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SPEED LOG

K.R.GUPTA, Indian Maritime University

Speed Log
SDME: Speed and Distance measuring Equipment Log Speeds are affected by current and tidal streams. Speed through the Water measured by:. Patent Log: towed astern of the ship. Bottom Log: can be withdrawn into the ships hull Impeller Log: Impeller fitted in a tube. More accurate than towed log

Speed Log
Pressure tube or Pitot type Log: Dynamic tube and STATIC Tube Difference in pressure converted to electrical signals and proportional to speed. Electromagnetic Log: induced EMF measured by sensors, proportional to ship speed.

Sea water is the conductor.

Speed Log
Doppler Log: Based on the principle of Doppler shift in frequency measurement i.e apparent change in frequency received when the distance between source and observer is changing due to the motion of either source or observer or both.

Speed Log

Speed Log

Speed Log
In Doppler Log, an observer is moving with a sound towards a reflecting plane, then the received frequency fr= ft (c+v) / (c-v) where fr= received frequency ft= transmitted frequency c= velocity of sound in sea water and v= velocity of the vessel. By measuring fr and knowing the value of ft and c, the speed of the vessel can be determined.

Doppler Speed Log


The Doppler effect, named after Christian Doppler, is the change in frequency and wavelength of a wave as perceived by an observer moving relative to the source of the waves. For waves that propagate in a wave medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are reckoned relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from either motion of the source or motion of the observer.

Doppler Speed Log


The Doppler system calculates speed to within an accuracy of about 0.5 percent of the distance traveled. It functions well for all speeds that modern vessels can attain and works from a minimum depth of about 1.5 feet to a maximum depth of about 600 feet. Frequencies employed are between 100 kHz and 600 kHz

Doppler Speed Log


A transducer is fitted on the ships keel which transmits a beam of acoustic wave at an angle, usually 60 degs to the keel in the forward direction

Doppler Speed Log


JANUS configuration: In practice, the ship has some vertical motion and this causes a problem in measurement of Doppler shift. This is overcome by installing two transducers, one transmitting in the forward direction and the other in the aft direction at the same angle. This arrangement is known as Janus configuration. By measuring the two Doppler shift frequencies, the vertical component will cancel out while the horizontal will add. Thus the speed of the ship can be calculated.

Doppler Speed Log


The placing of the Janus configuration in a fore and aft direction is known as a single axis system and is used to calculate speed over ground in the forward and after direction. ATHWARTSHIPs SPEED: Doppler log on ground track mode can provide athwartshipspeed and for this purpose a similar Janus configuration is used on the port and starboard sides.

Doppler Speed Log


A dual axis system places a second grouping of Janus configured transducers in an athwartships direction allowing for the calculation of a vessel's speed when moving sideways through the water, as in docking. The beam width of the athwartship installation is about 8 degrees to account for the possibility of a vessel's rolling.

Doppler Speed Log


Bottom track / Ground track: The calculation of speed using the reflected sound wave from sea bed is unaffected by set and drift. Usually limited to a depth of 200 mtrs. Beyond this depth, the echoes become very weak and are insufficient for Doppler shift calculation.

Doppler Speed Log


Water Track: When the ship moves at high seas at the usual sea speed, it carries some mass of surrounding water with it thereby providing a distinct layer of water between 10 and 30mtrs below the keel (this depth depends on draft and speed of vessel). Below this depth the water is still and hence there is a distinct separation between the two layers of water which provide the echoing surface to the acoustic waves. These echoes are stronger than the echoes coming from depths of over 200 mtrs. Using these echoes give us speed over water, referred to as water track and does not allow for set and drift. The speed worked out does not depend on the depth from which the echoes are received.

Speed Log
The Doppler system normally measures speed over ground to about 600 feet. After this depth signals may be returned by a dense, colder layer of water located throughout the oceans called the deep scattering layer (DSL). Signals received off the DSL are not as accurate as signals received from bottom reflections but can still be used to provide an indication of speed through the water instead of speed over ground when bottom tracking. Your unit may have a manual or automatic system which will switch from bottom tracking to water tracking at increased depth.

Doppler Speed Log


HEAVING: By using Janus configuration, this effect is nullified and any vertical movement has got no effect on the speed indicated. TRIM: The trim of the vessel has no effect on athwartship speed and has very little effect on fore and aft speed. Actual speed = indicated speed / Cos B(angle of trim) (Max trim permitted under MArpol is 1.5% of ships length.) The speed difference is only in the 3rd and 4th decimal places and negligible.

Doppler Speed Log


PITCHING: The effect of pitching is similar to a vessel with trim changing continuously. When pitching, the indicate speed will fluctuate between actual speed and a value lower than the actual speed depending on the angle at which it is pitching. Pitching does not affect athwartships speed.

Doppler Speed Log


LIST and ROLLING: Effect of list on athwartships speed will be the same as the effect of trim on the fwd and aft speed i.e. Actual speed (ath)= Indicated Speed(ath) / Cos list angle. This is irrespective of the side to which the ship is listed. When the vessel is rolling the indicated ath speed will fluctuate. List and rolling do not effect the fore and aft speed.

Doppler Speed Log


ERRORS: Transducer orientation: Should make a perfect angle of 60 degrees w.r.t the keel. Error in oscillator frequency: The freq generated should be accurate and constant. Propagation velocity of sound wave- changes due to temperature, salinity and pressure. To compensate for Temperature variation, a thermistor is mounted near the transducer and temperature changes accounted for. In modern transducers, the angle at which the acoustic beam is transmitted is controlled with the help of phase difference.

Doppler Speed Log


Errors due to ships motion: Using
Janus configuration, this error tends to cancel out. For a 2 deg difference, the net effect will be an error of 0.10% of the indicated speed.

Effect of rolling and pitching.:Actual


spd= Ind.spd / Cos B. Inaccuracy of measurement of comparison frequency.

Doppler Speed Log


Error due to side Lobe: when the side lobe reception dominates over the main beam reception, there will be an error. More pronounced on a sloping sea bottom. Cannot be eliminated with Janus configuration. To reduce this error, the beam width of transmitted wave is reduced. However a minimum beam width of 4 to 6 degs is required.

Doppler Speed Log


Calibration: very important Zero on scale : while ship is berthed, when SOG is zero Scale calibration: done during sea trial, against a measured distance. Doppler Log for BERTHING: Either two sets of ath.ship transducers or one ath.ship transducer coupled with ROT indicator. Distance moved by the bow/stern will be calculated by the ROT angle. This can be used to indicate instantaneous speeds only and is not applicable when angles and distances involved are large.