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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE S.No
1.1 Introduction Chapter- I 1.2 Research Methodology 2.1 Review of Literature Chapter- II 2.2 Company Profile Chapter- III Data Analysis and Interpretation 4.1 Findings Chapter- IV 4.2 Conclusions 4.3 Suggestions Questionnaire Appendix Bibliography 86 35 41 75 79 80 82 13 21

CONTENTS NUMBER
2

LIST OF TABLES

Table No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Title Of Table
Respondents by Designation Respondents by Education Respondents by Age Respondents by Experience Respondents by using methods of Competency Mapping

Page No. 42 43 44 45 46

Respondents by the level of contribution to the Performance 48 Appraisal.

Inter Relationship between designation and their opinion on 49 Performance Appraisal.

8 9 10 11

Inter Relationship between Education vs. Performance Appraisal. Inter Relationship between Age and Performance Appraisal Inter Relationship between Experience and Performance Appraisal

50 51 53

Inter Relationship among the factors influencing the Performance 54 Appraisal.

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Respondents by the level of contribution to the Selection. Inter Relationship between designation and Selection Inter Relationship between Education and Selection Inter Relationship between Age and Selection

57 58 59 60 61 62 64

Inter Relationship between Experience and Selection


Inter Relationship among the factors influencing the Selection. Respondents by the level of significance to the future competencies. 2

Table No. 19 20 21 22 23

Title of Table
Inter Relationship between Designation and Future Competencies Inter Relationship between Education and Future Competencies Inter Relationship between Age and Future Competencies Inter relationship between Experience and Future Competencies Inter Relationship among the areas influencing

Page No. 65 66 67 69

future 70

competencies. 24 Respondents denoting the overall impact of the competency 72 mapping on the HR deliverables.

LIST OF CHARTS

Chart No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Title of Chart
Respondents by Designation Respondents by Education Respondents by Age Respondents by Experience Respondents by using methods of Competency Mapping

Page No. 42 43 44 45 47

Respondents by the level of contribution to the Performance 48 Appraisal.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

At the heart of the every successful activity lies a competence or a skill. In todays competitive activities of business. There has been much thinking abut business strategy over the last three decades, particularly regarding what competencies a business needs to have in order to compete in a specific environment working to establish them throughout the organization. Human Resource Development builds competency-based models that drive business results.

All organizations are talking competencies. Some have truly worked the concept into several of their processes. A few have a fully implemented competency modeling. Microsoft is synonymous with windows and MS Office, applications which computer users are familiar with worldwide. When you say Sony or Japan for that matter, the top of the mind recall is about handy, compact or even miniaturized electronic goods. In all these cases, the organizations identified their niche and simultaneously built competencies in their human resource, which have helped them to sustain and capitalize on their strategic strength. The edge in the market place has an internal complement: an internal edge in terms of leadership, openness, learning culture, creativity, sense of ownership, high levels of motivation, etc.

Competencies can serve as the foundation of an integrated human resources system that includes applications related to staffing, training and development, performance management, and compensation. An integrated approach to human resources that

connects these focus areas can enable an organization to make the best use of competencies while achieving competitive advantage.

Competencies are not personality traits, nor are they skills in the traditional sense. Instead, they represent a set of behaviors that encompass skills, knowledge and personal attributes. Furthermore, these factors are definable, observable and measurable.

Competency based HR systems are for staffing applications, competencies are used to hire, place and promote people with the right capabilities to help the organization gain competitive advantage. For training and development are widely used to identify gaps in each participating employees capabilities so these gaps can be remedied. For performance management, competencies and results are assessed side by side, focusing employment on the how as well the what. For compensation, competencies and results impact base pay decisions to reward performance and competency development.

Definitions of Competencies There are a bewildering number of definitions of competency. In part this is because organizations and competency experts seem to prefer their own definitions of competencies to those that have gone before. However, the majority of these definitions are simply variations on two themes, which have different origins.

Main themes

The two main themes in the definition of competencies are: Descriptions of work tasks or job outputs these have their origins in national training schemes, such as the National! Scottish Vocational Qualifications and the Management Charter Initiative (MCI).

The MCI definition of the concept of competence is the ability of a manager to perform to the standards required in employment. (MCI, 1992)

Descriptions of behaviour these have evolved from the work of researchers and consultants specializing in managerial effectiveness.

Many definitions of behavioural competency are variations on the following definition: a job competency is an underlying characteristic of a person which results in effective and/or superior performance in a job (Klemp, 1980).

Variations typically expand on what the characteristics may be as, for example, in this much-quoted definition: A job competency is an underlying characteristic of a person in that it may be a motive, a trait, a skill, an aspect of ones self-image or social role, or a body of knowledge which he or she uses (Boyatzis, 1982). These definitions indicate that a competency is made up of many things (motives, traits, skills, etc) and yet we usually only see evidence of these things in the way somebody behaves. For example, interpersonal skill will be demonstrated in how effectively a person 8

negotiates influences and works in a team. Behavioural competencies describe typical behaviours observed when effective or superior performers apply motives, traits, skills, etc to job-relevant tasks to produce job relevant outcomes.

The History and Background of Competencies It is a part of the natural human condition to want to control the future, to turn the unknown into the known, and to attempt to reduce the uncertainty that we constantly face. The Egyptians created a god of locusts, for example, to help them cope with the uncertainty of a two-week period in the autumn when a deluge of the insects could destroy their entire crop. The same urge to reduce uncertainty has fueled the search for the causes and predictors of behavior in the workplace. How can we tell how well people will perform on the job before rather than after we hire them? The question of what predicts performance has been the subject of scientific inquiry for the past two hundred years. Scientists and pseudo-scientists have proposed a wide range of factors that determine behavior and performance. These factors have included size and shape of the head, brain weight, skin color, ethnicity, social class, birth order, handwriting, religion, intelligence quotient (IQ), cultural heritage, astrology, heredity, gender, and so on. Additional factors that have been used to attempt to predict performance in the workplace are technical skills, years of experience, education, certification, and personality traits. It is against this background that the study of competencies began in the early 1970s. In 1973 David McClelland published an article demonstrating that behavioral traits and characteristics are much more effective than aptitude tests in determining who is 9

and is not successful in job performance.[1] Superior performers did things such as exercise good judgment, notice problems and take action to address them, and set challenging goalsbehaviors relatively independent of aptitude, skill proficiency, and experience level. The research that began with this article has resulted in hundreds of job studies that all attempt to answer one basic question: What is it that differentiates strong performers from average performers? If we know what these differentiators are and can measure them, they can be used to hire better employees, assess and appraise employees, and help them improve their performance. These differentiating characteristics have come to be called competencies. The most useful definition of the term that I have heard is that competencies are enduring traits or characteristics that help determine job performance.

In the business world today, there is some confusion over the definition of a competency. The biggest confusion is between competencies and skills. Skills generally refer to the mastery of techniques and knowledge that apply to a specific area or profession. Sales skills include prospecting, handling objections, and closing. Drafting skills include measuring and drawing. Managerial skills include writing and forecasting. Some companies use the word competency to mean skills. This causes them big headaches for two reasons. First, there are so many skills in every position in an organization that management of a skills database is a time-consuming and difficult activity. The bigger problem is that the focus on skills distracts people from the use and

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assessment of competencies, which play a much bigger role in determining performance. Focusing on knowledge and skills misses the point. Having the greatest knowledge and skill on the planet wont make any difference if people have no desire and no drive to use that skill and knowledge. It is not that skills are unimportant. A threshold level of skill is necessary to do a job. If you are hiring an electrical engineer to work at a nuclear power plant, you need someone who knows electrical engineering. Assuming that technical ability determines successful performance, however, is a costly mistake. People with basic skills who are strong in the important competencies for a position will, because theyre strong in those competencies, acquire whatever knowledge and skills they need to become a superior performer in that job. If people strong in initiative do not know the answer to a problem, theyll use their initiative to find it. If people strong in service orientation do not know the answer to a customers problem, theyll find someone who does. Keeping the focus on competencies is keeping your eye on the ball. It is paying attention to what matters, paying attention to the things that actually determine the difference between strong and weak performance. There is nothing magical about competencies. The competency paradigm is simply one way to break behavior down into its component parts. Like any paradigm, it is useful to the degree that it helps explain reality, as we know it, and helps us influence and predict the reality of the future. Competencies are a useful concept to the extent that they can help explain why some people perform better than others, to

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the extent that they help people improve their performance, and to the extent that they help people make decisions that will enable them to accomplish their objectives. When used effectively, the competency paradigm is a tonic for managers trying to improve their organization in these areas.

One of the benefits of competencies is that the concepts are easy for most people to understand. People have a common understanding of what we mean when we say influence, or initiative, or teamwork. Not only are the terms easily understood, they also generally have positive connotations. If you ask most people if they would like to be results oriented, they will say yes. If you ask them if they would like to be innovative, theyll say yes. If you ask them if they would like to be good team players, theyll say yes. So in the battle to win the hearts and minds of employees and to create a culture of competence, the language of competencies provides a means for translating the concept of a high-performance culture into terms that people can embrace.

What is the difference between competence and competency? Many people have wondered if there is any difference between competence and competency. A general convention has developed, although not always followed, which uses competence and competency in the following ways. - An ability based on work tasks or job outputs tends to be referred to as a competence. An ability based on behaviour tends to be referred to as a competency.

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In practice, many organizations include tasks, outputs and behaviours in their descriptions of competence/competency, and often blend them together. However, it is far more common for descriptions to be behaviour-based rather than solely taskor joboutput-based. For the purposes of this book we refer to competency (i.e.) in relation to frameworks based on behaviors.

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COMPETENCY MAPPING

Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization. To ensure we are both on the same page, we would define a competency as a behavior (i.e. communication, leadership) rather than a skill or ability. The process requires specification determination, which results in firming up the attributes and competencies required for each role in the organogram. The competencies of the respective job description become the factors for assessment on the performance evaluation. The skill inventory provides information on the kind of competencies required for various positions in the organization. Then the systematic approach of competence based interview is carried out to match the competencies required for success on a job with that person. The competency mapping process is designed to arrive at attributes (inherent personal traits) , and competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities required in a job), unique to the client organization. Once a competency map is developed and validated, it can be used to recruit and select, manage, evaluate and develop people for the roles arrived at through the organization design process. It also can be used in compensation management and succession planning. Typically, the process requires specification determination, which results in firming up the attributes and competencies required for each role in the organogram. A preliminary project plan is developed to ensure that all the key stakeholders are involved in the process and that appropriate activities and communication plans are established to support the development of the maps. Clients are given the opportunity to review the

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maps to ensure they meet current and future needs. Competencies and attributes are evaluated to assess how accurately they describe performance requirements, and to ensure they are aligned with the strategic business objectives.

The Role of Mapping 'Mapping' refers to the process of comparing things in search of relationships between them. Mapping is used to plan where, when and how training is to be delivered and assessed. The process finally results in : Determination of technical, behavioural, and managerial traits required for individual success. Providing accurate specifications for recruitment and staffing. Providing a basis for consistently measuring performance as related to the business objectives. Reinforcing the critical elements of the organization's business strategy.

Results of Competency Mapping For Individuals Individuals contribute to and learn from the interviewing process. Learn what professions are core to the organization.
Know required skills and success indicators -- and what level of mastery they have achieved.

See what is necessary to learn if they want to move to another position. Have information for evaluating their performance. 15

For Managers Have the information needed for meaningful performance management. Know what is expected in each profession for coaching and evaluation purposes.

For Organizations Know what professions and practices are core to your business. Create a context for meaningful and effective succession planning. Tie career and leadership development to core competencies and best practices. Build consensus within and between teams.

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1.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve a research problem. It studies the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying the research problem together with the logic behind them.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Management scholars as well as practitioners, for long, have argued that effective management is only possible with a thorough understanding of employees' personalities and behavioral styles, as well as their working situation.

Therefore, it is not surprising that organizations are spending considerable time as well as expertise to arrive at Competency Models -clusters of knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, and values- required to turn out superior performance. This competency model then becomes the basis for decision about hiring, training, appraisal, promotion and other human resources issues. And in the past decade, thousands of organizations throughout the world have joined the quest for competencies.

This is a competency era. It is beyond doubt that it is beneficial and cost effective to have competent people occupy higher-level positions. Competency refers to the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional competency. Many organizations in India and abroad are channelizing efforts to mapping competencies and implementing assessment and development centers. The need of the hour as indicated by many organizations is to design and implement low cost assessment and development centers, specially designed 17

to meet the requirements of developing economies like ours. Therefore it was desired to conduct Competency Mapping in-order to meet the future challenges across the global competitive market.

TITLE A Study on Competency Mapping and its impact on HR Deliverables.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

GENERAL OBJECTIVE 1. To know the role of competency mapping and its impact on HR Deliverables

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. To ascertain & understand the contribution of Competency Mapping in the Performance Appraisal process. 2. To know the role of competencies in the selection and the hiring process. 3. To harness the significance of anticipating and managing the competencies required for the future. (Competency Futuring)

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Operational Definitions
Competency An underlying characteristic required performing a given task, activity, or role successfully is competency. Competency is measurable, observable and may take the following forms: Knowledge, Attitude, and Skills, other characteristics of an individual. Mapping Mapping refers to the process of comparing things in search of relationships between them. Mapping is used to plan where, when and how training is to be delivered and assessed. Competency Mapping It is a process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial. Conceptual, etc.) needed to perform the same successfully. Competency Assessment It is the assessment of the extent to which a given individual or a set of individuals possess these competencies required by a given role or set of roles or levels of roles. Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal activities include documenting achieved results (including use of examples to clarify documentation) and indicating if standards are met or not. The appraisal plan usually has some form of a development plan to address insufficient performance

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Competency based Performance Management System A system for effective performance management starts with the identification of critical positions, agreement on the top hard and soft skills required for those positions and then provides the training and evaluation practices necessary to put the right people in the right way. Competency based Selection process Competency based selection determines whether an applicant has the necessary capabilities and characteristics and the knowledge, skills and abilities to do the job. Competency based selection practices focus on what an applicant has done in the past. Managers can zero in on the specific competencies critical to success.

RESEARCH DESIGN The research design adopted by the researcher for the purpose this study is Descriptive. The researcher by adopting descriptive study aims at evolving new insights and ideas to formulate a comprehensive picture of competency mapping and its role in the HR deliverables. SAMPLE SIZE For the purpose of this study, the size of the sample is 60. SAMPLING METHOD The sampling technique adopted for this study is Simple random Sampling method.

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UNIVERSE: The universe is the totality of units from which the sample is selected or derived. The study focuses on competency mapping and HR deliverables, in the industry across all the sectors.

SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION The researcher used both primary and secondary sources of data for the study. Primary Data Primary data was directly collected from the respondents. Secondary Data Secondary data was collected from books, journals, magazines and related websites.

TOOL OF DATA COLLECTION Questionnaire is the tool adopted by the researcher for the purpose of collecting the data. It refers to a device securing answers to questions by using a form, which the respondent fills by himself. This method is followed because: - The professionals are well educated and can understand the questions with much ease.s- Since most of the professionals are amidst busy schedule in their work, this questionnaire will help them complete it at their convenience.

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COMPONENTS OF THE TOOL The questionnaire consists of 25 questions. It has been divided into four parts to fulfill the objectives of the research. The following are:

1. Personal profile. 2. Competency Mapping and its role in Performance Appraisal 3. Competency Mappings role in Selection and Hiring process 4. Significance of anticipating future competencies

PRETESTING To ensure the effectiveness of the questionnaire, pre-testing was done on 10% of the samples during the month of December 2004. Pre-testing revealed that the respondents were able to reciprocate to the questionnaire as per the objectives of the study. Pre-testing also revealed that for some of the questions minor changes should be done. Hence after suitable modifications the revised questions was circulated among the Human Resource Executives for the study.

CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SELECTION The criteria for selection of samples would be the following: 1. The respondent should be a HR Professional. 2. He/She should be not be less than one year of experience.

ACTUAL COLLECTION OF DATA The data for study was collected in the month of January 2009 using Questionnaire.

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ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The data collected were analyzed and interpreted by using quantitative information, diagrams electronically using SPSS Version 11.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).

LIMITATIONS There may be some limitations encountered during collection of data Responses may suffer from human bias and prejudice

CHAPTERIZATION I. Introduction and Review of literature II. Research Methodology III. Data analysis and interpretation IV. Findings, conclusions and suggestions V. Bibliography and Appendix

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Competency Based Selection
There are several important advantages in competency based employee hiring and selection. First, competency based selection is results oriented. They make it easier to concentrate on the results expected of a successful or exemplary performer. They focus less on approximations of competence such as educational level or years of experience that have little connection to verifiable results.

Second, competency based selection plays an important role in attracting individuals who possess characteristics that might be difficult, if not impossible, to acquire by training or development efforts.

Third, a competency based selection process provides applicants with opportunities to outline, explain and demonstrate their qualifications in competency-based terms.

Fourth, competency based selection are readily transferable across work situations, competency based selection may help the organization to function effectively even during times of rapid or unanticipated change.

Fifth, competency-based selection processes give HR practitioners an opportunity to plan for developing competencies for new hires and for experienced workers who must be reassigned. 25

Sixth, competency based selection methods do not discriminate. They encourage mangers to clarify the desired work results and to find individuals, who can achieve those results regardless of age, race. Gender, sexual orientation, ethnic background or other considerations that have little or no bearing on their ability to perform.

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Competencies, Performance Appraisal and Career Development

First and foremost, individuals must demonstrate competencies. Perhaps the most common place where they are demonstrated is within the scope of a particular job or project involvement.

One of the first encounters with competencies for most individuals is in securing employment with a new organization. Organizations that are purposefully using cuttingedge methods to choose talent for positions or projects roles are engaging in what is called competency based selection and recruitment. These interviewing and selection methods are being used not only for hiring external applicants, but also for staffing internal roles.

Many organizations that use competency based interviewing and selection are also later using the individuals, and to plan for succession in the organization. Therefore, the individual employees in such an organization will have an ongoing need to use and map their competencies.

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Why should employees map their competencies?


Lists of compelling reasons are following. Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in todays job market; once the individual knows how his competencies to those that are asked by the market in the key positions of interest. Projects an appearance as a cutting edge and well prepared candidate, who has taken the time to learn about competencies, investigate those in demand, and map their own competencies prior to interviewing. Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing ones competitive advantages more convincingly, and from being to articulate those advantages in specific language. Secures essential input to resume development a set important terms to use in describing expertise derived from prior career experience. Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be delivered using a competency-based approach called behavioral event interviewing. Develops the capability to compare ones actual competencies to an organization or positions required/preferred competencies, in order to create, an Individual Development Plan. structured behavioral interviewing or

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Competency Level Definition

Competency Level C0 Training

Proficiency Level Obtained certification/Training recognized by organizations. No hands on experience.

C1 Exposure

Has limited experience in the subject. Needs to improve knowledge of job in order to be able to function ably on a dayto-day basis.

C2 Experience

Has a good knowledge of the subject and effectively applies the same in day-to-day work. Is a contributing member of the team on the subject concerned.

C3 Expert

Is an expert at the subject conceptual as well as in application and uses the same towards implementing process improvements. Exhibits a high caliber of problem solving ability. Is recognized as an expert in the subject within the practice/group.

C4 - Excellence

Is recognized as an expert in the field in the industry and within the organization.

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Methods of Competency Mapping


Focus Groups These consist of a group of people at varying levels within the authority who meet on a regular basis over a period of time. The group will look at a cross-representation of roles across the authority. It is usual practice for one person to present the main purpose of each role, its key accountabilities, principal activities and performance indicators. Following this presentation the group will brainstorm the range of qualities needed to perform the role. Once all the roles have been brainstormed, the group will collate the qualities into clusters. Once the clusters have been identified, the group will develop a working title for each competency, together with the behavioral indicators of the competency in action in every day work.

This approach can provide greater acceptance of the competencies within the authority, as they tend to be in language that the authority understands. In-house people will also have a greater understanding of the roles, although it is important to ensure that the group reflects the range of roles across the authority. The main disadvantage with the approach is that it can require a significant time commitment from those involved.

Inventories and questionnaires This approach involves using an inventory (or questionnaire or checklist) to break down the job requirements into key tasks, which are then subdivided into day-to-day activities. The inventory information is obtained by talking to the jobholder and manager, as well as through observing the jobholder in action. Following the initial identification of 30

activities, the jobholder is asked to give a score for elements such as the time taken to undertake the work, its complexity and the consequences of error. The greater the score, the greater the criticality of the tasks. Following the initial identification of activities, the jobholder is asked to give a score for elements such as the time taken to undertake the work, its complexity and the consequences of error. The greater the score, the greater the criticality of the tasks. Following this, each competency is rated to provide and indication of the importance of each competency. This approach is helpful where jobs are well defined and predictable and it can be a cost-effective way of guaging the views of a large number of jobholders and managers. However, it is essential the adequate time and resources are provided to enable effective analysis of the inventory/questionnaire results. In most circumstances, use of a software package for the purpose is recommended.

Interviews This involves interviewing jobholders and/or managers in order to identify the specific events that form a critical part of the job. Interviewees are usually asked to describe particular experience in their work and the interviewer will then probe to determine the actions taken and the outcome. From this, the interviewer can infer the competencies required, particularly when dealing with critical incidents.

This approach tends to be most helpful to identify competencies, which are critical when dealing with demanding situations, rather than the standard competencies, so determining the difference between average and superior performance. This approach is helpful as it focuses directly on the competencies required rather than analysing the work that then

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needs to be developed into appropriate competencies. It is essential when implementing this approach that the interviewer is experienced in a competency approach and has the necessary interview skills.

Diaries and work logs This involves the jobholder maintaining a record over a period of time, from which the competencies can be deduced. This approach can take two forms. A diary approach requires that the jobholder log the activities they undertake at various times throughout the day. A log lists key criteria, perhaps in the form of competencies, and jobholders are asked to record each time during the day they employ that competency.

This approach ensures that the jobholders views are directly taken into account and can be a cost-effective way of gaining information from a large number of jobholders. However, the process of analysing the results and collating them into some sort of order can be time consuming.

Repertory grid This approach attempts to identify the competencies, which differentiate between poor, average and superior performance. The manager is interviewed and asked to place people in various categories of performance. The interviewer then prompts the manager to describe some of the examples of performance and then attempts to break these examples down to certain elements that can isolate and identify the bahaviours that accompany performance at different levels.

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This approach only takes into account the views of the manager and not the jobholder. It is also necessary to ensure confidentiality during the process. The process requires a suitably experienced and skilled interviewer and can be time consuming.

Observation This approach involves the observation of jobholders undertaking their normal day-today activities. The observer will normally develop a record form that lists possible behaviour indicators and then records when these behaviours are displayed during the observation process, which might focus on a particular time period.

This approach enables the observer to see the work at first hand and prevents disruption to the manager or jobholder. However, the jobholder may have concerns about being observed for long periods of time and may need reassurance of the purpose of the exercise. Where a number of observers are used, it is imperative that all observers use the same approach.

Testing Ability and psychometric tests are undertaken by a cross-section of jobholders. The results are correlated against levels of job performance in order to identify differentiating characteristics and key competencies.

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This approach can provide differentiators between performance levels and also some benchmark data on the current workforce, which can then be used as a measure for future employees.

However, it is essential that there is clear data about the differing performance levels in order to compare the test results against. This approach can also be very sensitive for jobholders and it is therefore important that the purpose of the approach is clarified with those involved.

Pitfalls in Competency Mapping


Valdis Krebs (1999) defines social capital as "who you know" and human capital as "what you know". In an organization the 'you' refers to the corporate entity. These two types of capital in any such entity can be explored using knowledge mapping tools called 'social network mapping' and 'competency mapping'. Competency mapping demonstrates what type of knowledge and skills are required and/or found within the human capital of the organization. An organization could use these personal competency maps to build a 'yellow pages' directory, match people to jobs or positions or determine what training programs are needed to fill skill gaps.

Pitfall No. 1: Believing the map is the ultimate goal


Mapping is the easiest part of the process. The difficult parts are the audit (input) and analysis (output). These are the ones most fraught with stumbling blocks and hidden dangers. Mapping may seem to be the output of the system. In truth the map is the middle part of the process and serves only as the beginning for analysis, the true output. It is a 34

pitfall to view the map as the desired end result. The map is nothing but a colossal waste of time and money without the proper analysis. However, proper analysis is impossible without asking the proper questions at the outset.

Pitfall No. 2: No Purposeful Question Ask a stupid question and you will get a stupid answer. If you want a valuable result you must ask a question that will give you a valuable answer. The reason the question may be stupid is that a purpose or mission for the mapping project has not been defined. An organization should not map merely for the sake of saying we now have an organizational map. The map is not good in and of itself. It is only good in so far as it can bring about positive change in the organization. The value of the map has been described as the 'reality' chart of an organization. The traditional organization chart shows you the prescribed method in which communication is to flow. Knowing how communication actually flows is of no greater value than the organization chart unless you want to measure how close the flow is to what is desirable and if it is not, to use it to design strategies to change it.

Pitfall No. 3: Not Knowing Where You Are Going The pitfall is not having a mission. If you don't know where you are heading how will you know when you get there? Similarly when you wish to effectively measure reality you must have some idea of the ideal and must ask questions that will show whether this ideal is in fact close to the mark or far removed. Thus the mission must reach far beyond the map itself. The mission must be to create and sustain a knowledge flow that is more

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profitable to your organization. Then the map becomes a measure of how close to the ideal you already are in order to benchmark for future measures of how much change you have been able to effect. If you are already there, that is, your organization is already rich beyond your wildest dreams your mission might be to measure the current 'ideal' knowledge flow. Then in the future when the bottom line is not so rosy, you will be able to measure against the benchmark to see where the problems are occurring and use this to try to re-create the ideal. However, until we know this perfection we must try to imagine what would be better.

Pitfall No. 4: Not ensuring both reliability and validity In fact, most ordinary people are not sure what these are much less what difference they make when gathering data. Not only must the question have a purpose and match the mission, the question must deliver both reliable and valid results. Reliability and validity are indications of how usable a particular measuring tool really is. "Reliability tells us how consistently we are measuring whatever we are measuring. Validity is concerned with whether we are measuring what we say we are measuring." (Buley)

First reliability means the results are consistent, both internally and across time. If you take a measure of any part of the whole subject at any one time, the results will be consistent. That does not mean the results will be the same, just consistently measuring the same thing. If you wish to measure the knowledge a person has by how many people chose him as a subject matter expert, then the question must consistently measure this concept no matter how many people are asked. To be reliable the results also must be

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consistent over time - that is not that people's answers may not change but that the question consistently measures the same concept no matter when the questionnaire is delivered. Validity then kicks in as a measure of what you are really trying to do. If I am trying to accurately measure my weight, then the results matter. A consistently wrong answer means I am not accurately measuring my weight and if that is my intention, the tool (the scale) is not a good one. This is easier seen in something tangible as weight and a scale as the measuring tool. It is more difficult to apply in the situation of mapping organizational knowledge. If we want to show the "who you know" or social capital, the tool must measure that. When we want to measure "what you know" the tool must actually be able to calculate this.

The data cannot be reliable and valid, if our measuring tool is not accurately consistently measuring what we say we are measuring. Some think the main measuring tool is the 'system' - however, the question is really the input. Yes it is important the technology takes in the results and charts an accurate reflection of the data. Yet no matter how wonderful the technology is, it is nothing without valid and reliable input. The question is really the key. If the question cannot be assessed to be reliable and valid, there is no sense in even beginning the process.

Pitfall No. 5: Not Assessing the Results Accurately Now we will assume you have found and tested on a sample audience the questions and found them to be valid and reliable and that they actually reflect the mission. Furthermore, let us assume the system has accurately produced the data in some visible

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form, such as a map of connections. So far if any of this process has been flawed, the minimum harm done is the waste of time and effort. Where the greatest danger now lies is in the use or potential misuse of the data.

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2.2. COMPANY PROFILE

We are pleased to introduce ourselves as manufacturers of press tools, press components & precision machined components, jigs, gauges and industrial assemblies. Construction of X-ray Cabins.

18 YEARS OF EXCELLENCE
Established in 1988. Madras Micro Tools. is conveniently located on Whitefield Road about ten Kilometers from M.G.Road. It is also close to the International Technology Park and KIADB Export promotion zone.

WORD-CLASS FACILITIES & WORKFORCE


We have a full-fledged plant with precision machinery and equipment to suit your requirements. We manufacture, supply and installation of lead cells, leaded trolley, toggle clamps, Hydraulic Scissors Lift. Our facilities include CNC machining, Cylindrical grinding, hardening, centreless grinding, plating, anodizing, thread rolling, powder coating, Tig welding etc.(painting), and facilities for fabrication. We have a dedicated work force of qualified and skilled technicians. Products v Lead enclosures v Trolley (Leaded & Mobile) v Hydraulic Scissors lifts v Toggle clamps v CNC Machine components v SS Fabrication

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Grinder Stand

Toggle Clamps

Aeronotical Body

Pump Circuit Module

Break

Collimeter Cab

Friction Ring

Hydraulic Scissors Lead Enclouser Lift

Medical Consumable Base

Medical Consumable Imager

Medical Consumable 5000 Tray

Medical MacConsumable Hang

Over

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Medical Consumer Steel Sleve TTH

DSGR Body

Lead Cell

Lead

Mac 5000 Trolley

Machine Parts

Medical Consumable 5000 Tray View

Mac -Back

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CUSTOMIZED SOLUTIONS
We also under take all types of job works including manufacturing & supply for continuous production. We also make special customized studs and bolts as per your requirement and we can also supply casting in brass, bronze & aluminum.

INDUSTRY-WIDE CLIENTELE
Our reputed customer list includes:

Medical Industry

Wipro GE Medical Systems. (Vendor Code No.UP 001) GE Medical Systems X-Ray(SA) Ltd.

Precision Mfg Industry R&D Centers Farm Equipment Industry Machine-building Industry Heavy Equipment Industry

GE BE Pvt Ltd. John F Weltch Technology Center V.S.T. Tillers & Tractors Ltd. Inductocast Steel Foundry Ltd. Bharath Earth Movers Ltd. (Vendor Code No.00901657)

We hope you will give us an opportunity to serve your special needs with our world-class ISO certified quality at a competitive price and help us to build a long relationship with you. [For information of the intended recipient only. Do not circulate without the permission of Madras Micro Tools.]

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LIST OF EXISTING MACHINERY

CNC machining Center

Milling machine

HMT Lathe machine

No. Name of the Machine 1. CNC Machining Center 2. Milling Machine 3. Lathe Machine 4. Shaping Machine 5. Surface Grinding Machine 6. Drilling Machine Pillar Type 7. Drilling Machine 8. Power Hacksaw Cutting Machine

Specification Working Area 1200mm x 500mm x 600 ht 30 position Tool Changer FN2 - V LB17 24 Inches 400 x 150 x 250 1 Inch 1 / 2 Inches 200 Dia

Make MATSURA JAPAN HMT HMT RUBY BHURJI EFFICO KMP GANGA

9. Band Saw Cutting Machine 10. Arc Welding Machine 11. Compressor 12. Hand Press 13. Hand Drilling Machine 14. Hand Grinding Machine BLACK & DUCKER BOSCH HT 200 P CHOWEL IGBT Inverter Tig / Arc Welding Machine 04mm 3/4 No.6 13mm KPT JERMEX SAC

15. Hand Jig Saw Machine 16.

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CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION

44

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

After the completion of data collection process, the researcher analyzed and interpreted the data to validate the study. The analysis and interpretation were done to:

Synthesize the collected data Verify the statistical significance Interpret the data from the researchers point of view Explain the reasons behind the numerical figures To describe the study in a tabulated form

The interpretation consists of three parts:

Introduction about the table Interpretation per se Researchers observation

The purpose of analysis and interpretation is to make the study easily comprehensible

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Table No: 1 : Respondents by Designation


No. Of Respondents

Designation

Percentage

Executives Managers

42 8

70 30

The above table represents the data of designation of the respondents, which is broadly classified into the Executive and the Managerial level. The executive level represents the combination of the HR executives, Senior Executives and HR Generalists. The Managerial level comprises of the Assistant Manager, Manager HR and the Branch Heads. Thus we can infer that vast majority (70%) of the respondents belongs to the executive class and little less than one third (30%) belong to the Managerial level.

Fig No: 1: Respondents by Designation


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Executives Managers
46

No. of. Respondents Percentage

Table No: 2 : Respondents by Education


Education No. Of Respondents 31 25 4

Percentage
52 41 7

MSW
MBA PG Diploma

This table denotes the qualification of the respondents. They are postgraduates either in Social Work or Business Management specializing in Human Resource management. It represents that more than half (52%) of the respondents are Masters in Social Work (MSW) and more than two fifth (41%) of them are Masters in Business Administration (MBA) and less than 5% of them are Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resources. Thus we can infer that in the respondents population more than half of them were MSWs and the remaining were MBAs.

Fig No: 2 : Respondents by Education


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MSW MBA PG Diploma

No. of. Respondents Percentage

47

Table No: 3 : Respondents by Age

Age (in years) Below 30 Above 30

No. Of Respondents 40 20

Percentage 67 33

The table corresponds to the age of the respondents. It is widely categorized into two groups below 30 years and above 30 years.

The table shows that two third (67%) of the respondents are falling under the age group of below 30 years and one third (33%) of them are above 30 years.

Fig No: 3 :Respondents by Age

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Below 30 Above 30 No.of.Respondents Percentage

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Table No: 4 : Respondents by Experience

Experience
Below 5 years

No. Of Respondents

Percentage

42

70

5 years and above

18

30

The table demonstrates the years of experience of the respondents, which is broadly classified as experience below 5 years and 6 years and above. The data indicates that vast majority (70%) of the respondent population belong to the category of below 5 years of experience and little less than the one third (30%) of the respondents belong to 6 and above years of experience.

Fig No: 4 : Respondents by Experience

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Below 5 Years 5 Years Above No.of.Respondents Percentage

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Table No: 5 : Respondents by the method of Competency Mapping.


No. Of Respondents 33 (55) 14 (23) 38 (64) 3 (5) 8 (13)

Methods
Focus Group Discussions Inventories and Questionnaires Behavioral Interviews Diaries and Work logs Repertory Grid

Total 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100)

(Figures in the parentheses in all the tables represent percentage)

The table details on the methods used by the organization to map competencies.

The

respondents can decide on one or more options, according to the organization they belong to.The data explains that majority (63%) of the respondents use Behavioral interviewing as a tool for Competency Mapping. Little more than half of the respondents (55%) practice Focus Group Discussions as a method of Competency Mapping. Questionnaires are used by less than one fourth of the respondents (23%). More than one tenth (13%) of the respondents use repertory grid as a tool to map competencies. Diaries and Work logs are used by less than one tenth (5%) of the respondents. Thus we can infer that behavioral interviews and focus

group discussions are the most widespread method of competency mapping.

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Fig No: 5 : Respondents by the method of Competency Mapping

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 No.of.Respondents Percentage
Focus Group Discussions Inventories and Questionaries Behavioral Interviews Diaries and Work logs Repertory Grid

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Table 6 : Overall contribution of Competency Mapping to the Performance Appraisal

Level of Contribution

No. Of Respondents 7

Percentage 11 88 100

Low 53 High 60 Total The table illustrates the role played by competency mapping in overall success of performance appraisal. Almost all the respondents (88%) agree that competency mapping plays a significant role in performance appraisal. But one tenth of the respondents (11%) also say that it has very less or nil role to play in the performance appraisal process.

Thus we can infer that almost all the respondents (88%) feel that competency mapping has an high impact on performance appraisal.

Fig 6 : Overall contribution of Competency Mapping to the Performance Appraisal

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Low High No.of.Respondents Percentage

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Table No: 7

Designation vs. Competency Mappings contribution to Performance Appraisal Contribution to Performance Appraisal Designation High Low Total

Executives

39 (89) 14 (87) 53 (88)

5 (11) 2 (13) 7 (12)

44 (100) 16 (100) 60 (100)

Managers

Total

Chi-square value 0.15 (With Yates correction) Degree of freedom 1

Not significant at 0.05 level

The table explains the relationship of the designation of the respondents and their opinion on competency mapping and performance appraisal. In both the executives and

managers level, most of them (89% and 87%) have responded that competency mapping has very high impact on the Performance Appraisal. On an average in both the levels, one tenth of the respondents (11%, 13%) indicated that it has less impact on PMS process. Thus we can infer that almost all the respondents feel that it has high impact on performance appraisal. Since the calculated value (0.15) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between designation and performance appraisal.

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Table No: 8
Education vs. Competency Mappings contribution to Performance Appraisal

Contribution to Performance Appraisal Education High MSW 31 (89) 22 (88) 53 (88) Low 4 (11) 3 (12) 7 (12) 35 (100) 25 (100) 60 (100) Total

MBA

Total

Chi-square value 0.125 (With Yates correction) Degree of freedom 1

Not significant at 0.05 level

The table describes the relationship of the education of the respondents and correspondingly their views on competency mapping and performance appraisal. In the MSW category almost all the respondents (89%) have accepted that competency mapping plays an important role in Performance Appraisal. Similar response is also from MBAs and PG Diplomas for accepting competency mapping. Thus we can understand that irrespective of the qualification the HR professionals, they accept the high impact on performance appraisal. Since the calculated value (0.125) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between education and performance appraisal.

54

Table No: 9
Age vs. Competency Mappings contribution to Performance Appraisal

Age (in years)

Contribution to Performance Appraisal Total High Low 2 (5) 5 (25) 7 (12) 40 (100) 20 (100) 60 (100) Significant at 0.05 level

Below 30

38 (95) 15 (75) 53 (88)

Above 30

Total

Chi-square value 4.73 (With Yates correction) Degree of freedom 1

The above table illustrates the relationship between the age of the respondents and the impact on Performance Appraisal. The age is grouped as, below 30 years and above 30 years. In the below 30 years group almost all the respondents (95%) have agreed that competency mapping contributes significantly to Performance Appraisal. In the above 30 years group only three fourth (75%) of the respondents have put a positive note on competency mapping. There is a notable difference (20%) in both the categories, though they have agreed on competency mapping. In below 30 years group 5% of the respondents says it has less impact on competency mapping. The other group, one fourth of the respondents (25%) feel that it has less impact on the Performance Appraisal.

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Thus we can conclude that professionals under the age 30 strongly agree on the competency mapping to the performance appraisal.Since the calculated value (4.73) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is statistical significance between age and performance appraisal.

56

Table No: 10 Experience vs. Competency Mappings contribution to Performance Appraisal


Contribution to Performance Appraisal Experience High Below 5 yrs 33 (92) 20 (83) Low 3 (8) 4 (17) 36 (100) 24 (100) Total

5 yrs and above

Total

53 (88)

7 (12)

60 (100) Not significant at 0.05 level

Chi-square value 0.970 Degree of freedom - 1

The table relates between the years of experience and the impact of competency mapping on Performance Appraisal. Almost all of them have said that competency mapping has high impact on Performance Appraisal. In the 6 years and above group more than three fourths of the respondents (83%) have agreed on the impact and the remaining (17%) hasnt agreed on it. Nearly less than one tenth of the respondents (8%) in the below 5 years group have said that it has less impact on Performance Appraisal. Almost all the respondents (92%) in this age group have agreed on the impact on it.Thus we can conclude that HR professionals under 5 years of experience are expressing that competency mapping has high impact on performance appraisal.Since the calculated value (0.33) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between experience and performance appraisal. 57

Table No: 11 Factors of Competency Mapping and level of influence on Performance Appraisal
Factors Strongly Agree 5 (8) 10 (17) 5 (8) 4 (7) 8 (13) 2 (3) 5 (8) Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2) Total

Employee Acceptance

Fair Assessment
Specific Feedback Reward management Future Roles Behavioral Interviewing Customized training needs Employee Acceptance

37 (62) 41 (68) 52 (87) 47 (79) 49 (82) 57 (95) 50 (84)

18 (30) 8 (13) 2 (3) 7 (12) 3 (5) 1 (2 5 (8)

60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100)

The table elucidates the entire competency mapping factors, which are creating impact in the performance appraisal. Almost all the respondents have responded that it is the fair and transparent way of performance appraisal. Vast majority (70%) of the respondents have said that competency based performance appraisal among employees is possible. Little less than one third (30%) of the respondents have stated that it is not accepted amidst employees.

Fair and Transparent Assessment Most of the respondents (85%) have expressed that competency mapping in the appraisal process ensures fairness and transparency. In that nearly one fifth of the respondents (17%) have strongly agreed to that. More than one tenth (15%) of the respondents have 58

stated that it is does not constitute to any fairness in the process. Specific feedback and Better reward Management Almost all the respondents (95%) feel that competencies in the appraisal process will ensure on specific feedback on performance expectations and on competency building and development. Most of the respondents (86%) feel that it will facilitate better reward management through appraisal process. More than one fifth (14%) of the respondents are not agreeing that competencies will facilitate in the reward management.

Identifying future roles Almost all of them (95%) have accepted that competencies in the appraisal process will definitely pave the way for identifying the competencies required for the future roles. In that less than one tenth (8%) of them have strongly agreed to that. And leery less than one tenth of them (5%) are not for it.

Behavioral interviewing and Ascertaining customized training needs Almost all of respondents (98%) felt that behavioral interviewing is an important link between competency mapping and performance appraisal. Almost all the (98%) respondents expressed that customized training needs can be ascertained. In that little less than one tenth (8%) of them, strongly agreed to it. And remaining (8%) says that it is not possible to ascertain the customized training needs through competency-based appraisal.

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Thus we can infer that almost all the respondents feel that competency mapping contributes on deriving specific performance expectations from the employees. Respondents also feel that competencies for future roles can be ascertained from the competencies in the performance appraisal.

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Table No: 12

Competency Mappings role in Selection and Hiring process

Level
Low

No of respondents
19 41

Percentage 32 68 100

High 60 Total

This table illustrates the overall impact of competency mapping on hiring and selection practices.

This table is derived by using eight competency factors, which will influence the hiring and selection process.

It represents that more than two third (68%) of the respondents have said that it has high impact on hiring and selection practice. Less than one third (32%) of the respondents say, it has low impact on selection.

Thus we can infer that more than two thirds of the respondents feel that competency mapping has high impact in the selection process.

61

Table No: 13 Designation vs. Competency Mappings role in Selection and Hiring
Contribution to Selection Designation High Executives 29 (66) 12 (75) 41 (68) Low 15 (34) 4 (25) 19 (31) 44 (100) 16 (100) 60 (100) Total

Managers

Total

Chi-square value 0.141 Degree of freedom - 1

Not significant at 0.05 level

This table relates between the designation of the respondents and their views on competency mapping in selection. Nearly two thirds (66%) of the executives feel that it has high impact on selection process and remaining one third (34%) of the respondents feel that competencies does not play a vital role in the selection process. In the managers level, three fourth (75%) of the respondents feel that it has high impact on selection and one fourth (25%) of them feel it has created less impact.

Thus we can infer that mangers feel that competencies in the selection creates high impact on selection Since the calculated value (0.141) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between designation and selection.

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Table No: 14 Education vs. Competency Mappings role in Selection and Hiring
Contribution to Selection Education High MSW 24 (69) 17 (68) 41 (68) Low 11 (31) 8 (32) 19 (32) 35 (100) 25 (100) 60 (100) Not Significant at 0.05 level Total

MBA

Total

Chi-square value 0.002 Degree of freedom - 1

This table relates education of the respondents and selection process. In both the categories of Masters of Social Work and Masters in Business Administration, more than two third (69%{MSW}, 68%{MBA}) of the respondents have said that it has high impact on hiring and selection process. Less than one third (31%{MSW}, 32%MBA}) of the respondents in both the categories say it has less impact on selection. Thus we can conclude that irrespective of the qualification the professionals have agreed the high impact of the competency mapping in the performance appraisal.

Since the calculated value (0.002) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between education and selection.

63

Table No: 15 Age vs. Competency Mappings role in Selection and Hiring

Age (in years)

Contribution to Selection Total High Low 12 (30) 7 (35) 19 (32) 40 (100) 20 (100) 60 (100)

Below 30

28 (70) 13 (65) 41 (68)

Above 30

Total

Chi-square value 0.154 Degree of freedom - 1

Not Significant at 0.05 level

The table shows the respondents by age and their response towards the competency based selection process. In below 30 years group, vast majority of the respondents have accepted the high impact on selection. And little less than one third of the below 30 years group respondents feel that it has low impact on selection. In above 30 years group, more than two thirds of the response has been to high impact on selection. This is low compared to the other below 30 years group. Little less than one third of the above 30 years respondents say there is low impact on selection.

Since the calculated value (0.154) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between age and selection. 64

Table No: 16 Experience vs. Competency Mappings role in Selection and Hiring
Contribution to Selection Experience High Below 5 yrs 25 (69) 16 (67) Low 11 (31) 8 (33) 36 (100) 24 (100) Total

5 yrs and above

Total

41 (68)

19 (32)

60 (100)

Chi-square value 0.051 Degree of freedom - 1

Not Significant at 0.05 level

The table demonstrates the relationship between the experience of the respondents and their opinion on competency based selection. More than two thirds of the respondents in the below 5 years group feel that it has high impact on selection process. Little less than one third of the respondents in the same group feel that it has less impact on the selection. Nearly two thirds of the respondents in the above 5 years group feel that it has less impact on the selection process. One third of the respondents in the same group responded that it has low impact on the selection process. Since the calculated value (0.051) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between experience and selection. 65

Table No: 17 Factors of Competency Mapping which are influencing Selection and Hiring process.

Factors

Strongly Agree 18 (30) 15 (25) 8 (13) 1 (2) 1 (2) 4 (7) 3 (5)

Agree

Disagree

Total

Effective than traditional method Defines organizations expectations Determination of role and job fit Paying capacity & competencies Competency and recruitment cost Reduction in recruitment cost Competency Benchmarking

42 (70) 37 (62) 43 (72) 46 (76) 48 (80) 55 (91) 57 (95)

60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100)

8 (13) 9 (15) 13 (22) 11 (18) 1 (2) -

The table elucidates each competency factor, which contributes to the hiring and selection process. Effective than the traditional method of selection & defining expectations All the respondents (100%) feel that competency based selection is better than the traditional method of selection and there is no opposite view on this.

66

Most of them (87%) feel that competency in the selection process defines the expectations of the organizations clearly. Remaining (13%) of the respondents feel that it does not define any expectation of the organization.

Determination of role and job fit More than one tenth (13%) of the respondents feel that determination of role and job fit is not possible through competency-based selection.

Balancing organizations paying capacity, recruitment cost and competencies More than three fourth (78%) of them feel that there should be a balance between the paying capacity and the competencies expected. Less than one fifth (22%) of the respondents feel that there need not be a balance between the recruitment cost and the expected competencies.

Reduction in training cost Almost all of them (98%) feel that will be reduction in training cost through competencybased selection.

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Table No: 18 Competency Mapping and significance of anticipating future competencies

Level
Low

No of respondents 13 47

Percentage 22 78 100

High 60 Total

The table corresponds to the anticipation of competencies required for future. This data relates to the significance of the anticipating and managing future competencies.

More than three fourth of the respondents feel that it is important to anticipate the future competencies. More than one fifth of them feel that it has less significance to forecast competencies required for future.

Thus we can infer that more than three fourth of the respondents (78%) feel that competencies play an important role and creates high impact on the selection process.

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Table No: 19 Designation vs. their opinion on anticipating future competencies Significance of anticipating future competencies High Low 34 (77) 13 (81) 47 (78) 10 (23) 3 (19) 13 (22)

Designation

Total

Executives

44 (100) 16 (100) 60 (100) Not significant at 0.05 level

Managers

Total

Chi-square value 0.109 Degree of freedom - 1

This table indicates the relationship between the designation and the significance of the future competencies. More than three fifth of the executives feel that it is important to anticipate the future competencies. Less than one fourth of the executives feel that it is not important to forecast future competencies. Most of the managers feel that it is important to anticipate competencies. More than one tenth of the mangers feel that it is not important to forecast competencies. Thus we can understand that almost all the managers feel that anticipating and managing for the future competencies is important and significant. Since the calculated value (0.109) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between designation and their opinion on anticipating future competencies.

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Table No: 20 Education vs. their opinion on anticipating future competencies

Education

Significance of anticipating future competencies High Low 28 (80) 19 (76) 47 (78) 7 (20) 6 (24) 13 (22)

Total

MSW

35 (100) 25 (100) 60 (100) Not Significant at 0.05 level

MBA

Total

Chi-square value 0.137 Degree of freedom - 1

This table relates the education and the respondents views on the future competencies. Most of the MSW feel that the anticipating the competencies is important. And one fifth (20%) of them feel that it is not important. More than three fourth (76%) of the MBAs feel that it is significant to work on future competencies. Less than one fourth (22%) of the MBAs say that it is not important to work on competencies. Thus we can infer that almost all the respondents express that anticipating and managing competencies is significant. Since the calculated value (0.137) is less than the tabulated value (3.841), there is no statistical significance between education and anticipating future competencies.

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Table No: 21 Age vs. their opinion on anticipating future competencies

Age (in years)

Significance of anticipating future competencies High Low

Total

Below 30

33 (83) 14 (70) 47 (78)

7 (17) 6 (30) 13 (22)

40 (100) 20 (100) 60 (100) Significant at 0.05 level

Above 30

Total

Chi-square value 1.227 Degree of freedom 1

The table represents the age and the views of respondents on future competencies. Most of them (83%) in the age group below 30 years feel that the forecasting competencies are important. Less than one fifth (17%) of them feel that it is not important to work on future competencies.

Vast majority (70%) of the above 30 years group feel that it is vital to work on competencies, which are required for the future. Little less than the one third (30%) of them feels that it is not vital to work on future competencies.

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Thus we can conclude that respondents below 30 years say that anticipating and managing future competencies are important.

Since the calculated value (1.227) is more than the tabulated value (3.841), there is statistical significance between age and their opinion on anticipating future competencies. .

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Table No: 22
Experience vs. their opinion on anticipating future competencies

Experience

Significance of anticipating future competencies High Low 30 (83) 17 (71) 6 (17) 7 (29)

Total

Below 5 yrs

36 (100) 24 (100)

5 yrs and above

Total

47 (78)

13 (22)

60 (100)

Chi-square value 1.326 Degree of freedom - 1

Not Significant at 0.05 level

This table relates the experience and the significance of the future competencies. In the category of below 5 years, most of them (83%) state that there should be high importance given to future competencies. Less than one fifth (17%) of them feel that future competencies are of low importance. Vast majority (71%) in 5 years and above express that future competencies are vital to be worked on. Little less than one third (29%) of them feel that it is not important.

Since the calculated value (1.326) is more than the tabulated value (3.841), there is statistical significance between experience and their opinion on anticipating future competencies.

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Table No: 23 Opinion of HR professionals on anticipating and managing the future competencies

Factors Importance of anticipating competencies Managing the speed of changing competencies Succession Planning Investing time for forecasting competencies Contingency plan for mishap in forecasting competencies

Strongly Agree 15 (25) 2 (3) 1 (2) 2 (3) -

Agree 36 (60) 51 (85) 56 (93) 54 (90) 55 (92)

Disagree 9 (15) 7 (12) 3 (5) 4 (7) 5 (8)

Total
60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100)

The table illustrates the wholesome views of the respondents in anticipating, managing the speed of changing competencies, future competencies and succession planning and time investment for forecasting competencies.

Importance of Anticipating Competencies Most of the respondents (85%) state that it is important to anticipate to future competencies. In that 5% of them strongly agree that anticipating competencies for the future is important. Only less than one fifth (15%) of the respondents say it is not important to work on future competencies.

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Managing the speed of changing competencies Similarly most of the respondents (88%) were there for managing the speed and preparing the contingency plan for mishap in forecasting the competencies. More than one tenth (12%) of the respondents disagree to the fact that organizations cant manage the speed of changing competencies.

Succession planning and investing adequate time for forecasting competencies All the respondents (95%) felt that anticipating the future competencies will ensure succession-planning process. Again almost all the respondents (93%) feel that adequate time has to be invested for forecasting the future competencies. Less than one tenth (7%) of the respondents feel that it is not vital to invest time in forecasting the competencies.

Handling mishaps in forecasting competencies Almost all the respondents (92%) feel that the organization should be prepared with the contingency plan for handling the mishap in forecasting competencies.

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Table No: 24
Signifying the overall impact of competency mapping on the HR Deliverables

Level of Contribution

Total
Deliverables High Low

Performance Appraisal

53 (88) 41 (68) 47 (78)

7 (12) 19 (32) 13 (22)

60 (100) 60 (100) 60 (100)

Selection
Future Business Needs

The table consolidates the overall impact competency mapping on the HR Deliverables. It states the level of contribution or the role it plays in the deliverable. According to the respondents, almost all of them (88%) express that competency mapping contributes more to the performance appraisal process.

More than two thirds (68%) of the respondents feel that it contributes to the selection process. Remaining (32%) respondents feel that competencies contribute less to the selection and hiring process

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More than three fourth (78%) of the respondents say that it is important to work on future competencies and be prepared to manage them.

Thus we can infer that competency mapping has high impact on the HR deliverables i.e. Performance Appraisal and Selection. We can also understand that anticipating and managing future competencies is very significant.

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CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS, CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS

78

4.1 FINDINGS

Findings and Conclusion refer to the final outcome of the entire study the researcher has mentioned the end result of the study. These findings are remarks taken from the analysis and interpretation of the collected data.

Personal profile of the Respondents Vast majority of the respondents were executives and remaining are managers. All the respondents were young and none of the respondent fell in the middle age.

More than half of the respondents were Masters in Social Work specializing in Human Resources and more than two fifths of the respondents were Masters in Business Administration. Vast majority of the respondents had less than five years of experience and little less than one-third of the respondents had more than five tears of experience.

Methods of Competency Mapping The respondents stated that Behavioral interviewing and focus group discussions are the widespread techniques in the competency mapping. Questionnaires are used by less than one fourth of the respondents.

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Competency Mapping and Performance Appraisal

Almost all the respondents have expressed their opinion that competency mapping has high impact on the performance appraisal process. There were very few respondents who felt that it has low impact on performance appraisal process.

The personal profile of the respondents shows that executives feel that competencies have high impact on the appraisal process. It also denotes that irrespective of the qualification, respondents felt that competency mapping has high impact on appraisal process. As aforesaid, in the age category respondents below 30 years feel that competency mapping has a high impact on the appraisal process. There is a large difference between the acceptances of the high level impact between the age categories.

Most of the respondents feel that competency mapping in performance appraisal will ensure specific feedback on performance expectations. Similar response was for competencys contribution to mapping competencies for future roles. Theses two factors contribute greatly to the performance appraisal.

The majority of the respondents felt competency mapping has low impact because of the employees acceptance for competency based performance appraisal process and for the appraisees response about the fairness and transparency in competency based performance appraisal.

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Competency Mapping and Selection

Majority of the respondents opine that competency mapping plays a significant role in the selection and hiring process and has high impact on the deliverable.

In the designation category, managers express that competency mapping has high level of impact on the selection and hiring process. Both the postgraduates in the Social Work and Business Administration agree that competency based selection and hiring has high impact. In the age category respondents below 30 years say that competency has high impact on the selection and hiring process. Less experienced professionals feel that competency mapping has high impact on the appraisal.

The two factors, which contribute most to the selection process, are, reduction in training cost and competency mappings role in defining the organisations performance expectations.

Determination of role and job fit and balance of the competency and recruitment cost are the two factors, which contributes less to the competency based selection and hiring process.

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Future Competencies

Most of the respondents feel that anticipating and managing competencies is vital for organisations.

At the same time, it is interesting to note that managers feel that it is more important to anticipate and manage competencies in the future. Masters in Social Work (MSW) feel that more importance should be given to future competencies. There is a considerable level of difference in the age category for importance for the future competencies. Respondents below the age group of 30 feel that it is very important to anticipate, mange and invest time for future competencies. In experience category, less experienced professionals are showing more importance to future competencies compared to the more experienced. Therefore in the personal profile it denotes that young professionals show more importance in anticipating and managing future competencies.

The two most important opinion factors, which gave significance on future competencies, are, one, future competencies will ensure in better succession planning process and investing adequate time in forecasting competencies. These two factors gave high importance to future competencies.

Importance of future competencies was low because of the factor that organisations cannot change according to the speed of the changing competencies.

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Few respondents also felt that organisations need not give much importance for forecasting competencies.

As an overall comparison of the three variables Performance Appraisal, Selection and Hiring process and Future Competencies, Competency

Mapping contributes to all the three variables. In particular, competency mapping contributes significantly to performance appraisal. To the contrary, the level of employee acceptance level was low for competency based performance appraisal. The opinion on future competencies depicts that respondents are for anticipating and managing competencies are important for organisations. However, there is a very low response on the importance for anticipating competencies. The competency based selection and hiring process comparatively gains less significance. There was unanimous response that Competency based selection and hiring is effective than the traditional method of selection.

4.2 Conclusion The study shows that competency based HR practices are gaining momentum in the field and the profession. The contradictions in certain areas of the findings depicts the dynamics of the evolving models of competency mapping. For example, the acceptance of the competency based appraisal is very low, but the overall contribution is the highest in the performance appraisal. Like that in selection process the acceptance of the competency based selection .

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4.3 Suggestions

The researcher has put forward his ideas that can be applied in order to increase the contribution of Competency Mapping in the HR deliverables. Some of the key suggestions that have been recommended are as follows:

The HR should create different ways to increase the level of acceptance for competency based performance appraisal.

The HR should show the fairness and transparency in the competency based performance appraisal.

The organizations should define their organizations expectations clearly through the deployment of competencies in the selection process.

The HR should determine the role and the job fit using the competencies.

The HR should create the awareness and importance of anticipating the competencies required for the future.

The HR should convey the importance of investing time in forecasting the future competencies to the senior management.

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APPENDIX - I
QUESTIONNAIRE

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A Study on Competency Mapping and its impact on the HR Deliverables

About Yourself: Designation: Education: Age: Years of Experience:

1. Please the method(s) of Competency Mapping used in your Organization. Methods Focus Group Discussions Inventories & Questionnaires Behavioral Interviews Diaries & Work logs Repertory Grid Observation Psychological Testing Others (Specify)

Competency Mapping and Performance Appraisal

2. Competency based Performance Management System (PMS) has level of acceptance among employees. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

3. Competency based PMS facilitates fair, objective and transparent assessment.

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o Strongly Agree

o Agree

o Disagree

o Strongly Disagree

4. Competency based PMS helps to establish specific feedback on performance expectations for competencies. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

5. Competency based PMS facilitates better reward management strategies. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

6. Building competencies for future roles are effective through Competency based PMS. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

7. Behavioral interviewing directly links performance appraisal and competency mapping. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

8. Customized training needs can be ascertained from competency based PMS. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

Competency Mapping and Selection 9. Competency based selection is much more effective than the traditional method of selection. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

10. Competency mapping defines and communicates the organizations expectations clearly. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

11. Roles and Job fit are determined through Competency based Selection. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

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12. Competency mapping balances the organizations paying capacity and the expected competencies. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

13. There should be congruence between the competency and the recruitment cost. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

14. Competency based selection increases the likehood of hiring people who fit the organization. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

15. Competency mapping ensures reduction in the training cost. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

16. Competency benchmarking is possible in the selection process. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

Competency Mapping and Future Business Needs 17. It is important for an organization to anticipate the future competencies required for the employees. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

18. The organization can manage the speed in which the required competencies are changing. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

19. Anticipating the future competencies will facilitate in the succession planning process. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

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20. The management can invest substantial time for forecasting competencies. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

21. Organization is prepared with the contingency plan to meet out any mishap in predicting the future competencies. o Strongly Agree o Agree o Disagree o Strongly Disagree

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Richard. E. Boyatzis, The Competent Manager John Wiley & Sons Publisher : 1982

2. Hester. Chic, A model for effective performance John Wiley & Sons Publisher : 1991

3. Competency. Vol. 4, No. 1, autumn 1996. Annual survey of competency frameworks.

4. G. 0. Jnr .KLEMP The Assessment of Occupational Competence. Report to the National Institute of Education, Washington, DC : 1980

5. The Management Charter Initiative


Introducing Management Standards, London, MCI : 1992

6. Jonathan Winterton & Ruth Winterton Routeledge Developing Managerial Competence. London, New York : 1996

7. Dawson. Ross. "Developing knowledge-based client relationships. www.mhhe.com : 2000


8. Argyris, Chris. Skilled Incompetence.

Harvard Business Review Article : 1986

9. Sanghi , Seema. The Handbook of Competency Mapping. The Response Books : 2004

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