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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

P.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI - 642 002 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ME 2302 COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING TWO MARK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 - 2013

Prepared By Mr.M.Mohan Prasad M.E., MBA

PA College of Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Department

ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 1 CAD/CAM INTERFACE PART- A


1. What are the activities of CAD? CAD activities include product design, engineering analysis and drafting 2. What are the activities of CAM? A CAM activity includes process planning, NC part programming, production scheduling, and computer production monitoring and computer process control. 3. In what way CIM differs from CAD/CAM? A CIM includes all of the engineering function of CAD/CAM, but it also includes the firms business functions that are related to manufacturing. 4. List few of the current trends in manufacturing engineering a. Group technology b. Rapid prototyping c. Concurrent engineering d. CAPP 5. What is group technology? Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified and grouped together to get the advantages of similarities in both design and manufacturing attributes. 6. List out any four benefits of GT? a. Setup time and cost for MHS is reduced b. Standardization of tooling and setups c. Production scheduled are simplified 7. What is meant by part family? Part family is a collection of parts which are similar either because of geometric shape or because of similar steps that are required in their manufacture. 8. Write the various methods of part family formation a. Visual inspection b. Production flow analysis c. Part classification and coding system

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

9. What is meant by PFA method? Production flow analysis is a method for identifying part families and associated machine groupings that uses the information contained on production route sheets rather than on part drawings. 10. What are the steps involved in PFA? a. Preparation of route sheets b. Preparation of PFA charts c. Cluster analysis. 11. What are different types of coding structure used in part coding schemes? a. Hierarchical codes b. Attribute codes c. Hybrid codes 12. List out some of the coding system commonly used in industries? a. Optiz b. MICLASS c. DCLASS d. CODE 13. What is the basis for forming groups in group Technology? The groups are formed based on the similarities of part design and part manufacturing attributes. 14. Define process planning. Process planning can be defined as an act of preparing a described processing documentation for the manufacture of a part or assembly 15. Write the various approaches in process planning. a. Manual process planning b. Computer aided process planning 16. What are the components of generative CAPP systems? a. A part description b. A sub system c. Database d. A report generator 17. Why the retrieval CAPP system is called as variant CAPP system? A retrieval CAPP system has the capacity to alter an existing plan. Thats why it is known as variant CAPP system.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

18. List any two commercially available retrieval CAPP systems. a. Multi CAPP b. MIPLAN 19. List any two commercially available generative CAPP systems. a. APPAS b. CMPP c. EXCAP d. XPLAN 20. What is meant by concurrent engineering? Concurrent engineering deals with carrying out the design and manufacture activities at the same time while designing the product. 21. What are the objectives of concurrent engineering? a. Decreased product development lead time b. Improved profitability c. Close integration between departments d. Improved product quality 22. What is meant by QFD? Quality function deployment is a planning tool used to identify and carry the customers voice through each stage of product development and implementation. 23. What are Taguchi methods? Taguchi methods focus on design and attempt to determine the best combination of design parameters which results in superior performance of the product. 24. What is rapid prototyping? Rapid prototyping is a term used to describe number techniques which rapidly produce solid physical models of components and products using 3D computer data. 25. What are the various techniques used in rapid prototyping? a. Stereo lithography b. Selective laser sintering c. Fused deposition modeling d. Soldier e. Laminated object manufacturing
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC MACHINES PART- A


1. Define NC system? NC is defined as a form of programmable automation in which the process is controlled by alphanumeric data. 2. What is MCU? MCU is a hardware system which reads, interprets and translates the program of instructions into mechanical action of machine tool. 3. List out any four advantage of using NC? Increased flexibility. Reduced setup time. Production of complex part. Elimination of special jigs and fixtures. 4. What are the limitations of using NC? Relatively high price. More complicated maintenance, a special crew is desirable. Highly skilled and properly trained programmers are needed. 5. What are all the problems encountered with NC system? Part programming mistakes. Non-optional speeds and feeds. Problem with punched tape and tape reader. Problem with controller and management information. 6. Define CNC? CNC is defined as a NC system that utilizes a dedicated, stored computer program to perform some or the entire basic NC functions. 7. Write the main functions of CNC? Machine tool control. In-process compensation. Improved programming and operating features. Diagnostics 8. What are the functions of diagnostic system in NC machine tools? To identify the reason for a down time occurrence so that maintenance personal should make repairs fast.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

To alert to signs that indicate the imminent failure of certain component which are considered unreliable 9. Write any four application of NC system? Application are in aero equipment; printed circuit boards; coil winding; automobile parts; and blue print of complex shapes. 10. List the differences between NC and CNC system?
NC system 1. Programming and punched tape is read every time 2. Moderate manual work. 3. Medium flexible. 4. Part programming is used CNC system Only one time the tape is read and stored. Less manual work. More flexible Reprogramming is easy

11. List the differences between open loop and closed loop control system?
Open loop control system 1. Feedback device is not used 2. Low accuracy. 3. Low maintenance is required. 4. Less expensive. Closed loop control system Feedback device is used Higher accuracy can be achieved. More maintenance is needed Cost of the equipment is high

12. List any two advantages and disadvantages of open loop control system? Advantages: Low cost and less manual work. Disadvantages: Low accuracy. Periodically adjustments are required to compensate backlash errors. 13. What is the function of a transducer? Transducer is a device in which one form of physical quantity like speed, velocity is converted into another form of physical quantity. 14. What are all the basic elements of closed loop control system? a. Input parameter b. Output variable c. Controller.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

d. Process. e. Sensor. f. Actuator. 15. Write the various types of MCU used in CNC machines? Three types of MCU are a. Housed MCU b. Swing around MCU c. Stand alone MCU. 16. Define DNC? Direct numerical control system is defined as a manufacturing system in which a number of machine tools are controlled by a computer through direct connection and in real time. 17. List the main component of DNC? Main component are a. Central computer. b. Bulk memory. c. Telecommunications lines. d. Machine tools. 18. Write the functions of DNC? It will take some of the burden of the main computer. Each satellite computer. 19. List out the types of CNC machine? CNC machine can be classified as: Machining centers Lathe machines Drilling machine Turning centers Milling machines Gear shaping CNC gear hobbling 20. Define the term Basic unit length? The minimum possible incremental movement is called the Basic unit length (BLU). The BLU might be on the order of 0.01 mm in typical machine tool system.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 3 CONSTRUCTION FUTURES OF CNC MACHINES PART- A


1. Write the functions of sideways. The functions of sideways: a. To control the line of action of the carriage/table on which the tool/work piece is held. b. To absorb static and dynamic forces. 2. List out the characteristics of sideways used in CNC. The sideways should have the following characteristics. a. Good rigidity and damping capability. b. Good wear and friction resistance. c. Geometric and kinematic accuracy. d. Ensure higher velocity of slide. e. Protect against damage and sward. f. Provision for adjusting the play g. Position in relation to work area. 3. What are the different types of friction guide ways? The different types of friction guide ways are: a. Flat guide b. Vee guide c. Dovetail guide and d. Cylindrical guide. 4. List the limitations of friction guide ways? The limitations of friction guide ways ARE: a. Surface to surface contact between the sliding members, which leads to more amount of wear. b. Large amount of friction and heat developed in the sliding parts. 5. Write the advantages of LM guide ways? The following are the advantages: a. To reduce the amount of wear b. To reduce the friction.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

c. To reduce heat generation d. To improve smoothness. e. Zero stick slip. 6. What is hydrostatic guide ways? State the classification of it? The guide ways in which the surface contact between the sliding parts is separated by a thin layer of fluid (oil or air) is known as hydrostatic guide ways. 7. What is actuating system? Write the various types of actuating system used in CNC? Actuation systems are used to convert the rotational movement into translation movement. The two types of actuation systems used in CNC are: a. Screw and nut, and b. Rack and pinion. 8. What are the advantages of ball screws sideways over conventional sideways. a. Ball screws have longer life. b. Higher accuracy can be maintained. c. Low frictional resistance and hence used for carrying heavier loads at faster rate. d. Low power requirement for driving. 9. What is meant by feed drive? List the different types of feed drives. Feed drive is used to provide motion to the slide as per the motion commands. Feed drives are classified as follows: I. Servo motors, a. AC servo motor, b. DC servo motor, c. Brushless DC servo motor II. III. Stepper motors, and Linear motors.

10. What is the function of ATC? The function of ATC is to change the tool once the particular operation is over and the next tool is automatically changed and positioned for machining based on the tool sequence given in part program.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

11. What is machining center? Write the different types of machining centre. How it differs from conventional CNC milling machines? The centers which consists of multi function CNC machines equipped with ATC which are capable of carrying out milling, reaming, tapping, boring, counter boring and allied operations without operator intervention is called machining centre. Different types of machining centers are: a. Horizontal machining centre, b. Vertical machining centre, c. Universal machining centre. 12. What are the functions of feedback drives? The functions of feedback drives are: a. To convert one form of physical quantity like speed, displacement, etc., into electrical signals. b. This electrical signal is then compared with the reference signal to check whether the desired motion of tool/worktable is achieved or not. 13. Enumerate the various feedback devices used in CNC system? There are two types of feedback devices used in CNC system. a. Position feedback devices (Example : Linear transducers, encoders) b. Velocity feedback devices (Example : Tachogenerator) 14. What is the use of position feedback circuits and classify it. Position feedback circuits are used to measure the position of the tool edge with reference to the machine slide. They may be classified as:

Rotary transducers a. Rotary encoder b. Resolver

Linear transducers a. Glass scales with line gratin. b. Ferranti system. c. Binary coded system.

15. What are the different forms of Inductosyn? Where it is used and why? Inductosyn are classified into: Rotary encoder and Linear encoder.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

Rotary form is used in precision servo systems on machine tools whereas linear forma are used in automatic machine tool slide controls. Reason: Inductosyn is a precision feedback device for the accurate measurement and control of angles or distances with inductive coupling between conductors separated by a small space. 16. What is a rotary type encoder? Where it is used? An encoder is a rotary transducer that provides continuous or discrete signal value of an angular or linear movement. It is used in the CNC at the end of the slide screw directly or through gearing timer belt. 17. What is the role of optical grating in CNC drive? An optical grating is a glass strip marked with series of equally spaced transparent opaque lines. They are used as transducers on machine tools. This is used to measure the position of the table. 18. What is Inductosyn? Inductosyn is a analogue type position back device which is used for the, measurement of control angle and/or linear distance. 19. Write the various measures employed in CNC machine to minimize the structural deformation. To avoid the structural deformation, following precautions have to be considered. a. Providing a proper design mild steel structure having higher stiffness. b. Use of ribs, braces and plates to increase the stiffness of machine. c. Providing large heat removing surfaces. d. Use of excellent coolants. e. Reduction of ambient temperature by using air conditioning units 20. Write the salient features of tooling system? The following features should be considered before the selection of tooling. a. Rigidity to withstand higher cutting forces b. Rigidity to transmit the spindle power at higher speed. c. Perform variety of cutting operations. d. To keep down time

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 4 PART PROGRAMMING FOR CNC MACHINE PART- A


1. Define numerical control. Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which the mechanical action of machine tool or other processing equipment are controlled by a program containing alphanumeric data numbers, letters and symbols. 2. How tapes are standardized? List some of them. Tape standardization covers two important categories. a. Physical dimensions, and b. Character coding. 3. What are the different types of dimensioning system used? a. Absolute dimensioning or baseline dimensioning system. b. Incremental dimensioning or delta dimensioning system. 4. What is BIT? What is the use of it? Bit is an abbreviation of Binary digit which can be 1 or 0.Uses in binary coded decimal system. 5. What is block? Write the significance of it? Block is the basic unit of a part program input to the control. It contains adequate information for the machine to perform a movement and for functions. 6. What Is G code? How G codes are represented? It is the series of combination of 1s and 0s.It represents a number or an alphabet or any symbol. 7. Write the different types of tape programming format? The following are the types of tape programming format. a. Word address format, b. Table sequential format, c. Fined block format. 8. Explain the functions of codes G28 and M30. G28 = Mirroring

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

M30 = End of data. 9. State the function of post processor in CAPP. Post processor is separate computer program which has been used to prepare the punched tape for a specific machine tool. 10. List out some of the important NC languages. a. APT b. ADAPT c. EXAPT d. Compact II e. PROMPT f. CINTURNII 11. What are the four statements used in APT language? a. Geometric statements b. Motion statements c. Post processor statements d. Auxiliary statements. 12. How can you represent an APT geometric statement? Symbol = Geometry/Descriptive data Example: point, line, circle, plane 13. What are the different types of surfaces used for achieving continuous path commands? a. Drive surface, which guides the tool. b. Part surface, on which the bottom of the tool rides. c. Check surface, which stops the movement of the tool. 14. List the motion command words used in achieving path commands. a. GOLFT b. GORGT c. GOFWD d. GOBACK e. GOUP f. GODOWN 15. What are the modifiers used with motion command words? a. TO b. ON
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

c. PAST d. TANTO 16. List any four post processor statements. a. COOLANT/ON,OFF,MIST b. RAPID c. TURRET d. MACHIN 17. Write any four auxiliary statements. a. INTOL b. OUTTOL c. CLPRNT d. PARTNO e. FINI 18. What are the identifications needed to store a tool library? a. Tool dimension details and b. Tool assembly details. 19. Difference between 21/2 and 3 axes machine. a. 21/2 axis machining implies that the machine movements are in planes parallel to the X-Y plane. b. 3 axes machining implies that machine movements are in all the 3 axes (X, Y and Z) 20. What is the role of computer aided part programming? The role of computers in CAPP is as follows: a. Input translation b. Arithmetic calculations c. Cutter offset compensators d. Post processor.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

UNIT - 5 COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING AND DATA BASE FOR CAM PART- A
1. What is meant my process planning? Process planning is the systematic determination of the methods by which a product is to be manufactured, economically and competitively. 2. List the activities and associated with process planning. a. Analysis finished part requirements b. Determining operating sequence c. Selecting machines d. Selecting material parameters e. Calculating processing times f. Documenting process planning 3. What is meant by CAPP? CAPP refers to computer-aided process planning. CAPP is used to overcome the drawbacks of manual process planning. With the use of computers in the process planning, one can reduce the routine clerical work of manufacturing engineers. Also it provides the opportunity to generate rational, consistent and optimal plans. 4. What are the basic approaches of CAPP? a. Retrieval (or variant) CAPP system, and b. Generative CAPP system. 5. Differentiate the underlying concepts of variant and generative CAPP systems. In variant CAPP system, a process plan for new part is created by recalling, identifying and retrieving an existing plan for a similar part, and making the necessary modifications for the new part. Whereas the generative CAPP system automatically generates the process plan based on decision logics and pre coded algorithms. 6. List the various components of a generative CAPP system. A part description. A subsystem to define the machining parameters. A subsystem to select and sequence individual operations.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

A database A report generator 7. List some commercial variant and generative CAPP software systems. Some of the commercial variant CAPP systems include CUTPLAN, COMCAPP V, DCLASS, and INTELLICAP Some of the commercial generative CAPP systems include AUTAP, CMPP, GENPLAN, and LOCAM 8. What is CMPP? The CMPP stands for computer-managed process planning. It is a commercial generative process planning system capable of automatically making process decisions. 9. Define the terms database and data model. A database may be defined as a well organized collection of data that are related in a meaningful way which can be accessed in differential logical orders but are stored only once. A data model is a logical representation of a collection of data elements/fields. 10. Define the terms schema and PBMS? The schema is a diagrammatic representation of the database structure. A database management system (DBMS) is the collection of software which generates runs and maintains a database. 11. What is the use of data definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML)? A data definition language is used to describe the schema, the database definitions and the logical links between the data to the DBMS. A data manipulation language is used to describe only access or retrieval transactions and to pass data to user programs. 12. What is data modeling? Data modeling is a method of depicting graphically data groupings and the relationship between groupings. 13. Classify data models. a. Record - based data models Hierarchical data models.
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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

Network data models. Relational data models b. Object - oriented data models. 14. What is a hierarchical data model? In a hierarchical database, fields or records area arranged in related groups resembling a family tree, with lower - level records subordinate to higher levels. 15. What is a relational data model? A relational data model relates or connects data in different files through the use of a key field, or common data element. 16. What is an object - oriented database system? An object - oriented database system uses objects, software written in small, rescale chunks, as elements within database files. 17. What are data associations? Data associations are the relationship between the attributes of an entity. Associations between attributes of an entity can be of three types. One to one association, One-to-many association, and Many-to-many association.

18. List various relational database operators. a. Union b. Intersection c. Difference d. Product e. Select f. Project g. Join h. Divide 19. Write the purpose of data operators select and join. Select creates a relation by extracting specific rows from a specified relation, usually by reference to particular attribute values.

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ME 2302 - Computer Aided Manufacturing

Join builds a relation from the rows of two specified relations on the basis of equal values in an attribute which is part of both constituent relations. 20. List some important features of DBMS. a. Data dictionary b. Utilities c. Query language d. Data recovery e. Report generator f. Access security

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