Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

CIM Complete Review

Machines

Transfer Systems

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs)

Uses of Robotics

Material Handling

Painting

Finishing

Inspecting

CNC Mill Tools

[Insert picture here]

CNC Machining and Processing

Computer Numerical Control

Performs same functions as conventional machines

Used for harder metals

Clogs easily in deep cuts

Definitions

Cutter Speed – Rate of a tool measured in surface feet per minute Spindle Speed – Number of RPM made by the machine’s cutting tool Feed – Distance advanced by the cutting tool for every spindle revolution

Factors That Affect Feed Rates

Power of spindle motor

Condition of cutting tool

Depth of cut

Quality of surface finish

Roughing vs. Finishing

Condition of the machine

Strength of the fixture

Special Operation Feed Rates

o

Joining

Reaming – ½ to 2/3 used for drilling

o

Separating

Counterboring/Countersinking – 1/ of that used for

o

Casting, molding, and forming

drilling

o

Finishing

Tapping (threading) – Determined by many factors

Examples of CNC Machines used in CIM applications

Mills

Lathes

Machining Centers

Plasma Tables

Water Jet

Wire EDM

Laser Cutters/Engravers

Rapid Prototyping (3D printers)

Speeds and Feeds

Flutes

2

Flutes:

More room for chip evacuation

Used for light metals

Weak, short tool life

4

Flutes:

More cutting edges

Longer tool life

G&M Codes

Modal – G&M code that is not required to be repeated every block

Code Table

G90

Absolute coordinates

G91

Relative coordinates

G00

Rapid traverse

G01

Straight line interpolation

G02

CW circular interpolation

G03

CCW circular interpolation

G04

Dwell (wait)

G05

Pause (wait for intervention)

G20

Units in inches

G21

Units in mm

G80

Canned cycle cancel

G81

Drilling cycle

G82

Drilling cycle with dwell

M00

Pause

M01

Optional stop

M02

End of program

M03

Spindle on

M05

Spindle off

M06

Tool change

M08/M09

Accessory #1 on/off

M10/M11

Accessory #2 on/off

M30

Program end and reset

M47

Rewind (used for handshaking)

N<number>

Block sequence <number>

Circles can be defined with two methods:

1. Center point coordinates with I and J commands

2. Circle radius with R command

Jigs and Fixtures

Used to hold and guide work pieces and accurately manufacture duplicate parts

V-Blocks can be used to hold cylindrical stock for machining or drilling operations

Manufacturing Processes

Primary Manufacturing Process – Raw materials to usable material Secondary Manufacturing Process – Create products from primary product

Material Selection Criteria

Atomic / Molecular (Internal) Structure

Properties (Physical, Mechanical, Acoustical, etc.)

Conditions (Chemicals, Radiation, Thermal, Mechanical loads, etc.)

Types of processes

Casting and Molding

Separating

o

o

Subtractive process

Chip forming and non-chip forming processes

Joining

o

o

Additive process

Welding, gluing, soldering, and prototyping

Forming

o Uses force to cause a material to permanently take shape

Finishing

May be completed before or after assembly

Used to protect a product from conditions and enhance product appearance Types of finishing

Deburring – filing, scraping, and trimming metal parts

Cleaning

Coating — mechanical, electrolytic, or conversion

Assembling—putting parts together (temporary or permanent)

Conditioning—hanging physical or mechanical properties of material

Prototyping

Prototype – Original, full scale, and usually working model of a new product or new version of existing product

Evolved from hand-made to machine tools

Stereolithography

Selective Laser Sintering

Fused Deposition Modeling

Laminated Object Manufacturing

3D printing

Design Considerations for Manufacturability

Mass properties – Volume, surface area, density, mass Material choice – Strength, durability, cost, availability, environmental impact, transport

Design Process

1. Define problem

2. Brainstorm

3. Research / generate ideas

4. Identify criteria/constraints

5. Explore possibilities

6. Select approach

7. Develop design proposal

8. Make model/prototype

9. Test and evaluate design

10. Refine design

11. Create solution

12. Communicate

Control Systems

Device or set of devices that are coordinated to execute a planned set of actions

Open Loop Control System

No direct connection between output and conditions that can be controlled

Cannot compensate for unexpected forces

Closed Loop Control System

Provides system with operation feedback

Can compensate for conditional changes

VEX Structures

Variables

A space in robots memory where data can be stored

Integer (int) – Integers Floating Point Number (float) – Numbers with decimal points Boolean (bool) – True or false Character (char) – Individual characters. Single quotes. String (string) – Strings of characters. Double quotes

Loops

While loops allow a section of code to be repeated

as long as a Boolean condition remains true

Boolean Logic

Program decisions are always based on questions. True/False are the only two possible answers.

If statements run commands based on whether or not a Boolean condition remains true.

Behavior Based Programming

Break down complex behaviors into simple behaviors. Then break simple behaviors into basic behaviors, which are single commands to the robot.

History of Manufacturing

Manufacturing accounts for 20% of US GDP and employs 17% of US workforce

Artisans created handmade products before 19 th century

Important people/companies in the history of manufacturing

Eli Whitney – cotton gin, interchanagable parts, etc.

Henry Ford – First low-priced, mass-produced automobile

Kiichiro Toyoda – Lean manufacturing

Jervis B. Webb. Co – First electronic conveyor system

Manufacturing Concepts

Kaizan

Japanese word for improvement

Continuous improvement from everybody

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)

Adapts efficiently to changing needs

AGVs, ASRS

Machine line can handle entire family of parts

Automatic identification system

Computer work directors

Multi-functional tools

Large investment

FMS systems need enough work to keep the system busy

FMS represent a tiny fraction compared to Specialized CIM and Workcell CIM

Just In Time (JIT)

Can produce mixed products

Cross-trained workers

Only the minimum number of parts needed for manufacturing are kept, reducing waste

Toyota Production System (TPS)

Automotive manufacturing

Competes with mass production

Lean manufacturing strategy

Lean Manufacturing

Systematic elimination of waste

Five areas: Cost, Quality, Delivery, Safety, Morale

Six Sigma

Measure of quality

Fewer than 3.4 defects out of a million opportunities

Identifies and corrects causes of defects\

Workcell

Group of machines in close proximity

Robot or human operator moves pieces from machine to machine

Machines easily retooled for new items

Cost-effective

Mass Production

Least flexible

Fast model changeover needed for high production rates

Process Design

May use a Process Design Chart for planning Includes transportation, storage, outsourcing, and quality testing

Enterprise Wheel Perspectives

Customer Centered

Shows where focus should be. End result should contribute something of value to the customer.

People and Teamwork

Members contribute to customer value

Shared Knowledge

Information is the dominant material today Computer systems and intelligent machines support people and processes.

Key Processes

Product/process definition – How Manufacturing – Planning reality Customer support – Meeting customer needs

Infrastructure

External environment Global competition Raw materials, energy, transportation,, etc.

Meeting customer needs Infrastructure External environment Global competition Raw materials, energy, transportation,, etc.