natural fume con- vection pattern and the ventilation flow pattern can be greatly influenced by these variables. The experiments were conducted in the following manner: The welder was positioned relative to the direc- tion of the air flow from the generator needed to obtain the desired ventilation flow angle. An arc was struck and power supply adjustments were made to obtain the arc voltage and current specified by the manufacturer for the electrode being used. After the power supply was properly set, welding was started and samples were collected. When more than one electrode was required in order to obtain a measurable sample, fume sampling was performed only during the times when welding was in progress. Therefore, the results apply to 100 percent arc time. Fume concentration measurements were performed in the welder’s breathing zone for a number of ventilation velocity conditions (magnitudes and. directions). Fume measurements were also performed under conditions of zero ventilation. The results of the fume measurements follow.

ExperimentalResults

In order to determine the repeatability of the fume concentration measurements, eight filter measurements

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were made with no ventilation. The results on the tests are shown in Fig. 1.21. The SMAW process was used during this test series using a 5/32 in. (4 mm) diameter E6013electrode (Code4). A welding current of 150A and an arc voltage of 25 V were used for both polarities. The average welding time for each electrode under these conditions was approximately 70 seconds. At least five electrodes were needed to obtain measurable fume mass on the filter. The results shown in Fig. 1.21 indicate that there is a 25 percent scatter in the data.

Fig. 1.22 is a representative recorder trace of the output of the condensationnuclei counter as a function of time. The trace shows that the fume concentration in the welder’s breathing zone quickly increases in the first 10 seconds after an arc is struck. The welder’s breathing and the intrinsic unsteady flow pattern associated with the welding process cause the fluctuations observed in the counter signal. In reducing the data from the counter output, the area below each curve was infegrated to obtain a time average value of fume concentration level.

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level. COPYRIGHT 2003; American Welding Society, Inc. Document provided by IHS Licensee=ConocoPhillips

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The reduction in fume concentration level in the welder’s breathing zone is presented as a function of ventilation conditions (air speed and direction) in Figs. 1.23, 1.24, and 1.25. The fume concentration level is expressed as a percentage ratio of the fume concentration level obtained with ventilation air to that measured for zero ventilation velocity. The results from the experi- ments conducted with the air flow from the welder’s left, 0, = 90; are shown plotted in Fig. 1.23 for ventilation velocities from zero to 100 &/min (0-30 mlmin). The fume concentration level drops quite rapidly from the level at zero ventilation to approximately 10 percent at about 80 &/min (24.4 m/min). It can be assumed that the fume concentration level will decrease even further as the ventilation velocity is increased. The fume con- centration level for electrode negative polarity is ap- proximately 50 percent of the electrode positive polarity level at zero ventilation velocity. The fume concentration level for zero ventilation (CvJ was 37 mg/m3 when operating with electrode positive polarity. The fume concentrationmeasurements performed with the air current generator behind the welder (ûv=Oo) anti in front of the welder (í3,,=180°) are presented in Fig. 1.24. The results for 6,=@ (ventilation from behind the welder) show that there is an increase of approximately 20 percent in the fume concentration level as the ventila- tion velocity is increased from zero to 40 ft/min (12.2 m/ min). From 40 ftlmin (12.2 mlmin) to 200 ftlmin to (61.0 mlmin), the fume concentration level decreases linearly by approximately 80 percent and 60 percent for the elec-

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