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Nanotechnology Industry Network

Chairman Fred Allen, RADii Consulting, LLC

ing on our rich history of invention & innovati

and turning big dreams into a new reality


Teach nano basics Identify opportunities Generate ideas Protect intellectual property Prove concepts Build prototypes Commercialize products Capture value Create jobs

What is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.

What happens at the nanoscale?


At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials differ in fundamental and valuable ways from the properties of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter. Nanotechnology R&D is directed toward understanding and creating improved materials, devices, and systems that exploit these new properties.

Scientific breakthroughs that may be enabled by nanotechnology


Engineer materials with atomic precision using biosystems as agents Create circuits with logic element a molecule wide Assemble DNA, nanocrystals to build molecular devices and systems Detect toxins and contaminants in air, water, or soil with unprecedented speed and accuracy Single molecule behavior and interaction Artificial genetic system Conducting polymers New concepts for large scale production of nanotubes, their use Drug delivery systems Detection of cancer

Current nanotech applications & products


Nanomaterials, in general, used for electronic, magnetic and optoelectronic, biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, energy, catalytic applications Nanoparticles, in particular, used for chemicalmechanical polishing, magnetic recording tapes, sunscreens, automotive catalysts, biolabeling, electroconductive coatings and optical fibers

Todays Nano-Enabled Products


Step assists on vans and bumpers on cars Paints, waxes and coatings to protect against corrosion, scratches and radiation Protective and glare-reducing coatings for eyeglasses and cars Metal-cutting tools Sunscreens and cosmetics Longer-lasting tennis balls and longer-distance golf balls Light-weight, stronger tennis racquets, skis, and bicycle frames Stain-free clothing and mattresses Dental-bonding agent Burn and wound dressings Ink Automobile catalytic converters Batteries and fuel cells

GGSNA Mission
Promote regional economic development by facilitating commercialization of nanotechnology in and around New Jersey Identify capabilities and coordinate collaborations among academia, industry, small business, government, investors and service providers in the following market sectors: Advanced, Functional & Smart Materials Optoelectronics & Sensors Telecommunications & Computing Energy & Environment Transportation Defense & Homeland Security Drug Discovery, Formulation & Delivery Health Care & Medical Diagnostics Medical Devices Personal Care & Cosmetics Food, Flavors & Fragrances

#1 Goal: Commercialize Nanotech


Academia
Ideas

$
Applications Funding

Industry

Government

Identify Market Needs (Pull-Through)

Is nanotechnology a means to an end?


Nanotechnology

Sustainability

Yes, if we invent and innovate in these key areas


Nanotechnology
Providing Renewable Clean Energy Supplying Clean Water Globally Improving Health and Longevity

Invention

Innovation

Healing and Preserving the Environment Making Information Technology Available To All Enabling Space Development

Sustainability

What are nanotechnology problems and opportunities today?


Bridging the Product Development Gap (Crossing the Valley of Death)
Nurturing entrepreneurship; access to government funding, investment and business development services (legal, financial, marketing, engineering) Facilitating R-D-E handoffs (academia start-up company growth company corporation) Sharing technical resources: synthesis, characterization, evaluation, modeling

Improving multidisciplinary education: K-12 and college levels Providing workforce training Mastering nanoscale fabrication and manufacturing techniques Understanding and solving environmental issues

NJ Nanotech White Paper


Investing in Nanotechnology to Secure New Jerseys Future: A Call to Action
By Fred Allen, RADii Solutions Eric Garfunkel, Rutgers University Joseph Montemarano, Princeton University Judith Sheft, NJIT

Near Term Objectives


Develop the roadmap for a statewide nanotech initiative Identify sources of Federal and private funding and coordinate the formation of multi-institutional initiatives to submit proposals for such support Facilitate collaboration among universities, small companies, large corporations, and investors in and around New Jersey

Path Forward for New Jersey


Make New Jersey a leader in high-technology academic research and economic development by undertaking a host of new, unprecedented programs and initiatives. Create world-class, state-of-the-art research centers and modernize existing research centers and the rapid transfer of technologies from the research lab to the marketplace. Attract the best and brightest scientific talent in the nation and the world to New Jerseys research campuses, securing a greater portion of Federal grants for researchers, and coordinating New Jerseys high-tech assets and resources. Strengthen the formation of university-business partnerships to develop and commercialize the most economically promising technologies. From the commercialization of these technologies will come the creation of new companies and most importantly, a new source of high-quality, highvalue jobs.

GGSNAs Bricks and Clicks Initiative for New Jersey


Establish nanotechnology centers of excellence, shared userfacilities, and web-based networks that leverage New Jerseys expertise and capabilities in the physical and life sciences Focus on sustainable commercial themes: energy, telecom, pharma, defense & homeland security Build new or improve existing infrastructure:
NJNC Nanofabrication Laboratory Picatinny Induction Plasma Reactor Princetons Nano/Microfabrication Facility Rutgers Institute for Advanced Materials & Devices Research programs at NJ universities: Princeton, Rutgers, NJIT, Rowan, Montclair, Monmouth

Co-locate with innovation and entrepreneurship centers, business schools or existing technology incubators

GGSNAs Bricks and Clicks Initiative for New Jersey Contd


Create a virtual entity nanotech university to develop in-person and on-line curricula to educate students and train workforce

Extra Slides

What is invention?
A new or improved product (material, component, device, machine, system) or process (synthesis, treatment, fabrication, method of manufacturing) discovered as a result of study or experimentation. Inventions that are novel (unique), useful and non-obvious to someone skilled in the art can be patented as compositions of matter, process of making, or field of use.

What is innovation?
The act or process of commercializing an invention or introducing something new or improved that creates value in the form of a commercial product. Innovation requires people using new knowledge and understanding to experiment with new possibilities and using sound collaborative decision making tools in order to choose and implement new ideas.

What is sustainability?
An attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future by relating to the continuity of economic, social, institutional and environmental aspects of human society, as well as the non-human environment.
Sustainability is intended to be a means of configuring civilization and human activity so that society, its members and its economies are able to meet their needs and express their greatest potential in the present, while preserving biodiversity and natural ecosystems, and planning and acting for the ability to maintain these ideals in a very long term. It affects every level of organization - the family, the company, the community, and the entire planet.

What is nanotechnology - I?
Nanotechnology is the know-how that enables control of nanometer-scale phenomena to engineer value-add products*.
It is implied that research and development had to be done somewhere and sometime to warrant the engineering. The research conducted at the nanoscale that results in a discovery and possibly an invention may be more accurately referred to as nanoscience. The technology part of nanotechnology suggests that some practical or applied development work has been done or is being done to transform an invention into an innovation with commercial and financial objectives in mind.
* In this definition of nanotechnology, know-how encompasses the body of fundamental and practical knowledge (competencies and capabilities) for studying, developing making and using something - materials, components, devices, systems, tools, instruments, machines, equipment, facilities, methods, techniques and procedures, processes, etc. Enable implies that this know-how is essential and serves as a platform for technology differentiation. Control refers to the ability to manipulate (move, assemble), visualize (image, measure), simulate (understand, predict) atoms, molecules or macromolecules. Nanometer scale, or nanoscale, is between 1 to 100 nm in at least one dimension. Phenomena refers to the structure and behavior of matter at the nanoscale such that quantum mechanical and surface science effects become significant. Engineer includes design, model and build (synthesize, assemble, construct, fabricate, manufacture). Value-add suggests unique, novel, useful or worthwhile property features (physical, chemical or biological), multi-functionality, performance benefits, cost advantages, safety improvements, etc. that customers need or want in a product, are willing to pay for, and that serve as the basis for creating and capturing profit along a suppliercustomer value chain. Products include materials, devices, or systems (small and intermediate structures).

What is nanotechnology - II?


The definition most frequently used by government and industry involves structures, devices, and systems having novel properties and functions due to the arrangement of their atoms on the 1 to 100 nanometer scale. Many fields of endeavor contribute to nanotechnology, including molecular physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, computer science, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering. Due to the extreme breadth and generality of this definition, many prefer to use the term "nanotechnologies." For clarity, it is also useful to differentiate between near-term and long-term prospects, or to segment the field into first-generation through fourth-generation stages.

What is nanotechnology - III?


Work related to nanotechnology falls into two broad areas: the study of nanotechnology itself (which will remain theoretical, for the time being) and research on enabling technologies leading toward assemblers and nanotechnology (which can be theoretical in part, but which also have an experimental, developmental component). The theoretical study of nanotechnology involves exploratory engineering work in a number of areas. It includes basic studies in nanomechanical engineering (the study of molecular machines) and nanoelectrical engineering (the study of molecular and atomically-precise nanometer scale electronic systems). It also includes studies of complex systems, such as assemblers, replicators, and nanocomputers. More broadly, it includes studies of non-nanoscale applications, such as large systems built by teams of assemblers. Inevitably, more resources will go into development than into theory, because technology development will yield practical, short-term results on the way to long-term objectives. It makes no practical sense to try to build an assembler today, but it does make sense to build tools today that will make it easier to build assemblers tomorrow. These tools are termed "enabling technologies."
Promising enabling technologies fall into several familiar categories. These include: protein engineering (involving efforts to develop techniques for designing molecular devices made of protein), general macromolecular engineering (involving efforts to develop techniques for designing and synthesizing molecular devices made of more tractable materials) micromanipulation techniques (involving efforts to extend the technology of scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy to chemical synthesis, and then to the construction of molecular devices).

What is nanotechnology - IV?


These approaches have differing strengths and weaknesses. Protein engineering can draw on a host of examples and prototypes from nature, and can exploit existing self-replicating machines (bacteria) to make products cheaply - a major consideration, where short-term payoffs are concerned. General macromolecular engineering avoids the major problem with protein engineering (proteins, not having been designed for designability, are hard to design), but at the cost of moving away from natural prototypes and requiring more expensive chemical synthesis techniques for making near-term products (thus reducing the potential market). Micromanipulation techniques promise to ease design problems by allowing direct construction of molecular objects, but they suffer from higher costs: a chemical reaction typically makes many trillions of molecules at once, while a manipulator would make but one; hence, manipulator-made products can be expected to cost trillions of times more, dramatically reducing the potential market. All the above areas bear watching, and all will be pursued to some extent, regardless of which ultimately proves to have the biggest payoff. Hybrid approaches, combining techniques from several of these areas (e.g., micromanipulation of molecular tools), seem promising. Finally, improved computational modeling of molecular systems is a generic enabling technology, relevant to all these approaches.

Why is the nanometer length scale significant?


1. The wavelike properties of electrons inside matter are influenced by variations on the nanometer scale. It is possible to vary fundamental properties of materials (e.g., melting temperature, magnetization, and charge capacity) without changing the chemical composition by patterning matter on the nanometer length scale. Life works at the nanometer scale. The systematic organization of matter on the nanometer length scale is a key feature of biological systems. Nanotechnology promises to allow us to place artificial components and assemblies inside cells, and to make new materials using the self-assembly methods of nature. This is a powerful new combination of materials science and biotechnology. By virtue of their size, nanoscale components have very high surface areas. Thus, they are ideal for use in composite materials, reacting systems, drug delivery, solar cells, and energy storage. The finite size of material entities, as compared to the molecular scale, determine an increase of the relative importance of surface tension and local electromagnetic effects, making nanostructured materials harder and less brittle. The interaction wavelength scales of various external wave phenomena become comparable to the material entity size, making materials suitable for various opto-electronic applications.

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Why develop nanotechnology?


Gaining better control over the structure of matter has been a primary project of our species since we started chipping flint. The quality of all human-made goods depends on the arrangement of their atoms. The cost of our products depends on how difficult it is for us to get the atoms and molecules to connect up the way we want them. The amount of energy used - and pollution created - depends on the methods we use to place and connect the molecules into a given product. The goal of nanotechnology is to improve our control over how we build things, so that our products can be of the highest quality and while causing the lowest environmental impact. Nanotech is even expected to help us heal the damage our past cruder and dirtier technologies have caused to the biosphere. Nanotechnology has been identified as essential in solving many of the problems facing humanity. Specifically, it is the key to addressing the following challenges: 1. Providing Renewable Clean Energy 2. Supplying Clean Water Globally 3. Improving Health and Longevity 4. Healing and Preserving the Environment 5. Making Information Technology Available To All 6. Enabling Space Development

How can nanotechnology promise to build products with both extreme precision in structure, and environmental cleanliness in the production process?
Traditional manufacturing builds in a "top down" fashion, taking a chunk of material and removing chunks of it - for example, by grinding, or by dissolving with acids - until the final product part is achieved. The goal of nanotechnology is to instead build in a "bottom-up" fashion, starting with individual molecules and bringing them together to form product parts in which every atom is in a precise, designed location. In comparison with the top-down approach, this method could potentially have much less material left over, greatly reducing pollution. In practice, both top-down and bottom-up methods are useful and being actively pursued at the nanoscale. However, the ultimate goal of building products with atomic precision will require a bottom-up approach.

How is nanotech different from biotech?


Based on the definition of nanotech given above, biotech can be thought of as a subset of nanotech - "nature's nanotechnology." Biotech uses the molecular structures, devices, and systems found in plants and animals to create new molecular products. Nanotech is more general, not being limited to existing natural structures, devices, and systems, and instead designing and building new, nonbiological ones. These can be quite different: harder, stronger, tougher, and able to survive a dry or hot environment, unlike biology. For example, nanotech products can be used to build an automobile or spacecraft.

Where is nanotechnology being developed?


Research and development of nanotechnology is taking place worldwide. As this is written, government spending is at approximately one billion U.S. dollars in each of four global areas: (1) the United States, (2) Europe, (3) Japan, and (4) the rest of the world, including China, Israel, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, and India. Similar amounts are said to be being spent in the private sector, with these figures being quite difficult to determine accurately due to the breadth of the nanotech definition, which includes a large number of older technologies.

Which country leads in nanotechnology?


World leadership in nanotechnology varies according to which subcategory of technology is being examined. In general, nanotechnology is unlike a number of recent major technological innovations in that the U.S. does not hold a very strong lead at the start. High quality work is taking place around the world, including countries with a higher fraction of engineering graduates, much lower R&D costs, and (unfortunately) less-stringent environmental standards.

What results can be expected in the nearterm? The mid-term? The long-term?
Nanotech's development can usefully be divided into stages, for example:
1st generation: Passive nanostructures 2nd generation: Active nanostructures 3rd generation: Three-dimensional nanosystems with heterogeneous nanocomponents 4th generation: Heterogeneous molecular nanosystems, where each molecule in the nanosystem has a specific structure and plays a different role

1st generation products are commercially available, 2nd generation work is taking place in the laboratory, and later generations are at the computational experiment and modeling stage.

What nanotechnology products are available today or are currently being developed - I?
With basic research under way for 20-plus years, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial introductions. In the short term, nanoparticles will be introduced into many existing materials, making them stronger or changing their conductive properties. Significantly stronger polymers will make plastics more widely used to reinforce materials and replace metals, even in the semiconductor area. One of the most innovative new products is one that enhances biological imaging for medical diagnostics and drug discovery. Quantum dots are semi-conducting nanocrystals that, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emit a vast spectrum of bright colors that can be used to identify and locate cells and other biological activities. These crystals offer optical detection up to a thousand times brighter than conventional dyes used in many biological tests, such as MRIs, and render significantly more information. The latest display technology for laptops, cell phones, digital cameras and other uses are made of nanostructured polymer films. Known as OLEDs, or organic light emitting diodes, several large companies will begin producing them in late 2003 and early 2004. Among OLED screen advantages are brighter images, lighter weight, less power consumption and wider viewing angles.

What nanotechnology products are available today or are currently being developed - II?
Nanoparticles also are being used increasingly in catalysis, where the large surface area per unit volume of nanosized catalysts enhances reactions. Greater reactivity of these smaller agents reduces the quantity of catalytic materials necessary to produce desired results. The oil industry relies on nanoscale catalysts for refining petroleum, while the automobile industry is saving large sums of money by using nanosized in place of larger platinum particles in its catalytic converters. Because of their size, filters made of nanoparticles also have been found to be excellent for liquid filtration. Several products are now available for large-scale water purification that can take out the tiniest bacteria and viruses from water systems, in addition to chemicals and particulate matter. Another example of rapid insertion of nanotechnology into useful applications is in the field of wearresistant coatings. In the mid-1990s nanoceramic coatings exhibiting much higher toughness than conventional coatings were first developed. Beginning in 1996, the DOD supported partnerships among the Navy, academia, and industry to develop processes suitable for use in manufacturing and to evaluate the coatings for use in the marine environment. In 2000, the first nanostructured coating was qualified for use on gears of air-conditioning units for U.S. Navy ships. In 2001, the technology was selected to receive an R&D100 Award. DOD estimates that use of the coatings on air valves will result in a $20 million reduction in maintenance costs over 10 years. The development of wear-resistant coatings by the DOD is clearly allied with its mission, yet will lead to commercial applications that can extend the lifetime of moving parts in everything from personal cars to heavy industrial machinery.

Future Applications
The pharmaceutical and chemical industries are being impacted greatly by nanotechnology. New commercial applications of nanotechnology that are expected in two to five years in these and other industries include:
Advanced drug delivery systems, including implantable devices that automatically administer drugs and sensor drug levels; Medical diagnostic tools, such as cancer tagging mechanisms and lab-on-a-chip, real time diagnostics for physicians; Cooling chips or wafers to replace compressors in cars, refrigerators, air conditioners and multiple other devices, utilizing no chemicals or moving parts; Sensors for airborne chemicals or other toxins; Photovoltaics (solar cells), fuel cells and portable power to provide inexpensive, clean energy, and New high-performance and smart materials.

Its hard to predict what products will move from the laboratory to the marketplace over longer periods, but it is believed that nanotechnology will facilitate the production of ever-smaller computers that store vastly greater amounts of information and process data much more quickly than those available today. Computing elements are expected to be so inexpensive that they can be in fabrics (for smoke detection, for instance) and other materials.

Are there any safety or environmental issues with the nanotechnologies in use today?
Concerns have been raised regarding potential health and environmental effects of the passive nanostructures termed "nanoparticles." Regulatory agencies and standards bodies are beginning to look at these issues, though significantly more funding for these efforts is required. See the website for the International Council for Nanotechnology (http://icon.rice.edu/).