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July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators
July 2003 X-ray Generators Scope of this Product Comparison This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators

July 2003

X-ray Generators

Scope of this Product Comparison

This Product Comparison covers x-ray generators designed for use as part of general-purpose radio- graphic, radiographic/fluoroscopic (R/F), to- mographic, angiographic/interventional R/F, and cardiac catheterization R/F imaging systems. For related information, see the following Product Comparisons:

Radiographic Systems, Film; Digital

Radiographic/Fluoroscopic Systems, Angiog- raphic/Interventional; Cardiovascular

Radiographic/Fluoroscopic Systems, General- Purpose; Cameras, Radiographic Photospot

Radiographic/Tomographic Systems, Linear

UMDNS information

This Product Comparison covers the following de- vice term and product code as listed in ECRI’s Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System™ (UMDNS™):

X-ray Generators [16-602]

Purpose

X-ray generators modify incoming voltage and cur- rent to provide an x-ray tube with the power needed to produce an x-ray beam of the desired peak kilovoltage (kVp) and current (mA). The generator supplies con- tinuous power to the x-ray tube for fluoroscopic exami- nations, and its switching and timing devices ensure proper timing for discrete radiographic exposures.

The x-ray generator control panel allows the selec- tion of technique factors for different radiographic,

R/F, and tomographic procedures. The control panel also operates auxiliary devices such as film changers, photospot cameras, and automatic exposure controls (AECs).

Principles of operation

The major components of an x-ray generator are the control panel and the transformer assembly (see Fig. 1). The control panel permits the selection of technique factors for radiographic or fluoroscopic examinations and the initiation of radiographic exposures. The trans- former assembly contains transformers, rectifiers, and

former assembly contains transformers, rectifiers, and X-ray generator console 193245 5200 Butler Pike, Plymouth

X-ray generator console

193245 5200 Butler Pike, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462-1298, USA 5200 Butler Pike, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462-1298, USA

424-010

Telephone +1 (610) 825-6000 Fax +1 (610) 834-1275 E-mail hpcs@ecri.org

A NONPROFIT AGENCY

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Line Voltage Control Panel kV Selector Autotransformer Timer Controls mA Selector Transformer Assembly High-Voltage
Line Voltage
Control Panel
kV Selector
Autotransformer
Timer Controls
mA Selector
Transformer Assembly
High-Voltage
Circuit
Filament
Circuit
Timer Circuit
X-ray Tube
C156UN1A

Figure 1. X-ray generator components

three major circuits — the high-voltage circuit, the filament circuit, and the timer circuit — that supply the x-ray tube with the necessary power to produce an x-ray beam of the desired voltage, current, and duration.

Transformers modify the voltage of incoming alter- nating-current (AC) electrical signals to increase or decrease the voltage in a circuit. A simple transformer consists of two wire coils, called primary and secondary coils, which are wrapped around a core of iron or other material susceptible to magnetic forces. When an AC is applied to the primary coil, the resulting electromag- netic field causes a current to flow through the secon- dary coil. The current and voltage induced in the secondary coil are related to the initial current and voltage by the ratio of the number of turns of the two coils, as expressed by the following equation:

T /T = V /V

where T 1° and T 2° are the number of turns for the primary and secondary coils and V 1° and V 2° are the primary and secondary voltages.

In a step-up transformer, voltage increases and current decreases in the secondary circuit because the secondary coil contains more turns than the primary coil. Conversely, in a step-down transformer, voltage decreases and current increases in the secondary cir- cuit because the primary coil contains more turns than the secondary coil.

In the transformer assembly, one circuit containing a step-up transformer supplies the high voltage to the

x-ray tube; another circuit containing a step-down transformer supplies power to heat the filament of the x-ray tube. An autotransformer, a specialized type of variable transformer that includes a single coil of wire wrapped around an iron core, supplies the voltage for these two circuits and provides a location for the kVp meter, which indicates the voltage applied across the x-ray tube.

Rectification

Rectifiers in the transformer assembly convert AC into the direct current (DC) required by the x-ray tube (see Fig. 2). A rectifier restricts current flow in an x-ray tube to one direction (from cathode to anode), thereby preventing damage to the x-ray tube filament. There are two types of rectification — half wave and full wave; all x-ray generators listed in the chart use full- wave rectification. Typically, in half-wave rectifica- tion, two rectifiers are connected in series with the x-ray tube, with one on either side. As a result, elec- trons can flow from cathode to anode during the first half of each AC cycle but are blocked during the second half-cycle. In full-wave rectification, two pairs of recti- fiers are configured to operate alternately, and elec- trons flow from cathode to anode during both halves of the AC cycle in a pulsating current. While both vac- uum-tube and solid-state rectifiers are available, solid- state silicon rectifiers are now most widely used.

Depending on the rectifiers and components in- cluded in the high-voltage circuit, the secondary volt- age waveform presented to the x-ray tube can be single-phase, full-wave rectified; 3-phase, 6-pulse; 3- phase, 12-pulse; high-frequency; or constant potential. Examples of each voltage waveform are shown along with the corresponding radiation intensity waveforms in Figure 3.

The ideal secondary voltage waveform for presenta- tion to the x-ray tube is a flat DC waveform with no temporal variations in voltage. Waveforms that devi- ate from this ideal lower the efficiency of x-ray produc- tion. Efficiency is affected by the ripple factor of the

tion. Efficiency is affected by the ripple factor of the 2 ©2003 ECRI. Duplication of this

X-ray Generators

voltage waveform (the difference between the mini- mum and maximum x-ray tube voltages, expressed as

a percentage of the maximum voltage) presented to the

x-ray tube. Generators with a lower ripple factor have

a greater x-ray output. The ripple factor for a single-

phase generator is 100% because the voltage increases from 0 to a maximum value with each wave cycle. The ripple factor for a 3-phase, 6-pulse generator is 13.5% because at 100 kV, the voltage fluctuates between 86.5 and 100 kV; ripple is accentuated when 3-phase generators are operated under load (i.e., operating conditions).

High-voltage circuit

The high-voltage circuit provides the electrical power needed to accelerate the flow of electrons from the cathode to the anode of the x-ray tube to produce x-rays of the specified kVp and waveform. Also called the cathode-anode circuit, the high-voltage circuit con- sists of a step-up transformer (also called the high- voltage transformer) and an autotransformer. Because the potential difference across the secondary coil may be as great as 150,000 volts (V), the step-up trans- former is sealed within an oil-filled tank, which en- hances heat dissipation and provides electrical insulation between various components.

A kVp meter and an mA meter are incorporated into the high-voltage circuit to monitor, respectively, the potential across the x-ray tube and the current through the tube during an exposure. The kVp meter is usually located between the autotransformer and the step-up

1 60 sec a. 60 Hz AC waveforms from power company b. Half-wave rectification of
1
60 sec
a. 60 Hz AC waveforms from power company
b. Half-wave rectification of same signal
c.
Full-wave rectification of same signal
Figure 2.
Voltage waveforms demonstrating
rectification
Voltage
C156UN1B
Time Time a. Ideal DC 1 sec 60 b. Single-phase, half-wave rectified 1 sec 60
Time
Time
a. Ideal DC
1
sec
60
b. Single-phase, half-wave rectified
1
sec
60
c. Single-phase, full-wave rectified
1
sec
60
d. Three-phase, six-pulse
1
sec
60
e. Three-phase, twelve-pulse
1
sec
500
f. High-frequency
g.
Constant potential
Voltage
Radiation
Intensity
C156UN1D

Figure 3. Secondary voltage waveforms (left) and radiation intensity waveforms (right)

Healthcare Product Comparison System

transformer; the mA meter is connected in the secon- dary coil of the step-up transformer.

Before reaching the step-up transformer, the input voltage is shunted to the autotransformer. When a particular kVp is selected, an appropriate pair of sec- ondary taps in the autotransformer is automatically connected into the circuit to provide the correct input voltage to the step-up transformer for the specified output voltage. The primary voltage is increased by a factor of approximately 600 to achieve the voltage required for radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures.

Filament circuit

The filament circuit supplies the x-ray tube filament (a coiled tungsten wire that emits electrons when heated) with the voltage needed to provide the desired tube current. A step-down transformer — the filament transformer — supplies the power to heat the tube filament, which is connected directly to the secondary coil of the transformer. The voltage of the primary coil (100 to 220 V) is provided by tapping off a number of turns from the autotransformer. The step-down trans- former converts this voltage to the potential difference required by the tube filament, which is approximately 10 V. If an x-ray tube with dual focal spots is used, the filament circuit includes a separate transformer for each filament.

Because small changes in filament current yield large changes in tube current, the filament voltage must be precisely controlled. Therefore, resistors are placed in the circuit leading to the autotransformer, and selectable resistance is controlled by a switch on the control panel. Additional components of the filament circuit include a voltage stabilizer that carefully regu- lates filament voltage and a device that compensates for the changes in x-ray tube current caused by changes in the selected kVp (line voltage compensation).

Types of x-ray generators

Single-phase, full-wave rectified generators and sin- gle-phase, two-pulse generators use single-phase line voltage input to the primary circuit. A bridge of four rectifiers included in the secondary coil of the high- voltage circuit permits current flow from the x-ray tube cathode and anode during both halves of the alternat- ing cycle. The resulting voltage waveform includes 2 x-ray pulses per cycle, or 120 pulses per second. The average x-ray tube voltage is substantially lower than the peak x-ray tube voltage, and the ripple factor is

100%.

Three-phase, full-wave rectified waveforms are pro- duced by high-voltage circuits containing three autotransformers and three windings on both the

primary and secondary coils of the high-voltage trans- former. When the three windings are electrically con- nected in a wye configuration (shaped like the letter Y), a 120° phase difference in the voltage waveform is produced. When the three windings are arranged in a delta configuration (shaped like a triangle), a 150° phase difference in the voltage waveform is produced. Three-phase, 6-pulse generators have a wye trans- former and six rectifiers in their secondary coil; the resulting waveform consists of 6 pulses per cycle, or 360 pulses per second (for a 60-hertz [Hz] supply). Three-phase, 12-pulse generators have one delta and one wye transformer and 12 rectifiers in their secon- dary coil; the resulting waveform consists of 12 pulses per cycle, or 720 pulses per second. Because three- phase generators produce outputs much closer to the ideal DC than do single-phase models, they produce x-rays more efficiently.

High-frequency, or multipulse, generators operate somewhat differently from traditional single- and three-phase generators, because they have additional components in the high-voltage circuit. The 50 or 60 Hz line voltage (either single- or three-phase) is recti- fied and filtered to create a nearly DC signal. Next, a high-frequency inverter, or oscillator, circuit converts this DC voltage into a sinusoidal waveform with a frequency as high as 100 kilohertz (kHz). This signal is then input to a single high-voltage transformer. Full-wave rectification on the secondary side of the high-voltage circuit doubles the number of x-ray pulses per second to as high as 200,000.

A capacitor, located in the high-voltage circuit be- fore the x-ray tube, smooths the full-wave rectified waveform, reducing the ripple factor to approximately 2%. The resultant measured waveform has ripple simi- lar to that of waveforms produced by 3-phase or 6- or 12-pulse generators, reflecting highly efficient x-ray production. This waveform is identical for single- or three-phase input power.

Because high-frequency generators produce a mul- tipulse wave with low ripple, more accurate timing is possible, and patient exposure is lessened. An addi- tional advantage of high-frequency generators is their small size — the transformer assembly for a high kW, high-frequency generator is about 1/3 the size of a high kW, 12-pulse generator. Low kW, high-frequency gen- erators do not require a separate transformer housing; they can be housed together with the x-ray tube in a normal-sized tube shield, thus eliminating the need for high-voltage cables.

Constant-potential generators, which produce a true DC, are a variation on the 3-phase, 12-pulse circuit. Two triode (three-electrode) or tetrode (four-electrode)

X-ray Generators

control vacuum tubes are placed between the output of the transformer’s secondary wye and delta windings and the cathode and anode ends of the x-ray tube. Each control tube contains an electrode called a grid. Modifications of the voltage applied to the grid cause the control tube to act as a variable resistance, thus changing the magnitude of the voltage reaching the x-ray tube. A comparator circuit reads the voltage outputs at the two control tubes and alters their re- spective grid bias voltages to maintain a constant potential difference across the x-ray tube. The re- sponse of the comparator circuit and control tubes is nearly instantaneous, resulting in a DC voltage wave- form reaching the x-ray tube. Some constant-potential generators use solid-state field-effect transistors rather than tetrode/triode control tubes to produce a ripple-free DC output.

Timer circuit

The timer circuit initiates the radiographic expo- sure, sustains it for a preset length of time, and termi- nates it. A timer mechanism controls the length of the exposure, and switches initiate and terminate the ex- posure. Typical exposure times range from 1/120 of a second to 6 seconds. Controls for the timer circuit are located on the control panel. The actual timer and switch units are contained in the high-voltage circuit.

Three types of timer mechanisms have been used in x-ray generators — mechanical, synchronous, and electronic. Mechanical timers are similar to spring- driven kitchen timers; the exposure duration is deter- mined by the length of time required for the spring to unwind from a preset, calibrated position. Because they are accurate to only about 1/4 of a second, they are unsuitable for standard x-ray exposures, which are often much shorter than that.

Synchronous timers are driven by synchronous mo- tors, which operate in tandem with the 60 Hz power frequency. These timers allow exposures to begin and end only at zero-crossings of the sinusoidal, 60 Hz voltage waveform and consequently offer precisely timed x-ray exposures in multiples of 1/120 of a second; however, they are unable to provide exposures in the millisecond (msec) range or a rapid series of repeated exposures.

Electronic timers are most commonly used in x-ray generators. Their operation is based on the time needed to charge or discharge a capacitor, as deter- mined by the value of a variable resistance in the timer circuit; selecting an exposure time from the control panel adjusts this resistance to the proper value. When used with electronic switches, electronic timers

can provide accurate exposures as brief as 1 msec, as well as a rapid series of repeated exposures.

Switching mechanisms are classified as primary or secondary according to their location in the high-volt- age circuit. Primary switching is less complicated and expensive because it is easier and safer to switch the lower primary voltages on and off. Three types of primary switches are electromechanical contactors, thyratrons, and silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs).

An electromechanical contactor causes a spring-

loaded plunger to open or close a circuit when a current

is applied to an electromagnetic coil. Because of iner-

tia, these contactors are slow to respond, and their ability to handle a rapid series of repeated exposures is consequently limited. They are also expensive to maintain.

Thyratrons are gas-filled, hot cathode tubes that function as electronic switches. A grid is usually nega- tively charged to prevent current flow through the thyratron tube, which in turn prevents current flow through the high-voltage circuit. If the negative charge on the grid is sufficiently reduced, a continuous flow of current results, allowing x-rays to be produced.

A second thyratron is necessary to terminate the expo-

sure. Thyratrons respond quickly (because of lack of

inertia) and are able to handle rapid sequences of exposures, but they generate large amounts of heat and are expensive to maintain.

SCRs, also called thyristors, are the solid-state ana- logs of thyratrons, retaining the advantages of thyra- trons without the disadvantages. They can be used in synchronized or unsynchronized switching configura- tions. In synchronized switching, the SCRs begin and end their conduction of current flow only at zero-cross- ings of the 60 Hz line voltage, resulting in x-ray expo- sure durations that are precisely timed to multiples of 1/120 of a second (8.33 msec). Unsynchronized switch- ing allows x-ray exposures to be initiated and termi- nated independently of zero-crossings. The high-speed electronic precontacting feature allows a response time of 1 to 2 msec for the initiation of an exposure, the pulsed commutation feature allows the initiation of an exposure without regard to synchrony with zero-cross- ings, and the forced extinction termination feature allows termination of an exposure without regard to zero-crossings. This combination of features reduces exposure durations to 1 to 2 msec and makes a rapid series of repeated exposures possible.

The two available secondary switching mechanisms are triode or tetrode switch tubes and grid-controlled x-ray tubes; both are complex and expensive. Triode or tetrode switching tubes are used in constant-potential

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generators; as described earlier, they are the same tubes used to maintain a constant voltage across the x-ray tube. In addition to this function, the grid bias voltage also acts to initiate and terminate x-ray expo- sures by conducting and blocking current flow to the x-ray tube. Response time is nearly instantaneous, exposures as short as 0.5 msec are possible, and an extremely rapid series of exposures can be produced.

In grid-controlled x-ray tubes, a grid bias voltage is also used to switch x-ray tube current flow on and off. In this case, the grid is the focusing cup of the x-ray tube’s cathode itself. Applying a small (2 to 3 V) bias voltage to the grid prevents electron flow to the anode, while removing the bias voltage allows current flow and the production of x-rays. Grid-controlled x-ray tubes are used primarily in fluoroscopy, providing up to 500 exposures per second.

Other generator features

Additional features available to improve the per- formance of x-ray generators include radiographic AEC, anatomic programming, and fluoroscopic auto- matic brightness control.

AEC automatically terminates radiographic expo- sures when sufficient x-ray intensity to provide accept- able film darkening has reached the x-ray film cassette. This feature ensures the production of satis- factory images, reducing the chance that human error will necessitate repeat exposures. AEC detectors, sometimes called phototimers, include one or more elements placed in front of or behind the film cassette. The two most common types of detectors used in AEC are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and ionization cham- bers. PMTs collect the light emitted as x-rays strike a fluorescent material and convert the light intensity into a current proportional to the total x-ray intensity reaching the fluorescent material. (Solid-state photo- diodes are sometimes used instead of PMTs.)

The ionization chambers used in AEC are typically flat-plate, gas-filled chambers. As x-rays pass through the chamber, they ionize the gas molecules, creating a current proportional to the radiation intensity reaching the chamber. Both types of AEC detectors are calibrated so that a predetermined current provides the desired film density. When this current level is achieved, the termi- nation switch in the generator timer circuit automat- ically activates. An SCR switch with forced extinction termination allows the extremely short, precisely timed exposures required for rare-earth film/screen combina- tions. Forced extinction is not needed with high-fre- quency generators operating above 50 kHz because lower ripple and faster exposure times make AEC more accu- rate and reproducible.

Standard AECs require the technologist to select specific kVp and mA settings on the control panel, with the exposure time automatically determined by the AEC circuit.

Anatomic programming is often used to select kV and mA for each examination. These values are pre- programmed into the control console based on an in- stitution’s programs. Generators featuring anatomic programming include an additional series of push but- tons on the control panel that are labeled with various anatomic regions and projections and preset to repre-

sent a fixed set of technique factors of the user’s choice, including kVp, mA, and AEC timing or exposure time. Supplemental fine adjustments account for variations in patient size and density. The technologist can pre- pare the generator for an x-ray exposure by selecting

a single button, without having to consult the tech-

nique chart typically used for manual exposure selec-

tion. In addition to this ease of operation, anatomic programming ensures consistent technique factors with-

in a department and allows them to be changed quickly

and accurately during the course of an examination.

In fluoroscopy, a constant brightness at the output phosphor of the image intensifier should be main- tained so that the image does not lighten or darken markedly when scanning varying thicknesses of pa- tient anatomy or introducing contrast media. Fluoro- scopic automatic brightness control regulates fluoroscopic image brightness by adjusting the gener- ator technique settings to provide a fixed radiation exposure rate at the image intensifier’s input phos- phor. Various types of detectors are available to moni- tor the image intensifier’s photocathode current and luminance at its output phosphor as well as the video signal intensity at the camera CRT (cathode ray tube). In each case, as changes are detected, the automatic brightness control circuit immediately adjusts the kVp and/or mA output of the generator to restore the de- sired radiation exposure rate at the image intensifier’s input phosphor, concurrently restoring the desired image brightness.

Reported problems

X-ray generators must be operated by knowledge- able individuals to avoid potential problems related to automatic features and fluoroscopic radiation expo- sure. Careful patient positioning is required for opti- mal performance of AEC devices and anatomic programming. Errors in patient positioning can result in rejected films and repeat examinations, which un- necessarily increase patient radiation exposure and examination costs.

X-ray Generators

Fluoroscopic examinations must be conducted with great caution to minimize radiation exposure to pa- tients and tableside personnel. In the United States, federal and state regulations limit generators’ expo- sure rates to 5 or 10 roentgens per minute (R/min) at the location where the radiation beam enters the pa- tient (depending on specification). Under typical con- ditions of fluoroscopic operation, patient skin entrance exposure is in the range of 2 to 5 R/min. To minimize patient radiation exposure, a fluoroscopic examina- tion should involve as little beam-on time as possible, and the monitor’s last-image-hold feature should be used, if available, to retain the image on the monitor screen after the fluoroscopic exposure. To minimize personnel radiation exposure, protective garments and beam-shielding devices must be used, and dis- tance from the radiation beam should be maximized. In addition, the fluoroscopic exposure rate should be measured quarterly by a medical physicist to ensure safety and regulatory compliance and to monitor the performance consistency of the automatic brightness control feature.

Purchase considerations

The x-ray generator and radiographic or R/F table are the primary components of any x-ray room. Each must be selected in consideration of both clinical needs and cost-effectiveness. For x-ray generators, the pri- mary selection factors are secondary waveform type, power rating, timing capabilities, and compatibility with other system components.

As noted previously, the secondary waveform type determines the efficiency of x-ray production, includ- ing the magnitude of ripple and the ratio of average to peak x-ray tube voltage. Single-phase, full-wave rec- tified secondary waveforms provide the least efficient production of x-rays, which results in longer radio- graphic exposure times and higher patient radiation exposure than for the same examination using the same kVp (because of higher skin exposure from low- energy x-rays that do not reach the image receptor). In addition, single-phase generators cause increased x-ray tube anode heating, thus restricting small focal spot examinations and reducing tube life. Three-phase generators (and other generators producing wave- forms with low ripple) allow higher mA exposures at shorter exposure times, thus reducing motion un- sharpness and producing higher-quality radiographs for many examinations. If three-phase power service is not available at a location proposed for it, power installation costs must be added to the project budget.

Power ratings, in units of kilowatts (kW), describe the maximum kilovoltage (kV) and mA capabilities of

the generator under load. The following formula is used to calculate power ratings for three-phase generators:

kW = (kVp × mA) ÷ 1,000

For single-phase generators:

kW = (kVp × mA × 0.7) ÷ 1,000

For most generators, the power rating is not con- stant over the entire kV range, and the maximum mA and kVp values cannot be obtained simultaneously. For this reason, it is important to carefully examine the way the manufacturer indicates this information. Typically, power ratings are specified at 100 kVp, with maximum mA values listed for several different kVp values.

The power rating and timing capabilities of a new generator should be selected based on the types of examinations to be performed and the operating tech- nique factors required with the type of generator se- lected. For example, an examination using a three-phase or high-frequency generator requires lower kVp and/or mAs than the same examination using a single-phase generator. Routine radiographic, angiographic, fluoroscopic, and tomographic proce- dures also vary in their kVp and mAs requirements.

All x-ray system components must also be selected for compatibility as an integrated system. Specifically, it is critical to choose compatible x-ray tubes and gen- erators so that all features of both components can be fully utilized. Positioning the generator too far from the x-ray tube may cause distortions in voltage wave- forms and timing responses caused by capacitance in excessively long high-voltage cables.

Cost containment

A purchase decision should be based on issues such as life-cycle cost, local service support, discount rates and non-price-related benefits offered by the supplier, and standardization with existing equipment in the department or hospital (i.e., purchasing all x-ray gen- erators from one supplier). The initial acquisition cost is only a fraction of the total cost of operation. There- fore, before making a purchase decision based solely on the acquisition cost of an x-ray generator, buyers should consider operating costs over the lifetime of the equipment. The following costs should be considered when purchasing an x-ray generator:

Special features (e.g., pulsed fluoroscopy capability)

Service contract

X-ray tube replacement

Utilities

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Accessories, such as glassware, parts, and quality control devices

Contributions to overhead

For customized analyses and purchase decision sup- port, readers should contact ECRI’s SELECT™ Group.

Hospitals can purchase service contracts or service on a time-and-materials basis from the supplier. Serv- ice may also be available from a third-party organiza- tion. The decision to purchase a service contract should be carefully considered. Purchasing a service contract ensures that preventive maintenance will be per- formed at regular intervals, thereby reducing the pos- sibility of unexpected maintenance costs. Also, many suppliers do not extend system performance and up- time guarantees beyond the length of the warranty unless the system is covered by a service contract. ECRI recommends that, to maximize bargaining lev- erage, hospitals negotiate pricing for service contracts before the system is purchased. Additional service contract discounts may be negotiable for multiple-year agreements or for service contracts that are bundled with contracts on other generators in the department or hospital. Purchasing multiple generators from one supplier could result in a significant discount. Stand- ardizing equipment can make staff training easier, simplify servicing and parts acquisition, and provide greater bargaining leverage when negotiating new equipment purchases and/or service contract costs.

Stage of development

Microprocessor-controlled and modular x-ray gener- ators have been available for several years. Microproc- essor-controlled generators provide extensive automatic operation, which simplifies use and allows the technologist to spend more time on patient posi- tioning. Automatic controls also reduce the likelihood of operator errors that require retakes, thus reducing radiation exposure to patients and operators. In addi- tion, microprocessor-controlled generators feature in- ternal self-diagnostics, which cause an error message to appear on the console when a component malfunc- tions. Modular generators are individually con- structed to incorporate the purchaser’s selection of optional features. Solid-state electronic components have reduced generator sizes, simplified repairs, and aided the development of shared generators, which are used to control several x-ray rooms simultaneously.

Bibliography

Balter S. X-ray generation and control. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 1999 Jan;46(1):92-7.

Curry TS 3rd, Dowdey JE, Murry RC Jr. Christensen’s physics of diagnostic radiology. 4th ed. Philadel- phia: Lea & Febiger; 1990.

Hendee WR, Ritenour ER. Medical imaging physics. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby-Year Book; 2002.

Hiss SS. Understanding radiography. 3rd ed. Spring- field (IL): Charles C Thomas; 1993.

Noce JP. Diagnostic x-ray fundamentals: the gener- ator. Biomed Instrum Technol 1993 May-Jun;

32(3):318-20.

Standards and guidelines

Note: Although every effort is made to ensure that the following list is comprehensive, please note that other applicable standards may exist.

American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Per- formance specifications and acceptance testing for x-ray generators and automatic exposure control devices [report].

Diagnostic X-ray Imaging/X-ray Generators and Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) Devices Task Group. 14. 1985.

British Standards Institution. Specification for high- voltage generators of diagnostic x-ray generators [standard]. BS 5724:Section 2.7. 1987.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Medical

electrical equipment — part 1: general require- ments for safety [standard]. IEC 60601-1 (1988-12).

1988.

Medical electrical equipment — part 1: general re- quirements for safety. Amendment 1 [standard]. IEC 60601-1-am1 (1991-11). 1991.

Medical electrical equipment — part 1: general re- quirements for safety. Amendment 2 [standard]. IEC 60601-1-am2 (1995-03). 1995.

Medical electrical equipment — part 1: general re- quirements for safety. Section 2. Collateral stand- ard: electromagnetic compatibility — requirements and tests. IEC 60601-1-2 (1993-04). 1993.

Medical electrical equipment — part 2: particular requirements for the safety of associated equipment of x-ray equipment [standard]. IEC 60601-2-31. (1994-03). 1994.

Medical electrical equipment — part 2: particular requirements for the safety of high voltage gener- ators of diagnostic x-ray generators [standard]. IEC 60601-2-7. (1998-02). 1998.

X-ray Generators

National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Power supply guidelines for x-ray machines [standard]. 1984 (revised 1989, 1994; reaffirmed 1999).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. 21 CFR 1020.30. 2000.

Additional performance and safety standards are included in the radiation protection codes of individual states and countries. The Joint Commission on Ac- creditation of Healthcare Organizations and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (as per 21 CFR Part 1000), as well as several international organizations, have developed recommendations and requirements for acceptance testing and periodic calibration of x-ray equipment, including x-ray generators.

Citations from other ECRI publications

Health Devices

Radiographic quality control devices [evaluation]. 2000 Apr;29(4):97-139.

Eye on medical errors: radiographic QA programs help ensure high-quality healthcare. 2000 Apr;29(4):

100-1.

Health Devices Alerts

This Product Comparison lists Health Devices Alerts (HDA) citations published since the last update of this report. Each HDA abstract is identified by an Acces- sion Number. Recalls and hazard reports include de- scriptions of the problem involved; abstracts of other published articles are referenced by bibliographic in- formation. HPCS subscribers can call the Hotline for additional information on any of these citations or to request more extensive searches of the HDA database.

A4443 FDA has designated Class II Recall No. Z-0494- 1 certain Philips Optimus CP x-ray generator firm- ware. If a bolus run is started on the systems, the injector may inject contrast medium without exposure. The distributer initiated a recall by field change order on February 16, 2001. If you system has not been modified, or for further information, contact Philips Medical Systems North America by telephone at (800) 455-4350. Source: FDA Enforcement Rep 2001 Apr 25; Distributor.

A4493 FDA has designated Class II Recall Nos. Z-579/581-1 certain Toshiba x-ray generator/controls. The x-ray generator/controls do not comply with 21 CFR 1020.31(a)(2) because exposure nontermina- tion can occur as a result of tube arcing. The manufac- turer initiated a recall by letter dated July 19, 2001. Identify any affected product in your inventory. Follow the instructions for safe use of the x-ray generators.

For further information, contact Toshiba’s Assist Cen- ter by telephone at (800) 521-1968. Source: FDA En- forcement Rep 2001 Jul 25; Manufacturer.

A4714 Great Britain. Medical Devices Agency. X-ray generator exposure timer: manual timer selector switch on Picker R703 MkII and R500 MkII gener- ators. London: Department of Health; 2002 Mar. 3 p. (Safety notice; no. SN2002[09]).

A5160 FDA has designated Class II Recall No. Z-0649-03 certain Sedecal high-voltage generators and controls. The generators fail to comply with the U.S. federal performance standard due to incorrect identification labels and failure to use the required sampling for the certification testing program. The distributor initiated a recall by letter dated April 9, 2003. Verify receipt of the April 9, 2003, letter from Sedecal. For further information, contact Sedecal by telephone at (847) 394-6960. Source: FDA Enforcement Rep 2003 Apr 30; Distributor.

39249 Davidson RA. Determination of radiographic

characteristics of tissue compensation filters using a

Compton scatter technique. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 2001 Sep;24(3):166-71.

39625 Wang JX, Zhang LA, Li BX, et al. Cancer inci-

dence and risk estimation among medical x-ray work- ers in China, 1950-1995. Health Phys 2002 Apr;82(4):

455-66.

Supplier information

Americomp

Americomp Inc [170184]

2901 W Lawrence Ave

Chicago IL 60625-3621 Phone: (773) 588-2444, (800) 458-1782 Fax: (773) 583-1751 E-mail: info@americompus.net Internet: http://www.americompus.net

Amrad

Summit Industries Inc [171242]

2901 W Lawrence Ave

Chicago IL 60625-3621 Phone: (773) 588-2444, (800) 972-9776 Fax: (773) 588-3424 E-mail: info@summitindustries.net Internet: http://www.summitindustries.net

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Apelem

Apelem SA [194762]

Parc Scientifique Georges Besse

175 allee Von Neumann

F-30035 Nimes Cedex France Phone: 33 (466) 290907 Fax: 33 (466) 297123 E-mail: export@apelem.com Internet: http://www.apelem.com

Control-X

Control-X Medical Inc [108554] 2289 Westbrooke Dr Bldg C Columbus OH 43228-9644 Phone: (614) 777-9729, (800) 777-9729 Fax: (614) 777-0395 E-mail: lhurd@cxmed.com Internet: http://www.cxmed.com

CPI

Communications & Power Industries Inc (CPI)

[272875]

607 Hansen Way

Palo Alto CO 94394-1130 Phone: (650) 846-3645 Fax: (650) 846-3276 Internet: http://www.cpii.com

Communications & Power Industries Inc (CPI) Canada [272874] 45 River Dr Georgetown ON L7G 2J4 Canada Phone: (905) 877-0161, (888) 274-9729 Fax: (905) 877-5327 E-mail: marketing@cmp.cpii.com Internet: http://www.cpii.com/cmp

Daeyoung

Daeyoung Medical Systems [202155] 638-2 Sangelo 1-dong Dong Jak-ku Seoul 156-031 Republic of Korea Phone: 82 (2) 8259231 Fax: 82 (2) 8259232 E-mail: dae-young@dae-young.co.kr Internet: http://www.dae-young.co.kr

Del Medical

Del Medical Systems Group [376429] 11550 W King St Franklin Park IL 60131-1851 Phone: (847) 288-7000, (800) 800-6006 Fax: (847) 288-7011 E-mail: sloehrke@delmedical.com Internet: http://www.delmedical.com

emd Technologies

emd Technologies [393535] 310 Blvd Industriel St-Eustache PQ J7R 5R4 Canada Phone: (450) 491-2100, (888) 491-2100 Fax: (450) 491-4138 E-mail: mkt@emd-tech.net Internet: http://www.emd-tech.net

emd Technologies Europe SA [393559] 58 rue Roger Salengro F-94126 Fontenay-sous-Bois Cedex France Phone: 33 (1) 45140606 Fax: 33 (1) 48762514 E-mail: marketing@emd-tech.net Internet: http://www.emd-tech.net

Furrer

Furrer Roentgentechnik [168492] Bueelmatt 12 CH-6204 Sempach Switzerland Phone: 41 (41) 4602120 Fax: 41 (41) 4603283 E-mail: info@roe-furrer.ch

GE Medical

GE Medical Systems [102107] PO Box 414 Milwaukee WI 53201-0414 Phone: (262) 544-3011, (800) 643-6439 Fax: (262) 544-3384 Internet: http://www.gemedicalsystems.com

GE Medical Systems Asia (Japan) [300443] 4-7-127 Asahigaoka Hino-shi Tokyo 191-8503 Japan Phone: 81 (3) 425826820 Fax: 81 (3) 425826830 Internet: http://www.gemedical.co.jp

X-ray Generators

GE Medical Systems Canada [174606] 2300 Meadowvale Blvd Mississauga ON L5N 5P9 Canada Phone: (800) 668-0732 Fax: (905) 567-2115 Internet: http://www.gemedicalsystems.ca

GE Medical Systems Europe [171319]

283 rue de la Miniere

boite postale 34 F-78533 Buc Cedex France Phone: 33 (1) 30704040 Fax: 33 (1) 30709855 E-mail: info@gemedicalsystems.com Internet:

http://www.gemedicalsystemseurope.com/frfr

GTR Labs

GTR Labs Inc [384436]

510 Elk St

Gassaway WV 26624 Phone: (304) 364-2211, (888) 871-9232 Fax: (304) 364-2212 E-mail: gsa00214@mail.wvnet.edu Internet: http://www.gtrllc.com

LISTEM

LISTEM Corp [392886] 414-1 Chongchon-2 dong Pupyong-gu Inchon Republic of Korea Phone: 82 (32) 5155511 Fax: 82 (32) 5129814 E-mail: obd@listem.co.kr Internet: http://www.listem.co.kr

LISTEM USA Inc [393197] 5200 NW 43rd St Suite 102 PMB 338 Gainesville FL 32606 Phone: (352) 271-5232 Fax: (352) 271-8978 E-mail: wchoi12@cs.com Internet: http://www.listem.co.kr

Meditech

Meditech Roentgensysteme GmbH [282234] Kardinal-von-Galen-Strasse 12 D-33332 Guetersloh Germany Phone: 49 (5241) 95555 Fax: 49 (5241) 955599 E-mail: info@meditech-roentgensysteme.de

Medstone

Medstone International Ltd [372618] Medstone House Ridge Way Donibristle Industrial Park Dalgety Bay, Fife KY11 5JN Scotland Phone: 44 (1383) 821890 Fax: 44 (1383) 821877 E-mail: jeremy.wheeler@medstone.co.uk Internet: http://www.medstone.co.uk

Metaltronica

Metaltronica srl [176850] via della Pisana 431 I-00163 Roma Italy Phone: 39 (06) 66160206 Fax: 39 (06) 66160357 E-mail: sales@metaltronica.com Internet: http://www.metaltronica.com

Pacioni

Pacioni & C snc [227240] via Peralba 18-20 I-00141 Roma Italy Phone: 39 (06) 8170030 Fax: 39 (06) 8170030 E-mail: mailcomp@tin.it Internet: http://www.pacioni-c.com

Philips

Philips Medical Systems Asia [188101] 30/Fl Hopewell Centre 17 Kennedy Road Wanchai Hong Kong SAR People’s Republic of China Phone: 852 28215888 Fax: 852 25276727 E-mail: medical@philips.com Internet: http://www.medical.philips.com

Philips Medical Systems North America [102120] 22100 Bothell Everett Hwy PO Box 3003 Bothell WA 98041-3003 Phone: (425) 487-7000, (800) 526-4963 Fax: (425) 485-6080 E-mail: medical@philips.com Internet: http://www.medical.philips.com

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Philips Nederland bv Medical Systems [152365] Postbus 90050 NL-5600 PB Eindhoven The Netherlands Phone: 31 (40) 2782559 Fax: 31 (40) 2780160 E-mail: medical@philips.com Internet: http://www.medical.philips.com

Rendix

Rendix Ltd [179167] PO Box 2183 Qiryat Tivon IL-36094 Israel Phone: 972 (4) 9590233 Fax: 972 (4) 9937104 E-mail: rendix@netvision.net.il

Shimadzu

Shimadzu (Asia Pacific) PTE Ltd [172209] 16 Science Park Drive #01-02 The Pasteur Singapore Science Park Singapore 118227 Republic of Singapore Phone: 65 7786280 Fax: 65 7792935 E-mail: sales@shimadzu.com.sg Internet: http://www.shimadzuasiapac.com.ag

Shimadzu Europe GmbH [161064] Albert-Hahn-Strasse 6-10 D-47269 Duisburg Germany Phone: 49 (203) 76870 Fax: 49 (203) 766625 E-mail: webmaster@shimadzu.de Internet: http://www.shimadzu.de

Shimadzu Medical Systems [106973] 20101 S Vermont Ave Torrance CA 90502-3130 Phone: (310) 217-8855, (800) 228-1429 Fax: (310) 217-0661 E-mail: info@shimadzumed.com Internet: http://www.shimadzu.com

Shimadzu Medical Systems Oceania Pty Ltd

[408259]

Unite E/F 10-16 South Street Rydalmere 2116 NSW Australia Phone: 61 (2) 96844200 Fax: 61 (2) 96844055 E-mail: info@shimadzu.com.au Internet: http://www.shimadzu.com.au

SMAM

SMAM srl [177065] via Tiziano 24 I-20053 Muggio MI Italy Phone: 39 (039) 2781554 Fax: 39 (039) 790213 E-mail: info@smam.it Internet: http://www.smam.it

Stadler

Stadler Elektronik AG [428453] Bahnhofstrasse 16 CH-6014 Littau/Lucerne Switzerland Phone: 41 (41) 2505633 Fax: 41 (41) 2505677 E-mail: info@stadler-elektronik.com Internet: http://www.stadler-elektronik.com

Stephanix

Stephanix [401705] boite postale 294 F-42014 Saint Etienne France Phone: 33 (4) 77478160 Fax: 33 (4) 77375519 E-mail: contact@stephanix.com Internet: http://www.stephanix.com

Toshiba

Toshiba America Medical Systems Inc [101894]

2441 Michelle Dr

PO Box 2068 Tustin CA 92680-7047 Phone: (714) 730-5000, (800) 421-1968 Fax: (714) 832-2570 E-mail: info@tams.com Internet: http://www.medical.toshiba.com

Toshiba Corp

Medical Systems Co Ltd [140664]

1385 Shimoishigami

Otawara-shi, Tochigi Pref 324-8550 Japan Phone: 81 (287) 266301 Fax: 81 (287) 266050 E-mail: info@tams.com Internet: http://www.toshiba-medical.co.jp

X-ray Generators

Toshiba Medical (Australia) Pty Ltd [373230] 5 Byfield Street North Ryde, NSW 2113 Australia Phone: 61 (2) 98876000 Fax: 61 (2) 98874866 Internet: http://www.medical.toshiba.com.au

Toshiba Medical Systems Europe bv [160817] Zilverstraat 1 NL-2718 RP Zoetermeer The Netherlands Phone: 31 (79) 3689222 Fax: 31 (79) 3689444 E-mail: info@tmse.nl Internet: http://www.toshiba-europe.com/medical

Villa

Villa Sistemi Medicali SpA [156442] via delle Azalee 3 I-20090 Buccinasco MI Italy Phone: 39 (02) 488591 Fax: 39 (02) 4881844 E-mail: sales@villasm.com Internet: http://www.villasm.com

VMI

VMI Industria e Comercio Ltda [174435] Rua Pref Eliseu Alves da Silva 400 Dist Industrial Genesco Aparecido de Oliveira Lagoa Santa-MG 33400-000 Brazil Phone: 55 (31) 36819560 Fax: 55 (31) 36819565 E-mail: vmi.bh@zaz.com

XMA

X-Ray Marketing Assoc [106898] 1205 W Lakeview Ct Romeoville IL 60446-6500 Phone: (630) 378-1992, (800) 325-8880 Fax: (630) 378-1048 E-mail: webmaster@xma.com Internet: http://www.xma.com

The following companies did not provide us

with any product information in time for publication. Their addresses are listed as a service to our readers.

Note:

Innomed Medical Inc [150026] Szabo Jozsef utca 12 H-1146 Budapest Hungary Phone: 36 (1) 4609200 Fax: 36 (1) 4609222 E-mail: innomed@innomed.hu Internet: http://www.innomed.hu

Oy Medira AB [162451] Ilkontie 1 FIN-36220 Kangasala Finland Phone: 358 (3) 2345200 Fax: 358 (3) 2345250 E-mail: medira@medira.fi Internet: http://www.medira.fi

Roentgen-Service AG [170912] Meierholweg 4 Emmen CH-6032 Luzern Switzerland Phone: 41 (41) 2600266 Fax: 41 (41) 2608266 Internet: http://www.roentgen-service.ch

About the chart specifications

The following abbreviations are used in the chart:

ABS — Automatic brightness stabilization

AEC — Automatic exposure control

CE — Communaute Europeen

CE mark — Conformite Europeene mark

CRT — Cathode ray tube

CSA — Canadian Standards Association

DSS — Digital satellite system

EEC — European Economic Community

EN — European Norm

ETL — ETL Testing Laboratories

FDA — U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FET — Field-effect transistor

HL7 — Health Level 7

HV — High voltage

IEC — International Electrotechnical Commission

Healthcare Product Comparison System

IGBT — Insulated-gate bipolar transistor

ISO — International Organization for Standardiza- tion

LCD — Liquid crystal display

LED — Light-emitting diode

MDD — Medical Devices Directive

PC — Personal computer

PMT — Photomultiplier tube

SCR — Silicon-controlled rectifier

UL — Underwriters Laboratories

UPS — Uninterruptible power supply

Note: The data in the charts derive from suppli- ers’ specifications and have not been verified through independent testing by ECRI or any other agency. Because test methods vary, different products’ specifi- cations are not always comparable. Moreover, products

and specifications are subject to frequent changes. ECRI is not responsible for the quality or validity of the information presented or for any adverse conse- quences of acting on such information.

When reading the charts, keep in mind that, unless otherwise noted, the list price does not reflect supplier discounts. And although we try to indicate which features and characteristics are standard and which are not, some may be optional, at additional cost.

For those models whose prices were supplied to us in currencies other than U.S. dollars, we have also listed the conversion to U.S. dollars to facilitate com- parison among models. However, keep in mind that exchange rates change often.

Need to know more?

For further information about the contents of this Product Comparison, contact the HPCS Hotline at +1 (610) 825-6000, ext. 5265; +1 (610) 834-1275 (fax); or hpcs@ecri.org (e-mail).

About ECRI

ECRI is a nonprofit health services research agency and a Collaborating Center of the World Health Organization, providing information and technical assistance to the healthcare community to support safe and cost-effective patient care for more than 25 years. The results of ECRI’s research and experience are available through its publications, information systems, databases, technical assis- tance program, laboratory services, seminars, and fellowships.

Our full-time staff includes a wide range of specialists in healthcare technology, hospital admini- stration, financial analysis, risk management, and information and computer science, as well as hospital planners, attorneys, physicists; biomedical, electrical, electronic, chemical, mechanical, and registered engineers; physicians; basic medical scientists; epidemiologists and biostatisticians; and writers, editors, and communications specialists.

Underlying ECRI’s knowledge base in healthcare technology are its integrity and objectivity. ECRI accepts no financial support from medical product manufacturers, and no employee may own stock in or consult for a medical equipment or pharmaceutical company.

The scope of ECRI’s resources extends far beyond technology. ECRI keeps healthcare professionals, manufacturers, legal professionals, information specialists, and others aware of the changing trends in healthcare, healthcare standards and regulations, and the best ways to handle environmental and occupational health and safety issues. ECRI also advises on management issues related to healthcare cost containment, accreditation, risk management, human resources, quality of care, and other complex topics.

ECRI has more than 35 publications, databases, software, and services to fulfill the growing need for healthcare information and decision support. They focus on three primary areas: healthcare technology, healthcare risk and quality management, and healthcare environmental management.

X-ray Generators

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

AMERICOMP

AMERICOMP

AMERICOMP

AMRAD

Spectra 30 HF

Spectra 30 HF AP

Spectra 325e

300 HF

WHERE MARKETED

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

FDA CLEARANCE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CE MARK (MDD)

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

TYPE

High frequency

High frequency

Low frequency

High frequency

MICROPROCESSOR

CONTROLLED

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER RATING kW rating @ 100 kVp mA @ kVp

30

30

37.5

30

300 @ 100

300 @ 100

300 @ 125

300 @ 100

RADIOGRAPHIC MODE

kV range

40-125

40-125

40-125

40-125

mA range

Small focus

50, 100 150, 200, 250, 300

50, 100 150, 200, 250, 300

50, 100 150, 200, 300

50, 100 150, 200, 250, 300

Large focus

mAs range

0.5-400

0.5-400

0.4-600

0.5-400

Timer range, sec

0.004-2.666

0.004-2.666

0.0083-6

0.004-2.666

Switching

IGBT

IGBT

SCR

IGBT

AEC

Optional

Optional

Optional

Optional

Detector type

Ion chamber

Ion chamber

Ion chamber

Ion chamber

Anatomic

programming

No

Yes

No

Yes

FLUOROSCOPIC MODE

No

No

No

No

kV range

NA

NA

NA

NA

mA range

NA

NA

NA

NA

Maximum number of exposures/sec Maximum exposure rate, R/min at patient entrance

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Pulsed fluoroscopy,

pulses/sec

NA

NA

NA

NA

Automatic

brightness control

NA

NA

NA

NA

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

This is the first of two pages covering the above model(s). These specifications continue onto the next page.

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

AMERICOMP

AMERICOMP

AMERICOMP

AMRAD

Spectra 30 HF

Spectra 30 HF AP

Spectra 325e

300 HF

TOMOGRAPHIC MODE

No

No

No

No

X-RAY TUBES, MAXIMUM

1111

LINE-VOLTAGE

 

COMPENSATION

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER REQUIREMENTS

230-250 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 100 A minimum

230-250 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 100 A minimum

230-250 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 70 A minimum

230/250 VAC, single- phase, 100 A minimum

DIMENSIONS

 

Control cabinet

H

x W x D, cm (in)

5 x 30 x 18 (2 x 11.8 x 7.1)

5 x 30 x 18 (2 x 11.8 x 7.1)

117 x 58 x 30 (46.1 x 22.8 x 11.8)

5 x 30 x 18 (2 x 11.8 x 7.1)

Weight, kg (lb)

2 (4.4)

2 (4.4)

102 (225)

2 (4.4)

HV transformer

 

H

x W x D, cm (in)

94 x 51 x 46 (37 x 20.1 x 18.1)

94 x 51 x 46 (37 x 20.1 x 18.1)

123 x 45 x 41 (48.4 x 17.7 x 16.1)

94 x 51 x 46 (37 x 20.1 x 18.1)

Weight, kg (lb)

86 (189.6)

86 (189.6)

91 (200)

86 (189.6)

PURCHASE INFORMATION List price, std configuration

$12,320

$13,150

$6,985

$11,250

Warranty

5 years

5 years

5 years

5 years

Year first sold Fiscal year

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

OTHER SPECIFICATIONS

Meets requirements

Meets requirements

Meets requirements

Meets requirements

of UL.

of UL.

of UL.

of UL.

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

X-ray Generators

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

AMRAD

AMRAD

AMRAD

APELEM

325

375 HF

500 HF

MAGNUM 40 :

 

MAGNUM 50

WHERE MARKETED

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

FDA CLEARANCE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CE MARK (MDD)

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Yes

TYPE

Low frequency

High frequency

High frequency

High frequency,

 

100

kHz

MICROPROCESSOR

CONTROLLED

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER RATING kW rating @ 100 kVp mA @ kVp

37.5

37.5

50

40 : 50

300 @ 125

300 @ 125

500 @ 100

500 @ 80 :

 

630

@ 80

RADIOGRAPHIC MODE

kV range

40-125

40-125, optional 150

40-125, optional 150

40-150

mA range

Small focus

50, 100 150, 200, 300

25-200 in 25 mA 25-375 in 25 mA

25-500 in 25 mA 25-500 in 25 mA

10-500 : 10-630 10-500 : 10-630

Large focus

mAs range

0.4-600

0.1-420

0.1-600

0.5-1,000

Timer range, sec

0.00083-6

Not specified

Not specified

0.001-6.3

Switching

SCR

FET

FET

IGBT

AEC

Optional

Optional

Optional

Yes

Detector type

Ion chamber

Ion chamber

Ion chamber

Ion chamber

Anatomic

programming

No

Yes

Yes

768 programs

FLUOROSCOPIC MODE

No

No

No

No : Yes NA : 40-125

kV range

NA

NA

NA

mA range

NA

NA

NA

NA : 0.5-6

Maximum number of exposures/sec Maximum exposure rate, R/min at patient entrance

NA

NA

NA

NA : 30

NA

NA

NA

NA : Not specified

Pulsed fluoroscopy,

pulses/sec

NA

NA

NA

NA : No

Automatic

brightness control

NA

NA

NA

NA : Yes

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

This is the first of two pages covering the above model(s). These specifications continue onto the next page.

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

AMRAD

AMRAD

AMRAD

APELEM

325

375 HF

500 HF

MAGNUM 40 :

 

MAGNUM 50

TOMOGRAPHIC MODE

No

No

No

Yes

X-RAY TUBES, MAXIMUM

1

1

1

1+1 (optional) : 2

LINE-VOLTAGE

 

COMPENSATION

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER REQUIREMENTS

320-250 VAC, single- phase, 70 A minimum

230/250 VAC, single- phase, 100 A minimum

400 VAC, 3-phase, 100 A minimum

380 VAC ±10%, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase

DIMENSIONS

 

Control cabinet

H

x W x D, cm (in)

117 x 58 x 30 (46.1 x 22.8 x 11.8)

8 x 43 x 23 (3.1 x 16.9 x 9.1)

8 x 43 x 23 (3.1 x 16.9 x 9.1)

7 x 56 x 23 (2.8 x 22 x 9.1)

Weight, kg (lb)

102 (224.9)

3 (6.6)

3 (6.6)

4 (8.8)

HV transformer

 

H

x W x D, cm (in)

123 x 45 x 41 (48.4 x 17.7 x 16.1)

94 x 41 x 46 (37 x 16.1 x 18.1)

94 x 41 x 46 (37 x 16.1 x 18.1)

123 x 45 x 41 (48.4 x 17.7 x 16.1)

Weight, kg (lb)

91 (200.7)

100 (220.5)

100 (220.5)

107 (236)

PURCHASE INFORMATION List price, std configuration

$6,985

$16,210

$20,545

Not specified

Warranty

5 years

5 years

5 years

1 year

Year first sold Fiscal year

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

1998

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

OTHER SPECIFICATIONS

Meets requirements

Meets requirements

Meets requirements

Digital display; full x-ray tube protection; 3-, 2-, 1-point techniques; optional capacitor- discharge model (GTI 30HF/DC). Meets requirements of ISO.

of UL>.

of UL.

of UL.

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

X-ray Generators

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

APELEM

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

MAGNUM 65 :

Milestone MS 325 : MS 525

Milestone HF

Milestone HF MS 450HF : MS 550HF

MAGNUM 80

MS 350HF

WHERE MARKETED

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

FDA CLEARANCE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CE MARK (MDD)

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

TYPE

High frequency,

Single-phase

High frequency, single- or 3-phase

High frequency, single- or 3-phase

100 kHz

MICROPROCESSOR

CONTROLLED

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER RATING kW rating @ 100 kVp mA @ kVp

65 : 80 800 @ 80 :

30 : 40

30

40 : 50 500 @ 80, 400 @ 100, 200 @ 150 :

300 @ 125 :

360 @ 80, 300 @ 100,

 

1,000 @ 80

500 @ 90,

 

400

@ 110,

150 @ 150

600 @ 80, 500 @ 100, 250 @ 150

300

@ 125

RADIOGRAPHIC MODE

kV range

40-150

40-125

40-150

40-150

mA range

Small focus

10-800 : 10-1,000 10-800 : 10-1,000

25-100

20-200

20-200

Large focus

100-300 : 100-500

100-400

100-500 : 100-600

mAs range

0.5-1,000

0.2-600

0.4-600

0.4-600

Timer range, sec

0.001-6.3

0.008-6

0.003-6

0.003-6

Switching

IGBT

SCR

IGBT

IGBT

AEC

Yes

Optional

Optional

Optional

Detector type

Ion chamber

Solid-state

Solid-state

Solid-state

Anatomic

programming

768 programs

No

100 exams

100 exams

FLUOROSCOPIC MODE

Yes

Optional

Optional

Optional

kV range

40-125

40-125

50-125

50-125

mA range

0.5-6

1-4

0.5-9

0.5-9

Maximum number of exposures/sec Maximum exposure rate, R/min at patient entrance

30

10

10

10

Not specified

10 with ABS

10 with ABS

10 with ABS

Pulsed fluoroscopy,

pulses/sec

Optional

No

No

No

Automatic

brightness control

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

This is the first of two pages covering the above model(s). These specifications continue onto the next page.

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

APELEM

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

MAGNUM 65 :

Milestone MS 325 : MS 525

Milestone HF

Milestone HF MS 450HF : MS 550HF

MAGNUM 80

MS 350HF

TOMOGRAPHIC MODE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

X-RAY TUBES, MAXIMUM

2122

LINE-VOLTAGE

 

COMPENSATION

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER REQUIREMENTS

380 VAC ±10%, 50/60 Hz, 3 phase

208-240 VAC :

208-240 VAC, single or 3 phase or 380-400 VAC, 3 phase, 50/60 Hz

208-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz, single or 3 phase or 380-400 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3 phase

380 VAC; 50/60 Hz, 100 A, single phase

DIMENSIONS

 

Control cabinet

H

x W x D, cm (in)

7 x 56 x 23 (2.8 x 22 x 9.1)

109 x 40 x 33 (43 x 16 x 13)

40 x 46 x 95 (16 x 18 x 37.5)

40 x 46 x 95 (16 x 18 x 37.5)

Weight, kg (lb)

4 (8.8)

86 (190)

120 (265)

120 (265)

HV transformer

 

H

x W x D, cm (in)

Not specified

58 x 33 x 46 (23 x 13 x 18)

Included in cabinet

Included in cabinet

Weight, kg (lb)

107 (236)

154 (340)

Included in cabinet

Included in cabinet

PURCHASE INFORMATION List price, std configuration

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Warranty

1 year

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

Year first sold Fiscal year

1998

Not specified

OTHER SPECIFICATIONS

Digital display; full x-ray tube protection; 3-, 2-, 1-point techniques; optional high- contrast fluoro mode. Meets require- ments of ISO.

Digital display; tube overload protection; mAs display; digital timer; MS 525 is equipped with overcurrent protection.

Compact control console and cabinet; manual override; technique reprogramming; self- diagnostic software.

Compact control console and cabinet; manual override; technique reprogramming; self- diagnostic software.

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

X-ray Generators

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

PCX 525/I

PCX HF 350HF : 450HF

PCX HF

PCX HF 850HF : 1050HF

 

550HF

WHERE MARKETED

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

FDA CLEARANCE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CE MARK (MDD)

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

TYPE

Single-phase

High frequency, single- or 3-phase

High frequency,

High frequency,

 

3-phase

3-phase

MICROPROCESSOR

CONTROLLED

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER RATING kW rating @ 100 kVp mA @ kVp

50

30 : 40 400 @ 80, 300 @ 100, 150 @ 150 :

50

65 : 80 800 @ 80, 650 @ 100, 420 @ 150 :

500 @ 100, 400 @ 125

600 @ 80, 500 @ 100, 250 @ 150

 

500 @ 80, 400 @ 100, 200 @ 150

1,000 @ 80, 800 @ 100, 500 @ 150

RADIOGRAPHIC MODE

kV range

40-125

40-150

40-150

40-150

mA range

Small focus

25-200

20-200

20-200

20-200

Large focus

100-500

100-400 : 100-500

100-600

100-800 : 100-1,000

mAs range

0.2-600

0.4-600

0.4-600

0.5-600

Timer range, sec

0.008-6

0.003-6

0.003-6

0.003-6

Switching

SCR

IGBT

IGBT

IGBT

AEC

Optional

Optional

Optional

Optional

Detector type

Solid-state

Solid-state

Solid-state

Solid-state

Anatomic

programming

127 exams

160 exams

160 exams

160 exams

FLUOROSCOPIC MODE

Optional

Optional

Optional

Optional

kV range

40-115

50-125

50-125

50-125

mA range

1-4

0.5-9

0.5-9

0.5-9

Maximum number of exposures/sec Maximum exposure rate, R/min at patient entrance

10

10

10

10

10 with ABS

10 with ABS

10 with ABS

10 with ABS

Pulsed fluoroscopy,

pulses/sec

No

No

No

No

Automatic

brightness control

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

This is the first of two pages covering the above model(s). These specifications continue onto the next page.

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

CONTROL-X

PCX 525/I

PCX HF 350HF : 450HF

PCX HF

PCX HF 850HF : 1050HF

 

550HF

TOMOGRAPHIC MODE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

X-RAY TUBES, MAXIMUM

2222

LINE-VOLTAGE

 

COMPENSATION

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER REQUIREMENTS

208-240 VAC, 100 A, 50/60 Hz, single- phase

208-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz, single- or 3-phase or 380-400 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase

240 or 380-400 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase

380/480 VAC, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase

DIMENSIONS

 

Control cabinet

H

x W x D, cm (in)

38 x 41 x 36 (15 x 16 x 14)

40 x 46 x 95 (15.7 x 18 x 37.5)

40 x 46 x 95 (15.7 x 18 x 37.5)

57 x 56 x 203 (22.5 x 22.3 x 80)

Weight, kg (lb)

12 (26)

120 (265)

120 (265)

306 (680)

HV transformer

 

H

x W x D, cm (in)

56 x 66 x 84 (22 x 26 x 33)

Included in cabinet

Included in cabinet

Included in cabinet

Weight, kg (lb)

234 (515)

Included in cabinet

Included in cabinet

Included in cabinet

PURCHASE INFORMATION List price, std configuration

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Warranty

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

5 years (2 full, 3 prorated) Not specified January to December

Year first sold Fiscal year

OTHER SPECIFICATIONS

Continuous digital readouts on CRT display; integrated computer records exposure parameters and is equipped with self-diagnostics.

PC controlled with touchscreen monitor, manual override, technique reprogramming, self- diagnostic software.

PC controlled with touchscreen monitor, manual override, technique reprogramming, self- diagnostic software.

PC controlled with touchscreen monitor, manual override, technique reprogramming, self- diagnostic software.

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

X-ray Generators

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

CPI

CPI

CPI

CPI

CMP200 30 kW :

CMP200 40 kW :

Indico 100 32 kW

Indico 100 40 kW

CMP200 32 kW

CMP200 50 kW

WHERE MARKETED

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worlwide

FDA CLEARANCE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CE MARK (MDD)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

TYPE

High frequency

High frequency

High frequency

High frequency

MICROPROCESSOR

CONTROLLED

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER RATING kW rating @ 100 kVp mA @ kVp

30 : 32 Not specified

40 : 50 Not specified

32

40

Not specified

Not specified

RADIOGRAPHIC MODE

kV range

40-125

40-125 : 40-150

40-150

40-150

mA range

Small focus

25-400 *

25-500 : 25-600 * 25-500 : 25-600 *

10-320 *

10-500 *

Large focus

25-400 *

10-320 *

10-500 *

mAs range

0.4-500

0.4-500

0.5-1,000 (non-AEC)

0.5-1,000 (non-AEC)

Timer range, sec

0.001-6.3

0.001-6.3

0.001-6.3

0.001-6.3

Switching

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber or solid-state

FET inverter, 100 kHz : Not specified Yes Ion chamber or solid-state :

Not specified

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber, solid- state, or PMT

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber, solid- state, or PMT

AEC

Detector type

Anatomic

programming

768 techniques

768 techniques

768 techniques

768 techniques

FLUOROSCOPIC MODE

No

No

Yes

Yes

kV range

NA

NA

40-125

40-125

mA range

NA

NA

0.5-6 continuous **

0.5-6 continuous **

Maximum number of exposures/sec Maximum exposure rate, R/min at patient entrance

NA

NA

Not specified

Not specified

NA

NA

Not specified

Not specified

Pulsed fluoroscopy,

pulses/sec

NA

NA

2.5, 6, 12.5, 25,50; 3, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 ***

2.5, 6, 12.5, 25,50; 3, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 ***

Automatic

brightness control

NA

NA

Yes

Yes

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

Not to exceed manufacturer's x-ray tube limits. High-contrast fluoroscopy levels available.

Depends in imaging system.

With multiple programmable kV/mA tracking curves.

***

**

*

This is the first of two pages covering the above model(s). These specifications continue onto the next page.

Healthcare Product Comparison System

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

CPI

CPI

CPI

CPI

CMP200 30 kW :

CMP200 40 kW :

Indico 100 32 kW

Indico 100 40 kW

CMP200 32 kW

CMP200 50 kW

TOMOGRAPHIC MODE

No

No

Yes

Yes

X-RAY TUBES, MAXIMUM

1122

LINE-VOLTAGE

 

COMPENSATION

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

Automatic

SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

Error codes

Error codes

Error codes

Error codes

POWER REQUIREMENTS

208/230 VAC, single- phase : 400/480 3- phase *

400/480 VAC, 3-phase *

230 VAC, single- phase; 400/480, 3-phase *

213 VAC, single- phase; 400/480, 3-phase *

DIMENSIONS

 

Control cabinet

H

x W x D, cm (in)

3.7 x 10.9 x 12.3 (1.5 x 4.3 x 4.8)

3.7 x 10.9 x 12.3 (1.5 x 4.3 x 4.8)

3.7 x 16.6 x 12.3 (1.5 x 6.5 x 4.8)

3.7 x 16.6 x 12.3 (1.5 x 6.5 x 4.8)

Weight, kg (lb)

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

HV transformer

 

H

x W x D, cm (in)

24.3 x 13.7 x 19.7 (9.6 x 5.4 x 7.8)

24.3 x 13.7 x 19.7 (9.6 x 5.4 x 7.8)

48.7 x 22 x 18.2 (19.2 x 8.7 x 7.2)

48.7 x 22 x 18.2 (19.2 x 8.7 x 7.2)

Weight, kg (lb)

51 (112.5)

51 (112.5)

112 (247)

112 (247)

PURCHASE INFORMATION List price, std configuration

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Warranty

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Year first sold Fiscal year

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

OTHER SPECIFICATIONS

Optional GenWare service software, laptop interface, pedestal stand, wall mount, x-ray hand- switch, collimator, lamp power.

Optional GenWare service software, laptop interface, pedestal stand, wall mount, x-ray hand- switch, collimator, lamp power.

Optional GenWare service software, DSS, digital inter- face, laptop inter- face, remote fluoro, pedestal stand, wall mount, x-ray hand- switch, kV/mAs step- ping, color touch- screen, integral DAP, falling load operation, custom interfaces, 3-phase 208/240 VAC line adjust transformer.

Optional GenWare service software, DSS, digital inter- face, laptop inter- face, remote fluoro, pedestal stand, wall mount, x-ray hand- switch, kV/mAs step- ping, color touch- screen, integral DAP, falling load operation, custom interfaces, 3-phase 208/240 VAC line adjust transformer.

Colons separate data on similar models of a device.

* Other output power levels available between 30 kW and 50 kW with single-phase input requirements.

X-ray Generators

Product Comparison Chart

MODEL

CPI

CPI

CPI

CPI

Indico 100 50 kW

Indico 100 65 kW

Indico 100 80 kW

Indico 100 100 kW

WHERE MARKETED

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

Worldwide

FDA CLEARANCE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

CE MARK (MDD)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

TYPE

High frequency

High frequency

High frequency

High frequency

MICROPROCESSOR

CONTROLLED

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

POWER RATING kW rating @ 100 kVp mA @ kVp

50

65

80

100

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

RADIOGRAPHIC MODE

kV range

40-150

40-150

40-150

40-150

mA range

Small focus

10-630 *

10-800 *

10-1,000 *

10-1,000 *

Large focus

10-630 *

10-800 *

10-1,000 *

10-1,000 *

mAs range

0.5-1,000 (non-AEC)

0.5-1,000 (non-AEC)

0.5-1,000 (non-AEC)

0.5-1,000 (non-AEC)

Timer range, sec

0.001-6.3

0.001-6.3

0.001-6.3

0.001-6.3

Switching

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber, solid- state, or PMT

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber, solid- state, or PMT

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber, solid- state, or PMT

FET inverter, 100 kHz Yes Ion chamber, solid- state, or PMT

AEC

Detector type

Anatomic

programming

768 techniques

768 techniques

768 techniques

768 techniques

FLUOROSCOPIC MODE

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

kV range

40-125

40-125

40-125

40-125

mA range

0.5-6 continuous **

0.5-6 continuous **

0.5-6 continuous **

0.5-6 continuous **

Maximum number of exposures/sec Maximum exposure rate, R/min at patient entrance

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Pulsed fluoroscopy,

pulses/sec

2.5, 6, 12.5, 25,50; 3, 7.5, 15, 20, 60 ***

2.5, 6, 12.5, 25,50; 3, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 ***

2.5, 6, 12.5, 25,50; 3, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 ***

2.5, 6, 12.5, 25,50; 3, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 ***

Automatic

brightness control

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Colons separate data on simila