Sie sind auf Seite 1von 112

C4.4 & C6.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINE

electronics application & installation guide

LEBH7120-00

Table of Contents
1 Introduction and Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1 Applicable Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2 Electronic Applications Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3.1 Warning Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.2 Warning Electrostatic Paint Spraying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.3 Warning Jump-Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 Engine Component Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2 Sensor Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2.1 Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2.2 Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.3 Coolant Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.4 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.5 Fuel Pump Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2.6 Electronic Unit Injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2.7 Crankshaft Speed/Timing Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2.8 Pump/Camshaft Speed/Timing Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.9 Oil Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.10 Wastegate Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Engine Component Diagrams and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.1 C6.6 Factory-Installed Wiring and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.2 C6.6 Engine Wire Harness Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3.3 C4.4 Factory-Installed Wiring and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.4 C4.4 Engine Wire Harness Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.5 C6.6 Principal Engine Electronic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.6 C4.4 Principal Engine Electronic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.4 Customer System Overview Key Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.4.1 Connection, Power, and Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.4.2 Indication Starting and Stopping the Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.4.3 Controlling the Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.5 Required Components to Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.6 Optional Customer-Installed Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.6.1 Typical Customer-Installed Component Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.6.2 Example OEM Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.6.3 Example 1 Basic Engine Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.6.4 Example 2 Construction Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.6.5 Example 3 Industrial Open Power Unit Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.6.6 Example 4 Agricultural Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.6.7 Example 1 Basic Schematic OEM Harness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.6.8 Example 2 Construction Schematic OEM Harness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.6.9 Example 3 Industrial Open Power Unit Schematic OEM Harness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.6.10 Example 4 Agricultural Schematic OEM Harness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3 Power and Grounding Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1 Engine Block Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1.1 Ground Stud on Starter Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1.2 Ground Connection to Tapping on Engine Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.2 Voltage and Current Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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ECU Power Supply Circuit Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.3.1 Battery (+) Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.3.2 Battery (-) Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.3.3 Correct Method of ECU Battery Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.3.4 Correct Method of ECU Battery Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.4 Engine ECU Power Supply Circuit Resistance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.4.1 Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.4.2 Inductive Energy Fly-back Suppression Diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4 Connectors and Wiring Harness Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.1.1 ECU Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.1.2 Connector Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.1.3 Tightening the OEM Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.1.4 ECU Connector Wire Gauge Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.1.5 ECU Connector Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.1.6 Terminal Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.1.7 Hand Crimping For Prototype Machines and Low Volume Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.1.8 ECU Connector Sealing Plug Installation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.1.9 OEM Harness Retention at the ECU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.1.10 Machine Crimping For High Volume Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.2 Harness Wiring Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.2.1 General Recommendations for Machine Wiring Harnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.2.1.1 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.2.1.2 Cable Routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.2.1.3 Mounting Location for Electronic Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.2.1.4 Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.2.1.5 Diagnostic Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.2.1.6 Termination Resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.2.1.7 Pin Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5 Starting and Stopping the Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5.1 Starting the Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5.2 Stopping the Engine (and Preventing Restart) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.2.1 Ignition Keyswitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.2.2 Emergency Stop Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.2.3 Battery Isolation Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5.2.4 Remote Stop Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5.2.5 Datalink Stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5.2.6 Common Problems With the Application of Stop Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6 Engine Speed Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.1 Analogue Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.1.1 Device Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.1.2 Analogue Sensors Connection Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.1.3 Evaluating Component Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.3.1 Analogue Input Test Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.3.2 Idle Validation Switch Test Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.4 Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 6.1.5 Required Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 6.1.6 Analogue Throttle Switch ET Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3

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PWM Sensor Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 6.2.1 Device Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 6.2.2 Component Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 6.2.3 Connection Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.2.4 PWM Throttle ET Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.3 PTO Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.3.1 PTO Mode On/Off Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.3.2 PTO Mode Set/Lower Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.3.3 PTO Mode Raise/Resume Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.3.4 PTO Mode Disengage Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.3.5 PTO Mode Preset Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.3.6 PTO Mode Lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.3.7 PTO Mode ET Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.3.8 Example of PTO Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.4 Multi-Position Throttle Switch (MPTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 6.4.1 Multi-Position Throttle Switch ET Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6.5 Torque Speed Control TSC1 (Speed Control Over CAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6.6 Arbitration of Speed Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6.6.1 Manual Throttle Selection Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6.7 Ramp Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 6.8 Throttle Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 6.8.1 Throttle Parameter Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.1 Diagnostic Lower Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.2 Lower Position Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.3 Initial Lower Position Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.4 Lower Dead Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.5 Initial Upper Position Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.6 Upper Position Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.7 Upper Dead Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.1.8 Diagnostic Upper Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6.8.2 Throttle Calibration Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6.8.2.1 Idle Validation Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 7 Cold Starting Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 7.1 Control of Glow Plugs by the Engine ECU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 7.1.1 Relay, Fuse, and Cable Gauge Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 7.1.2 Wait-to-Start/Start Aid Active Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 7.1.3 OEM/Operator Control or Override of the Glow Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 7.1.4 Ether Cold Start Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 7.1.5 Water Jacket Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 7.1.6 Ambient Temperature Sensor ET Configurable Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 8 Operator Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8.1 Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8.1.1 Gauge Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8.1.2 Lamp Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8.1.3 Indicator Lamps Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 8.1.4 Datalink-Driven Intelligent Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 8.1.5 Minimum Functional Specification for J1939 Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 8.1.6 Customer Triggered Engine Fault Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 6.2

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Table of Contents
Engine Software Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.1 Engine Monitoring System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.1.2 Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.1.3 Derate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.1.4 Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.2 Monitoring Mode ET Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8.2.3 Monitoring Mode Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 8.2.3.1 Coolant Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 8.2.3.2 Engine Oil Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 8.2.3.3 Intake Manifold Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 8.2.4 Other Derate Reasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Monitored Inputs for Customer-Fitted Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 9.1 Configurable States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 9.2 Air Filter Service Indicator Air Intake Restriction Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 9.3 Coolant Low Level Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 9.4 Fuel in Water Trap Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Engine Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.1 Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.1.1 All Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.1.2 Torque Limit Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.1.3 Droop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.1.4 High Speed Governor (Governor Run-Out) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 10.2 Auxiliary Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 10.3 Rating Selection Via Service Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 10.4 Mode Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 10.4.1 Rating and Droop Changes Requested Via the J1939 Datalink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 10.4.2 Service Maintenance Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Using the ET Service Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Datalink Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 12.1 SAE J1939 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 12.1.1 Summary of Key J1939 Application Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 12.1.2 Physical Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 12.1.3 Network Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 12.1.4 Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 J1939 Supported Parameters Quick Reference Summary Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-85 J1939 Parameters Detailed Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 14.1 Sending Messages to the ECU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 14.2 J1939 Section 71 Vehicle Application Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-104 14.3 J1939 Section 73 Diagnostic Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-106 14.4 Supported Parameters Section 21 Simplified Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 14.5 Supported Parameters Section 81 Network Management Detailed Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 15.1 Appendix 1 ECU J1 Connector Terminal Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-109 15.2 Appendix 2 List of Diagnostic and Event Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110-111 8.2

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Introduction and Purpose


1 Introduction and Purpose
This document will provide necessary information for correct electrical and electronic installation of C4.4 or C6.6 Industrial engines into an off-highway machine. Caterpillar expects that there will be some additions and modifications to this document as the engine program development continues, and as OEM requests for information not currently addressed are added. The information herein is the property of Caterpillar Inc. and/or its subsidiaries. Without written permission, any copying or transmission to others, and any use except that for which it is loaned is prohibited.

1.1 Applicable Engines


The information contained is the best available at the time of authoring to describe the application and installation requirements of the production software as of January 2007. Some engines shipped before this date will not have all the features described in this document. Likewise, some additional features will be added after this date. Contact the electronic applications team for the latest information on software feature release dates.

1.2 Electronic Applications Contacts


If the information in this document is incomplete, incorrect, or further details are required, please contact your applications engineer. Electronic Applications Team Mark Tegerdine Electronic Application Team Leader Telephone: +44(0) 1733 583222 Email: Tegerdine_Mark@cat.com

1.3 Safety
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance, and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills, and tools in order to perform these functions properly. The information in this publication was based upon current information at the time of publication. Check for the most current information before you start any job. Caterpillar dealers will have the most current information. Improper operation, maintenance or repair of this product may be dangerous. Improper operation, maintenance or repair of this product may result in injury or death.

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Introduction and Purpose


Do not operate or perform any maintenance or repair on this product until you have read and understood the operation, maintenance, and repair information. Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in this publication and on the product are not all-inclusive. If a tool, a procedure, a work method, or an operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must be sure that it is safe for you and for other people. You must also be sure that the product will not be damaged. You must also be sure that the product will not be made unsafe by the procedures that are used. 1.3.1 Warning Welding Welding can cause damage to the on-engine electronics. The following precautions should be taken before and during welding: Turn the engine off. Place the ignition keyswitch in the OFF position. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. If the machine is fitted with a battery disconnect switch, open the switch. Clamp the ground cable of the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close as possible to the weld. Protect any wiring harnesses from welding debris and splatter. DO NOT use electrical components in order to ground the welder. Do not use the ECU or sensors or any other electronic components in order to ground the welder. 1.3.2 Warning Electrostatic Paint Spraying The high voltages used in electrostatic paint spraying can cause damage to the engine electronics. The damage can manifest itself through immediate failure of components or by weakening electronic components, causing them to fail at a later date. The following precautions should be taken when using electrostatic paint spraying techniques on engines: Connect all 64 pins of the ECU J1 connector directly to the spraying booth ground. Connect the engine block to ground at 2 points. Ensure that good screwed connections onto bright metal are used. 1.3.3 Warning Jump-Starting Jump-starting an engine can cause higher than normal voltages to appear across the battery terminals. Care must be taken that this does not exceed the recommended maximum voltage for the ECU.

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Engine Component Overview


2 Engine Component Overview
2.1 Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
The A4E2 ECU is an electronic control device, fundamentally a computer that governs engine speed and torque output. The ECU processes sensor measurements from the connected sensors to determine fuel quantity, fuel timing, fuel pressure, and intake pressure. The device is assembled to a special mounting plate fitted to the engine. The location is common on both C4.4 and C6.6 engines, left hand side close to the fuel rail. The device has two connection sockets, one for the engine wire harness (J2) that is blue in color and the other for the machine OEM harness connection (J1) that is grey in color. There are two ECU options, a fueled-cooled version and an aircooled version. The choice of option depends on the maximum ambient temperature (see mechanical installation guide for details of fuel connection requirements and temperature restrictions).

2.2 Sensor Details


2.2.1 Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor The intake manifold pressure sensor measures the air pressure inside the intake manifold, after the turbo. There are two sensor options dependent on the choice of rating. The operating range of the sensor options differs. The range is either 0-339 kPa absolute or 0-440 kPa absolute. The sensor is used to determine atmospheric (barometric) pressure. During certain operating conditions the ECU will take a snapshot of the measured pressure to set the atmospheric pressure value. The atmospheric pressure is used to determine the atmospheric related fuel limits (if any); e.g., at high altitude fuel may be limited during cranking to prevent turbo over-speed. The ECU also uses the atmospheric value to calculate gauge pressure of other absolute engine pressure sensors. When the engine is running, the sensor measurement is used as an input parameter to calculate torque and air fuel ratio limits. This helps prevent black smoke during transient engine conditions, mainly during acceleration or upon sudden load application; i.e., if intake manifold pressure is too low for the requested fuel, the fuel is limited to prevent the over-fuel condition. The measurement will also be used to select certain timing maps. Intake manifold pressure is also used to control the turbo wastegate regulator, if fitted. The turbo wastegate regulator control system regulates intake manifold pressure to a desired value, calibrated in the software. In order to do this, the software needs to know the actual value of intake manifold pressure, hence the need for the sensor measurement. If the intake manifold pressure sensor/circuit fails, a low default value is used in the software. The wastegate regulator control (if fitted) will go to open loop, whereby the resultant intake manifold pressure will be low (as determined by the wastegate hardware chosen) and fuel will be limited under certain engine conditions, effectively providing a fuel/torque derate.

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Engine Component Overview


2.2.2 Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor This sensor measures the temperature inside the inlet air manifold. There are two sensor options on the C4.4 engine depending on the turbo arrangement. The operating range of the sensors differs. The range is either -40C to +120C or -40C to +200C (used on straight turbo options). The C6.6 engine uses the -40C to +120C option. Note: This is the sensor to which the engine is calibrated. Intake air temperature measurement is very sensitive to location. If the OEM adds additional inlet air temperature monitoring; for example, during prototype evaluation, it should be anticipated that there may be a difference of several degrees Celsius between the engine sensor and the OEM sensor. Intake manifold temperature measurement is used as an input to the cold start strategy. When the engine is running the sensor measurement is used as an input parameter to calculate torque and air fuel ratio limits. The OEM has no connection to this sensor, but if the intake air is required by some machine system; for example, for fan control strategy, the data can be accessed on the J1939 datalink. It is possible, if extreme temperatures are measured at the intake, that the engine will derate. In the event of a derate, an event code will be generated on the J1939 datalink or displayed on the service tool, and the warning lamp will illuminate. 2.2.3 Coolant Temperature Sensor The coolant temperature sensor measurement is used as an input to the cold start strategy. The measurement is also used to select certain maps at 0C, 50C, 65C, and 70C. The engine is considered warm at 65C. The fuel delivery characteristics will change dependent on the engine temperature. The sensor is also used for activating the glow plugs for cold engine starting and for detecting high coolant temperatures for raising an event. The range is -40C to +120C If the sensor/circuit fails, a default value is used and a diagnostic code is raised. For glow plug control if this sensor/circuit is faulted, the intake manifold air temperature sensor is used. It is possible that with this sensor/circuit in a failure condition, white smoke may result during a cold engine start. The high coolant temperature event will not be raised under this fault condition. The sensor reading of coolant temperature is also used to determine the maximum fuel allowed during engine starting. If the sensor/circuit fails, it is possible the engine will not start under cold engine conditions. It is possible, if the coolant temperature exceeds the design limits, that the engine will derate. In the event of a derate, a fault code will be generated on the J1939 datalink or displayed on the service tool, and the warning lamp will illuminate. 2.2.4 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor The fuel rail pressure sensor is used to measure the fuel pressure in the high-pressure fuel rail. (The fuel in the fuel rail feeds all injectors. Injection takes place when each injector is electrically operated.) The fuel rail pressure measurement is used in conjunction with the high-pressure fuel pump to maintain the desired fuel pressure in the fuel rail. This pressure is determined by engine calibrations to enable the engine to meet emissions and performance objectives. If the fuel rail pressure sensor/signal is faulted, a diagnostic code is set with a warning; a default value used and a 100 percent engine derate results. The default value for fuel rail pressure will allow the engine to run in a limp-home fashion whereby a known fuel rail pressure will be controlled within reasonable engine conditions. Emissions compliance cannot be guaranteed under this fault condition.

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2.2.5 Fuel Pump Solenoid The fuel rail pump solenoid is used to control the output from the high-pressure fuel pump. It is energized when fuel is required to be pumped into the high-pressure fuel rail. Varying the energize time of the solenoid controls the fuel delivery from the pump. The earlier the solenoid is energized (degrees before TDC), the more fuel is pumped into the fuel rail. The solenoid forms part of the fuel rail pressure closed loop control system in conjunction with the fuel rail pressure sensor, ECU, and software. The fuel rail pressure sensor measures the fuel rail pressure; the signal is processed by the ECU, and software and compared to the desired fuel rail pressure for the given engine operating conditions. The control algorithmcontrols the fuel rail pump solenoid energize time. There is no OEM connection to this component. If the fuel rail pump solenoid fails, it is likely that fuel will not be pumped into the fuel rail and engine shutdown or failed start is expected. 2.2.6 Electronic Unit Injectors Each fuel injector contains a solenoid to control the quantity of fuel injected. Both positive and negative wires to each solenoid are wired directly back to the ECU. There is no OEM connection to this component. Voltages of up to 70V are used to drive the injectors. The signals to the injectors are sharp pulses of relatively high current. The OEM should ensure that any systems that are sensitive to electromagnetic radiation are not in proximity to the harness components that lead to the injectors. 2.2.7 Crankshaft Speed/Timing Sensor The crankshaft speed-timing sensor is a Hall-effect sensor. The sensor works in conjunction with the timing ring fitted to the engine crankshaft. The sensor produces a signal as the timing ring/crank rotates past the sensor. The ECU uses this signal to calculate crankshaft speed and crankshaft position. The crank speed/timing signal is used during normal engine running since it is more accurate than the signal obtained from the cam speed/timing sensor. If the crank speed/timing sensor signal is lost or faulted, the engine is capable of starting provided the cam speed/ timing signal is healthy. A diagnostic and warning will be raised if the fault occurs during engine running. A full derate will result since the engine is not guaranteed to be emissions compliant due to the accuracy of the cam speed/timing signal. The diagnostic and derate will not be raised during engine cranking (if fault present), but the service tool will provide a means to read the condition of the cam and crank speed signals to aid fault finding. The OEM has no connection to this sensor. If the OEM requires accurate engine speed information, it may be obtained from the SAE J1939 datalink. The software includes logic to prevent reverse engine running.

10

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2.2.8 Pump/Camshaft Speed/Timing Sensor The camshaft speed/timing sensor works in conjunction with the timing ring fitted inside the high pressure fuel pump. The sensor produces a signal as the timing ring/pump rotates past the sensor. The ECU uses this signal to calculate camshaft speed, camshaft position and engine cycle. The cam speed/timing signal is required for determining the correct engine cycle and is also used for limp-home operation in the event of the crank speed sensor/circuit being faulted/lost. If the camshaft speed/timing sensor/signal is lost or faulted, the engine will not start (since engine cycle is not known from the crank signal only), but if the engine is already running, no engine performance effect will be noticed. A diagnostic and warning will be raised if the fault occurs during engine running. The diagnostic will not be raised during engine cranking, but the service tool will provide a means to read the condition of the cam and crank speed signals to aid fault finding. The software includes logic to compensate for minor timing errors. 2.2.9 Oil Pressure Sensor The oil pressure sensor measures the engine oil pressure in kPa. Oil pressure is used for engine protection, whereby if insufficient oil pressure is measured for a given speed, an event for low oil pressure would be raised. The low oil pressure threshold is defined as a map against engine speed. Currently, two levels of event are specified. Level 1 is the least severe and raises a warning. Level 3 is the most severe and raises a warning which requests that the engine be shutdown. Automatic engine shutdown can be configured for certain applications, such as gensets, to occur when a level 3 event is raised. If the oil pressure sensor fails, a diagnostic is raised and a default value is used by the software, which has been chosen to be a healthy (high) pressure value. It is not possible to raise an event while an oil pressure diagnostic is present. 2.2.10 Wastegate Regulator The regulator controls the pressure in the intake manifold to a value that is determined by the ECU. The wastegate regulator provides the interface between the ECU and the mechanical system that regulates intake manifold pressure to the desired value that is determined by the software.

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Engine Component Overview


2.3 Engine Component Diagrams and Schematics
2.3.1 C6.6 Factory-Installed Wiring and Components
Electronic Unit Injectors

A4E2 ECM
Diagnostic (If Equipped)

Fuel Pump

J1

J2
64 Pin Plug

Coolant Temperature

Oil Pressure

Wastegate Regulator
(If Equipped)

Intake Manifold Pressure Pump/Cam Speed/ Timing

Intake Manifold Temperature

Crank Speed/Timing

Fuel Rail Pressure

12

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C 6 . 6

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2.3.2 C6.6 Engine Wire Harness Schematic
A4E2 ECU J2 Connector

T962 BK T956 BK

1 2

X931YL X925PK X930 GY

6 62 7 63

INJECTOR CYLINDER 6 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 6 INJECTOR CYLINDER 5 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 5

T961 BK T955 BK

3 4

X924 BR

X929BU T960 BK T954 BK 1 2 X923 OR X928 GN X922 WH T959 BK T953 BK 3 4 X927 YL X921 PK

8 64 33 59

INJECTOR CYLINDER 4 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 4 INJECTOR CYLINDER 3 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 3

34 58

INJECTOR CYLINDER 2 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 2

INJECTOR CYLINDER 6 INJECTOR CYLINDER 5 INJECTOR CYLINDER 4 INJECTOR CYLINDER 3 INJECTOR CYLINDER 2 INJECTOR CYLINDER 1

T958 BK T952 BK

1 2 X926 GY X920 BR 35 57
INJECTOR CYLINDER 1 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 1

T957 BK T951 BK

3 4

INTERNAL (ROCKER COVER)

EXTERNAL

INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE SENSOR

1 2 3

T997 OR T993 BR X731 BU

46 38 55 47 39 56

IMP POWER SUPPLY (+5V) IMP RETURN IMP SIGNAL

L730 OR Y947 BR 994 GY

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR PWR (+5V) OIL PRESSURE SENSOR RETURN OIL PRESSURE SENSOR SIGNAL

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

2 3

R997 OR Y948 BR Y946 BU

48 40 51

FMP SENSOR POWER SUPPLY (+5V) FMP SENSOR GROUND FMP SENSOR SIGNAL

FUEL MANIFOLD PRESSURE SENSOR

2 3

COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR

1 2

995 BU

43

COOLANT TEMP SIGNAL

INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE SENSOR

1 2

C967 BU L731 BR

42 37

IMT SIGNAL TEMPERATURE SENSOR RETURN

CRANKSHAFT SPEED/ TIMING SENSOR

1 2

996 GN E965 BU

10 52

SPEED SENSOR POWER (+8V) CRANK SPEED/TIME SENS SIG

P920 BR

53

PUMP /CAM SPEED SENS SIG

PUMP / CAM SPEED SENSOR

1 2

Y950 YL Y951 PU

25 26

FUEL PUMP SOLENOID PWM SIG FUEL PUMP SOLENOID RETURN

C211 BK M795 WH

19 17

WASTEGATE RETURN WASTEGATE PWM SIGNAL

FUEL PUMP SOLENOID

1 2 A B D E F G C H 101 RD 229 BK 944 OR 945 BR Y793 YL Y792 PK 18 45 21 20 23 24


BAT+ (FOR COMMS ADAPTER) BAT - (FOR COMMS ADAPTER) CDL+ CDLJ1939 J1939 +

DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR (9 PIN)

ELECTRONIC WASTEGATE ACTUATOR

1 2

NOT ALWAYS FITTED ON FIXED SPEED ENGINES

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Engine Component Overview


2.3.3 C4.4 Factory-Installed Wiring and Components
Electronic Unit Injectors

A4E2 ECM
Diagnostic (If Equipped)

Fuel Pump

J1

J2
64 Pin Plug

Coolant Temperature

Oil Pressure

Wastegate Regulator
(If Equipped)

Intake Manifold Pressure Pump/Cam Speed/ Timing

Intake Manifold Temperature

Crank Speed/Timing

Fuel Rail Pressure

14

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C 6 . 6

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2.3.4 C4.4 Engine Wire Harness Schematic
A4E2 ECU J2 Connector

T960 BK T954 BK T959 BK T953 BK T958 BK T952 BK T957 BK T951 BK

1 2 3 4

X929BU X923 OR X928 GN X922 WH X927 YL

34 58 8 64 7 63 35 57

INJECTOR CYLINDER 4 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 4 INJECTOR CYLINDER 3 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 3

INJECTOR CYLINDER 2 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 2 INJECTOR CYLINDER 1 RETURN INJECTOR CYLINDER 1

1 2 3 4

X921 PK X926 GY X920 BR

INJECTOR CYLINDER 4 INJECTOR CYLINDER 3 INJECTOR CYLINDER 2 INJECTOR CYLINDER 1

INTERNAL (ROCKER COVER)

EXTERNAL

INTAKE MANIFOLD PRESSURE SENSOR

1 2 3 T997 OR T993 BR X731 BU 1 L730 OR Y947 BR 994 GY 46 38 55 47 39 56


IMP POWER SUPPLY (5V) IMP RETURN IMP SIGNAL OIL PRESSURE SENSOR PWR (5V) OIL PRESSURE SENSOR RETURN OIL PRESSURE SENSOR SIGNAL

OIL PRESSURE SENSOR

2 3

R997 OR Y948 BR Y946 BU

48 40 51

FMP SENSOR POWER SUPPLY (5V) FMP SENSOR GROUND FMP SENSOR SIGNAL

FUEL MANIFOLD PRESSURE SENSOR

2 3

COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR

1 2

995 BU

43

COOLANT TEMP SIGNAL

INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE SENSOR

1 2

C967 BU L731 BR

42 37

IMT SIGNAL TEMPERATURE SENSOR RETURN

CRANKSHAFT SPEED/ TIMING SENSOR

1 2

996 GN E965 BU

10 52

SPEED SENSOR POWER (8V) CRANK SPEED/TIME SENS SIG

P920 BR

53 25 26 19 17

PUMP /CAM SPEED SENS SIG

PUMP / CAM SPEED SENSOR

1 2

Y950 YL Y951 PU C211 BK M795 WH

FUEL PUMP SOLENOID PWM SIG FUEL PUMP SOLENOID RETURN

WASTEGATE RETURN WASTEGATE PWM SIGNAL

FUEL PUMP SOLENOID

1 2 A B 101 RD 229 BK 944 OR 945 BR Y793 YL Y792 PK 18 45 21 20 23 24


BAT+ (FOR COMMS ADAPTER) BAT - (FOR COMMS ADAPTER) CDL+ CDLJ1939 J1939 +

DIAGNOSTIC CONNECTOR (9 PIN)

D E F G C H

ELECTRONIC WASTEGATE ACTUATOR NOT ALWAYS FITTED ON FIXED SPEED ENGINES

1 2

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Engine Component Overview


2.3.5 C6.6 Principal Engine Electronic Components

Intake Temperature

Intake Pressure Sensor

Coolant Sensor

Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor

ECU

Fuel Pump Solenoid

Pump/Cam Speed Sensor

Oil Pressure Sensor Crank Speed Sensor

Note: Variable Wastegate Fitted to Right Hand Side

16

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C 6 . 6

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Engine Component Overview


2.3.6 C4.4 Principal Engine Electronic Components

Fuel Pump Solenoid

Intake Temperature Sensor

Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor

Coolant Temperature Sensor ECU J1 Connector

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor

Pump/Cam Speed Sensor Crank Speed Sensor Oil Pressure Sensor Note: Wastegate Regulator Fitted to Right Hand Side of Engine

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Engine Component Overview


2.4 Customer System Overview Key Elements
The engine can be wired and configured many different ways dependent on the requirements of the OEM. The key elements to consider are: 2.4.1 Connection, Power, and Grounding The engine ECU requires electrical power. The requirements for powering the ECU need careful review. It is important to understand how to connect the ECU to the machine battery; more detail is given in the power and grounding section of this document. 2.4.2 Indication Starting and Stopping the Engine With the battery connected, a single connection to the ECU is required to initialize the ECU. Once initialized the ECU will be ready to control the engine. It is important to consider how the power to pin 40 is controlled; most machines use a simple keyswitch to start and stop the engine. There are specific recommendations for stopping the engine that are specified in the starting and stopping section of this guide. Mandatory requirements regarding operator indication are in place; see the operator display section of this document. 2.4.3 Controlling the Engine There are specific requirements in this document for controlling engine speed and auxiliary components. Further information is available in the speed demand section of this document.

2.5 Required Components to Install


Mandatory or Required Components Battery Circuit Protection Keyswitch Warning Lamp Shutdown Wait-to-Start Lamp Glow Plug Relay Speed Demand Input Section Power and Grounding Considerations Power and Grounding Considerations Starting the Engine Operator Displays Operator Displays Operator Displays Cold Starting Aid Engine Speed Demand

18

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2.6 Optional Customer-Installed Components*
Optional Components Low Oil Pressure Lamp PTO Mode Lamp Maintenance Due Lamp Remote Shutdown Switch (Normally Open) Coolant Level Sensor Water Fuel Sensor Air Filter Restriction Switch PWM Throttle Position Sensor Analogue Throttle Position Sensor with Idle Validation Switch (1) Analogue Throttle Position Sensor with Idle Validation Switch (2) Throttle Selection Switch Multi-Position Switch PTO On/Off Switch PTO Set/Lower Switch PTO Raise/Resume Switch PTO Disengage Switch Mode Switch (1) Mode Switch (2) Maintenance Due Reset Switch Ambient Temperature Sensor Section Operator Displays Operator Displays Operator Displays Stopping the Engine Monitored Inputs for Customer Fitted Sensors Monitored Inputs for Customer Fitted Sensors Monitored Inputs for Customer Fitted Sensors Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Speed Demand Engine Governor Engine Governor Additional Options Additional Options

* Check compatibility in specific sections, some components cannot be used together.

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Engine Component Overview


2.6.1 Typical Customer-Installed Component Diagram

Battery Isolation Switch

Glow Plug Relay

+
Battery

PWM Throttle

Analogue Throttle with IVS


IVS

Circuit Protection (Mandatory)

Keyswitch

Air Filter Restriction Switch

Magnetic Switch Warning Lamp Stop Lamp Wait to Start Lamp

Coolant Level Switch PTO On/Off Switch PTO Raise/Resume Button PTO Set/Lower Button PTO Disengage

Low Oil Pressure Lamp Modes Switch 1 Maintenance Due Lamp Modes Switch 2 Service Tool Connector Shutdown Switch Maintenance Due Reset Switch

J1939 Termination Resistor

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2.6.2 Example OEM Schematic The engine can be configured and wired many different ways dependent on the requirements of the OEM. The following four example schematics and descriptions provide a guide for the OEM. 2.6.3 Example 1 Basic Engine Application This solution is suitable for applications where very little integration or additional engineering is a requirement when compared to the solution used for a mechanical engine. This solution can be used in most mechanically governed engine replacement situations. The OEM needs to consider only basic functions: power supply, operator indication, cold start aid, and a simple method of controlling the engine speed. 2.6.4 Example 2 Construction Application An application where the engine, in response to an arrangement of switched inputs will operate at one of a range of defined speeds. This is suitable for applications where the device has multiple operating speeds that are defined for the specific output reasons, for simplicity of operator use, or for operation dependent upon the environment e.g., quiet modes. This could include auxiliary engine on-road sweeper, multiple speed water pumps, etc. There are sixteen possible set speeds based on four discrete ECU inputs. In addition to the keyswitch, a separate engine shutdown switch is used to stop the engine. 2.6.5 Example 3 Industrial Open Power Unit Application An application where the engine, in response to a control input such as a button press, accelerates from idle speed up to the pre-defined operating engine speed. Once at the pre-defined operating speed, the engine speed may be raised or lowered by increment/decrement button presses. This is suitable for enhancing some of the applications of the single speed (set speed) control or to provide a variable speed control without having a throttle pedal/lever. This functionality may benefit when the user wants to use set speed operation, but with the capability to adjust it themselves users may have a favorite operating speed. This could include concrete pumps and hydraulic driven machines. 2.6.6 Example 4 Agricultural Application The application will allow single or twin throttles, engine twin set speed control, multi mode operation, integrated display drive, etc. This set-up is suitable for applications where the customer requires a high degree of operator control over the machines behavior. It is one of the most complex applications. Typically, this is used in mobile applications that may be driven to the place of work and require operator selectable speed operation while performing their chosen task. This could include tractors, combines, and backhoe loaders.

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Engine Component Overview


2.6.7 Example 1 Basic Schematic OEM Harness
Basic OEM Wiring Schematic Chris Crawford 21st AUG 2006 A4E2 ECU J1 CONNECTOR

UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT FOR INDICATION ONLY Caterpillar Confidential Green

NOTE 7 7 8 15 16
BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY +

1 2 3 9
OFF ON START

BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY -

10 5A 40

IGNITION KEYSWTICH

IGNITION KEY SWITCH

STOP LAMP TO STARTER MOTOR MAG SWITCH WARNING LAMP NOTE 2 COLD START - WAIT TO START LAMP

60

STOP LAMP

59

WARNING LAMP

63

COLD START LAMP

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP

62

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

NOTE 4

57 NOTE 5

START AID CONTROL

GLOW PLUG RELAY

TO GLOW PLUGS

Battery 43 PWM THROTTLE SENSOR


SENSOR SUPPLY 8V

53

PWM THROTTLE SENSOR INPUT

33

SENSOR RETURN

NOTES
1. N/A 2. Fuse value depends on Mag Switch circuit current 3. N/A 4. Fit suppression diodes across relay coils 5. Glow Plug fuse rating differs between 4cyl and 6cyl engines and system voltage 6. Starter motor control circuits will vary 7. Fuse value dependant on system voltage

J1 PLUG

Rear View of J1 Plug

Front View of J1 Plug

22

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2.6.8 Example 2 Construction Schematic OEM Harness
Construction OEM Wiring Schematic Chris Crawford 21st AUG 2006
CAN J1939 BUS NOTE 1 120 OHM

A4E2 ECU J1 CONNECTOR

UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT FOR INDICATION ONLY Caterpillar Confidential Green

20 21 22 NOTE 3 23 24

CAN J1939 + CAN J1939 CAN J1939 SHIELD CDL + CDL -

NOTE 7

120 OHM 7 8 15 16
BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY +

1 2 3 9
OFF ON START

BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY -

10 5A 40

IGNITION KEYSWTICH

IGNITION KEY SWITCH

STOP LAMP TO STARTER MOTOR MAG SWITCH WARNING LAMP NOTE 2 COLD START - WAIT TO START LAMP

60

STOP LAMP

59

WARNING LAMP

63

COLD START LAMP

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP

62

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

NOTE 4

57 NOTE 5

START AID CONTROL

GLOW PLUG RELAY

TO GLOW PLUGS

Battery

S1

CMN

10 POSITION ROTARY SWITCH

49 50 51 52

THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 1 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 2 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 3 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCH 4

S2 S3 S4

48

SHUTDOWN SWITCH (CLOSE TO STOP)

35

SWITCH RETURN

NOTES
1. CAN shield connection at ECM is optional 2. Fuse value depends on Mag Switch circuit current 3. CDL connection may be used for secondary diagnostic connection 4. Fit suppression diodes across relay coils 5. Glow Plug fuse rating differs between 4cyl and 6cyl engines and system voltage 6. Starter motor control circuits will vary 7. Fuse value dependent on system voltage Rear View of J1 Plug

J1 PLUG

Front View of J1 Plug

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Engine Component Overview


2.6.9 Example 3 Industrial Open Power Unit Schematic OEM Harness
IOPU OEM Wiring Schematic Chris Crawford 21st AUG 2006 A4E2 ECU J1 CONNECTOR

UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT FOR INDICATION ONLY Caterpillar Confidential Green

NOTE 7 7 8 15 16
BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY +

1 2 3 9
OFF ON START

BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY -

10 5A 40 PTO MODE LAMP

IGNITION KEYSWTICH

61 60

PTO MODE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

IGNITION KEY SWITCH

STOP LAMP TO STARTER MOTOR MAG SWITCH WARNING LAMP NOTE 2 COLD START - WAIT TO START LAMP

STOP LAMP

59

WARNING LAMP

63

COLD START LAMP

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP

62

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

NOTE 4

57 NOTE 5

START AID CONTROL

GLOW PLUG RELAY

TO GLOW PLUGS

Battery

ON / OFF SET / LOWER 52 RAISE / RESUME 51 50 DISENGAGE SWITCH 49


PTO MODE - ON / OFF PTO MODE - SET/ LOWER PTO MODE - RAISE /RESUME PTO MODE - DISENGAGE (NC)

35

SWITCH RETURN

NOTES
1. N/A 2. Fuse value depends on Mag Switch circuit current 3. N/A 4. Fit suppression diodes across relay coils 5. Glow Plug fuse rating differs between 4cyl and 6cyl engines and system voltage 6. Starter motor control circuits will vary 7. Fuse value dependent on system voltage

J1 PLUG

Rear View of J1 Plug

Front View of J1 Plug

24

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2.6.10 Example 4 Agricultural Schematic OEM Harness
Agricultural OEM Wiring Schematic Chris Crawford 21st AUG 2006
CAN J1939 BUS NOTE 1 120 OHM

A4E2 ECU J1 CONNECTOR

UNCONTROLLED DOCUMENT FOR INDICATION ONLY Caterpillar Confidential Green

20 21 22 NOTE 3 23 24

CAN J1939 + CAN J1939 CAN J1939 SHIELD CDL + CDL -

NOTE 7

120 OHM 7 8 15 16
BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY + BATTERY +

1 2 3 9
OFF ON START

BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY -

10 5A 40 PTO MODE LAMP

IGNITION KEYSWTICH

61 60

PTO MODE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

IGNITION KEY SWITCH

STOP LAMP TO STARTER MOTOR MAG SWITCH WARNING LAMP NOTE 2 COLD START - WAIT TO START LAMP

STOP LAMP

59

WARNING LAMP

63

COLD START LAMP

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP MAINTENANCE DUE LAMP

62

LOW OIL PRESSURE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

58

MAINTENANCE DUE LAMP (OPTIONAL)

MAINTENANCE DUE RESET SWITCH NOTE 4

36

MAINTENANCE DUE RESET SWITCH

57 NOTE 5 41 TO GLOW PLUGS ANALOGUE THROTTLE SENSOR 1 54 33 45

START AID CONTROL

SENSOR SUPPPLY 5V

ANALOGUE THROTTLE INPUT 1

GLOW PLUG RELAY

SENSOR RETURN IDLE VALIDATION (IVS 1) N/C

42 ANALOGUE THROTTLE SENSOR 2 55 34 44 Battery

SENSOR SUPPPLY 5V

ANALOGUE THROTTLE INPUT 2

SENSOR RETURN IDLE VALIDATION (IVS 2) N/C

ON / OFF SET / LOWER 52 RAISE / RESUME 51 50 DISENGAGE SWITCH 49


PTO MODE - ON / OFF PTO MODE - SET/ LOWER PTO MODE - RAISE /RESUME PTO MODE - DISENGAGE (NC)

39 46 MODE SWITCH 1 MODE SWITCH 2

MODE SWITCH 1 MODE SWITCH 2

THROTTLE SELECTION SWITCH

47

THROTTLE SELECTION SWITCH

35

SWITCH RETURN

NOTES
1. CAN shield connection at ECM is optional 2. Fuse value depends on Mag Switch circuit current 3. CDL connection may be used for secondary diagnostic connection 4. Fit suppression diodes across relay coils 5. Glow Plug fuse rating differs between 4cyl and 6cyl engines and systme voltage 6. Starter motor control circuits will vary 7. Fuse value dependent on system voltage Rear View of J1 Plug

J1 PLUG

Front View of J1 Plug

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Power and Grounding Considerations


3 Power and Grounding Considerations
3.1 Engine Block Grounding
Although the engine electronics are all directly grounded via the ECU connector, it is also necessary that the engine block be properly grounded to provide a good return path for components such as starter motor, alternator, and cold start aids. Improper grounding results in unreliable electrical circuit paths. Stray electrical currents can damage mechanical components and make electronic systems prone to interference. These problems are often very difficult to diagnose and repair. 3.1.1 Ground Stud on Starter Motor If the starter motor has a grounding stud it should be used. The ground connection should preferably be made directly back to the battery negative terminal. The starter motor ground path must not include any flanges or joints. Painted surfaces and flexible mounts in particular must be avoided. Star washers must not be relied upon to make contact though paint. The ground cable should be of cross section 67.4 mm2 (00 AWG) or greater. 3.1.2 Ground Connection to Tapping on Engine Block A separate engine block ground should be used in addition to the starter motor ground. A ground cable, direct from the battery negative or starter ground terminal, should be connected to a ring terminal which connects to one of the three tappings shown in diagrams 1 and 2. The tapped holes will be reserved for customer use and can be used for grounding purposes. If a tapping is used it should be checked to be free of lacquer, paint, and dirt before the connection is made. An M10 metric screw plated with zinc should be used. A washer should retain the ring terminal and the screw tightened to 44 Nm (32 Ib-ft). It is preferable to use a conductive grease to ensure the reliability of this connection.

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Ground Point Option 1

Ground Point Option 2

Diagram 1 Ground Points 1 & 2

Ground Point Option 3

Diagram 2 Ground Point 3

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3.2 Voltage and Current Requirements
The ECU power supply requirements must be carefully considered when designing the supply circuit; there are specific limitations that must be considered in the design to ensure a reliable consistent power supply to the engine electronic components. The table provides the electrical characteristics and limitations for the A4:E2 ECU. Voltage Supply System Max Peak Current Peak Current Cranking Max RMS Current* Suggested Fuse Rating** Sleep Current Min Running Voltage Max Running Voltage*** Minimum ECU Voltage During Cranking Maximum Total ECU Power Circuit Wire Resistance Target Circuit Resistance 12V 60A 36A 13A 25A <8mA 9V 16V 5.5V 50 mOhms 40 mOhms 24V 60A 36A 7.5A 20A <10mA 18V 32V 5.5V 100 mOhms 80 mOhms

*Max RMS current measurements conducted on engine running at rated speed and load. RMS current will vary with engine speed (assuming constant voltage) no lamp drivers or application side components fitted during measurement. **Suggested fuse ratings are based on automotive blade type fuses and are for guidance only. ***The ECU can survive higher voltages. ECU will survive for at least 2 minutes on a supply voltage of 30V for 12V systems and 48V for 24V systems.

3.3 ECU Power Supply Circuit Resistance


Often during engine cranking the battery voltage will drop to values much lower than the normal system operating voltage. The minimum permissible voltage measured at the ECU during cranking is 6V. The power requirements to drive the engine electronic components such as the injectors and fuel pump circuit remain the same during cranking; for this reason the ECU power supply circuit resistance becomes very important and will affect the voltage seen at the ECU. The table below illustrates the difference between the voltage at the ECU during cranking and normal running conditions: Parameter System Voltage at the Battery Engine ECU Current Draw Total ECU Power Supply Resistance Voltage Drop (I*R) Voltage at the ECU Engine Cranking 8V 36A 40 mOhms 1.44V 6.56V Engine Running 13.8V 36A 40 mOhms 1.44V 12.36V

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The maximum permissible circuit resistance including positive and negative wires is 50mOhms for 12V systems and 100mOhms for 24V systems; however, Caterpillar recommends that this value should not be targeted during design, as it is often difficult to predict the final circuit resistance when considering other factors such as fuse holders, connector resistance and aging. A target calculated circuit resistance including wire and connections of 40mOhms for 12V systems and 80mOhms for 24V systems is recommended. The table below provides typical wire resistance for various cross sections of copper wire. Wire Gauge AWG 6 8 10 12 14 mm 9 4.5 3 2
2

Typical Wire Resistance (mOhms) and Length (m) @ 20 C 2m 2.8 4 8 14 20 4m 5.6 8 16 28 40 6m 8.4 12 24 42 60 8m 11.2 16 32 56 80 10m 14 20 40 70 100 13.5

A4E2 ECU Total Circuit Length Circuit Load (ECU)

Battery Note: Circuit protection not shown

As with all electrical circuits wire should be selected so that the rated maximum conductor temperature is not exceeded for any combination of electrical loading, ambient temperature, and heating effects of bundles, protective braid, conduit, and other enclosures. Consult wire manufacturers data sheets for further information.

Negative Wire Resistance (Ohms)

Positive Wire Resistance (Ohms)

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Power and Grounding Considerations


3.3.1 Battery (+) Connection The ECU requires four un-switched battery positive inputs; the inputs should be permanently connected to the machine battery. When the ignition keyswitch is off, the ECU is in a sleep mode where it draws a very small residual current through the four battery connections. When the ignition keyswitch is turned on the ECU will become active. It is recommended, therefore that the ignition keyswitch is turned to the off position when connecting or disconnecting the ECU J1 connector, to prevent large sparks which may cause damage to the pins. The power supply to the ECU should be taken from the battery, not from the starter motor terminals, to avoid unnecessary system noise and voltage drops. Note that there are four ECU pins allocated for battery positive. All four pins must be used. The correct system voltage must be applied (12V or 24V), as the following components on the engine are system voltage sensitive: Wastegate Regulator Glow Plugs Alternator Starter Motor 3.3.2 Battery (-) Connection The ECU requires five un-switched battery negative inputs; the inputs should be permanently connected to the machine battery. Battery Connection Do Not supply power to the ECU from the starter motor connections:

Right

Wrong

Starter Motor Battery

+
Note: Circuit protection not shown

Battery

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3.3.3 Correct Method of ECU Battery Connection

Right
ECU Connector

Engine Starter Motor

Fuse

Chassis

Correct Power Supply Wiring ECU positive wires connected direct to battery, not via starter motor Power supply wires go to all four positive pins and all five negative pins on the ECU connector Negative is wired to the battery rather than return through chassis The engine is grounded

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3.3.4 Incorrect Method of ECU Battery Connection

Wrong

ECU Connector

Engine Starter Motor

Chassis

Chassis

Incorrect Wiring Positive wired via starter motor. High volt drop to ECU on starting. Single pin on ECU used for each of positive and negative supply. Possibly exceeding pin ratings and possibly causing risk of arcing or overheating. ECU return through chassis risk of conducted noise and also additional voltage drop. Engine not grounded risk of engine component damage.

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3.4 Engine ECU Power Supply Circuit Resistance Test
It is not possible to accurately measure the machine ECU power supply wire resistance using a standard ohmmeter alone; it is therefore necessary to use a specific test circuit. The diagram and table below detail the test apparatus used in the circuit to determine the engine ECU circuit resistance. The circuit consists of two voltmeters and a resistor connected to the J1 ECU plug that can be switched in and out of circuit using a relay. It is very important to keep the test circuit resistance to a minimum; use a relay with low contact resistance (preferably silver oxide or gold) and short lengths of heavy gauge wire. Component J1 Receptacle 2.2 Ohm Resistor 200w Relay (low contact resistance) Pushbutton Voltmeter Caterpillar Part Number 245-1040 N/A N/A N/A N/A Supplier Part Number 12244365 N/A N/A N/A N/A Quantity 1 1 1 1 2

V1
R1

Voltmeter 1

2.2 Ohms 200 watts

Voltmeter 2

15

16

10 J1 Engine ECU Plug

V2

Machine Harness

+
Machine Battery

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Power and Grounding Considerations


3.4.1 Test Procedure Record the measured resistance value of the test resistor used. Disconnect the J1 engine ECU plug from the ECU and connect the test apparatus detailed in the above diagram to the plug. Press the button for three seconds and at the same time record the voltage measured from Voltmeter 1 and Voltmeter 2. Formula: Power Supply Circuit Resistance (mOhms) = 1000 * (R1 * (V2 V1)/V1) V1 = Voltmeter 1 Measured Value V2 = Voltmeter 2 Measured Value R1 = Measured Resistor Value Worked Example: V1 = 11.8 V2 = 12 R1 = 2.21 Ohms 1000 * (2.21 * (12 11.8)/11.8) 1000 * (2.21 * 0.1695) 1000 * (0.375) Harness Resistance = 37.5 mOhms 3.4.2 Inductive Energy Fly-back Suppression Diode When an inductive load is suddenly switched off, fly-back energy is introduced to the circuit. This can be observed as a voltage spike. When using an ECU output to drive an inductive load such as a relay or solenoid, circuit protection needs to be considered. To prevent unnecessary ECU circuit loading, use relays or solenoids with integral fly-back suppression components to suppress induced fly-back energy.

Relay with Suppression Diode

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4 Connectors and Wiring Harness Requirements
4.1 Requirements
4.1.1 ECU Connector The A4E2 engine ECU has an integral rectangular 64-pin Delphi Packard socket; the socket is grey in appearance and is the customer/OEM connection point. To make a connection to the engine ECU the components listed in the table below are required. Qty 1 1 2 N/A N/A Description (photo ref.) Plug Assembly (1) Wire Dress Cover (2) Terminal Lock (TPA) (3) Contact Socket (Terminal) (4) Sealing Plug (5) Delphi Part Number 15488667 15488664 15404650 15359002 12129557 Caterpillar Part Number 245-1042 245-1045 245-1044 245-1047 245-1048

Components required for A4E2 engine ECU connection

The wire dress cover must be fitted to prevent direct jet washing onto the rear connector seals.

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4.1.2 Connector Layout The diagram below illustrates the pin layout, looking from the rear of the connector.

4.1.3 Tightening the OEM Connector A central 7 mm AF hex screw retains the connector. This screw should be tightened to a torque of 5 Nm+/- 1 (3.7+/-0.7 lb-ft). Caterpillar does not recommend the use of non conductive grease with the ECU connector. 4.1.4 ECU Connector Wire Gauge Size All connections must be made with 0.82 mm2 (18AWG) wire with GXL type insulation. Min outside diameter (Inc Insulation) = 1.85 mm Max outside diameter (Inc Insulation) = 2.5 mm 4.1.5 ECU Connector Terminals The OEM connector terminals should be Delphi p/n 15359002.

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4.1.6 Terminal Retention Two terminal position assurance components should be used once all terminals have been crimped and inserted into the connector body. Terminal Position Assurance Caterpillar part no. 245-1044 (Delphi p/n 15404650). Note: It is critical that two terminal position assurance components are used.

Connector body and terminal assurance components When a terminal has been properly crimped and retained, it will be able to withstand a pull test of 45N (10 lb). 4.1.7 Hand Crimping For Prototype Machines and Low Volume Production A hand crimp tool and appropriate die are required for crimping contact sockets (Delphi p/n 15359002). The hand crimp tool and removal tool for removing the sockets from the connector body are available from Power and Signal Group (PSG). Caterpillar Hand Crimping Solution Component Contact Socket Crimp Tool Number Removal Tool Delphi Solution Component Contact Sockets HT Micro 100W Crimp Tool with Die European Use Only Delphi Crimp Tool Removal Tool Caterpillar Part Number 245-1047 N/A N/A N/A Supplier Part Number 15359002 HT42000480-1 12129557 15314902 Caterpillar Part Number 267-9572 1U5804 266-1683 Supplier Part Number 10-613370-020 Deutsch HDT-48-00 15314902

Note: The insulation should be stripped to 5 mm from the end of the wire. Only a single wire must be crimped into each terminal. A P P L I C AT I O N A N D I N S TA L L AT I O N G U I D E 37

Connectors & Wiring Harness Requirements


4.1.8 ECU Connector Sealing Plug Installation Guidelines All unused connector socket slots must be filled with sealing plugs Delphi p/n 12129557. Due to the small size of the sealing plugs, it may be quicker to install sealing plugs in all cavities and remove those which are not required, rather than to try to fit the sealing plugs when wires have already been inserted into the back of the connector. Note: Do not use non-conductive grease to seal unused terminal cavities. 4.1.9 OEM Harness Retention at the ECU A wire strain relief component should be used to prevent ECU connector damage. The wire strain relief component is assembled to the engine ECU during engine manufacture and will be supplied on the engine. Wire bundle size may vary between applications. Cable tie/wire tie slots are provided for correct bundle retention. Use the correct slots. Use strain relief and correct slots for the harness bundle size:

Small Bundle

Medium Bundle

Large Bundle

Component Strain Relief

Caterpillar Part Number 260-3718

Supplier Part Number N/A

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4.1.10 Machine Crimping For High Volume Production The hand tool may not be the appropriate solution for crimping terminals in a high volume production environment. The OEMs harness manufacturer should contact PSG directly for details of high volume crimp solutions.

4.2 Harness Wiring Standards


4.2.1 General Recommendations for Machine Wiring Harnesses The following are general good practice for wire harnesses. It is the responsibility of the machine designer to follow standards appropriate to the application type and to the geographical territory where the machine will be operated. These recommendations do not replace in any way any industrial standards or legislative requirements. 4.2.1.1 Connectors It is strongly recommended that high quality, sealed connectors are used throughout. Automotive standard components are not necessarily suitable as they are often only designed for a very low number of disconnect/reconnect cycles. Connectors should be horizontally mounted rather than vertically mounted to prevent ingress of water/chemicals. Whenever possible, connectors should be mounted such that they are protected from direct exposure to extreme cold. Connectors can be damaged by frost if water does penetrate the seals. Cables should not bend close to the connector seals, as the seal quality can be compromised. The correct wire seal must be selected for the diameter of wire used. Cables should be selected of an appropriate cross section for the current and voltage drop requirements. Where large numbers of wires go to the same connector, it is essential that no single wire is significantly shorter than the others, such that it is placed under exceptional strain. 4.2.1.2 Cable Routing Cables should be routed such that bend radii are not too tight. A cable should not be either in compression or tension, nor should it be excessively long or loose, such that sections may become caught or trapped. Clips should be used at regular intervals to support cables. These clips should be of the correct diameter to grip the cable firmly without crushing it. Ideally, harnesses should not rub against any mechanical components. The only points of contact should be clamps and connectors. If this is not possible, as a minimum they should not touch components that are hot, that move or vibrate, or that have sharp edges. Conductors carrying high currents or voltages, particularly when these are alternating or switched, should be physically separated from conductors carrying small signal currents. In particular, high current and signal wires should not run parallel in the same harness bundle for any significant distance. Ideally, if high current wires must be in proximity to signal wires, they should cross at right angles. The engine wire harness should not be used by the installer as a support for any components that are not supplied as part of the engine. For example, external hoses and wires should not be tied to the engine harness.

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4.2.1.3 Mounting Location for Electronic Modules The least harsh possible location should be selected for an electronic component or module, even one that is robustly designed. Select the mounting location carefully, therefore, considering exposure to frost, vibration, heat, mechanical damage, or ingress of water, dust or chemicals. Care should be taken during design to ensure that components are accessible for repair and possible replacement in the field. Poor maintenance access may lead to poor quality repairs in the field. 4.2.1.4 Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC) Special measures should be taken to shield cables if the application is to be used in extreme electromagnetic environments e.g. aluminum smelting plants. If screened cable is used, the screens should be connected to ground at one point only. That point should be central if possible. 4.2.1.5 Diagnostic Connector A nine-pin diagnostic connector is fitted to the engine wire harness on all industrial engines. Various diagnostic and development tools may use the connector to access the engine data links. If the connector is inaccessible when the engine is in the application or no connector is fitted to the engine wire harness, provisions should be made to allocate an alternative location for diagnostic connection. In this case it is recommended that a diagnostic connector be wired in a location that can be easily accessed, free from possible water/dirt ingress and impact damage. The engine wire harness must not be changed or modified. To wire a diagnostic connection use the data link pins available on the OEM J1 ECU connector. It is recommended that all customer-installed nine-pin diagnostic connectors be wired according to the diagram below.

Battery + Battery Service Tool Connector A B CDL + CDL J1939 + J1939 D E G F J1 23 24 20 21 CDL + CDL J1939 + J1939 ECU

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Mandatory Requirement for Prototype Machines It is mandatory for all prototype machines to have access to the engines CDL/PDL and J1939 CAN data links. 4.2.1.6 Termination Resistor It is recommended that termination resistors be wired to the OEM machine harness as stated in the SAE standard. If the engine is the only CAN J1939 device ever present on the machine it is not necessary to wire the resistors. It is important to note, however, that if devices such as handheld code readers, CAN PC tools, or navigation systems are installed in the field later, resistors will be required. Nine-Pin Diagnostic Connector Part Numbers Description Receptacle (with flange) Receptacle Receptacle End Cap 4.2.1.7 Pin Information Pin Description Battery + Battery PDL/CDL + PDL/CDL J1939 J1939 + Diagnostic Connector Pin A Pin B Pin D Pin E Pin F Pin G 23 24 21 20 J1 OEM 64-Way Connector Deutsch Part Number HD10-9-96P HD14-9-96P HDC-16-9 Caterpillar Part Number 9W-1951 8T-8736 8C-6354

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Starting and Stopping the Engine


5 Starting and Stopping the Engine
5.1 Starting the Engine
Unlike mechanically controlled fuel systems no customer connection to the fuel pump solenoid is necessary. To activate the engine ECU, battery voltage needs to be constantly applied to pin 40. When the ECU is active the engine crankshaft needs to be rotated above a minimum cranking speed; a typical cranking speed is 180 rpm (this will differ dependent on the application). Once the ECU has determined engine cranking speed and engine position, fuel pressure and delivery will be controlled. The most popular way to control engine starting is by a specifically designed three-position keyswitch. The keyswitch controls battery voltage to the keyswitch input and the starter motor circuit. Some applications may require a four-position switch to run auxiliary equipment when the engine is not running.
OFF

2
ON START

POSITION POSITION 1 - OFF POSITION 2 - RUN POSITION 3 - START

TERMINALS 2&4 1&4 1, 3 & 4

IGNITION KEY SWITCH

START

Caterpillar Switch Assembly: 110-7887 Automatic Starting Some applications need to be started automatically. There is no automatic start feature available on this product. If an automatic start sequence is required the following points must be considered: Start Aid Wait-to-Start Control Starter Cranking Duration Starter Abutment Detection Number of Start Attempts Starter Disengagement Speed Warm-Up Period Cool-Down Period The ECU software considers the engine running when the engine speed is 100 rpm below the desired engine speed or has reached 1400 rpm. At this point, after a predetermined period of time, the engine will switch from cranking fuel maps to running fuel maps. It is important to note that starter motors must be disengaged earlier to prevent the starter motor being driven by the engine. The engine is considered stalled when the engine has dropped below 300 rpm. When the engine is running, the engine firing order is: Engine C4.4 C6.6 Firing Order 1-3-4-2 1-5-3-6-2-4

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Starting and Stopping the Engine


5.2 Stopping the Engine (and Preventing Restart)
There is often some confusion about the different methods and devices used to either stop the engine or to prevent it from starting. These devices may be divided into the following categories: Ignition Keyswitch Emergency Stop Button Battery Isolation Switch Remote Stop Button Datalink Stop Each of these devices is described below to assist the OEM in selecting the method that is most suitable for his machine and his market. It remains, however, the responsibility of the OEM to ensure compliance of the machine with legislation in the territories into which it is sold. It is recommended that the OEM performs a risk assessment such as a Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) on the application to determine the most appropriate method of stopping the engine and/or preventing it from being restarted. 5.2.1 Ignition Keyswitch It is a Caterpillar requirement that all machines have an simple intuitive and accessible method of stopping the engine. This will normally be a directly wired ignition keyswitch. When the keyswitch is turned to the off position or when the key is removed, power must be removed from the ignition keyswitch pin (pin 40) of the ECU J1 connector. 5.2.2 Emergency Stop Button An emergency stop button is a fail-safe method for an operator to stop a machine to protect people or equipment. Emergency stop buttons are defined by national or international standards in terms of color, functionality, shape, size, latching/locking. In the EU for example, they are described in the Machinery Directive. For mobile machines, however, true emergency stop buttons are not always appropriate and are rarely fitted, due to the following issues: Legislation is designed principally for static industrial machinery (e.g. lathe) where the main power source is mains electricity. Stopping a diesel engine in a mobile machine may not always be safe. In particular the vehicle may need the power to move to a safe position (for example off the public highway, or off a railway track). In practice it is difficult to find components such as safety relays which are suitable for mounting on mobile machines due to the high vibration and water ingress protection, and the low voltages that occur during starting. Fail-safe wiring can be a cause of machine unreliability and can create faults that are difficult to detect in the field. If a true emergency stop button is required for an application it is recommended that it is implemented such that both the +battery and the ignition keyswitch lines are cut directly by the emergency stop button. Caterpillar does not provide a standard recommendation or approval for a circuit for multiple emergency stop buttons, as the differences in applications mean that significant time and resources are necessary to design a system which will be fail safe without adversely affecting reliability.

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Starting and Stopping the Engine


5.2.3 Battery Isolation Switches Battery isolation switches are usually fitted in the battery or the engine compartment of a machine. On some machines there may be a small number of low current devices which are not switched off by this device; e.g., clocks or anti-theft tracking devices. The function of a battery isolation switch is as follows: Prevent battery discharge during vehicle shipping or storage Protect service technicians from danger caused by inadvertent engine crank or start. To offer good protection of service personnel is it possible to provide a switch which can be locked in the open position (e.g., with a padlock) and the key removed and given to the service engineer who is working on the dangerous components. The battery isolation switch is not a suitable method for stopping an engine, as it is not guaranteed to stop the engine because the ECU may continue to operate with power generated by the alternator. It is also possible that opening the battery isolation switch when the engine is running will cause an alternator load dump. This is a kind of electrical transient that can cause damage to electronic components. Battery isolation switches are normally fitted in the negative path, close to the battery. 5.2.4 Remote Stop Button Remote stop is intended to provide a convenient method of stopping the engine. It is not designed to be fail safe and so should not be used to assure the protection of either personnel or equipment. Remote stop buttons may be used on large machines, which can be operated from ground level and where the operator wants to stop the machine without climbing into the cab. There are a number of variations on remote stop button circuits. The engine uses a single normally open contact, which must be closed to stop the engine. The remote stop button will function as follows: A single switch to ground input on pin 48 of the ECU J1 connector (several stop buttons can therefore be connected in parallel) When the switch is closed (or if a button is pressed for longer than 150mS), the engine will stop. The ECU will remain on, so it will continue to communicate over J1939 and with the service tool. Note however that it will continue to draw power from the battery, so if it is left in this state it will eventually result in a flat battery.
Remote Stop Button J1 48 35 ECU
REMOTE STOP SWITCH SENSOR RTN

The engine may be restarted by opening the switch and activating the starter motor. The red mushroom emergency stop buttons must not be used for remote stop functions as they may be mistaken for emergency stop buttons as described above.

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5.2.5 Datalink Stops It will be possible to stop the engine via a datalink (J1939 or CDL). As per the remote stop button, described above, the datalink stop is not fail safe and does not meet the requirements of emergency stop legislation so should not be relied on to assure the safety of machine operators or other personnel. Datalink stops may be used in the following circumstances: Immobilizers Machine protection strategies Automatic machine features (e.g., idle shutdown timer) Stopping machines by radio control or other telemetry. Geo-fencing is a particular application, where a machine will not operate outside defined map coordinates. It is recommended that if such features are implemented they are clearly documented and communicated to the final users and owners of the machine. If this is not done there may be complaints that the engine is stopping unexpectedly. 5.2.6 Common Problems With the Application of Stop Devices It is possible, although extremely rare, that diesel engines continue to run even if all electrical power is removed. This can happen when high quantities of oil vapor or other flammable gases are present in the air into the engine. The only way to prevent this is to provide an air inlet shut-off valve (slicer valve). It is not common practice to fit such devices to all engines, but they should be considered where there is a risk of flammable gases (e.g., in petroleum applications), or where the application demands high engine gradeability (slopes). Some hazards are present when the engine is being cranked by the starter motor, as well as when it is running. For example, components will still rotate, hydraulic pressure will still be present, fuel may still be pumped to high pressures. If an emergency stop button is pressed to cut power to ECU and ignition, but is released while the engine is still turning, it is possible for the engine to continue to run.

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Engine Speed Demand


6 Engine Speed Demand
It is necessary to select a device that converts the speed requirements of the engine operator or controller to an electrical signal recognized by the engine ECU. There are five types of speed demand input: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Sensor Analogue Sensor PTO Mode also known as engine speed cruise control or set speed control Multi-Position Throttle Switches (MPTS) Torque Speed Control TSC1 (speed control over CAN J1939) The speed demand type must be carefully considered and appropriate for the application. The options must be selected at the time of engine order so that the ECU will be configured correctly, for the type or pedal, lever or control device selected. There are two dedicated software input channels that can be configured to accept specific types of speed demand inputs. The valid combinations and throttle logic are given in the following diagram. PTO mode can be used with analogue/PWM combinations; it cannot be used with multi-position switch. The J1939 TSC1 parameter will override any speed demand input when broadcast. Droop is applied to the requested desired engine speed.

VALID THROTTLE COMBINATIONS AND DROOP


DROOPED DESIRED ENGINE SPEED

REQUESTED DESIRED ENGINE SPEED

VALID COMBINATIONS THROTTLE 1 ANALOGUE PWM MPTS ANALOGUE PWM ANALOGUE PWM MPTS NOT INSTALLED THROTTLE 2 NOT INSTALLED NOT INSTALLED NOT INSTALLED ANALOGUE ANALOGUE MPTS MPTS ANALOGUE NOT INSTALLED THROTTLE 2

ARBITRATED DROOPED DESIRED ENGINE SPEED

PTO MODE (NOT


VALID WHEN USING MPTS)

THROTTLE 1

% DROOP

THROTTLE 1 & 2 ARBITRATION


MANUAL OR HIGHEST WINS OR

OVERALL ARBITRATION

% DROOP

SUMMING

% DROOP

J1939 TSC 1 REQUESTED SPEED DESIRED ENGINE SPEED

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6.1 Analogue Sensor
6.1.1 Device Description Two inputs are available for analogue throttle devices, which may be either pedal, lever, or cable operated. The analogue sensor gives a DC analogue output in the range 0.5 to 4.5 volt when connected to the engine ECU. The ECU provides a regulated 5V 200mA power supply. 6.1.2 Analogue Sensors Connection Details
Analogue Throttle 1 +5 VDC SIGNAL RTN IVS IVS CMN J1 41 54 33 45 35 ECU
SENSOR SUPPLY +5 VDC ANALOGUE THROTTLE INPUT 1 SENSOR RETURN IDLE VALIDATION SWITCH SWITCH RETURN

Analogue Throttle 2 +5 VDC SIGNAL RTN IVS IVS CMN

J1 42 55 34 44 35

ECU
SENSOR SUPPLY +5 VDC ANALOGUE THROTTLE INPUT 2 SENSOR RETURN IDLE VALIDATION SWITCH SWITCH RETURN

The analogue sensor should use non-contact Hall-effect technology. Robust potentiometer contact sensors designed for use in vehicles may be considered. Under no circumstances should ordinary carbon track or wire wound potentiometers be used, as they will not be reliable. For all mobile applications, and those where a rapid change in engine speed could cause a hazard, an idle validation switch is required. The idle validation switch closes to ground when the sensor is in the minimum position. Off idle switches and kickdown switches are not monitored by the engine ECU. This analogue input must only be used to control engine speed from a direct operator input, and is not suitable as the mechanism for speed control by another electronic controller. There is no special requirement for a relationship between angular movement of the pedal and output voltage. This document does not measure component acceptability in terms of: Temperature Vibration Electromagnetic compatibility Design life Supply voltage requirements (min, max, stability) Legal compliance It is the responsibility of the OEM and the throttle device manufacturer to ensure that the component is suitable for the application in which it is to be used.

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6.1.3 Evaluating Component Compatibility The following procedure should be used to evaluate whether an analogue throttle is compatible with the engine ECU. This may be used either by the OEM in selecting components or by the manufacturer of devices which are to be connected to the engine. The following test circuits must be used when evaluating analogue throttle devices. 6.1.3.1 Analogue Input Test Circuit

22K
V+

Normal Supply Voltage of Device Under Test

Device Under Test


V-

Sig

13V DC

V1

6.1.3.2 Idle Validation Switch Test Circuit

2K
IVS V+

Normal Supply Voltage of Device (Hall Effect Devices Only)

Device Under Test


IVS Ground

IVS

13V DC

V2

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6.1.4 Test Procedure Test 1: Output at Min Position Place the Device Under Test (DUT) in its minimum or released condition. Measure the voltage V1. Test 2: Output at Min Position: Forced Without causing damage, pull the pedal/handle hard against the minimum travel end stop. Measure the voltage V1. Test 3: Output at Max Position Place the DUT in its maximum or fully depressed condition. Measure the voltage V1. Test 4: Output at Max Position: Forced Without causing damage push the pedal/handle hard against the maximum travel end stop. Measure the voltage V1. Test 5: IVS Switch Closed Voltage Place the DUT in its minimum or released condition. Measure the voltage V2. Test 6: IVS Switch Opening Threshold Place the DUT in its minimum or released condition. Test 7: IVS Switch Open Voltage Place the DUT in its maximum or fully depressed condition. Measure the voltage V2. Test 8: IVS Switch Closing Threshold Place the DUT in its minimum or released condition. Test 9: Track Resistance (potentiometer-type sensors only) If the DUT is a potentiometer-type device, disconnect it from the test circuit and measure the resistance across the track (from V+ to V-).

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6.1.5 Required Values If the results obtained from the tests above are in the ranges specified below, the device will be compatible with the default values in the ECU. Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Parameter Output at Min Position Output at Min Position: Forced Output at Max Position Output at Max Position: Forced IVS Switch Closed Voltage IVS Switch Opening Threshold IVS Switch Open Voltage IVS Switch Closing Threshold Potentiometer Track Resistance Units Volts Volts Volts Volts Volts Volts Volts Volts K Ohms Min 0.45 0.4 3.8 0 1.08 4 1.08 1 Nominal 0.6 0.6 4 4 0.5 1.15 10 1.15 2.5 Max 0.7 4.5 1.2 1.22 24 1.22 3

If the results of the tests are not in the range specified in the table above, the device will not be compatible with the default settings in the ECU. Contact the electronic applications team to determine whether it will be possible to configure the input to meet the device. 6.1.6 Analogue Throttle Switch ET Configurable Parameters The throttle configurable parameters must be configured in Cat ET prior to using the analogue throttle feature. The parameters are selectable in the main throttle configuration screen. See the throttle calibration section of this guide for parameter details.

6.2 PWM Sensor Compatibility


6.2.1 Device Description One input is available for PWM throttle devices that may be pedal, lever, or cable operated. A regulated 8V, 100mA power supply is provided by the ECU. 6.2.2 Component Compatibility The sensor should have a sinking output driver with a frequency of 500 hz (+/- 50 hz). The sensor should give a valid output within 150 ms of power being applied. When mounted on the pedal and lever the target duty cycle should be as follows; however, it is possible to deviate from these values by adjusting the throttle configuration in ET. Position Released (low idle) Fully Depressed Acceptable Signal Duty Cycle Range 10 to 22% 75 to 90%

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6.2.3 Connection Details
PWM Throttle Sensor +8 VDC SIGNAL RTN J1 43 53 33 ECU
SENSOR SUPPLY +8 VDC PWM THROTTLE SENSOR INPUT SENSOR RETURN

6.2.4 PWM Throttle ET Configurable Parameters The throttle configurable parameters must be configured in Cat ET prior to using the PWM Throttle feature. The parameters are selectable in the main throttle configuration screen. See the Throttle Calibration section of this guide for parameter details.

6.3 PTO Mode


PTO mode has also previously been referred to as engine speed cruise control or set speed control. PTO mode is a cost effective way to control engine speed as it only requires switched inputs. Another benefit is that it can be used in an application where it is necessary to control the engine speed from several different points on the machine. The disadvantage of controlling engine speed via PTO mode is that it takes some time to ramp up or down to the required speed.
J1
ON/OFF

ECU 52 51 50 49 35
PTO MODE - ON/OFF PTO MODE - SET/LOWER PTO MODE - RAISE RESUME PTO MODE - DISENGAGE SWITCH RETURN

SET/LOWER

RAISE RESUME DISENGAGE

6.3.1 PTO Mode On/Off Switch When this switch input is open, the PTO mode cannot be engaged and none of the other buttons will have any effect. When the switch is turned off, any adjusted memorized speed will be lost. 6.3.2 PTO Mode Set/Lower Button When the PTO mode is on but not engaged, the first time that the set button is pressed it will save the current engine speed as the memorized speed, and the engine will try to run at this speed. Once a PTO speed has been engaged, if the button is pressed again or if it is held down, the engine speed will be lowered.

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6.3.3 PTO Mode Raise/Resume Button If the resume button is pressed before the set button, immediately after start or after switching on the cruise control on/off switch, the engine will go to the preset speed as described below. If the PTO mode has already been engaged by the set button, the resume/raise button can be pressed or held down to increase the speed. After the PTO mode has been disengaged using the disengage switch described below, pressing the resume/raise button will set the engine speed to the last memorized speed. 6.3.4 PTO Mode Disengage Switch If the disengage switch input is opened, the engine speed will not follow the memorized speed but will return to the next highest engine speed demand. The disengage switch may be an operator panel switch, or may be a micro-switch on the brake, clutch, or other component of the application. 6.3.5 PTO Mode Preset Speed The preset speed is programmed via the service tool. A speed may be selected such that if the resume button is pressed before the set button has been pressed, the engine speed will jump straight to the preset speed. 6.3.6 PTO Mode Lamp An optional lamp may be fitted. The positive terminal of the lamp is connected to the battery positive after the ignition keyswitch. The negative terminal of the lamp should be connected to pin 61 of the ECU J1 connector. The lamp will flash when PTO mode is switched on but is not engaged. When the PTO mode is on and engaged, the lamp will be on solid. 6.3.7 PTO Mode ET Configurable Parameters Four parameters must be configured in Cat ET prior to using the PTO feature. The parameters are listed in the main configuration screen. PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters ET Description Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status PTO Engine Speed Setting Range or Option Not Installed/Installed 0 to 2500 rpm Description Used to install the PTO feature. Memorized speed used as the initial resume speed. Speed at which the engine will accelerate or decelerate when holding the raise or lower button down. Speed at which the engine will increment or decrement when the raise or lower button is pressed quickly.

Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate

20 to 600 rpm/sec

Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment

10 to 200 rpm/sec

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6.3.8 Example of PTO Mode Operation It is recognized that the precise function of the PTO mode is difficult to understand from a written text document, especially for engineers for whom English is not their first language. The following table illustrates the operation of the PTO mode feature. In this example, the preset speed has been set on the service tool to 1800 rpm.
On/Off Switch Interrupt Switch Set/Lower Switch Raise Resume 0 Throttle Pedal Demand Memorized Speed Resulting Engine Speed 1200 1800 1200 0 1200 1800 1200 Quick Close 1200 1800 1800 0 0 0 1200 1800 1800 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 Quick Close 1 Quick Open 0 1 1 0 Quick Close 1200 2030 2030 1 Quick Open 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Hold Close 3 secs 0 1 0 0 1 0 Quick Close 0 1 0 1 1 Quick Close Quick Close 1200 1800 1200

Quick Quick Close Close

Hold Quick Close Close 3 secs 1200 1820 1820 1200 2050 2050

0 1200 2030 1200

0 1200 1200 1200 Sets memorized speed to current speed

0 1200 1800 1200

1200 1900 1800 1800 1800 1900

1200 1200 2030 2030 2030 1200

1200 1200 1180 2430 1200 2430

1200 1200 1800 1800 1200 1200 No effect as PTO mode is not enabled

Memorized speed lowered by 20 rpm but now pedal is highest wins

PTO jumps to memorized speed

Pedal overrides PTO (max wins)

Disengage speed returns to next highest demand (throttle pedal)

Disengage speed returns to next highest demand (throttle pedal)

PTO mode not enabled

PTO mode disengaged

Speed raised by 20 rpm

Comments

6.4 Multi-Position Throttle Switch (MPTS)


Four switch inputs are available on the ECU for a switch-controlled throttle. The ECU may be configured so different combinations of switch inputs will relate to different engine speed demands. There are 16 different combinations of states of these 4 switches, although not all of these combinations need to be programmed.
Rotary Switch S1 S2 S3 CMN S4

J1 49 50 51 52 35

ECU
THROTTLE SWITCH INPUT 1 THROTTLE SWITCH INPUT 2 THROTTLE SWITCH INPUT 3 THROTTLE SWITCH INPUT 4 SWITCH RETURN

If a switch combination is detected which has been configured as Not Valid a fault code will be raised and the ECU will ignore the MPTS for the rest of the key cycle.

PTO mode disengaged

Lowered by 20 rpm

Resumes to 2030

Speed ramps up

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PTO mode switched off. Preset memorized speed now.

Speed ramps up

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Engine Speed Demand


This is a very powerful and flexible feature that may be used in a number of ways. For example: Controlling hydrostatic machine where engine speed is selected and not required to be frequently changed by the operator. It is in this respect a good alternative to a hand throttle, as the speeds selected on the switch can be designed to correspond to the optimum operating speeds of hydraulic pumps. A rotary encoded 10-position switch component is available for this function. Please contact the electronic applications team for further details. Machine Limp-Home Speed Feature For example, if the normal throttle fails the operator could remove a fuse or a link and the engine would go to a speed that would allow the machine to be moved. In this application only one of the available four switch inputs would be used. Elevated Idle For example the OEM could increase the idle speed when work lights are switched on so that the alternator will provide sufficient current to recharge the battery. In this application only one of the available four switch inputs would be used. The following table illustrates how the ECU may be configured for a 10-position rotary switch. Multi-Position Switch Configuration Example Switch 4 Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Closed Switch 3 Open Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Closed Open Open Open Open Closed Closed Closed Closed Switch 2 Open Open Closed Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Open Closed Closed Open Open Closed Closed Switch 1 Open Closed Open Closed Open Closed Open Closed Open Closed Open Closed Open Closed Open Closed Switch Position Not valid 1 3 2 7 6 4 5 Not valid Not valid Not valid Not valid 8 9 Not valid 10 Engine Speed 800 800 1800 1400 2050 2000 1900 1950 800 800 800 800 2100 2200 800 2350

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The service tool configuration allows the user to specify the number of switch inputs to use. It is recommended that where possible the user configures four inputs and marks those not used as not valid. If, however, the user chooses to configure fewer than four inputs, using the service tool, the physical input allocation vs. software input description changes as described in the table below. MPTS Pin Allocation Logic Pin 49 4 Configured Inputs 3 Configured Inputs 2 Configured Inputs 1 Configured Inputs Software Input 1 Pin 50 Software Input 2 Software Input 1 Pin 51 Software Input 3 Software Input 2 Software Input 1 Pin 52 Software Input 4 Software Input 3 Software Input 2 Software Input 1

6.4.1 Multi-Position Throttle Switch ET Configurable Parameters The throttle configurable parameters must be configured in Cat ET prior to using the MPTS feature. The parameters are selectable in the main throttle configuration screen.

6.5 Torque Speed Control TSC1 (Speed Control Over CAN)


A special J1939 message called Torque/Speed Control #1 (TSC1) allows other electronic devices to control or to limit the engine speed. This message is explained in detail in the J1939 section of this Application and Installation Guide.

6.6 Arbitration of Speed Demand


In applications where there is more than one source of engine speed demand, it is necessary to arbitrate between the different demands. There are three methods of arbitration: Max Wins The highest speed demand is the one that controls the engine. This is the default configuration. Manual Selection Switch A switch input can be used to define which speed input has control. This is particularly useful in applications where there are two driver seat positions. TSC1 Override As described above, the TSC1 message over J1939 will override speed demand from any other source. 6.6.1 Manual Throttle Selection Switch A switch input is available on pin 47 of the ECU J1 connector, which can be configured to manually select the active speed demand channel. If the switch input is open, speed demand 1 is selected. If the switch is closed, speed demand 2 is selected.

6.7 Ramp Rate


It is possible to limit the overall acceleration rate of the engine speed. The acceleration limit applies to overall engine speed, regardless of applied strategy. The rate may be configured in ET. The rate is defined in units of rpm per second. Zero rpm/s represents no limit to engine acceleration (i.e. turns off the feature.) The default ramp rate will be zero rpm/s.

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6.8 Throttle Calibration
The majority of throttle components have mechanical and electrical tolerances that affect the final output of a device; for example, two components of the same design and part number may produce a different voltage output in the open position. Also, after a period of time throttle components can mechanically wear, affecting/changing the output of a device. To accommodate these differences and changes, the engine ECU may be configured to automatically calibrate to differing input values at the upper and lower positions. The diagrams that follow give an example pedal design where the open and closed position of the throttle pedal are set by adjusting the manufacturing adjustment screws. With this type of arrangement the mechanical accuracy is limited and therefore auto calibration may be used. The calibration control logic needs a number of parameters specific to the chosen device to allow auto calibration. This feature is configurable for analogue and PWM inputs. The algorithm treats either a PWM or analogue input as a raw signal in the range zero to 100 percent; for example, the analogue voltage range is 5V, therefore 0.05V is treated as one percent. Several parameters are used to: Define the boundaries for calibration in the open and closed positions Define the amount of deadzone/play from the open and closed positions Define the upper and lower diagnostic boundaries

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Initial Lower Position
n Limit

it Lim

er Low ostic iagn

Lower

5% 5% 10% 20%

0%

Lower

Deadzo ne

Positio

r ve Le n or io n s ta t Se Ro

5% 70%

e n on dz itio ea os rD rP pe pe p Up lU tia Ini

r Uppe

imit ion L Posit

85%

Sensor
95% 100%
Diagnostic Upper Limit

Pedal Rotation

Lock Screws Foot Force

Pedal

The diagram above is a simplified representation of a throttle pedal assembly; a small lever attaches the pedal to a throttle position sensor. Two lock screws limit the open and closed pedal movement, one for each position. The lever movement is directly proportional to the electrical output signal of the throttle sensor. The electrical raw signal is shown as a percentage of the total permissible input range. Eight parameters are shown on the diagram scale. Each parameter has a purpose; these parameters are required for correct calibration. The parameters are expressed as a percentage of raw signal, the parameters may be changed/configured to match the chosen device:

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6.8.1 Throttle Parameter Description 6.8.1.1 Diagnostic Lower Limit The lower diagnostic limit is the absolute minimum raw value accepted as a valid signal by the engine ECU. Any values below this point will flag appropriate diagnostics and invoke the limp-home strategy. Most analogue devices are classed as faulted with a voltage of 0.25V and below (five percent) this is to prevent a possible open or short circuit being mistaken for a valid signal; for similar reasons, a PWM duty cycle should not fall below five percent duty cycle. 6.8.1.2 Lower Position Limit This is the minimum point of the lower calibration boundary. 6.8.1.3 Initial Lower Position Limit This is the maximum point of the lower calibration boundary. This value is also used as the initial lower position when no calibration has been applied. 6.8.1.4 Lower Dead Zone This position is given as a discrete raw signal percentage value. The lower dead zone effectively gives some play at the lower position. This dead band is expressed in terms of a raw signal percentage, such that the initial lower position plus the lower dead zone will give the zero percent throttle position. 6.8.1.5 Initial Upper Position Limit This is the minimum point of the upper calibration boundary. This value is also used as the initial upper position when no calibration has been applied. 6.8.1.6 Upper Position Limit This is the maximum point of the upper calibration boundary. 6.8.1.7 Upper Dead Zone This position is given as a discrete raw signal percentage value. The upper dead zone effectively gives some play at the upper position. This dead band is expressed in terms of a raw signal percentage, such that the initial upper position minus the upper dead zone will give the 100 percent throttle position. 6.8.1.8 Diagnostic Upper Limit The upper diagnostic limit is the absolute maximum raw value accepted as a valid signal by the engine ECU. Any values above this point will flag appropriate diagnostics and invoke the limp-home strategy. Most analogue devices are classed as faulted with a voltage of 4.75V and above. This is to prevent a possible open or short circuit being mistaken for a valid signal; for similar reasons, a PWM duty cycle should not go above 95 percent duty cycle.

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6.8.2 Throttle Calibration Function When the engine ECU is active, the raw throttle signal is continuously monitored. The following diagrams explain how the automatic calibration functions. The adjustment screws in the diagram have been purposely adjusted and differ from the previous throttle pedal diagram. When the engine ECU is active the raw throttle value is checked; if the value falls within the lower calibration region (defined by the lower position limit and initial lower position limit), calibration will take place. In the diagram below the lever position is at eleven percent and falls within the lower calibration area, so auto calibration will be applied.
imit er L Low stic gno Dia

Initial Lower Position

ition Lim

it

Pos Lower

5% 5% 10% 20%

0%

Lower

Deadzo ne

OUTPUT 11%

er ev rL n so atio n t S e Ro

5% 70%

ne on zo ad siti De Po er er pp pp U lU tia Ini

r Uppe

imit ion L Posit

85%

Sensor
95% 100%
Diagnostic Upper Limit

Pedal Rotation

Lock Screws Foot Force

Pedal

Diagram A Before calibration, the sensor output falls within the lower calibration region; without auto calibration, the initial lower position limit is used by the engine ECU as the throttle start point. Once clear of the dead zone the desired engine speed will change. In this case the lever would have to move 14 percent of the raw signal (nine percent + five percent dead zone) before desired engine speed changes. This is situation is undesirable.

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Initial Lower Position

n Limit

it Lim

ostic iagn

Lower

5% 0% 5% 10% 20%

Lower

Deadzo ne

er Low

Positio

OUTPUT 11%

er ev rL n so atio n t S e Ro

5% 70%

e n on dz itio ea os rD rP e e pp pp U lU tia Ini

r Po Uppe

sition

Limit

85%

Sensor
95% 100%
Diagnostic Upper Limit

Pedal Rotation

Lock Screws Foot Force

Pedal

Diagram B After calibration, the start position used by the engine ECU has changed; with this new initial lower position the lever needs to travel through the dead zone only. Once clear of the dead zone, the desired engine speed will change. The same principal applies for the upper calibration region as shown in the following diagram.

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imit er L Low stic gno Dia
Initial Lower Position
ition Lim it

Pos Lower

5% 0% 5% 10% 20%

Lower

Deadzo ne

r ve Le n or io ns tat Se Ro

5% 70%

e n on dz itio ea os rD rP pe pe p Up lU tia Ini

r Uppe

imit ion L Posit

85%

Sensor
OUTPUT 75%

95% 100%

Diagnostic Upper Limit

Pedal Rotation

Lock Screws Foot Force

Pedal

Diagram C Before calibration, the sensor output falls within the upper calibration region; without auto calibration the initial upper position limit is used by the engine ECU as the throttle maximum point. Once clear of the dead zone the desired engine speed will change. In this case the lever would have to move 10 percent of the raw signal (five percent + five percent dead zone) before desired engine speed changes. This is situation is undesirable.

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Initial Lower Position

imit er L Low

ition Lim

it

stic gno Dia

Pos Lower

5% 0% 5% 10% 20%

Lower

Deadzo ne

r ve Le n r so tio en ota S R

ne n zo itio ad os De r rP pe pe p Up lU tia Ini

70%

5%
imit ion L Posit

r Uppe

85%

Sensor
OUTPUT 75%

95% 100%

Diagnostic Upper Limit

Pedal Rotation

Lock Screws Foot Force

Pedal

Diagram D After calibration, the maximum position used by the engine ECU has changed; with this new initial upper position the lever needs to travel through the dead zone only. Once clear of the dead zone the desired engine speed will change. The auto calibration feature is continuously active during engine operation. If a lower minimum position or higher maximum position is seen, auto calibration will take place on the new values. The initial positions (defined by the initial lower position limit and initial upper position limit) will be reinstated whenever the power to the ECU is recycled.

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6.8.2.1 Idle Validation Switch Analogue devices must use an idle validation switch. The idle validation switch is required to validate that a change in signal is indeed valid and not a potential electrical fault. Two parameters need to be defined for correct operation. When configured, the engine ECU continually monitors the speed demand request and the idle validation switch. Idle Validation Maximum On Threshold (Closed) The value is defined as percent raw signal. At low idle the idle validation switch should be on (the input should be switched to ground). When increasing engine speed, the ECU will continually monitor the idle validation switch. The switch needs to have switched off between the two IVS thresholds. If the switch state does not change by the idle validation maximum on threshold, the ECU will invoke the limp-home strategy and the throttle will not respond. Idle Validation Minimum Off Threshold (Open) The value is defined as percent raw signal. At high idle the idle validation switch should be off (the input should be switched to open). When decreasing engine speed, the ECU will continually monitor the idle validation switch. The switch needs to have switched on between the two IVS thresholds. If the switch state does not change by the idle validation minimum off threshold the ECU will invoke the limp-home strategy and the throttle will not respond.
Idle Validation Switch
ON
OFF
ON ON

OFF

OFF

5% 21% 25%

5%

Sensor

100%

Pedal Rotation

Lock Screws Foot Force

Pedal

Diagram shows the idle validation switch transition.

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Cold Starting Aid


7 Cold Starting Aid
7.1 Control of Glow Plugs by the Engine ECU
Glow plugs are fitted as standard on the C4.4 and C6.6. When the ignition keyswitch is switched on, the engine ECU will monitor the coolant temperature and the inlet air temperature and decide whether the glow plugs are required. If so, the ECU will drive ECU connector pin 57 to ground, activating the glow plug relay. The glow plug relay is supplied and fitted by the OEM. ET configuration for this feature is not necessary. This feature is permanently enabled. 7.1.1 Relay, Fuse, and Cable Gauge Specification
Key Switched + Battery Supply FUSE TO GLOW PLUGS GLOW PLUG RELAY J1 57 + Battery ECU
Start Aid Control

The relay coil should not draw more than 1A and should be fitted with either a resistor or diode to suppress flyback energy (back emf) when the relay is de-energized. As the glow plugs may be activated during cranking, when the battery voltage may be low, it is recommended that relay is specified such that it will close at a voltage of 60 percent of nominal battery voltage or lower. The relay contacts should be rated to withstand the current characteristics outlined in the table below. Note that for the purpose of relay specification, the glow plugs are a purely resistive load (no inductive element). Although the glow plugs are normally operated only for a short time, in cold ambient conditions, best practice would be to size the cable to withstand the stabilized glowplug current permanently. This will allow for a relay that fails closed. For example a 4 Cylinder 12V application should have wire sized to carry 50A. Refer to the recommended cable sizes in the table below. Engine: Supply Voltage: Current initial Current after 4 seconds Current after 8 seconds Recommended fuse to SAEJ1888 (slow blow) Recommended min. cable gauge mm2 (SAE J1128 GLX cable) 12V 82A 64A 50A 50 5 mm2 C4.4 24V 36A 29A 24A 30 2 mm2 12V 122A 97A 74A 80 8 mm2 C6.6 24V 54A 43A 36A 40 3 mm2

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7.1.2 Wait-to-Start/Start Aid Active Lamps On a cold start, when the ECU decides that it is necessary for the glowplugs to be activated prior to starting, a lamp output will indicate to the operator that he needs to wait-to-start. Note that it is possible that start aids will also be used either during cranking or when the engine has started. The wait-to-start lamp will not be active in these conditions. For further information refer to the Lamp Output section. Note: The ECU will also transmit a parameter on the J1939 datalink indicating the status of the wait-to-start lamp (see section on J1939 support).

Start Aid Control


Key ON

Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Engine Intake Temperature Sensor

ECU selects coldest temperature

Temperature <= +5 degC ?

No Start Aid required

Y The operator should wait until after the Pre-heat period before cranking. The Glow Plugs will remain off after the Pre-heat period until the engine is cranked ECU activates Wait to Start Lamp and Glow Plugs for period determined from Pre-heat map

Coolant Temp

Pre-heat map

Intake Temp

Operator crank engine when lamp turns off

Typical Values (May Vary)

ECU activates Glow Plugs during cranking for maximum of 10 sec

Engine speed >= to low idle -200 rpm?

Y ECU activates Glow Plugs for Post-start period of 15 seconds

Start Aid End

Ti m e

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Cold Starting Aid


7.1.3 OEM/Operator Control or Override of the Glow Plugs The ECU glow plug control strategy has been developed in a cold chamber to be suitable for the majority of applications. There may be some applications that require a specially adapted strategy for control of the start aid. In such cases it will be necessary for the OEM or operator to control the start aid. Examples of applications that may require special starting strategies are: Engines in extremely cold climates that are fitted with block heaters. Engines that drive high loads during run-up; e.g., compressors.

Busbar connection point An insulated M6 terminal post is provided for the machine harness connection to the busbar, which is located on the top right-hand side of the ECU bracket. A 5.5 to 6 mm diameter ring terminal is required to connect the machine harness; this should be insulated by a terminal insulator cap and be capable of handling an 80Amp current. The existing terminal nut is used to locate both the engine-side and harness-side ring terminals to the post. A 10 mm ring spanner is required to tighten the terminal nut to a torque of 6 Nm 2 Nm. Customers who paint the engine are required to shield the terminal post prior to painting. 7.1.4 Ether Cold Start Systems Ether cold start systems are not currently approved for use with C6.6 and C4.4 industrial engines.

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Cold Starting Aid


7.1.5 Water Jacket Heaters When an engine water jacket heater is installed Caterpillar recommends the installation of an ambient air temperature sensor. When installed and configured, the ambient sensor measurement will be used by the ECU to ensure optimum engine starting and run-up.
Temperature Sensor +5 VDC RTN SIGNAL A B C J1 42 33 56 ECU
SENSOR SUPPLY +5 VDC SENSOR RTN AMBIENT AIR TEMP SIG

Required Parts Part Number 106-0735 155-2260 9X-3402 267-9572 Description Temperature Sensor Connector Plug Kit Socket Socket Qty 1 1 3 3

The Caterpillar sensor 106-0735 is required for correct operation. The sensor should be located in a position that measures the application external ambient air temperature. A location should be chosen that avoids any radiated or conducted heat produced by the engine water jacket heater. The location and mounting design should protect the sensor from damage; the sensor probe is particularly vulnerable and should be guarded from possible impact damage. NOTE: Do not splice the sensor signal wire for input to third party devices. Recommended connector mounting for component with a pigtail harness: The connector interface should never be tied directly to a vibrating member. Pigtail wire lead should be tied down on only one side of the connector interface. Choose one of these two locations: - midpoint on the sensor pigtail, OR - 150 mm from the connector on the wire harness side 7.1.6 Ambient Temperature Sensor ET Configurable Parameter The Ambient Air Temperature Sensor Installation Status listed under start aid configurable parameters must be configured installed in Cat ET prior to using the sensor.
45.9 mm 300 mm

External Thread 3/4-16-2A

HEX M27

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8 Operator Displays
8.1 Displays
8.1.1 Gauge Drivers OEMs are increasingly selecting datalink-driven intelligent displays for their applications instead of traditional gauges and lamps directly driven from sensors or engine ECU. If a needle type analogue gauge is required to display an engine parameter such as engine speed, oil pressure, or coolant temperature, it is recommended that the OEM use a gauge or display that can use the parameters broadcast by the ECU on the J1939 datalink. As an alternative, traditional single wire gauge senders may be used if a suitable tapping is available. If this implementation is required, please contact the electronic applications team to discuss requirements. A traditional tacho signal may be obtained from the W terminal of the alternator, although this will not be as accurate as the value sent on the J1939 datalink. Warning: The engine wiring harness must NEVER be modified to use the signal from the sensors connected to the engine ECU. This action would invalidate the engine warranty. 8.1.2 Lamp Outputs The lamp strategy is designed to display the maximum amount of information on the minimum number of lamps. There are six lamp outputs available: Lamp Description Red Stop Lamp Amber Warning Lamp Wait-to-Start Lamp (Cold Start Aid) Low Oil Pressure Lamp PTO Mode Lamp Maintenance Due Lamp Pin Allocation Pin 60 Pin 59 Pin 63 Pin 62 Pin 61 Pin 58

It is mandatory for the OEM to fit the Red Stop Lamp (1), Amber Warning Lamp (2) and the Wait-to-Start Lamp (3) unless a datalink-driven intelligent display is fitted, which fulfills the specification outlined in the next section. Lamps four, five, and six are optional.

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8.1.3 Indicator Lamps Logic
Warning Lamp
(also known as Alert Lamp)

Engine Management System Related.

Shutdown Lamp
(also known as Action Lamp)

Lamp State
Bulb Check

Description of What Lamp Status is Indicating


When the ignition is turned on the EMS will illuminate each bulb for 2 seconds and extinguish them afterwards. With both lamps off while engine is running then there are no currently active warnings diagnostics or events. Should the warning lamp illuminate during engine running this indicates that an Active Diagnostic (electrical fault) is present. Should the warning lamp illuminate and the shutdown lamp flash during engine running this indicates that an Active Diagnostic (electrical fault) is present. The diagnostic is sufficiently serious to invoke engine derate. Should the warning lamp flash during engine running this indicates that one or more of the engine protection strategy warning values have been exceeded but not to a level that will invoke derate or shutdown. Should both the warning lamp and shutdown lamp flash during engine running this indicates that one, or more, of the engine protection strategy values have been exceeded beyond the level required to invoke engine derate. Should both the warning lamp and shutdown lamp illuminate during engine running this indicates that either: 1. One or more of the engine protection strategy shutdown values has been exceeded. 2. A serious Active Diagnostic has been detected. Shortly after (time duration to be agreed) engine will shutdown.

Engine State
Key on but engine has yet to be cranked. Engine is running with no detected faults. Engine is running normally but has one or more faults with the engine management system. Engine is running but has one or more active diagnostic events that have initiated engine derate. Engine is running normally but has one or more monitored engine parameters outside of the acceptable range. Engine is running but one or more of the monitored engine parameters has gone beyond that of warning only and has now exceeded those set for engine derate. Engine is either shut down or shutdown is imminent, one or more monitored engine parameters have gone beyond that of warning or derate and have now exceeded those set for engine shutdown. Or a serious Active Diagnostic has been detected.

On

On No Faults Present

Off

Off Active Diagnostic

On

Off Derate (Invoked by Active Diagnostic)

On

Flash Warning (Warning only)

Flash

Off Derate (Warning and Derate)

Flash

Flash Engine Shutdown

On

On

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8.1.4 Datalink-Driven Intelligent Displays Displays may be connected to the engine ECU using J1939 datalink. Some products that use the CDL may also be compatible. Please contact your local applications team to confirm before selecting a CDL display. Devices that are connected to the J1939 datalink should meet the following standard if the OEM does not intend fitting the indicator lamps described above. 8.1.5 Minimum Functional Specification for J1939 Display The display is always on when the engine is running. The display should be line-of-sight of machine operator during machine operation. Display of the whole J1939 fault code including Suspect Parameter Number, Failure Mode Indicator, and Occurrence Number. Clear indication of what action, if any, the operator is required to take. Display of engine speed. Audible or bright lamp warning when new fault code is detected. The scaling of any gauges (e.g., coolant temperature) should be such that the needle is not far to the right of vertical when the engine is in normal operation (this would give the impression that the engine was abnormally hot, when in fact it is running within its design limits). Caterpillar will, under no circumstances, change the engine J1939 implementation in order to resolve compatibility issues with gauges or displays other than those supplied directly by Perkins. Gauge manufacturers may contact the electronic applications team, however, for information and assistance in ensuring that their products are compatible with the engine ECU. To support new standards and requirements, Caterpillar may add to the fault code table. Therefore, any active engine fault codes including those not recognized or referenced should be displayed. Caterpillar recommends that any suspect parameter number and the associated failure mode identifier are displayed. 8.1.6 Customer Triggered Engine Fault Codes The engine will raise fault codes (event codes) when its design limits are exceeded; for example, for excessive coolant temperature. The fault code algorithms are carefully designed and validated so that they do not cause spurious codes when there is in fact no fault. Some intelligent instrument clusters available on the market are also capable of raising fault codes themselves, based on the information that the engine transmits on J1939 such as engine coolant temperature. The machine designer could set a limit that is more conservative (lower) than the warning threshold defined by Caterpillar. This raises the possibility that the display will say that the engine has a fault when the engine is in fact running within its design limits. This is undesirable as it may result in a service technician being called to resolve a problem when in fact no problem exists. It will also cause damage to the reputation of Caterpillar and of the OEM. Caterpillar recommends therefore, that intelligent displays DO NOT have their own fault detection for engine over temperature/oil pressure etc, but that they use the fault codes generated by the engine, sent in the J1939 Diagnostic Message#1 (DM1).

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8.2 Engine Software Features
8.2.1 Engine Monitoring System Software will monitor the engine during operation and in extreme conditions make decisions to protect the engine from damage. The values of four main operating parameters are monitored Engine Coolant Temperature, Engine Oil Pressure, Intake Manifold Air Temperature, and Engine Speed. The monitoring system will compare parameters predetermined as dangerous to the engine and depending on the parameter values take appropriate action. There are three levels of action: Warning, Derate, and Shutdown. 8.2.1.1 General All parameters work independently using individual threshold values and guard timers. Consequently, it is possible for more than one parameter to register a warning or derate condition at any one time. 8.2.1.2 Warning Each monitored parameter has its own warning trigger threshold. A warning will be triggered when any parameter equals or exceeds its warning. In addition, for oil pressure, the trigger threshold varies with engine speed. The ECU will log these events and turn on the appropriate lamp driver. 8.2.1.3 Derate Each monitored parameter that uses the derate function has its own derate trigger threshold. If the derate threshold is equaled or exceeded by any parameter, a derate protection will be set active. The engine will derate. The ECU will log these events and turn on the appropriate lamp driver. While derate protection is set active, the derate percentage may vary with parameter value. 8.2.1.4 Shutdown The engine shutdown indication lamp driver will be triggered when any parameter equals or exceeds its shutdown threshold for a time exceeding its shutdown indication guard time. Physical engine shutdown will occur only if enabled by the configurable parameter. The ECU will log these events and turn on the appropriate lamp driver. Note: All values quoted in tables below are subject to change. Also, the percentage derate can be confusing. 100 percent derate does not mean that the engine has no power at all, it means that the engine will be running on a derate rating. The percentage of normal power that is available on the derate curve will depend on the rating used, but will normally be approximately 50 percent of nominal power. 8.2.2 Monitoring Mode ET Configurable Parameters Monitoring Mode (listed under Miscellaneous in ET) ET Description Monitoring Mode Shutdowns Monitoring Mode Derates Range or Option Disabled/Enabled Enabled/Enabled Description Switches on or off the shutdown feature Switches on/off the derate feature

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8.2.3 Monitoring Mode Thresholds 8.2.3.1 Coolant Temperature Parameter Warning Derate Temp 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 Shutdown 118 100 N/A Derate % N/A 25

8.2.3.2 Engine Oil Pressure Parameter Warning Engine Speed (rpm) 700 900 1000 1200 Shutdown 700 1200 1800 2400 8.2.3.3 Intake Manifold Temperature Parameter
Warning Derate

Trigger Pressure (kPa) 100 150 175 200 100 100 100 100

Temp
82 86 87 88 89 90

Derate %
N/A 10 20 30 40 50

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8.2.4 Other Derate Reasons Diagnostic and Events Turbo Wastegate Turbo wastegate current low diagnostic Turbo wastegate current high diagnostic Low intake manifold pressure event High intake manifold pressure event Fuel Rail Pump and Pressure Sensor Fuel rail pump solenoid current low diagnostic Fuel rail pump solenoid current high diagnostic Rail pressure sensor voltage low diagnostic Rail pressure sensor voltage high diagnostic Low fuel rail pressure event High fuel rail pressure event Others 5V sensor supply voltage low diagnostic 5V sensor supply voltage high diagnostic 168-01 low battery power to ECU diagnostic Crank speed sensor diagnostic Injector data incorrect Injector not responding 100% 100% 100% 60% 60% 20% No No No No Yes No 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Yes Yes No No Yes Yes 100% 100% 100% 20% No No Yes Yes Derate Latch Until Next Key Cycle?

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Monitored Inputs for Customer Fitted Sensors


9 Monitored Inputs for Customer-Fitted Sensors
Configurable options will be available that enable the use of discrete ECU inputs to function as operator warnings and engine protection. The three options to be offered include: Input Air Filter Restriction Engine Coolant Level Low Water in Fuel SWG SWG SWG State Normally Closed Normally Closed Normally Open De-bounce Time (secs) 30 30 30 Warning/Shutdown Disabled or Warning Disabled, Warning, or Shutdown Disabled or Warning J1 Pin Assignment J1-38 J1-47 J1-44

9.1 Configurable States


The ECU may be configured to take the following action when the monitored element has reached or exceeded the predetermined limit (switched). Disabled the input will not be monitored. Warning the input will be monitored; when the device is switched the warning light will illuminate and an event will be flagged. Shutdown the input will be monitored and when switched will illuminate the shutdown lamp, flag an event, and shut down the engine.

9.2 Air Filter Service Indicator Air Filter Restriction Switch


Indicates that the air intake circuit is restricted. The switch is installed or piped to the air filter housing or air induction pipe so that it is monitoring clean filtered air (between the air filter and engine). The customer will select an appropriate restriction switch. The switch will be connected to the engine ECU. The switch should open when the maximum permitted restriction is detected normally closed.
Air Filter Restriction Switch J1 38 35 ECU
SENSOR SIGNAL SENSOR RTN

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9.3 Coolant Low Level Switch
Indicates that the engine coolant reservoir is at or has gone below the minimum level. The sensor needs to be installed such that when coolant level is normal the sensing element is always completely immersed. Typically a device switches when the sensing element is fully immersed and when the fluid touches the body of the sensor normally closed.
Coolant Level Switch +8 VDC RTN SIGNAL A B C J1 43 33 47 ECU
SENSOR SUPPLY +8 VDC SENSOR RTN COOLANT LEVEL SIGNAL

Required Parts Part Number 165-6634 or 239-9957 155-2260 9X-3402 Description Level Switch Connector Plug Kit Socket Qty 1 1 3

9.4 Fuel in Water Trap Switch


Indicates that the fuel filter water trap is full. Typically a switch is installed in the bottom of the water trap. During normal engine operation the switch is immersed in diesel fuel. As water collects and reaches the maximum level the water enables a conductive path between electrodes normally open switch. Some fuel filter options offer a standard pre-installed switch from the factory. The factory-fitted switch may be connected to the engine ECU as detailed below. One parameter must be configured as installed in Cat ET. 1. Fuel/Water Separator Switch Installation Switch Status.
Water In Fuel Sensor J1
SENSOR SIGNAL SENSOR RETURN SENSOR SUPPLY +8 VDC

ECU 44 33 43
SENSOR SIGNAL (SWG 9) SENSOR RETURN SENSOR SUPPLY +8 VDC

1 2 3

Operating Voltage 8V-28V @ 5mA

Connector Details Component Sensor Male Connector Connector Female Housing Female Terminal Rubber Seals Caterpillar Part Number Supplier Part Number 523161 AMP 1-142854-0 AMP C-282191-1 AMP 929939-3 AMP

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Engine Governor
10 Engine Governor
10.1 Governor
10.1.1 All Speed The default governor type is an All Speed Governor, also known as a Variable Speed Governor. The diagrams to follow illustrate the torque and speed characteristics of this governor. 10.1.2 Torque Limit Curve Note that the engine may not be capable of reaching the torque fuel limit curve in some circumstances. For example, if the turbocharger is not providing the required boost pressure, the fuel will be limited so that the engine does not emit black smoke. 10.1.3 Droop Droop is the variation of engine speed as load is applied. For example, if an engine has 10 percent droop and is running at 1500 rpm without load, as load is applied, the operator will feel and hear the engine speed gradually decreasing. This is represented by the diagonal dotted lines under the torque curve in the diagram to follow. When the load reaches the torque limit curve of the engine, the engine will lug back along the curve. Note: Droop values can be assigned to the multi-position throttle switch input, PWM accelerator pedal/lever input, and the TSC1 speed demand over J1939. Droop does not apply, however to the PTO mode, which always operates isochronously (zero percent droop). 10.1.4 High Speed Governor (Governor Run-Out) The parameter Top Engine Limit (TEL) will no longer be offered on the C4.4 and C6.6 engines. Flexibility is improved, however, by allowing the high idle (HI) speed to be configured. High idle is the maximum speed that the engine will reach. Note that this is on the bare engine and when installed in an application, it may not be possible to reach this speed due to the parasitic loads of the driven equipment. The range of possible high idle speeds is defined by the parameters High Idle Lower Limit (HILL) and High Idle Upper Limit (HIUL). High idle cannot be specified to be less than Rated Speed (RS) and the HIUL will be dependent on the mechanical limits of the engine. The rated speed (RS) may not be changed by customer configuration.

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Engine Governor
Example Governing 1 showing droop and HSG slopes approximately equal
Flywheel Torque

RS HILL HIUL HI Droop Governor

2200 2200 2600 2354 7% All Speed

RS

DROOP

HILL

800

1800

2200

HSG

HIUL HI Speed (RPM)

Example Governing 2 showing isochronous droop but with a shallow HSG slope
Flywheel Torque

RS HILL HIUL HI Droop Governor

2200 2200 2600 2350 0% All Speed

RS

DROOP = ISOCHRONOUS

HILL

800

1800

2200

HSG

HIUL HI Speed (RPM)

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Engine Governor
10.2 Auxiliary Governor
It is possible to control the engine by the output shaft speed of another module. Caterpillar does not offer a speed sensor for this component, nor is there a direct speed sensor input, for the following reasons: There are a wide variety of speeds to be measured. Speed sensors output signals are low in amplitude and sensitive to electromagnetic interference. The engine is often not close to the output shaft to be measured, resulting in poor quality speed signals. The recommended solution for this requirement is as follows: The speed measured close to the output shaft by a third party electronic control module, which would give an engine speed demand to the engine, using J1939 TSC1 speed control or PTO mode raise and lower inputs. The third party module could also incorporate a display and/or operator control buttons. The electronic application team can give advice on specifying and selecting the third party electronic module for this function. The advantage of this approach is that, although the initial cost of the additional module is higher than a direct speed input, the cost of the additional components is reasonable and the advantages in reliability and ease of commissioning outweigh the disadvantages.

10.3 Rating Selection Via Service Tool


Some engines will have the capability to run more than one power rating. If this is the case, the highest allowed rating may be changed via the rating parameter on the configuration screen of the service tool. Note, however, that the engine may not be running the highest enabled speed due to the status of the mode switches or due to requests from another electronic module on the machine over J1939 datalink.

10.4 Mode Switches


A mode is a performance characteristic in terms of power/torque, droop, and rated speed. There are up to four modes configurable on the C4.4 and C6.6 engines, and these can be selected in operation when the engine is running and on load. The mode switches are of the Switch to Ground type and the ECU J1 pin connections are as follows: Function Mode Switch 1 Mode Switch 2 ECU J1 Connector Pin Assignment 39 46

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The following table is an example of how the mode switches can be configured. The two switch inputs provide a total of four possible combinations. Two ratings have been configured such that if switch 2 is open the engine will run on the lower rating, and if the switch is closed it will run on the higher rating. Switch 1 is configured such that if it is open the droop on throttle 1 and 2 is 10 percent, which may be suitable for road operation in an agricultural tractor, for example. When switch 1 is closed, however, a tighter droop is applied which may be suitable in field or work operation. Note: The highest rating available in the mode switch feature will be defined by the rating parameter on the configuration screen of the service tool. Example of Mode Switch Configuration Switch 2 Open Open Closed Closed Switch 1 Open Closed Open Closed Mode No. 1 2 3 4 Rating Throttle 1 100 kW @ 2200 100 kW @ 2200 120 kW @ 2200 120 kW @ 2200 10 5 10 5 Droop (%) Throttle 2 10 2 10 5 TSC1 10 0 10 0

10.4.1 Rating and Droop Changes Requested Via the J1939 Datalink It will be possible to select an alternative droop and alternative rating via the J1939 link, instead of via the hardwired switch inputs. This feature is still in development, although the messages to be used are outlined in the J1939 datalink section of this Applications and Installation Guide. 10.4.2 Service Maintenance Indicator A service maintenance indicator option is available. This is a configurable option; its purpose is to inform the operator that a pre-determined time set in the service tool has elapsed. The feature may be installed using the ET service tool. When configured, the default configuration for the service interval is 500 hours. This can be configured through the service tool configuration screen. The number of hours cannot be increased above 500 hours; however, the hours may be decreased to a lower value. Disabled no monitoring needed Manual Hours software monitors hours since the last reset When the number of hours since the last service is greater than configured maintenance interval, the software will permanently illuminate the maintenance due indicator lamp connected to J1-58. The number of hours until the next service, displayed in ET, will also become negative, i.e., two hours past the service interval will be indicated by -2. The maintenance due indicator lamp is available in the service tool as a status parameter, Maintenance Indicator Lamp Status. The override Maintenance Indicator Lamp Override is so the lamp status can be overridden for testing purposes. At any time before or after the maintenance interval has expired the maintenance due counter can be reset through any of the following mechanisms: Using the maintenance due service tool feature, the maintenance due counter will be reset when the reset button is clicked, if Pin J1-36 (SWB) is held high for greater than two seconds. If the ECU receives J1939 SPN 1584, Service Component Identification, with data value (decimal) 32, Engine oil-engine #1, the maintenance due counter will be reset. (If the SPN is received with any other data value it will be disregarded.) A P P L I C AT I O N A N D I N S TA L L AT I O N G U I D E 79

Using the ET Service Tool


11 Using the ET Service Tool
The latest version of ET will be required to view or modify some of the C6.6 engine software parameters and features. It is important that the engineer regularly updates their service tool to ensure compatibility. In addition it is the responsibility of the engineer to confirm software release dates. During project engine development, features may not be available or viewable and may be dependent on later software release dates.

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12 Datalink Support
There are two datalinks available for OEM connection to the engine, J1939 and Caterpillar Data link (CDL). It is recognized, however that other CANbus standards (higher level protocols) do exist and are used in off-highway applications, so some notes are also provided for users of those standards.

12.1 SAE J1939


The SAE J1939 standard was initially developed for the U.S. truck and bus industry. It has been expanded and is now the most widely used datalink standard for industrial power trains, with compliance from almost all engine manufacturers and most transmission manufacturers. 12.1.1 Summary of Key J1939 Application Issues This is a summary of some of the key points and answers to frequently asked questions relating to design of a J1939 compatible network. It is intended to give a design overview and does not in any way replace or contradict the recommendations contained in the SAE J1939 standard documents. 12.1.2 Physical Layer The data rate is 250 KBits/sec. Twisted pair cable, of a 120-Ohm impedance characteristic, should be used throughout. Note that most commercially available twisted pair cable is not suitable. It is recommended that this cable is shielded (as per J1939-11) and that the screen is grounded at a central point in the network. Unshielded twisted pair cable is used by some machine manufacturers, however, (as per J1939-15), offering lower cost but lower immunity to electromagnetic noise. The bus is linear and should be terminated with 120-Ohm resistors at either end. It is a common mistake to use one 60-Ohm resistor instead of two 120-Ohm resistors. This does not work correctly, however. Maximum bus length is 40 m. The terminating resistors should not be contained in network nodes. Network nodes are connected to the bus via stubs of maximum recommended length 1 meter. 12.1.3 Network Layer J1939 recommends a bit sample point of 87 percent. This relatively late sample point gives best compromise for immunity to noise and propagation delay. It does restrict the size of the software jump width (SJW), however. All nodes should have the same bit timing. Accurate bit timing is essential (4ms +/- 0.2 percent). It is recommended that the average bus load is not greater than 40 percent. Hardware filtering (masking) of CAN messages should be used under high bus loads to limit demands on processors. The engine ECU always assumes a fixed address zero. It will not change its address in the arbitration process described in J1939-81. The multi-7 packet protocol (described in J1339-21) is used for sending messages with more than eight bytes of data. In the Caterpillar application this will be used principally for the diagnostic messages DM1 and DM2. Information may be broadcast at regular intervals or requested. For example, the engine will broadcast its current speed every 20ms but it will only send hours run information if another node requests it. 12.1.4 Application Layer The messages (PGNs) supported by Caterpillar ECU are only a subset of the messages described in J1939-71 and J1939-73. Some PGNs may be partially supported; i.e., only those bytes for which the ECU has valid data will be supported. Unsupported data bytes are generally sent as FF (hex) and incorrect or invalid information is sent as FE.

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J1939 Supported Parameters Summary Table


13 J1939 Supported Parameters Quick Reference Summary Table
Section of SAE J1939 Document 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 61444 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 65241 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 65213 977 975 FED9 Aux Discrete IO State (AUXIO) Aux IO discrete channel_1 Aux IO discrete channel_2 Aux IO discrete channel_3 Aux IO discrete channel_4 Aux IO discrete channel_5 Aux IO discrete channel_6 Aux IO discrete channel_7 Aux IO discrete channel_8 Aux IO discrete channel_9 Aux IO discrete channel_10 Aux IO discrete channel_11 Aux IO discrete channel_12 Aux IO discrete channel_13 Aux IO discrete channel_14 Aux IO discrete channel_15 65174 1188 FEBD Fan Drive Fan Drive States Estimated Percent Fan Speed Tx 190 899 513 FE96 TurboWastegate (TCW) Turbo 1 Wastegate Drive Tx 61443 92 558 2970 91 29 F004 Electronic Engine Controller 1 (EEC1) Engine Speed Engine Retarder Torque Mode Actual Engine Percent Torque Tx 61441 970 F003 Electronic Engine Controller 2 (EEC2) Percent load at current speed Accelerator Pedal 1 Low Idle Switch Accelerator Pedal 2 Low Idle Switch Accelerator Pedal Position 1 Accelerator Pedal Position 2 PGN (decimal) 0 518 898 695 Electronic Brake Controller 1 (EBC1) Auxiliary Engine Shutdown Switch Tx SPN PGN (Hexidecimal) 0 PGN Description Torque Speed Control (TSC1) Requested Torque/Torque Limit Requested Speed/Speed Limit Override Control Modes Parameter (parameters in italics are proposed but may not yet be available/fully validated) Receive/ Transmit Rx

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J1939 Supported Parameters Summary Table


Section of SAE J1939 Document 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 65264 65263 100 FEF0 Power Take Off Info (PTO) 65262 110 FEEF EngineFluidLevel_Pressure (EFL/P1) Engine Oil Pressure Tx 65260 237 FEEE Engine Temp (ET1) Engine Coolant Temperature Tx 65259 586 587 588 233 FEEC Vehicle Identification (VI) Vehicle Identification Number Tx Tx/OR 65257 250 FEEB Component Identifier (CI) Make Model Serial Number 65253 247 FEE9 FuelConsumption Total Fuel Used Tx/OR 65252 1081 FEE5 Engine Hours Revolutions (HOURS) Total Engine Hours Tx/OR 65251 118 539 528 540 529 541 530 540 531 541 532 544 FEE4 Shutdown (SHUTDOWN) Wait-To-Start Lamp Tx 65247 515 FEE3 EngineConfig (EC) Engine Speed At Idle Pt 1 Percent Torque At Idle Pt 1 Engine Speed At Pt 2 Percent Torque At Pt 2 Engine Speed At Pt 3 Percent Torque At Pt 3 Engine Speed At Pt 4 Percent Torque At Pt 4 Engine Speed at Pt 5 Percent Torque at Pt 5 Engine Speed at High Idle Pt 6 Reference Engine Torque Tx 65243 157 FEDF Electronic Engine Controller 23 (EEC3) Engine Desired Operating Speed Tx 65242 234 965 FEDB Engine Fluid Level_ Pressure_2 (EFL/P2) Injector Metering Rail 1 Pressure Tx PGN (decimal) PGN (Hexidecimal) PGN Description Parameter (parameters in italics are proposed but may not yet be available/fully validated) Aux IO discrete channel_16 Aux IO analogue channel_1 Aux IO analogue channel_2 FEDA Software Identification (SOFT) Software Identification Number of software ID fields Tx Tx/OR Receive/ Transmit

SPN 716 1083 1084

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J1939 Supported Parameters Summary Table


Section of SAE J1939 Document 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 65227 FECB DM2 (logged codes) 65226 64968 2892 FECA DM1 (active codes) Protect Lamp Status Amber Lamp Status Red Lamp Status Spn Fmi Oc Spn Conversion Method Tx/OR 64971 2882 2881 2879 2886 FDC8 Operator Primary Intermediate Speed (ISCS) Operator Primary Intermediate Speed Select State Tx 64967 2888 2889 2893 2894 FDCB Off Highway Engine Control Selection (OHECS) Alternate Rating Select Alternate Droop Accelerator 1 Select Alternate Droop Accelerator 2 Select Alternate Droop Remote Accelerator Select Tx FDC7 Off Highway Engine Control Selection State (OHCSS) Alternate Rating Select State Alternate Droop Accelerator 1 Select State Alternate Droop Accelerator 2 Select State Alternate Droop Remote Accelerator Select State Rx 65271 65270 105 102 106 FEF7 VehicleElectricalPower #1 (VEP1) Electrical Potential Battery Potential Switched Tx 65266 183 FEF6 Inlet/ExhaustCond (IC1) Intake Manifold Temp Boost Pressure Air Inlet Pressure Tx PGN (decimal) SPN 984 982 980 983 981 FEF2 Fuel Economy (LFE) Fuel Rate Tx PGN (Hexidecimal) PGN Description Parameter (parameters in italics are proposed but may not yet be available/fully validated) PTO Set Switch PTO Resume Switch PTO Enable Switch PTO Coast/Decelerate Switch PTO Accelerate Switch Tx Receive/ Transmit

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Section of SAE J1939 Document 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 59904 EA00 Request PGN Requested PGN 59392 E800 Acknowledge (ACK and NACK) PGN Number Control Byte Rx 60416 EC00 Transport Protocol (TP_CM) BAM and RTS Tx 60160 EB00 Transport Protocol (TP_DT) TP_DT Tx/Rx 65228 FECC DM3 (diagnostic data clear/ reset of previously active DTCs) Request To Clear Logged Fault Codes Tx/Rx PGN (decimal) PGN (Hexidecimal) PGN Description Parameter (parameters in italics are proposed but may not yet be available/fully validated) Protect Lamp Status Amber Lamp Status Red Lamp Status Spn Fmi Oc Spn Conversion Method Rx Receive/ Transmit

SPN

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14 J1939 Parameters Detailed Descriptions
The engine ECU has been programmed to comply with the SAE J1939 standard according to the specification available on August 1, 2006. This section summarizes the functionality included in the generic industrial engine software. Where the J1939 standard is vague on functionality, notes on implementation have been included. This section is broken down into two different sections, J1939-71 and J1939-73, in accordance with the J1939 documentation. J1939 messages are referenced in ascending numerical order by their Parameter Group Number (PGN). Note: The PGN numbers are written in some documents in decimal form (e.g., 61444). This document will use the Hexidecimal form (e.g., F004) as it is easier to remember and simpler to decode when using tools to analyze traffic on the CAN J1939 bus.

14.1 Sending Messages to the Engine ECU


There are a number of messages that are sent by system electronic control devices that the ECU will respond to, these include; TSC1, OHECS, EBC1, RequestPGN and DM, as well as the RTS/CTS handshake protocol. Messages intended to be sent to the ECU require that the correct source and destination address protocol is followed. Source Address The source address is used to identify different components and electronic control modules on a CAN bus; source address assignment is given in Appendix B of SAE J1939. Engine #1 source address is 00, and the service tool source address is F0. Preferred J1939 source addresses vary between industry groups; when designing a system, check tables B1-B7 in the SAE J1939 document to ensure the correct source address is allocated. The ECU will accept messages from modules with any source address. For instance, TSC1 messages do not necessarily have to be sent by the transmission. The engine ECU source address is not configurable, and therefore cannot be set to any of the other engine source addresses for a multiple engine CAN network installation. Destination Address For messages controlling engine functionality, such as TSC1 and OHECS, the engine will only respond to messages with the destination address 00. The RequestPGN message is also sensitive to destination address. When the Engine #1 destination 00 is requested, then the engine ECU responds with the RTS Transport protocol message, and will not release the requested information until the handshake message, CTS, is returned. When the global destination is given for a RequestPGN message, FF (Global), then the engine ECU responds by sending the requested message. If the message is larger than 8 bytes, then it will be released via the Transport Protocol BAM message. When the global destination is used, there is no need to use the RTS/CTS protocol.

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14.2 J1939 Section 71 Vehicle Application Layer
Torque Speed Control The Torque/Speed Control #1 (TSC1) PGN allows electronic control devices connected to the CAN network to request or limit engine speed, this feature is often used as part of a closed engine control system with broadcast message parameters such as Engine Speed (EEC1). Usage is particularly common in machines that have complex hydraulic systems. TSC1 is a powerful feature; the OEM is responsible for ensuring that the implementation of TSC1 speed control is safe and appropriate for the engine and the machine. Furthermore, it is necessary for the OEM to perform the necessary risk assessment validation of the machine software and hardware used to control the engine speed via TSC1. ECU Response Time To TSC1 Request The mean response time for the ECU to alter the desired speed following a TSC1 request is 52ms +/-5ms. Note, there will be a further delay in the engines actual speed response due to the driving of mechanical components. If TSC1 response time is critical to transmission development and operation, contact your Electronic Applications Engineer. TSC1 Configuration TSC1 is always available as a speed demand input, and given that a J1939 Diagnostic Code is not active, the engine will prioritize the TSC1 request above all other speed demand inputs. In effect, TSC1 overrides all other configured throttle inputs. There are currently two TSC1 fault-handling options available in the service tool and the CEOS, these are described as TSC1 Continuous Fault Handling: Disabled or Enabled. TSC1 Continuous Fault Handling: [Disabled] (Default) This mode is also known as transient fault detection. It is suitable for applications where there is more than one throttle input into the ECU; for instance, in a wheeled excavator where the analogue throttle is used to control road speed, but TSC1 is used to control the machine hydraulics. The TSC1 message will override any other speed demand such as PWM throttle pedal. TSC1 override is switched on and off using the Override Control Mode SPN. End of Transmission Fault Detection The ECU needs to differentiate between the end of a transmission by another controller and an intermittent failure. The ECU expects, therefore, that when a controller no longer wishes to demand engine speed it will terminate with at least one message with the Control Override Mode SPN set to 00. If the engine sees that TSC1 messages have stopped for 90ms or more and TSC1 has not been terminated correctly, the ECU will recognize this as a fault, a J1939 diagnostic code will be raised and the ECU will not accept any TSC1 speed requests for the remainder of the key cycle. TSC1 Continuous Fault Handling: [Enabled] This mode is also known as continuous fault detection, it is suitable for applications where either TSC1 is the only throttle used or where TSC1 is continuously used to limit the top engine speed. The TSC1 speed control/speed limit cannot be switched off using the Override Control Mode SPN. For instance, in a wheeled excavator the analogue throttle is connected to the machine ECU that sends the TSC1 message to control road speed, and to control the machine hydraulics. When TSC1 Continuous Fault Handling is active, other throttles will be permanently overridden, and will only become available if a TSC1 fault is detected.

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J1939 Parameters
TSC1 Feature Summary Table TSC1 Mode TSC1 Continuous Fault Handling Speed Request Speed Limit Torque Request Torque Limit (temporary) Fault Detection 90 ms Timeout Fault Detection Message Present at Start Accepts TSC1 Messages From Several Sources Simultaneously Override Control Mode Switching Transient Disabled Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Continuous Enabled Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No

Rating and Droop Control In addition to Torque Speed Control, the complimentary message OHECS allows droop and rating selection over J1939 with a similar effect to the hard-wired Mode Selection feature. The OHECS PGN is described later in this section. Torque Speed Control (TSC1) Identifier 0C 00 00 xx Rate (msec) 10 PGN 000000 Default Priority 3 R1 0 DP 0 Source See notes
Resolution (unit/bit) Range Min Max Note A 00 01 10 11 7.8 2 4 1 1 16 8 Rpm % 0.125 1 0 -125 8032 +125 B A A A A

Destination 00

Receive

State

X X X X X X X X X X X

Override Control Mode (spn 695) Override Disabled Speed Control Torque Control Speed/Torque Limit Control Requested Speed Control Conditions (spn 696) Override Control Mode Priority (spn 897) Highest Priority High Priority Medium Priority Low Priority Not Defined Requested Speed/Speed Limit (spn 898) Requested Torque/Torque Limit

2 00 01 10 11

3 5

2 2

Note A: The ECU does not prioritize or arbitrate between speed requests or limit from more than one source and so this situation may result in erratic engine operation. The OEM must ensure that TSC1 messages are not sent from more than one source at a time. Note B: Support for the Torque limiting aspect of TSC1 has been added, although this may only be used for temporary conditions, such as during a gear change.

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J1939 Parameters
Electronic Brake Controller 1 (EBC1) The EBC1 message is normally used to control a machine braking system. The Auxiliary Engine Shutdown Switch SPN allows an external component on the J1939 network to shut down the engine without using the keyswitch, and sending the ECU into sleep mode. The resulting stop should not be used as a safety related fail-safe stop function. Identifier 18F00100 Rate (msec) 100 PGN F001 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination 00

State

Units

Send

Byte

Auxiliary Engine Shutdown Switch (970) Off On (engine will be shut down)

Bit

Min

Max

2 00 01

Electronic Engine Controller 2 (EEC2) EEC2 identifies electronic engine control-related parameters, including pedal position for throttles 1 and 2, and IVS status for throttle 1, and the percent load at current speed. Note that the name accelerator pedal is not always accurate for off-highway machines. Accelerator pedal 1 refers to any pedal, lever, or other device that uses either the analogue 1 or PWM throttle 1 input. Likewise, accelerator pedal position 2 refers to any device that uses the analogue throttle 2 input. Identifier 0C F0 03 00 Rate (msec) 50 PGN 00F003 Default Priority 3 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00
Range Min Max Note C 00 01 10 11 3 1 7 2 2 00 01 10 11 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 8 8 8 8 % .4 0 100 A % % .4 1 0 0 100 125 B A

Destination

State

X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Accelerator Pedal 1 Low Idle Switch (spn 558) Accelerator Pedal Not in Low Idle Condition Accelerator Pedal in Low Idle Condition Error Indicator Not Available or Not Installed Accelerator Pedal Kickdown Switch Accelerator Pedal 2 Low Idle Switch (spn 2970) Accelerator Pedal Not in Low Idle Condition Accelerator Pedal in Low Idle Condition Error Indicator Not Available or Not Installed Accelerator Pedal Position 1 (spn 91) Engine Percent Load at Current Speed (spn 92) Remote Accelerator Pedal Position Accelerator Pedal Position 2 (spn 29)

Units

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Byte

Parameter Name

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Length

Bit

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J1939 Parameters
Note A: Accelerator pedal low idle 2 and accelerator pedal position 2 are new parameters only recently defined by The SAE. The start byte / bit of accelerator pedal low idle switch 2 is still to be defined. Note B: Percent load at current speed is estimated from the steady state engine calibration maps. This parameter is not accurate at low loads or during transient conditions. Note C: When there is discrepancy between the pedal position and the idle validation switch position, then the Accelerator Pedal Low Idle Switch parameter will be transmitted as 10 (error) and the accelerator pedal position will be transmitted as FE (error). However, if a pedal is not configured, then it will be sent as not supported. This will apply to both accelerator 1 and accelerator 2. Electronic Engine Controller 1 (EEC1) EEC1 identifies the Electronic Engine Control-related parameters, including Engine Torque Mode, Actual Engine Percent Torque, and Actual Engine Speed. Identifier 0C F0 04 00 Rate (msec) 20 A PGN 00F004 Default Priority 3 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Engine Torque Mode Drivers Demand Engine Percent Torque X X Actual Engine Percent Torque Engine Speed Source Address of Controlling Device for Engine Control Engine Starter Mode

1 2 3 4 6 7

Bit

Min

Max

1 1 1 1 1 1

4 8 8 16 8 4 % % rpm None 1 1 .125 1 0 253 B

Note A: The J1939 standard describes the frequency of transmission of this PGN as engine speed dependent. The ECU actually transmits the message every 20ms, however, irrespective of engine speed. Note B: During the engine cranking cycle, while the ECU is detecting engine position and speed, engine speed is transmitted as FE00, or Unavailable. When this value is converted to engine speed, it gives the value of 8128 rpm.

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J1939 Parameters
Turbocharger Wastegate (TCW) TCW contains the SPN, turbocharger 1 wastegate drive. The implementation is that this value directly equates to the PWM duty cycle of the smart wastegate solenoid. A value of 0% represents fully closed and a value of 100% represents fully open. Due to the fact that the wastegate is also intake manifold pressure dependent, this value does not necessarily align to the actual position of the wastegate. Identifier 18FE9600 Rate (msec) 100 PGN FE96 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0
Resolution (unit/bit)

Source 00

Destination
Range

Receive

State

Send

Units

Byte

Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Drive (spn 1188) Turbocharger 2 Wastegate Drive Turbocharger 3 Wastegate Drive Turbocharger 4 Wastegate Drive Turbocharger Wastegate Act Control Pressure

1 2 3 4 5

Bit

Min 0

Max 100

1 1 1 1 1

8 8 8 8 8

0.4

Auxiliary Discrete IO state (AUXIO) The AUXIO PGN is used to transmit the status of all the customer side switch inputs, and two of the analogue voltage inputs of the ECU, irrespective of whether the input is used by the ECU for an application software feature. The spare inputs of the ECU are available for use by the machine designer as additional input channels for non-engine systems. The table below indicates the inputs, the switch connectors, and the associated J1939 SPN. Table of Input Pins to SPNs Input Name SWG1 SWG2 SWG3 SWG4 SWG5 SWG6 SWG7 SWG8 SWG9 SWG10 SWG11 SWB1 SWB2 AIN_ACT5 AIN_ACT4 ECU J1 Connector Pin 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 39 38 37 38 55 56 J1939 SPN 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 713 714 1083 1084

The two SWB inputs above are Switch To Battery, meaning when battery voltage is applied to the pin it will be closed. All the other switch inputs are Switch To Ground, which means when an input is at ground potential it will be closed.

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J1939 Parameters
Identifier 18FED900 Rate (msec) Note A PGN FED9 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

X X X X X X X X X X X

Auxiliary I/O #04 (spn 704) Auxiliary I/O #03 (spn 703) Auxiliary I/O #02 (spn 702) Auxiliary I/O #01 (spn 701) Auxiliary I/O #08 (spn 708) Auxiliary I/O #07 (spn 707) Auxiliary I/O #06 (spn 706) Auxiliary I/O #05 (spn 705) Auxiliary I/O #12 (spn 712) Auxiliary I/O #11 (spn 711) Auxiliary I/O #10 (spn 710) Auxiliary I/O #09 (spn 709) Auxiliary I/O #16 (spn 716) Auxiliary I/O #15 (spn 715)

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5,6 7,8

Bit

Min

Max

1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16 16 0 0 64255 64255

X X X X

Auxiliary I/O #14 (spn 714) Auxiliary I/O #13 (spn 713) Auxiliary I/O Channel #1 (spn 1083) Auxiliary I/O Channel #2 (spn 1084)

Note A: The message will be sent at a frequency of 100ms, and additionally when any of the supported switch inputs (spns 701 through 716) change state. Note B: Each of the switch inputs is transmitted as 00 if the switch is open (or not connected) and 01 if it is closed. Note C: The analogue channels are scaled at 0.955 volts per bit with a 0.5V offset. For example a voltage of 2.5 voltages would be transmitted as (2.5 volts 0.5 v offset)/0.000955 volts/bit = 209410 or 82E16

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J1939 Parameters
Software Identification (SOFT) The Software Identification PGN is requested via the Request PGN message, the message includes the software part number and the software version release date. This PGN has more than 8 bytes of data; therefore, the message content is returned using the transport protocol, and the format of the content is given below. ASCII code as follows: 02 SWPN:1234556701*SWDT:MAY05* Software part number (SWPN) will be of the form 123456701 Software release date (SWDT) will be of the form MAY05 Identifier 18FEDA00 Rate (msec) On Req PGN FEDA Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

X X

Number of Software Identification Fields (spn 965) Software Identification (spn 234)

1 2

Bit

Min 1

Max 255

1 1

8 N ASCII

Note A: The number of software identification fields will be transmitted as 02 Note B: The software identification is ASCII text, with the fields delimited by a * Engine Fluid Level / Pressure 2 (EFL/P2) EFL/P2 includes the Injector Metering Rail 1 Pressure SPN; indicating the gauge pressure of fuel in the high pressure rail supplying the injectors. Identifier 18FEDB00 Rate (msec) 500 PGN FEDB Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Bit

Min

Max

Injector Control Pressure X Injector Metering Rail 1 Pressure (spn 157) Injector Timing Rail 1 Pressure Injector Metering Rail 2 Pressure

1 3 5 7

1 1 1 1

16 16 16 16 Mpa 1/256Mpa/Bit 0 251

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J1939 Parameters
Electronic Engine Controller 3 (EEC3) EEC3 identifies the electronic engine control-related parameter; engine desired operating speed. Engine desired operating speed is calculated as requested speed demand from the throttle input; the speed at which the engine would run if all load were removed and current speed demand conditions maintained. This is not the same as the implementation for Tier 2 product, the change has been implemented to make the parameter more relevant to customers who need to determine how far and how rapidly the engine is lugging back. One effect will be that in many applications where there are high parasitic loads, the engine speed will never actually reach its desired operating speed. Identifier 18 FE DF 00 Rate (msec) 250 PGN FEDF Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

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Nominal Friction Percent Torque X Engines Desired Operating Speed (spn 515) Engines Operating Speed Asymmetry Adjustment

1 2 4

Bit

Min -125 0 0

Max +125 8031 250

1 1 1

8 16 8

% rpm Ratio

1 .125

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J1939 Parameters
Engine Configuration (EC) The Engine Configuration PGN describes the stationary behavior of the engine via an engine speed torque map; defining several points on the torque curve (rating) that are active in the engine. This map is only valid for steady state engine behavior at maximum boost pressure. The values will change if a different torque curve is selected or to reflect if the engine is derating, e.g., due to excessive engine temperature. As this PGN is more than 8 bytes long, it will always be transmitted via the transport protocol. Identifier See Note A Rate (msec) See Note A PGN FEE3 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

X X X X X X X X X X X X

Engine Speed at Idle, Point 1 (spn 118) Percent Torque at Idle, Point 1 (spn 539) Engine Speed at Point 2 (spn 528) Percent Torque at Point 2 (spn 540) Engine Speed at Point 3 (spn 529) Percent Torque at Point 3 (spn 541) Engine Speed at Point 4 (spn 530) Percent Torque at Point 4 (spn 542) Engine Speed at Point 5 (spn 531) Percent Torque at Point 5 (spn 543) Engine Speed at High Idle, Point 6 (spn 532) Gain (KP) of the Endspeed Governor Reference Engine Torque (spn 544) Maximum Momentary Engine Override Speed, Point 7 Maximum Momentary Override Time Limit Requested Speed Control Range Lower Limit Requested Speed Control Range Upper Limit Requested Torque Control Range Lower Limit Requested Torque Control Range Upper Limit

1 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13 15 16 18 20 22 24 25 26 27 28

Bit

Min 0 -125 0 -125 0 -125 0 -125 0 -125 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -125 -125

Max 8031 +125 8031 +125 8031 +125 8031 +125 8031 +125 8031 50.2 64255 8031 25 2500 2500 +125 125

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

16 8 16 8 16 8 16 8 16 8 16 16 16 16 8 8 8 8 8

rpm % rpm % rpm % rpm % rpm % rpm Nm rpm S rpm rpm % %

0.125 1 0.125 1 0.125 1 0.125 1 0.125 1 0.125 1 0.125 0.1 10 10 1 1

%/rpm 0.0007813

Note A: This PGN is sent every five seconds but also whenever there is a change in active torque limit map. Note B: Engine reference torque is the advertised bare engine torque of the highest enabled rating in the box. That is the highest rating that can be selected via mode switches or J1939, while the engine is running. Note C: As both point 2 and point 6 are supported, and gain (Kp) of endspeed governor is not, the support of this message conforms to Engine Configuration Characteristic Mode 1 as described in the J1939-71 specification.

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J1939 Parameters
Shutdown (SHUTDOWN) Shutdown PGN contains the SPN wait-to-start lamp. This indicates that the engine is too cold to start and the operator should wait until the signal becomes inactive (turns off). Identifier 18 FE E4 00 Rate (msec) 1000 PGN FEE4 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0
Resolution (unit/bit)

Source 00

Destination
Range

Receive

State

Units

Send

Byte

Idle Shutdown Has Shut Down Engine Idle Shutdown Driver Alert Mode Idle Shutdown Timer Override Idle Shutdown Timer State Idle Shutdown Timer Function A/C High Pressure Fan Switch Refrigerant Low Pressure Switch Refrigerant High Pressure Switch X X X Wait-to-Start Lamp (spn 1081) Off On Engine Protection System Has Shut Down Engine Engine Protection System Approaching Shutdown Engine Protection System Timer Override Engine Protection System Timer State Engine Protection System Configuration

Bit

Min

Max

1 3 5 7 7

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 00 01

1 3 5

1 3 5 7 7

2 2 2 2 2

Engine Hours/Revolutions (HOURS) HOURS PGN contains the SPN total engine hours. The SAE defines this PGN as being sent on request. However, there are some gauges and displays on the market which require this to be broadcast. Consequently, this message is broadcast at a low update rate, to ensure compatibility with these devices. Identifier 18 FE E5 00 Rate (msec) 1000 Note A PGN FEE5 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Total Engine Hours (spn 247) Total Engine Revolutions

1 5

Bit

Min 0 0

Max 210,554,060 4,211,081,215,000

1 1

32 32

Hr Rev

.05 1000

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J1939 Parameters
Fuel Consumption The Fuel Consumption PGN contains the SPN total fuel used. This parameter is not a direct measurement. It is calculated from standard test fuel at standard test temperatures. The characteristics of most fuels in the field will differ from the test fuel, particularly at very high or very low temperatures. It is recommended, therefore, that this value is taken to be an indication only of the fuel used by an engine. Identifier 18 FE E9 00 Rate (msec) On Req PGN 00FEE9 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Trip Fuel X Total Fuel Used (spn 250)

1 5

Bit

Min 0 0

Max 2,105,540,607 2,105,540,607

1 1

32 32

L L

.5 .5

Component ID (CI) The Component Identification PGN is requested via the request PGN message; the message includes the engine make, the engine model number, and the engine serial number. This PGN has more than 8 bytes of data; therefore, the message content is returned using the transport protocol. The format of the content is given below. All these parameters are supported as ASCII text delimited by * Make will be transmitted as CTRPL Model will be transmitted in the form C6.6 or C4.4 Serial Number will be the engine serial number as marked on the nameplate of the engine Identifier 18 FE EB 00 Rate (msec) On Req PGN 00FEEB Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

X X X

Make (spn 586) Model (spn 587) Serial Number (spn 588) Unit Number (spn 233)

Bit

Min

Max

ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII

None None None None

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97

J1939 Parameters
Vehicle Identification (VI) The Vehicle Identification PGN is requested via the request PGN message. The message includes only the vehicle identification number PGN. This PGN has more than 8 bytes of data; therefore, the message content is returned using the transport protocol. This PGN may be requested from the ECU but currently the message will simply contain the ASCII text NOT PROGRAMMED. Identifier 18FEEC00 Rate (msec) On Req PGN FEEC Default Priority R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Vehicle Identification Number (spn 237)

Bit

Min

Max

ASCII

None

Engine Temperature (ET1) ET1 contains the SPN Engine Coolant Temperature, this SPN contains the engine coolant temperature as sensed by the engine control system. Identifier 18 FE EE 00 Rate (msec) 1000 PGN FEEE Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Engine Coolant Temperature (spn 110) Fuel Temperature Engine Oil Temperature Turbo Oil Temperature Engine Intercooler Temperature Engine Intercooler Thermostat Opening

1 2 3 5 7 8

Bit

Min -40 -40 -273 -273 -40 0

Max 210 210 1735 1735 210 100

1 1 1 1 1 1

8 8 16 16 8 8

deg C deg C deg C deg C deg C %

1 1 .03125 .03125 1 .4

98

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J1939 Parameters
Engine Fluid Level/Pressure (EFL/P1) EFL/P1 contains the SPN Engine Oil Pressure; this SPN contains the oil pressure as sensed by the engine control system. Identifier 18 FE EF 00 Rate (msec) 500 PGN FEEF Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Fuel Delivery Pressure Extended Crankcase Blow-by Pressure Engine Oil Level X Engine Oil Pressure (spn 100) Crankcase Pressure Coolant Pressure Coolant Level

1 2 3 4 5 7 8

Bit

Min 0 0 0 0 0

Max 1000 100 1000 500 100

1 1 1 1 1 1

8 8 8 16 8 8

KPA % KPA KPA %

4 .4 4 2 .4

PTO information (PTO) PTO contains the SPNs PTO Switch Enable, PTO Set Switch, PTO Coast/Decelerate Switch, PTO Resume Switch, and PTO Accelerate Switch. Some of the PTO mode switch inputs on the ECU have dual functions. For example, one button provides both SET and LOWER functions and another button provides both RAISE and RESUME functions. When the SET/LOWER button is pressed, both SPN 984 and SPN 938 will go to the active state, for at least one message transmission. Similarly, when the RAISE/RESUME button is pressed then both SPN 982 and SPN 981 will go to the active state. Identifier 18FEF000 Rate (msec) 100 PGN FEF0 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Power Takeoff Oil Temperature (spn 90) Power Takeoff Speed (spn 186) Power Takeoff Set Speed (spn 187) X PTO Enable Switch (spn 980) Remote PTO Preprogrammed Speed Control Switch (spn 979) Remote PTO Variable Speed Control Switch (spn 978) X X X X PTO Set Switch (spn 984) PTO Coast/Decelerate Switch (spn 983) PTO Resume Switch (spn 982) PTO Accelerate Switch (spn 981)

1 2 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7

Bit

Min

Max

1 1 1 1 3 5 1 3 5 7

8 16 16 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 rpm rpm 0 8031

A P P L I C AT I O N

A N D

I N S TA L L AT I O N

G U I D E

Note

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

Note

Parameter Name

Length

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

99

J1939 Parameters
Fuel Economy (LFE) LFE contains the PGN Fuel Rate. This parameter is not a direct measurement. It is calculated from standard test fuel at standard test temperatures. The characteristics of most fuels in the field will differ from the test fuel, particularly at very high or very low temperatures. It is recommended, therefore, that this value is taken to be an indication only for the fuel usage by an engine. Identifier 18 FE F200 Rate (msec) 100 PGN FEF2 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Fuel Rate (spn 183) Instantaneous Fuel Economy Average Fuel Economy Throttle Position

1 3 5 7

Bit

Min 0 0 0 0

Max 3212 125.5 125.5 100

1 1 1 1

16 16 16 8

L/hr km/kg km/kg %

.05 1/512 1/512 .4

Inlet/Exhaust Conditions (IC1) IC1 contains the SPNs Boost Pressure, Intake Manifold Temperature, and Air Inlet Pressure. All these parameters are broadcast as sensed by the engine control system. Identifier 18 FE F6 00 Rate (msec) 500 PGN FEF6 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Bit

Min 0 0 -40 0 0 -273 0

Max 125 500 210 500 12.5 1735 125

Particulate Trap Inlet Pressure X X X Boost Pressure (spn 102) Intake Manifold Temperature (spn 105) Air Inlet Pressure (spn 106) Air Filter Differential Pressure Exhaust Gas Temperature Coolant Filter Differential Pressure

1 2 3 4 5 6 8

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

8 8 8 8 8 16 8

kPa kPa deg C kPa kPa deg C kPa

.5 2 1 2 .05 .03125 .5

Note A: Inlet air pressure will be supported as the absolute pressure as measured by the inlet manifold pressure sensor. Note B: Boost pressure will be calculated from inlet manifold temperature. Boost pressure will never be transmitted as a negative number, even though a slight depression at the inlet is possible for some engines when running at low idle speed.

100

C 4 . 4

A N D

C 6 . 6

I N D U S T R I A L

E L E C T R O N I C

Note B A

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

Note

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

J1939 Parameters
Vehicle Electrical Power (VEP) VEP contains the SPNs Electrical Potential and Battery Potential. Electrical potential and battery potential parameters are both supported with the same value, which is the voltage measured between the battery (+) and battery (-) terminals of the ECU. Identifier 18 FE F7 00 Rate (msec) 1000 PGN FEF7 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

Receive

State

Send

Units

Byte

Net Battery Current Alternator Potential (Voltage) X X Electrical Potential (Voltage) (spn 168) Battery Potential (Voltage), Switched (spn 158)

1 3 5 7

Bit

Min -125 0 0 0

Max 125 3212 3212 3212

1 1 1 1

16 16 16 16

Amp V V V

1 .05 .05 .05

A P P L I C AT I O N

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Note

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Length

101

J1939 Parameters
Operator Primary Intermediate Speed (ISCS) The ISCS PGN is used to describe the logical state of the throttle position switch input (also known as multiposition throttle switch). Identifier 18FDC800 Rate (msec) 1000 PGN FDC8 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Operator Primary Intermediate Speed Select State (spn 2892) Intermediate Speed Not Requested Logical Position 1 Logical Position 2 Logical Position 3 Logical Position 4 Logical Position 5 Logical Position 6 Logical Position 7 Logical Position 8 Logical Position 9 Logical Position 10 Logical Position 11 Logical Position 12 Logical State 13, 14, 15, or 16 Reserved Not Available

Bit

Min

Max

4 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 C B A

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Note A: Intermediate speed not requested state is not supported. Note, however, that on most applications where throttle position switch is used, logical position 1 will be all four switches in the open position and will equate to engine idle. Note B: There are only 13 states available but 16 possible combinations of the four switch inputs. No known application has used more than 10 states however, or is expected to use more than 10 states in the future, so it is not envisaged that this will cause a problem. If 16 states are used, logical states 14, 15, and 16 will be transmitted as 13. Note C: If the throttle position switch is not configured on an application, the ECU will send 1111 not available.

102

C 4 . 4

A N D

C 6 . 6

I N D U S T R I A L

E L E C T R O N I C

Note

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

J1939 Parameters
Off-Highway Engine Control Selection (OHECS) OHECS is sent to the engine to select engine rating and droop percentage, in a similar way to the hardwired mode switches. The J1939 request will have precedence over the hard-wired switch inputs to the ECU. When the ECU receives this PGN, it will override the mode selection configuration, and switch to the requested rating and droop setting. The engine will remain in this new state until either another message is received with a different rating and droop request, or until the keyswitch is cycled. Identifier 18FDCBxx Rate (msec) 500 PGN FDCB Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination 00

State

Units

Send

Byte

Auxiliary Governor Switch Multi-Unit Synch On/Off Switch Alternate Low Idle Switch X X X X Alternate Rating Select Alternate Droop Accelerator 1 Select Accel 1 Default Droop (default) Accel 1 Alternate Droop 1 through 10 = 1% through 10% Accel 1 Alternate Droop 11 (Isochronous) Error X X X X Not Available Alternate Droop Accelerator 2 Select Accel 12 Default Droop (default) Accel 2 Alternate Droop 1 through 10 = 1% through 10% Accel 2 Alternate Droop 11 (Isochronous) Error X X X X Not Available Alternate Droop Remote Accelerator Select Remote Accel Default Droop (default) Remote Accel Alternate Droop 1 through 10 = 1% through 10% Remote Accel Alternate Droop 11 (Isochronous) Error X Not Available Alternate Droop Auxiliary Input Select

1 1 1 2 3

Bit

Min

Max

1 3 5 1 1

2 2 2 8 4 0000 00011010 1011 1110 1111 A

4 0000 00011010 1011 1110 1111

4 0000 00011010 1011 1110 1111

Note A: Ratings 1 to n are populated with all the ratings available in the ECU with 1 being the lowest and n being the highest rating. If the ECU receives the 0, the rating value entered through the mode selection switches should be used.

A P P L I C AT I O N

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Note

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

103

J1939 Parameters
Off-Highway Engine Control Selection State (OHCSS) OHCSS broadcasts the SPNs corresponding engine rating select and droop select. When the engine is controlled by the hard-wired mode selection, then OHCSS will contain this data; however, when the OHECS PGN is used to control rating select and droop, the OHCSS message will mirror the override information. Identifier 18FDC700 Rate (msec) 500 PGN FDC7 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Auxiliary Governor State Multi-Unit Synch State Alternate Low Idle Select State X X X X Alternate Rating Select State Alternate Droop Accelerator 1 Select State Alternate Droop Accelerator 2 Select State Alternate Droop Remote Accelerator Select State Alternate Droop Auxiliary Input Select State

1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4

Bit

Min

Max

1 3 5 1 1 5 1 5

2 2 2 8 4 4 4 4

This PGN is intended for the ECU to provide feedback on the OHECS messages described above.

104

C 4 . 4

A N D

C 6 . 6

I N D U S T R I A L

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Note

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

J1939 Parameters
14.3 J1939 Section 73 Diagnostic Layer
Active Diagnostics Trouble Codes (DM1) The information communicated by DM1 is limited to currently active diagnostic trouble codes. DM1 will be transmitted whenever a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) becomes an active fault and once per second thereafter. The message contains diagnostic lamp status, indicating the severity of the problem, followed by the DTC identifiers, SPN and FMI. The DM1 message is not sent if there are no active fault codes. If only 1 DTC is active then DM1 will be transmitted as a single message with the identifier FECA. If there is more than one fault code present then the DM1 message will be longer than 8 bytes, thus the transport protocol (BAM) will be used to send the message. Note : This is different from Tier 2 functionality where the transport protocol (BAM) is used to send all DM1 messages, even if only one fault code is active. Identifier See Note A Rate (msec) See note B PGN 00FECA Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Malfunction Indicator Lamp Protect Lamp Stop Lamp Warning Lamp X X X X SPN (Suspect Parameter Number) FMI (Failure Mode Identifier) Occurrence Count SPN Conversion Method

Bit

Min

Max

Note A: The J1939 diagnostic lamp description and function is not supported diagnostic lamp implementation is supported as follows: Diagnostic and event codes have been split into three categories of severity called Warning Category Indicators (WCI). The lowest level (Level 1) is used for warning level faults, such as when engine design limits for temperature have been reached, or for a sensor short circuit. The highest level (Level 3) is used for events where the severity merits the machine and the engine being immediately stopped. Level 2 is an intermediate level used particularly for events or diagnostic which cause an engine derate.

A P P L I C AT I O N

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Note A A A A

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

105

J1939 Parameters
The status lamps in the DM1 message will be switched on according to the following table: WCI 1 2 3 Protect Lamp ON ON ON Warning Lamp OFF ON ON Shutdown Lamp OFF OFF ON

Previously Active Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DM2) Identifier See Note A Rate (msec) On Req PGN FECB Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source 00 Destination

State

Units

Send

Byte

Malfunction Indicator Lamp Protect Lamp Stop Lamp Warning Lamp X X X X SPN FMI Occurrence Count SPN Conversion Method

Bit

Min

Max

Note A: Lamp support as per DM1. Diagnostic Data Clear/Reset of Previously Active DTCs (DM3) DM3 is sent as a RequestPGN message, and has the function of erasing the record of all previously active fault codes. The ECU responds to the DM3 message by clearing all diagnostic codes but not event codes. The ECU will send an Acknowledge message (ACK) to say that this action is complete. Diagnostic trouble codes are defined as faults on the electronic system, for instance if there is a sensor failure. Event codes are raised when the engine system is operating outside of its defined diagnostic limits, for instance, if the engine coolant temperature is excessive. Event codes can only be cleared with the service tool and require a factory password. Identifier See Note A Rate (msec) On Req PGN FECC Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination 00

State

Units

Send

Byte

Request to Clear Fault Codes

106

C 4 . 4

A N D

C 6 . 6

Bit

Min

Max

I N D U S T R I A L

E L E C T R O N I C

Note

Parameter Name

Length

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Note A A A A

Parameter Name

Resolution (unit/bit)

Range

Receive

Length

J1939 Parameters
14.4 Supported Parameters Section 21 Simplified Descriptions
J1939 Section 21 describes in detail the framework, structure and protocol of J1939 messages. The on-engine application of Section 21 is considered too detailed to give a comprehensive functional description in this guide. For reference, the message PGNs and descriptions are given to help network identification of these messages. Transport Protocol Connection Management (TP.CM_BAM) Identifier 1CECFF00 Rate (msec) PGN EC00 Default Priority 7 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination

Support as per J1939 21. Note that this mechanism is used principally as a multipacket protocol for sending messages larger than 8 bytes of data; for example, to send diagnostic messages DM1 and DM2 or for the engine configuration PGN. This uses the Broadcast Announce Message (BAM) as shown in the example below: Transport Protocol Data Transfer (TP.DT) Identifier 1CEBFF00 Rate (msec) See Note A PGN EB00 Default Priority 7 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination

Note A: If a module is required to decode any information that is sent via the transport protocol, it must be capable of receiving and processing messages with the same identifier within 50 ms. Proprietary A Service Tool Identifier 18EF00xx Rate (msec) PGN EF00 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination

This message is used for communication between the ECU and the service tool. It must not be used by any other electronic system on the machine, as this may cause unpredictable operation when the service tool is connected. Acknowledge Identifier 18E8xxxx Rate (msec) PGN E800 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination

Both acknowledge (ACK) and negative acknowledge (NACK) are supported as per the J1939 specification. Request PGN Identifier 18EA00xx Rate (msec) PGN EA00 Default Priority 6 R1 0 DP 0 Source Destination 00

Supported as per the J1939 specification. This PGN is sent to the ECU to request parameters that are only sent on-request. For example, if an electronic module on the machine requires engine hours information, it must send a request PGN for the engine hours/revolutions PGN.

14.5 Supported Parameters Section 81 Network Management Detailed Descriptions


The engine does support the network initialization requirements as outlined in Specification J1939-81. This includes the claiming of addresses. The engine will always claim address zero and will not accept any other address. Most off-highway machines do not implement this section of the specification. If further information on this subject is required, however, please contact the Electronic Applications Team directly. A P P L I C AT I O N A N D I N S TA L L AT I O N G U I D E 107

Appendices
15 Appendices
15.1 Appendix 1 ECU J1 Connector Terminal Assignments
Pin No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Description Battery (-) Battery (-) Battery (-) N/A N/A N/A Battery (+) Battery (+) - Battery - Battery DF_PWM 1 Shield DF_PWM 1DF_PWM 1+ N/A Battery (+) Battery (+) N/A N/A N/A CAN (+) CAN (-) CAN A Shield CDL (+) CDL (-) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A PWM_2A Return 1 Preferred Function Battery ve Battery ve Battery ve N/A N/A N/A Battery +ve Battery +ve Battery ve Battery ve N/A N/A N/A N/A Battery +ve Battery +ve N/A N/A N/A SAE J1939 CAN DL + SAE J1939 CAN DL CAN Shield CDL + CDL N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Alternative Function N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

108

C 4 . 4

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C 6 . 6

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Appendices
Pin No. 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 Description PWM_2A Driver 1 VS_RET VS_RET SWG_ RET SWB 2 SWB 1 SWG 11 SWG 10 SWK_0 VS_5_200mA VS_5_200mA VS_8_100mA SWG 9 SWG 8 SWG 7 SWG 6 SWG 5 SWG 4 SWG 3 SWG 2 SWG 1 AIN_ACT/PWM_I 1 AIN_ACT 7 AIN_ACT 5 AIN_ACT 4 DOUT_1A 1 DOUT_0.3A 10 DOUT_0.3A 9 DOUT_0.3A 8 DOUT_0.3A 4 DOUT_0.3A 3 DOUT_0.3A 2 DOUT_0.3A 1 N/A Sensor 0V Return Sensor 0V Return Switch Return Maintenance Reset N/A Air Filter Restriction Switch Mode Switch 1 Ignition Switch Input Sensor 5V Supply Sensor 5V Supply PWM Throttle Sensor 8V Supply Throttle 2 IVS Throttle 1 IVS Mode Switch 2 Throttle Arbitration Switch Remote Shutdown Switch (NO) PTO Mode Disengage (NC) PTO Mode Raise/Resume PTO Mode Set/Lower PTO Mode ON/OFF PWM Throttle Input Throttle 1 Analogue Input Throttle 2 Analogue Input N/A Start Aid Control Maintenance Due Lamp Warning Lamp Shutdown Lamp PTO Mode Lamp Low Oil Pressure Lamp Wait-to-Start Lamp N/A Preferred Function Alternative Function N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Fuel Water Trap Monitor N/A N/A Coolant Level Sensor N/A MPTS1 MPTS2 MPTS3 MPTS4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

A P P L I C AT I O N

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109

Appendices
15.2 Appendix 2 List of Diagnostic and Event Codes
Note that in some cases there are differences in the codes which are transmitted on the J1939 bus and those that are transmitted on the CDL bus (those normally viewed on the service tool). Additionally codes may be added on later software that are not present on this table.
CDL Code N/A 0001-02 0001-05 0001-06 0001-07 0002-02 0002-05 0002-06 0002-07 0003-02 0003-05 0003-06 0003-07 0004-02 0004-05 0004-06 0004-07 0005-02 0005-05 0005-06 0005-07 0006-02 0006-05 0006-06 0006-07 0041-03 0041-04 0091-02 0091-03 0091-04 0091-08 0100-03 0100-04 0100-10 0110-03 0110-04 0168-00 0168-01 0168-02 Description No Diagnostic Code Detected Cylinder #1 Injector Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Cylinder #1 Injector Current Below Normal Cylinder #1 Injector Current Above Normal Cylinder #1 Injector Not Responding Properly Cylinder #2 Injector Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Cylinder #2 Injector Current Below Normal Cylinder #2 Injector Current Above Normal Cylinder #2 Injector Not Responding Properly Cylinder #3 Injector Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Cylinder #3 Injector Current Below Normal Cylinder #3 Injector Current Above Normal Cylinder #3 Injector Not Responding Cylinder #4 Injector Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Cylinder #4 Injector Current Below Normal Cylinder #4 Injector Current Above Normal Cylinder #4 Injector Not Responding Properly Cylinder #5 Injector Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #5 Injector Current Below Normal (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #5 Injector Current Above Normal (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #5 Injector Not Responding Properly (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #6 Injector Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #6 Injector Current Below Normal (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #6 Injector Current Above Normal (C6.6 engine only) Cylinder #6 Injector Not Responding Properly (C6.6 engine only) 8 Volt DC Supply Voltage Above Normal 8 Volt DC Supply Voltage Below Normal Throttle Position Sensor Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Throttle Position Sensor Voltage Above Normal Throttle Position Sensor Voltage Below Normal Throttle Position Sensor Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width, or Period Engine Oil Pressure Sensor Voltage Above Normal Engine Oil Pressure Sensor Voltage Below Normal Engine Oil Pressure Sensor Abnormal Rate of Change Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Voltage Above Normal Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor Voltage Below Normal Electrical System Voltage High Electrical System Voltage Low Electrical System Voltage Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Cat ET J1939 Code N/A J651-2 J651-5 J651-6 J651-7 J652-2 J652-5 J652-6 J652-7 J653-2 J653-5 J653-6 J653-7 J654-2 J654-5 J654-6 J654-7 J655-2 J655-5 J655-6 J655-7 J656-2 J656-5 J656-6 J656-7 J678-03 J678-04 J91-02 J91-03 J91-04 J91-08 J100-03 J100-04 J100-10 J110-03 J110-04 J168-00 J168-01 J168-02 3rd Party Device J1939 Code N/A 651-2 651-5 651-6 651-7 652-2 652-5 652-6 652-7 653-2 653-5 653-6 653-7 654-2 654-5 654-6 654-7 655-2 655-5 655-6 655-7 656-2 656-5 656-6 656-7 678-03 678-04 91-02 91-03 91-04 91-08 100-03 100-04 100-10 110-03 110-04 168-00 168-01 168-02 Flash Code 551 111 111 111 111 112 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 114 114 114 114 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 517 517 154 154 154 154 157 157 157 168 168 422 422 422

110

C 4 . 4

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C 6 . 6

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Appendices
CDL Code 0172-03 0172-04 0190-08 0247-09 0247-12 0253-02 0261-11 0262-03 0262-04 0268-02 0342-08 0526-05 0526-06 0526-07 0774-02 0774-03 0774-04 0774-08 1639-09 1743-02 1779-05 1779-06 1785-03 1785-04 1785-10 1797-03 1797-04 1834-02 2246-06 Event Codes E172-1 E194-1 E232-1 E360-1 E360-3 E361-1 E361-2 E361-3 E362-1 E396-1 E398-1 E539-1 E539-2 E2143-3 High Air Filter Restriction High Exhaust Temperature High Fuel/Water Separator Water Level Low Oil Pressure Warning Low Oil Pressure Shutdown High Engine Coolant Temperature Warning High Engine Coolant Temperature Derate High Engine Coolant Temperature Shutdown Engine Overspeed High Fuel Rail Pressure Low Fuel Rail Pressure High Intake Manifold Air Temperature Warning High Intake Manifold Air Temperature Derate Low Engine Coolant Level J107-15 J173-15 J97-15 J100-17 J100-01 J110-15 J110-16 J110-00 J190-15 J157-00 J157-01 J105-15 J105-16 J111-01 107-15 173-15 97-15 100-17 100-01 110-15 110-16 110-00 190-15 157-00 157-01 105-15 105-16 111-01 151 185 157 157 168 168 168 141 159 159 133 133 169 Description Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor Voltage Above Normal Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor Voltage Below Normal Engine Speed Sensor Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width, or Period SAE J1939 Data Link Abnormal Update Rate SAE J1939 Data Link Failure Personality Module Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Engine Timing Offset Fault 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply Voltage Above Normal 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply Voltage Below Normal Programmed Parameter Fault Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Secondary Engine Speed Sensor Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width, or Period Turbo Wastegate Drive Current Below Normal Turbo Wastegate Drive Current Above Normal Turbo Wastegate Drive Not Responding Properly Secondary Throttle Position Sensor Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Secondary Throttle Position Sensor Voltage Above Normal Secondary Throttle Position Sensor Voltage Below Normal Secondary Throttle Position Sensor Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width, or Period Machine Security System Module Abnormal Update Rate Engine Operation Mode Selector Switch Erratic, Intermittent, or Incorrect Fuel Rail #1 Pressure Valve Solenoid Current Below Normal Fuel Rail #1 Pressure Valve Solenoid Current Above Normal Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor Voltage Above Normal Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor Voltage Below Normal Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor Abnormal Rate of Change Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Voltage Above Normal Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Voltage Below Normal Ignition Keyswitch Loss of Signal Glow Plug Start Aid Relay Current Above Normal Cat ET J1939 Code J105-03 J105-04 J190-08 J631-02 J637-11 J1079-03 J1079-04 J630-02 J723-08 J1188-05 J1188-06 J1188-07 J29-02 J29-03 J29-04 J29-08 J1196-09 J2882-02 J1347-05 J1347-06 J102-03 J102-04 J102-10 J157-03 J157-04 J158-02 J676-06 3rd Party Device J1939 Code 105-03 105-04 190-08 631-02 637-11 1079-03 1079-04 630-02 723-08 1188-05 1188-06 1188-07 29-02 29-03 29-04 29-08 1196-09 2882-02 1347-05 1347-06 102-03 102-04 102-10 157-03 157-04 158-02 676-06 Flash Code 133 133 141 514 514 415 143 516 516 527 142 177 177 177 155 155 155 155 426 144 162 162 197 197 197 159 159 439 199

A P P L I C AT I O N

A N D

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G U I D E

111

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Your Cat dealer is prepared to answer any questions you may have about Cat Power Systems, customer support, parts or service capability anywhere in the world. For the name and number of the Cat dealer nearest you, visit our website or contact Caterpillar Inc. World Headquarters in Peoria, Illinois, U.S.A.

World Headquarters: Caterpillar Inc. Peoria, Illinois, U.S.A Tel: (309) 578-6298 Fax: (309) 578-2559 Mailing Address: Caterpillar Inc. Industrial Power Systems P.O. Box 610 Mossville, IL 61552

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E-mail: cat_power@cat.com

Materials and specifications are subject to change without notice. Rating ranges listed include the lowest and highest available for a specific engine or family of engines. Load factor and time at rated load and speed will determine the best engine/rating match. CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, ACERT, ADEM, HEUI, Pocket Tec, Caterpillar Yellow and the POWER EDGE trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission. LEBH7120-00 (5-07) 2007 Caterpillar All rights reserved.