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DRAG COEFFICIENT FOR CARS

by SANDHYA

Concept of Drag
Drag is the retarding force exerted on a moving body. It attempts to slow down the moving body. It is a function of the speed of the body, the size (and shape) of the body, and the medium through which it is moving

Drag Force Due to Air


The drag force due to wind (air) acting on an object can be found by: FD = CDV2A where: FD = drag force (N) CD = drag coefficient (no units) V = velocity of object (m/s) A = projected area (m2) = density of air (kg/m3) {1.2
kg/m3}

Generally the size of a vehicle and its frontal area is determined by the design requirements. Consequently efforts to reduce drag are concentrated on reducing the drag coefficient by proper shaping of the body..

Drag Coefficient: CD
The drag coefficient is a function of the shape of the object and the Reynolds Number (Re) Re = (velocity * length-scale) / (kinematic viscosity) For a full-size truck, a change in drag coefficient of 0.01s approximately equal to an improvement in fuel economy of 0.1 mpg on the combined city/highway driving cycle. The same drag coefficient reduction can improve a car's fuel economy by approximately 0.2 mpg.

Typical drag coefficients


The average modern automobile achieves a drag coefficient between 0.30 and 0.35. SUVs(sport utility vehicle), with their typical boxy shapes and larger frontal area, typically achieve a Cd of 0.350.45. A very gently inclined windshield gives a lower drag coefficient but has safety disadvantages, including reduced driver visibility. Certain cars can achieve figures of 0.250.30, although sometimes designers deliberately increase drag to reduce lift. Some "high performance" models may actually have higher drag, due to wider tires and extra spoilers.

Drag coefficient
Cd Old Car like a T-ford Modern Car like Toyota Prius Sports Car, sloping rear Convertible, open top 0.7 - 0.9 0.26 0.2 - 0.3 0.6 - 0.7

Common Car like Opel Vectra (class 0.29 C)

Drag coefficient
Make Acura Acura Acura Acura Acura Acura Model CL CL Integra NSX RSX TSX Year 1997 - 1999 2000 - 2003 1994 - 2001 1995 - 2005 2002 - 2004 2004 - 2008 Cd 0.34 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.27

Make Audi Audi Audi Audi

Model A3 A4 A6 A8

Year 1996 - 2003 1994 - 2001 1997 - 2004 1994 - 2002

Cd 0.31 0.29 0.29 0.28

Make BMW BMW BMW BMW

Model Compact 3-series 5-series 7-series

Year 1993 - 2000 1990 - 1999 1995 - 2003 1994 - 2001

Cd 0.31 0.30 0.27 0.30

Make Mercedes

Model CL500

Year 1993 - 2000 1998 - 2000 1995 - 2002 1990 1991 - 1999 1989 - 2002 1996 - 2003 1995 - 2001 1991 - 1998 1993 - 1999 1994 - 2003 0.30 0.28 0.27 0.53 0.31 0.45 0.34 0.32 0.33 0.30 0.34

Cd

Mercedes-Benz C-class Mercedes-Benz E-class Mercedes-Benz G-class Mercedes-Benz S-class Mercedes SL600 Mercedes-Benz Vito Fiat Fiat Fiat Fiat Bravo Cinquecento Punto Ulysse

Make Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford Ford

Model Aspire Escort (Euro) Escort Explorer II F-150 Lightning Fiesta Galaxy Ka Maverick Mondeo Mondeo Turnier Ranger Scorpio SVT Mustang Cobra Thunderbird

Year 1994 - 1997 1995 - 2000 1997 - 2002 1995 - 2001 1999 - 2004 1995 - 2002 1995 - 2000 1996 - 2008 1988 - 1994 1996 - 2000 1996 - 2000 2001 1985 - 1998 1994 - 2004 1989 - 1997 0.36 0.32 0.36 0.43 0.36 0.36 0.32 0.35 0.52 0.31 0.32 0.49 0.32 0.37 0.31

Cd

Make Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda Honda

Model Year Accord Ex Coupe 1998 - 2002 Civic Civic Hatch Civic Coupe Civic Civic Coupe Civic Del Sol Civic Hatch Civic Hatch Civic Sedan Civic Hybrid Civic Hybrid Civic SI CRX CRX CRX HF Insight 1988 - 1991 1988 - 1991 1992 - 1995 2001 - 2005 2006 1992 - 1997 1992 - 1995 1996 - 2000 1996 - 2000 2003 - 2005 2005 1996 - 2000 1984 - 1987 1988 - 1991 1988 - 1991 2000 - 2006

Cd 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.29 0.35 0.31 0.36 0.32 0.28 0.27 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.29 0.25

Make Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Volkswagen

Model 1L Concept Beetle Beetle 1998 -

Year 0.15 0.38 0.48 0.37 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.36 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 1959 - 1979

Cd

Caravelle/Transpo 1990 - 2003 rter Golf Golf Variant Jetta Jetta Jetta sedan Jetta Jetta wagon Passat Passat Wagon Polo Sharan Vento/Jetta 1997 - 2003 1997 - 2003 1993 - 1999 1986-1992 2000 - 2005 2006 2000 - 2005 1995 - 1997 1995 - 1997 1994 - 2002 1995 - 2000 1992 - 1999

Make Jeep Jeep Jeep Jeep Mazda Mazda Mazda Nissan Nissan Nissan koda koda Toyota Toyota Toyota General Motors

Model Cherokee Grand Cherokee Wrangler TJHardtop Wrangler TJ-Soft Top 626 Xedos 9/Millenia MX-3 Cube Leaf Maxima Felicia Octavia Prius Sienna Supra EV1

Year 1984 - 2001 1993 - 1998 1997-2005 1997-2005 1992 - 1997 1993 - 2003 1992 - 1995 2008 2011 1995 - 1999 1994 - 2001 1996 2010 2011 1993 - 2002 1996

Cd 0.52 0.42 0.55 0.58 0.29 0.28 0.32 0.35 0.28 0.32 0.346 0.32 0.25 0.309 0.32 0.19

To improve Cd
To improve Cd, designers may make the following changes: Round the edges of the front end Tune the grille and fascia openings Tune the wheel openings Place spats (small spoilers) in front of the tires to reduce turbulence Tune the size and shape of the outside mirrors and their attachment arms Add side skirts Tune the deck height, length and edge radius Install a rear spoiler Adjust the angle of the rear window Tuck up the exhaust system Use a diffuser to tune air coming off the underside Install "belly pans," underbody panels that cover components and smooth airflow

THANK U