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Prepared By: KANISHK B SHAH (o6m52)








This project work is the bonafide work done by following students of VIII semester of Mechanical Engineering Department of U. V. Patel College of Engineering, under the guidance of Mr. H. J. THAKKAR SIR towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical) of Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar.




Guide:H.J.THAKKAR InternalExaminer:____________________ ExternalExaminer:____________________ HeadofDepartment:S.M.PATEL (ME/MCDept.)



This project work is the bonafide work done by KANISHK B SHAH, Roll No. 06 ME 52, student of VIII semester of Mechanical Engineering Department of U. V. Patel College of Engineering, under the guidance of Mr. H. J. THAKKAR SIR towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical) of Ganpat University, Ganpat Vidyanagar.

Guide:H.J.THAKKAR InternalExaminer:____________________ ExternalExaminer:____________________ HeadofDepartment:S.M.PATEL

Acknowledgement This Project shall be incomplete if I fail to convey my heart-felt gratitude to those people whom I received considerable support and encouragement during this project creation. Lots of People have helped, provided technical, commercial and also behavioral acumen at all levels of the project and it`s my luck for get the kind of support of them. I have no words to thanks to our special project faculty Mr. H. J. Thakkar sir for giving us his innumerous knowledge among our group of for project partners. They are becoming as Way to take us from dark to bright future and specially they play their important role for Motivation and to endeavor for succeed in project creation.

Regards, KANISHK B SHAH Abstract My Project DESIGN ANALYSIS AND FABRICATION OF RADIATOR [Air cooled heat exchanger] mainly focuses on the thermal design and analysis of radiator as heat exchanger only. We have developed this work as our semester project with a view to get familiar with the technologies as well as application of theories into practical work done by industries. My project contains the design and material selection of the radiator for different type of vehicles also. For better efficiency, improvement of heat transfer rate is important phenomenon. So we try to improve this existing radiator of MARUTI WAGONR

( )

Sr no.

Acknowledgment Abstract

PAGE NO 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 8 8 10 12 14 16 16 18 19 20 20 21

Index List of fig List of table Company profile 1 2 2.1 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 Literature review Heat exchanger Introduction Types of heat exchanger Double pipe heat exchanger Shell and tube type heat exchanger Regenerative type heat exchanger Classification of heat exchanger Design concept Fouling factor or fouling of heat exchanger Log mean temperature difference Overall heat transfer coefficient Air cooled heat exchanger Introduction Construction Finned tubes Headers Radiators Introduction Radiator and car part cooling system

7.3 7.4

Automobile radiator Coolant Design analysis Problem formulation Calculation Conclusion Fabrication of radiators Introduction Fabrication methods Fabrication components (CAAB) Controlled atmosphere aluminum brazing CAAB specifications CAAB advantages Bibliography

22 22 26 26 27 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 43
List of figure

8 8.1 8.2 9 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2 10.3.3 11

FIG no 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2.1 5.2.1 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3.1 7.1.1 7.3.1

NAME OF FIGURE Double pipe heat exchanger Temperature profile Shell and tube type heat exchanger Graph of LMTD correction factor for shell and tube Finned tube bundle construction Arrangement of induced draft fan Arrangement of forced draft fan High fin tubing Schematic view of radiator Flow of coolant in c/s view of Automobile radiator CAAB CAAB with five preheat and five braze zones

PAGE NO 3 3 4 11 16 17 23 25 25 26 40 41

List of Table

Table no 5.1.1 10.3.2

List of table Fouling resistances of industrial fluids Freezing point of ethylene glyocohol based water solutions Dynamic viscosity of ethylene glyocohol based water solutions Specific gravity of ethylene glyocohol based water solutions Specific capacity of ethylene glyocohol based water solutions Boiling point of ethylene glyocohol based water solutions Increase in flow required (&percent), ethylene glyocohol based water solutions CAAB specifications

Page no 9 23 23 24 24 25 25 40


Company profile
Varun radiators private ltd Varun Radiators Pvt. Ltd. is a Bureau VERITAS ISO 9001: 2000 certified company for designing and manufacturing Aluminum Brazed heat exchangers for wide range of applications and markets. Starting as a manufacturer of copper brass radiators, Varun Radiator has now become a leading Aluminum brazed heat exchange solution provider. It has become the first Indian company to design and develop parallel flow condenser for HVAC application. Drive to innovate and timely delivery of cost effective products through value engineering have been the constant guiding principles for the company They are one of the leading manufacturers of Aluminium brazed radiators. The library includes more than 150 radiators having application in Passenger cars, Tractors, SUV, MUV, LCV, HCV and Generators. They use best in class raw materials from reputed suppliers like Hydro, Sapa, Hulamin and Nikkie Siam and our radiators undergo stringent quality and performance tests to get a product of highest quality. They are major market player in radiators and also work with OEMs in automotive, tractor and diesel generator segment.

Fig aluminum brazed radiator


1. Literature Review

We consider some of the techniques that are used in the analysis of industrial heat exchanger equipment. Of the many types of commercially available heatexchangers, the discussion will be limited to two, namely, the double pipe exchanger and the Shell-and-tube exchanger. The double pipe is the simplest type of heat exchanger, while the shell-and-tube is the most widely used type of exchanger in the chemical process industries. For information on other types of heat-transfer equipment, the reader is referred to Refs as some Next topic of this chapter. Heatexchanger calculations can be divided into two distinct categories, namely, thermal and hydraulic calculations on the one hand and mechanical design calculations on the other. Thermal and hydraulic calculations are made to determine heat transfer rates and pressure drops needed for equipment sizing. Mechanical design calculations are concerned with detailed equipment specifications, and include considerations such as stress and tube vibration analyses. In this chapter we will be concerned with thermal calculations only. Hydraulic calculations are considered in subsequent chapters, as is software that performs mechanical design calculations. Heat-exchanger problems may also be categorized as rating problems or design problems. In a rating problem, one must determine whether a given, fully Specified exchanger will perform a given heat-transfer duty satisfactorily. It is immaterial whether the exchanger physically exists or whether it is specified only on paper. In a design problem, one must determine the specifications for a heat exchanger that will handle a given heat-transfer duty. A rating calculation is generally an integral part of a design calculation. However, a rating problem also arises when it is desired to use an existing exchanger in a new or modified application.


2) Heat exchanger

2.1) Introduction

A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact. In heat exchangers, there are usually no external heat and work interactions. Typical applications involve heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern and evaporation or condensation of single- or multicomponent fluid streams. In other applications, the objective may be to recover Or reject heat, or sterilize, pasteurize, fractionate, distill, concentrate, crystallize, or control a process fluid. In a few heat exchangers, the fluids exchanging heat are in direct contact. In most heat exchangers, heat transfer between fluids takes place through a separating wall or into and out of a wall in a transient manner. In many heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface, and ideally they do not mix or leak. Such exchangers are referred to as direct transfer type, or simply recuperators. In contrast, exchangers in which there is intermittent heat exchange between the hot and cold fluidsvia thermal energy storage and release through the exchanger surface or matrix are referred to as indirect transfer type, or simply regenerators. Such exchangers usually have fluid leakage from one fluid stream to the other, due to pressure differences and matrix rotation/valve switching. Common examples of heat exchangers are shell-and tube exchangers, automobile radiators, condensers, evaporators, air pre heaters, and cooling towers. If no phase change occurs in any of the fluids in the exchanger, it is sometimes referred to as a sensible heat exchanger. There could be internal thermal energy sources in the exchangers, such as in electric heaters and nuclear fuel elements. Combustion and chemical reaction may take place within the exchanger, such as in boilers, fired heaters, and fluidized-bed exchangers. Mechanical devices may be used in Some exchangers such as in scraped surface exchangers, agitated vessels, and stirred tank Reactors. Heat transfer in the separating wall of a recuperator generally takes place by conduction. However, in a heat pipe heat exchanger, the heat pipe not only acts as a separating wall, but also facilitates the transfer of heat by condensation, evaporation, And conduction of the working fluid inside the heat pipe. In general, if the fluids are immiscible,

the separating wall may be eliminated, and the interface between the fluids replaces a heat transfer surface, as in a direct-contact heat exchanger.

3) Types of Heat Exchangers

3.1) Double pipe Heat Exchanger Double pipe heat exchanger which is schematically illustrated in Fig. It consists of two concentric tubes, where fluid 1 flows through the inner pipe and fluid 2 flows in the annular space between the two tubes. Two different flow regimes are possible, either countercurrent where the two fluids flow in opposite in directions or concurrent as shown in figure

Fig 3.1.1 Double pipe heat exchanger


Fig 3.1.2 Temperature profile

3.2) Shell and tube type Heat Exchanger It can be further classified acc. To no. of shell and tube passes involved: For example, 1 shell pass and 2 tube pass 2 shell pass and 4 tube pass

Fig 3.2.1 shell and tube type heat exchanger


3.3 )Regenerative type Heat Exchanger This type of heat exchanger involves the alternate passage hot and cold fluid streams through the same flow area known as regenerative heat exchanger. It is also known as MATRIX TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER The static type regenerative heat exchanger is basically a porous mass that has a large heat storage capacity, such as a ceramic wire mesh. Hot and cold fluids flow through this porous mass alternatively. Heat is transferred from the hot fluid to the MATRIX of the regenerator during the flow of the hot fluid, and from the MATRIX to the cold fluid during the flow of the cold fluid. Thus, the MATRIX serves as a temporary heat storage medium.

4) Classification of heat exchanger











5) Design Concept:

5.1) Fouling of the Heater Exchanger Fouling Factor


Table 5.1.1 Fouling resistances for industrial fluids


5.2) Log Mean Temperature Difference Correction Factor

Fig 5.2.1 LMTD correction factor for shell and tube heat exchanger- two shell passes and four or multiple
of four tube passes


5.3) The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient A heat exchanger typically involves two flowing fluids separated by a solid wall. Heat is first transferred from the hot fluid to the wall by convection, through the wall by conduction, and from the wall to the cold fluid again by convection. Any radiation effects are usually included in the convection heat transfer coefficients. The thermal resistance network associated with this heat transfer process involves two convection and one conduction resistances. For a double-pipe heat exchanger, we have Ai=DiL and Ao=DoL, and the thermal resistance of the tube wall in this case is

Rwall = Ln( D0i ) (2 KL) D

where k is the thermal conductivity of the wall material and L is the length of the tube. Then the thermal resistane becomes

Rth =

1 UA

But this resistance is made up of three resistances in series, namely, the convectiveresistance between the hot fluid and the pipe wall, the conductive resistance of the pipe wall, and The convective resistance between the pipe wall and the cold fluid. Hence
Do ) Di 1 1 1 = + + ------------eq (1) UAo hiAi 2 kL ho Ao ln(

Where U is the Overall Transfer coefficient, whose unit is W/m C Note that Ui Ai = Uo Ao, but Ui Uo unless Ai=Ao. Therefore, the overall heat transfer coefficient U of a heat exchanger is meaningless unless the area on which it is based. This is especially the case when one side of the tube wall is finned and the other side is not, since the surface area of the finned side is several times that of the unfinned side. When the wall thickness of the tube is small and the thermal conductivity of the tube material is high, as is usually the case, the thermal resistance of the tube is negligible and the inner and outer surfaces of the tube are almost identical. Then equation for the overall heat transfer coefficient simplifies to 1/U= 1/hi +1/ ho Multiplying Equation (1) by Ao and inverting yields: (11)

D Do ln( o ) D Di 1 + U = o + ho 2k hi Di

Above equation is correct when the heat exchanger is new and the heat-transfer surfaces are clean. With most fluids, however, a film of dirt or scale will build up on the heat-transfer surfaces over a period of time. This process is called fouling and results in decreased performance of the heat exchanger due to the added thermal resistances of the dirt films. Fouling is taken into account by means of empirically determined fouling factors, eDi and RDo, which represent the thermal resistances of the dirt films on the inside and outside of the inner pipe multiplied by the respective surface areas. Thus, for the inner dirt film:

RDth =

RDi Ai

Adding these two additional resistances to Equation and proceeding as before yields:

D Do ln( o ) D 1 R D Di UD = o + + + Di o + RDo 2k ho Di hi Di

Where UD is the overall coefficient after fouling has occurred. Design calculations are generally made on the basis of UD since it is necessary that the exchanger be operable after fouling has occurred. More precisely, the fouling factors should be chosen so that the exchanger will have a reasonable operating period before requiting cleaning. The operating period must be sufficient to ensure that exchanger cleanings coincide with scheduled process shutdowns. It should be noted that the effect of the fouling factors in Equation is to decrease the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient, which increases the heat-transfer area calculated from Equation. Hence, fouling factors can be viewed as safety factors in the design procedure. In any case, it is necessary to provide more heat-transfer area than is actually required when the exchanger is Clean. As a result, outlet temperatures will exceed design specifications when the exchanger is Clean, unless bypass streams are provided. (12)

The temperature difference, Tm, is the mean temperature difference between the two fluid streams. It can be shown that when U is independent of position along the exchanger, Tm is the logarithmic mean temperature difference
Tm = (T1 - T2) / ln (T1/T2)

Where T1 and T2 are the temperature differences at the two ends of the exchanger. When the tube is finned on one side to enhance heat transfer, the total heat surface area on the finned side becomes
A= Atotal = Afin + Aunfinned

Where Afin is the surface area of the fins and Aunfinned is the area of unfinned portion of the tube surface. For short fins of high thermal conductivity, we can use this total area in the convection resistance relation Rconv= 1/hA since the fins in this case will be nearly isothermal. Otherwise, we should determine the effective surface area A from
A= Afin + fin Aunfinned


6) Air cooled heat exchanger

6.1 Introduction
Air-cooled heat exchangers are generally used where a process system generates heat which must be removed, but for which there is no local use. A good example is the radiator in your car. The engine components must be cooled to keep them from overheating due to friction and the combustion process. The excess heat is carried away by the water/glycol coolant mixture. A small amount of the excess heat may be used by the car's radiator to heat the interior. Most of the heat must be dissipated somehow. One of the simplest ways is to use the ambient air. Aircooled heat exchangers (often simply called air-coolers) do not require any cooling water from a cooling tower. They are usually used when the outlet temperature is more than about 20 deg. F above the maximum expected ambient air temperature. They can be used with closer approach temperatures, but often become expensive compared to a combination of a cooling tower and a water-cooled exchanger.

6.2 Construction

Fig 6.2.1 Finned tube bundle construction

Typically, an air-cooled exchanger for process use consists of a finned-tube bundle with rectangular box headers on both ends of the tubes. Cooling air is provided by one or more fans. Usually, the air blows upwards through a horizontal tube bundle. The fans can be either forced or induced draft, depending on whether the air is pushed or pulled through the tube bundle. The space between the fan(s) and the tube bundle is enclosed by a plenum chamber which directs the air. The whole assembly is usually mounted on legs or a piperack.

The fans are usually driven be electric motors through some type of speed reducer. The speed reducers are usually either V-belts, HTD drives, or right angle gears. The fan drive assembly is supported by a steel mechanical drive support system. They usually include a vibration switch on each fan to automatically shut down a fan which has become imbalanced for some reason.

Fig 6.2.2
Induced Draft Fan

Fig 6.2.3
Forced Draft fan

6.3) Finned Tubes

Finned tubes are almost always used in air-cooled exchangers to compensate for the low airside Heat-transfer coefficient. Radial (annular) fins arranged in a helical pattern along the tube are Used. The fin height is significantly larger than that of the low-fin tubes used in shell-and-tube Exchangers. Hence, this type of tubing is referred to as high-fin tubing.


Various kinds of finned tubing available are: 1) L-fin 2) Shoulder grooved fin 3) G-fin 4) E-fin( bimetallic)

Fig 6.3.1 High-fin tubing: (a) L-fin, (b) G-fin, (c) Shoulder-grooved fin, and (d) E-f


7) Radiators
7.1) Introduction

Radiators are installed in automobiles to remove heat from under the hood. When driving a car, the engine produces intense heat which must be dissipated or the engine will overheat. The use of higher output engines with tightly compacted underhood packaging, the addition of new emission components, and aerodynamic front end styling with narrower openings are creating a hostile thermal environment in the engine compartment. This results in a smaller volume of underhood cooling air. These conditions demand a better understanding of the complex cooling air flow characteristics and resulting thermal performance of the radiator and other heat generating components in the engine compartment. Radiators are not restricted to cars and trucks. They are also used for large machines such as off-highway construction equipment, heavy duty pumping sets for large scale irrigation, trains, compressor coolers, etc.

Fig 7.1.1 schematic view of radiator (air cooled heat exchanger)

Radiators are used for cooling internal combustion engines, chiefly in automobiles but also

in piston- engine aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine. They operate by passing a liquid coolant through the engine block, where it is heated, then through the radiator itself where it loses this heat to the

atmosphere. This coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil. It's usual for the coolant flow to be pumped, also for a fan to blow air through the radiator.

7.2) Radiators and Car Parts Cooling System Belt: Your cooling system uses an engine belt to drive the blower fan. Some cars have an

Additional electric motor to force air over the auto radiators cores.
Blower/Blower Motor: the fan assembly that pushes air across the cooling cores of your car

Coolant: The standard mix of anti-freeze and water used for cooling automobile engines. Coolant Overflow Tank: When your car gets hot, the coolant expands and partially fills the

Coolant overflow tank.

Heater Core: The opposite of the auto radiator's cooling core. It uses hot coolant coming

From the engine to heat air for your car's heater.

Hoses: All car radiators use several hoses to pass the coolant to and from the engine. They

Are affixed to the auto radiator and engine with hose clamps.
Oil Cooler: It is a secondary cooling system used in cars with automatic transmissions. Auto Radiators: The grid of specially shaped metal tubes behind the grill of your car. Hot

coolant passes through these cores and is cooled by the air passing over them. This is the Principle method of cooling an internal combustion engine and the car parts involved.
Radiator Cap: The pressure sensitive radiator cap on the top of your radiator. It increases

the Pressure in your cooling system, allowing more efficient cooling. The radiator cap is also Designed to expel excess pressure caused from the coolant becoming too hot or boiling. This prevents damage to the cooling system.
Thermostat: This regulates the flow of coolant through the engine. It only opens when the

Engine gets hot enough, allowing your engine to heat up quickly

Water Pump: This pump forces the coolant through the cooling system.


7.3) Automobile Radiators

Almost all automobiles in the market today have a type of heat exchanger called a Radiator. The radiator is part of the cooling system of the engine as shown in Figure below.

Fig 7.3.1 c/s view of automobile radiator

7.4 Coolant used in radiator In automobile radiator water is used as cold fluid, runs in the tubes. This water does not have sufficient strength to fight against cold weather. It become ice (solid) in cold weather so one other fluid mixed with this water and name is this fluid is ethylene glycol. This has sufficient antifreeze property to make help to the water to stable liquid in cold weather. The major use of ethylene glycol is as a medium for convective heat transfer in, for example, automobiles and personal computers. Due to its low freezing point it is used as a deicing fluid for windshields and aircraft. Ethylene glycol is also commonly used in chilled water air conditioning systems that place either the chiller or air handlers outside or systems that must cool below the freezing temperature of water.


Ethylene Glycol is the most common antifreeze fluid for standard heating and cooling applications. Ethylene glycol should be avoided if there is a slightest chance of leakage to potable water or food processing systems. Instead solutions based on propylene glycol are commonly used .
7.4.1) Properties of ethylene glycohol
Table freezing point of ethylene glycohol based water solutions

Table dynamic viscosity of ethylene glycohol based water solutions


Table specific gravity of ethylene glycohol based water solutions


Table specific capacity of ethylene glycohol based water solutions

Table boiling point of ethylene glycohol based water solutions


Table increase in flow required, ethylene glycohol

8 Design Analysis
8.1) Problem formulation Wagon R Engine Specification:

Swept volume: 1061(cc) No. of cylinder : 4 cylinder inline Max. Power : 64 bhp @ 6200 rpm Max. Torque: 84 Nm @ 3500 rpm Cylinder bore: 71mm*74mm Coolant: water

Specification of Engine Radiator:

Engine radiator heater: 3.5 liter Air ambient temp: 20C to 35C Specific heat of coolant: 1.005kJ/kg K


8.2) Calculation Amount of heat lost by radiator

Brake power =

2 6200 84 60
=54.5 KW

mech = 85%
b. p.

Indicated power =


= 63.10 KW Indicated thermal efficiency = 30%

Total heat produced =

i. p.


= 210 KW Now, we consider 40% heat loss is exhausted and unaccounted, 30% is the indicated thermal efficiency and approx rest 30% can be considered for the heat loss in design for radiator = (30/100) * 210 = 63 KW 1) Calculating the temp of incoming air and water with the help of THERMOSTAT

VALVE: Th1= 85Tc1= 30 C 2) Calculating the temp of outgoing fluid with help of effectiveness of heat exchanger: For design of radiator, effectiveness ( ) = 60% (from design data book) We know that,
(Th1 Th 2 ) (Th1 Tc1 ) (24)

Where Th2 is outlet temperature of cold water Substituting the value we get, .60 = (85 Th 2 ) (85 30)

Th2 = 52 C Finding mass flow rate of water As per equation we know,


= mwater Cwater Twater

Where, Qw = heat loss by water = 60KW m water = mass flow of water in Kg/ sec C water = specific heat of water = 1.005 Kj/ kg K T water = temperature difference of water = (85C - 30C) = 55C mw = 60000 (1005 55)

=1.139 kg/sec
For finding the mass flow rate of air Qair=mair Cair tair Now, Where, air= density of air in kg/m= 1.014 kg/m Aa= frontal area in mm = L * H Va= velocity of air in m/sec
Now, L= length of the radiator = (minimum number of tubes used) * (space between two tubes) + c/s area of each tube Where, minimum no of tubes= 30

ma= air Aa Va

Space between two tubes= 20 mm C/s area= (/4)* a*b* H Now, the shape of the tube is elliptical, a= major axis b= minor axis We also know that a=12b H = height of front section of radiator = 354mm So mass flow rate of water across each tube,

(/4) a b H = ( mw / no. of tubes used)( 10^)mm Substituting the respective values in above equation, We get
b=1.9 mm

a= 12 1 .9
a = 23mm

Now, we can find the length of the radiator L= (31 20) + ( 30 2) = 680 mm Average speed of vehicle = 40 km/hr = 40 (5/18) m/sec (26)

= 11.11 m/sec So, velocity of air by induced draft fan = Va=14 m/sec Substituting the values of velocity, density of air and Area in mass flow equation Therefore, ma = 14* 1.014* ( L*H) = 14 * 1.014 * .680 * .354
= 3.28 kg/sec

Substituting the value of mass flow rate of air in eq. Qair =mair Cair tair Now, Qair= Qw = heat loss by cooling =60KW ma = mass flow rate of air in kg/sec Ca =specific heat of air = 1.014KJ/kg K = temperature difference of air

Tair = ( Tc2 Tc1)

Tc2= hot air outlet temperature Therefore, Qa = 3.28 1014 (Tc2-30) Tc2 = 48 C

5) Total Heat Transfer coefficient

LMTD Method:
Q= U Asc Lm F

Where, Lm= log mean temp difference F = correction factor We know that, Lm =
( m1 m 2 ) ln( where,

m1 ) m2

m1 = (Th1 Tc2)
m2= (Th2 Tc1) Therefore, Lm= [(85 48) (52 30)] / ln {(85 48)/ (52 30)} Lm= m = 35 C Now, correction factor (f) can be obtained from the graph below,

Value of R = 2.7 and c= .220 (from equation given below the graph)

Correction Factor (F) = .99

Now, Asc= (a+b) H 30

= (23 + 1.9) .354 30 = .833 m So, overall heat transfer coefficient (U)

U = 60000/ (.833 * 35 * .99) = 2.683 KW/m C


Heat Transfer by NTU method

Cmax =Cc= Cair *

ma= 1.014 * 3.28= 3.32 KW mw = 1.005 * 1.139= 1.144 KW

Cmin =Ch= Cwater * R= Ch/Cc= .344

We know that,

1 exp { NTU (1 R)} = 1 Re xp { NTU (1 R)}

Using above equation we get NTU


= 1.825

U Asc Cmin

Overall heat transfer (U) = (1.825 * 1.139) /. 833

U = 2.686KW/ m C


6) Heat Loss by Fins

Fig 6.1 c/s of fins

Fins with finite length, Where L=length of fin W=width of fin

=Thickness of fin
Space between two tube = length of the fin = 20 mm Width of the tube = (major axis of the tube + thickness of tube) = (23 + 2) = 25 mm Thickness of the fin = 1 mm (assume) Height of the radiator = 354 mm Fins used in one tube = (354/2) = 177 Number of tubes = 30 Therefore number of fins (n) = 30 * 177 = 5310 Atmosphere temperature (Ta) = 35 CC One end of fin is in contact with atmosphere and other with the tubes so temperature difference (34)

= (T Ta) = (85 35) = 50 C Now we know the equation,

M= h p (1) k acs

h = heat transfer coefficient of aluminum at temperature difference of 50 C = 24 W/ m C k = thermal conductivity of aluminum at temperature difference 50 C = 205 W/ m C P = perimeter of fin = (25 + 1) * 2 = 52 mm Acs = cross section of area = (25 * 1) = 25 mm Substituting the values in equation 1, We get m= 14.82

Heat loss by Fins

Q = (P h k Acs) ^ (T Ta) tan (mL) n Substituting the respective values we get heat loss heat loss (Qf) = 5.3 KW
Efficiency of fins

fin =

tanh(mL) mL

= 98.78% 7) Total heat loss Qt = Qw + Q Qt = 60 + 5.3 = 65.3 KW 9) Conclusion

Total heat loss accounted from the radiator is 65.3 KW which actually is more than the heat loss calculated in our problem formulation which is 63 KW Thus we can conclude that the heat loss in our project is much more efficient then the daily practical use. Further improvement in the efficiency could be counted by using more efficient materials.


10 ) Fabrication of Radiators

10.1) Introduction about Fabrication

Fabrication is an industrial term that refers to the manipulation of raw materials (such as steel) for the making of machines and structures. Steel and other metals are cut and shaped during the fabrication process. Fabrication is a very hands-on part of the manufacturing process. Although a fabrication shop and a manufacturing plant can work independently, it is unlikely that you will find a manufacturing establishment that does not at least have close ties to a fabrication shop. Most manufacturers have fabricators in-house simply because of the frequency that most manufacturing processes need the services of a fabrication shop. Fabrication involves the use of many different materials. As most fabricators are metal fabricators, common metals used in the fabrication process are plate metal, formed metal, expanded metal, welding wire, hardware, castings and fittings. The tools used to manipulate these metal projects are also diverse but some of the more common tolls used include any materials used in the welding process, band saws, cutting torches, etc. Fabrication is truly a specialty where visualization is important because fabricators must have the ability to create an end product with nothing more than a pile of metal pieces.
10.2) Method of Fabrication Radiators

The method of making a radiator comprising the following steps: Providing a core assembly comprising an array of tubes, fins extending transversely there with a set of the ends of said tubes projecting above, and a set of the ends of said tubes projecting below, the uppermost and lowermost fins respectively, forming, by welding, an upper and a lower tank, each having side and core remote walls and a header plate having apertures to receive a set of said tube ends, after the forming of said upper and lower tanks inserting resilient grommets into the apertures of said header plates, said grommets defining central apertures and each being dimensioned to be compressed between the header plate in which it is installed and one of said tube ends inserted in the central aperture, after the insertion of said grommets, inserting a set of the tube ends into the grommets of the corresponding tank header plate, then structurally connecting said upper and lower tanks exteriorly of said upper and lower (37)

tanks exteriorly of said core.The method of making a radiator as claimed wherein the welding is performed on the outside of said tank. It includes steps of providing said sub assemblies by taking an upper and lower pre-existing tank and cutting each tank to leave side and core remote walls. This invention relates to a novel method of making a combined tank and header plate for radiator or heat exchanger cores, and a novel method of making a radiator using such combined tank and header plate. It is usual to call the heat exchanger mounted on the front of the vehicle a radiator particularly when its purpose is to cool the coolant fluid for the engine. When a similar device is used to cool air for supply to the engine it is frequently called a heat exchanger. The term `radiator` when used herein is intended to include heat exchanger. The art to which the invention relates is that of radiators or heat exchangers designed principally for installation at the front of a truck or other vehicle for cooling the coolant fluid of the engine or for cooling the pressurized air for supply to the vehicle engine. The radiators with which the invention is concerned comprise a core, upper and lower tanks and members joining the upper and lower tanks to provide the necessary structural strength for the radiator during use. The terms `upper` and `lower` herein refer to a common orientation for the radiator but are not intended to be limiting in either the disclosure or claims since the radiator may have any orientation. The structural members preferably connect to the upper and lower tanks at connections exterior to tanks and to the core. The core with which the invention is concerned is composed of generally parallel tubes for carrying coolant fluid, or air to be cooled linked by cooling fins, extending transverse to the core. The core alone preferably forms a self-sustaining assembly before the radiator is assembled although such assembly, even if self-sustaining will require structural support during use in the radiator. The core with which the invention is concerned provides upper and lower tube ends projecting above and below respectively the uppermost and lowermost fins. Upper and lower header plates are each aperture to receive the tube ends and designed with the tubes, to make sealing connection therewith. The header plates may, in prior designs alternatively, be considered as part of the core or as the core-adjacent walls of the upper and lower tank.


10.3) Fabricating Component(CAAB) 10.3.1)Controlled Atmosphere Alluminium Brazing

Aluminum brazing involves joining of components with a brazing alloy (cladding)

whose melting point is appreciably lower than that of the parent material (base alloy). The cladding is typically placed adjacent to or in between the components to be joined and the assembly is heated to a temperature where the cladding material melts and the parent material does not. Upon cooling, the cladding forms a metallurgical bond between the joining surfaces of the component. The brazing process occurs in a furnace under the following parameters:

Operating Temperature 580 degrees C to 620 degrees C Part Temperature Uniformity of 3 degrees C Oxygen free, Nitrogen Atmosphere of -40 degrees C and 100 ppm of O2 content In automotive heat exchanger applications, the cladding is supplied via a thin sheet on

the base alloy. The base alloy provides the structural integrity while the low melting point cladding melts to form the brazed joints.




Fig CAB furnace with five preheat and five braze zones

10.3.2) CAAB specifications

Table 10.3.2 CAAB specifications


10.3.3) CAB Advantages

The controlled atmosphere brazing (CAB) process heats a product to brazing temperatures while maintaining uniform temperatures within the product in an oxygen-free nitrogen atmosphere. During furnace brazing, a brazing sheet of aluminum/silicon alloy plate (cladding) is heated to a liquid state and flows to form aluminum joints or fillets. It also includes advantages such as Accepts a less demanding dimensional fit-up, brazing, Continuous flow for high volume throughput Flux is noncorrosive, requiring no post braze cleaning, Less capital intensive compared to vacuum


11) Bibliography
Books referred: 1) 2)

HEAT TRANSFER a practical approach, TATA McGRAW-Hill edition by YUNUS A. HEAT TRANSFER principles and applications, eastern economy edition,2000 by


Fundamentals of heat exchanger, second edition, 2003 by RAMESH K SHAH AND DUS


Heat and Mass Transfer, Second Edition, Atul Prakashan 2004 by KARL STEPHAN