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NH GI CNG B T NG THEO CP BN V MC B T NG

TS. NGUYN I MINH


Vin KHCN Xy dng

Tm tt: Khi nim cp bn b tng (B) a ra trong tiu chun b tng ct thp hin hnh TCXDVN
356 : 2005 l bc m thay th cho mc b tng (M). Quan h gia B v M c quy nh trong tiu chun
ny thng qua h s bin ng cng , ly mc nh bng 0,135. S chnh lch gia B v M vo khong
10 MPa ty thuc vo cp bn, v vic nh gi cp bn B hin nay cn thng qua mc b tng M. Nhiu
kin xem iu ny c th chp nhn c. Tuy nhin, mt s t cho rng nh gi nh vy c th cha kinh t
v p dng cho rt nhiu d n trong phm vi c nc, hn ch s i mi/ci tin cng ngh sn xut b tng.
V vy, bi bo ny lm r rng vic nh gi cng b tng khi kt cu c thit k theo tiu chun
TCXDVN 356 : 2005, hin nay vn cn phi da vo mc b tng tr khi ngi thit k c quy nh khc. Bi
bo cng trnh by s khc nhau gia nh gi cng b tng theo tiu chun Vit Nam vi tiu chun Anh
v tiu chun chu u l nhng tiu chun c chung khi nim xc sut m bo cng t trn 95% nh
TCXDVN 356:2005.
1. M u
B tng ct thp (BTCT) c mt s u vit hn so vi cc loi vt liu xy dng khc nh: (a) c th to
thnh nhng kt cu c cc hnh dng khc nhau theo yu cu kin trc, (b) c c tnh bn lu (durability) rt
tt, vi b dy lp b tng bo v ct thp thch hp kt cu BTCT s c tui th cao, thm ch cc iu kin
kh hu v mi trng khc nghit, n mn mnh, (c) c kh nng chng chy tt, vi lp b tng bo v dy
hp l th kt cu BTCT c xem l kt cu chu lc chng chy tt nht v (d) c gi thnh r, c bit l gi
bo tr t hn so vi kt cu thp [1]. V vy, s dng b tng trong xy dng nc ta hin nay rt ph bin v
t trnh tng i cao so vi khu vc.
B tng c nhiu c trng c l cn lu , trong cng b tng l c trng quan trng m cc k
s xy dng quan tm khi nh gi kh nng chu lc ca cng trnh lm bng kt cu BTCT. Xc nh cng
ca b tng l mt trong nhng giai on kim tra nghim thu cht lng ca kt cu thi cng xong. Tuy
nhin, cng b tng c nhiu khi nim/nh ngha khc nhau nh: mc b tng (v d: theo TCVN 5574 :
1991 [2], b tng M 300), cp bn b tng (v d: theo tiu chun TCXDVN 356 : 2005 [3], b tng B 25),
cng chu nn c trng mu lp phng 28 ngy f
cu
(v d: theo tiu chun Anh BS 8110 [4], b tng C
30 c f
cu
= 30 MPa), b tng cp C30/37 (theo Eurocode 2 [5], b tng cp C30/37, tng ng vi cng
c trng mu tr l 30 MPa v mu lp phng l 37 MPa), b tng c cng chu nn quy nh mu tr f
c

(v d: theo tiu chun M ACI 318 [6], f
c
= 25 MPa),... Hin nay, vic thit k kt cu BTCT nc ta c
thc hin theo TCXDVN 356 : 2005 nhng thit k cp phi v cung cp b tng phn ln thng qua mc b
tng. Do , vic nh gi cng b tng cng thng c hiu l thng qua mc b tng. Vic ny lm
xut hin cc kin khc nhau. C kin cho rng khi nh gi cng b tng cn c theo mc b tng
tng ng vi cp bn b tng quy nh trong TCXDVN 356 : 2005 (Ph lc A) l chp nhn c. Mt s t
kin xem lm nh vy c th cha kinh t v p dng cho rt nhiu d n trong phm vi c nc, hn ch s
i mi/ci tin cng ngh sn xut b tng (nhm gim h s bin ng cng cc mu th v (ch thch:
trong TCXDVN 356:2005, Ph lc A, v ly mc nh bng 0,135 - r hn v h s v c th xem trong [7])).
Trong khi , khi nh gi cng b tng theo tiu chun Anh BS 8110 hay Eurocode 2 (c 2 tiu chun ny
u c cng mt khi nim v xc sut m bo v cng ln hn 95% nh tiu chun TCXDVN 356 :
2005), s chnh cng ch l 3 hay 4 MPa [8, 9].
V vy, bi vit ny trnh by r thm vic nh gi cng b tng theo cp bn da theo mc b
tng ca Vit Nam nh th no v s khc nhau so vi tiu chun Anh v chu u nhm loi b cc thc mc
lu nay v vn nh gi theo cp hay mc b tng nh ni trn.
2. nh gi cng b tng theo tiu chun Vit Nam
nh gi c cng b tng cn phi hiu ng cc khi nim v cng b tng theo cc tiu
chun thit k. Mt s vn v cng b tng p dng trong tnh ton kt cu theo TCXDVN 356 : 2005
c trnh by trong [10]. i vi b tng, ch yu quan tm n cng chu nn (ch thch: c th do th
nghim nh gi cng chu nn d thc hin v cho kt qu tin cy hn so vi th nghim nh gi cc
c trng khc nh ko, m-dul n hi,...).
T nm 2005 tr v trc, kt cu BTCT nc ta phn ln c thit k theo TCVN 5574:1991 (hin
nay thay th bi TCXDVN 356:2005). TCVN 5574:1991 c 3 khi nim v cng b tng, l: mc b
tng, cng tiu chun v cng tnh ton v nn.
Mc b tng hay chnh xc hn l mc theo cng chu nn, k hiu bng ch M, ly bng cng
chu nn (cng trung bnh), tnh bng kg/cm
2
ca mu chun khi lp phng c cnh bng 150 mm,
c dng h v th nghim theo tiu chun TCVN 3118 : 1979 [11].
Cng tiu chun ca b tng gm 2 loi sau:
- Cng chu nn ca mu khi vung R (ch thch: c th tng ng vi cp bn B theo
TCXDVN 356 : 2005):
( ) V R R
n
= 64 , 1 1 (1)
trong :
n
R gi tr trung bnh ca cc mu th chun (khi lm trn s tng ng vi mc b tng);
V h s bin ng ca cng b tng. H s V c xc nh theo kt qu tnh ton v thng k.
Trong trng hp thiu s liu thng k, TCVN 5574:1991 cho php ly V = 0,15.
- Cng tiu chun v nn R
nc
(cng lng tr: mu 150150600 mm), ly bng:
R
nc
= A
n
R ` (2)
trong : A
n
l h s chuyn i t cng chu nn ca mu lp phng sang mu lng tr, ly t 0,700
n 0,765 ph thuc vo mc b tng.
Cng tnh ton v nn ca b tng R
n
c xc nh nh sau:

bn
bn
nc
n
m
k
R
R = (3)
trong : k
bn
= 1,3 l h s an ton v nn, m
bn
l h s iu kin lm vic, trong iu kin bnh thng m
bn
= 1.
Trong cc cng thc (1), (2) v (3) mc d c lin quan n h s bin ng cng V nhng cng
tnh ton gc v nn R
n
(trong iu kin bnh thng, m
bn
= 1) c cung cp trc tip trong Ph lc 1 ca
TCVN 5574 : 1991. V vy, khi thit k, tin li gi tr cng tnh ton v nn R
n
thng c ly lun
theo Ph lc ny, v ch ph thuc vo mc b tng. Kh nng chu lc ca kt cu/cu kin c nh gi
thng qua gi tr R
n
. Do , khi nh gi cng b tng phi thng qua mc b tng. Cc gi tr cng
tnh ton v nn R
n
ca b tng tng ng vi cc mc b tng khc nhau theo TCVN 5574:1991 c tm tt
trong bng 1 ca bi vit.
T nm 2005 n nay, kt cu b tng v BTCT c thit k theo TCXDVN 356 : 2006 da vo cp
bn chu nn ca b tng (gi tt l cp bn ca b tng). Trong tiu chun ny, khi nim cp bn
c nh ngha nh sau: Cp bn chu nn ca b tng: K hiu bng ch B, l gi tr trung bnh thng
k ca cng chu nn tc thi, tnh bng n v MPa, vi xc sut m bo khng di 95%, xc nh
trn cc mu lp phng kch thc tiu chun (150 mm 150 mm 150 mm) c ch to, dng h trong
iu kin tiu chun v th nghim nn tui 28 ngy (TCXDVN 356:2005, trang 6). Khi nim mc b tng
trong TCXDVN 356:2005 ging nh trong TCVN 5574:1991. Khi tnh ton theo trng thi gii hn th nht
( bn), cng chu nn tiu chun dc trc R
bn
(cng lng tr: mu 150 150 600 mm) v cng
chu nn tnh ton dc trc R
b
, xc nh tng t nh TCVN 5574:1991 vi cc h s tin cy khi nn
c

= 1,3 (i vi b tng nng b tng thng) v h s iu kin lm vic ca b tng
bi
(thng thng
bi

=1). Bng 13 ca TCXDVN 356 : 2005 cung cp trc tip cc gi tr cng chu nn tnh ton R
b
tng
ng vi cc cp bn v mc b tng khc nhau. Cc k s thng s dng cc gi tr cng chu nn
tnh ton R
b
ca b tng cho trong bng 13, TCXDVN 356:2005, tnh ton hay nh gi kh nng chu lc
ca kt cu/cu kin (V vy, c th sau ny khi sot xt TCXDVN 356:2005 nn ghi ch r trong bng 13
ca tiu chun ny l gi tr R
b
ch tng ng vi h s bin ng cng v = 0,135 (nu ly theo mc b
tng) v h s iu kin lm vic
bi
=1; hoc b dng mc b tng trong bng ny nhng vi ghi ch thm l
h s iu kin lm vic
bi
=1). Cc gi tr ca R
b
cng c tm tt trong bng 1 di y.

Bng 1. Mc b tng, cp bn b tng v cng chu nn tnh ton
theo TCVN 5574:1991 v TCXDVN 356:2005
Mc b tng (kg/cm
2
)
theo TCVN 5574:1991
M75 M100 M150 M200 M250 M350 M400 M500 M600
Cp bn b tng (MPa)
TCXDVN 356:2005
B5 B7.5 B10 B15 B20 B25 B30 B40 B45
Rn (kg/cm
2
) - theo TCVN
5574:1991
35 45 65 90 110 155 170 215 250
Rb (MPa) theo TCXDVN
356:2005
2.8 4.5 6.0 8.5 11.5 14.5 17.0 22.0 25.0

Bng 1 cho thy cc gi tr cng tnh ton v nn R
n
(TCVN 5574:1991) v R
b
(TCXDVN 356:2005)
gn nh nhau. V d: ng vi b tng B 20 (M 250), R
n
= 110 kg/cm
2
, R
b
= 11,5 MPa (~115 kg/cm
2
); b tng B
25 (M 350), R
n
= 155 kg/cm
2
, R
b
= 14,5 MPa (~145 kg/cm
2
); b tng B 30 (M 400), R
n
= 170 kg/cm
2
, R
b
= 17,0
MPa (~170 kg/cm
2
); b tng B 40 (M 500), R
n
= 215 kg/cm
2
, R
b
= 22,0 MPa (~220 kg/cm
2
). Do , c th ni
rng khi thit k kt cu theo tiu chun Vit Nam (TCVN 5574:1991 hay TCXDVN 356:2005) cui cng u
cn c vo mc b tng (ngoi tr nhng trng hp cn c vo h s bin ng cng v h s iu kin
lm vic xc nh ring cc gi tr cng chu nn tnh ton ca b tng). Cp bn b tng a ra
trong TCXDVN 356:2005 (thc cht l cng chu nn ca mu khi vung R trong TCVN 5574:1991) ngoi
vic l bc m hi nhp vi chu u v th gii cn to ra c hi i mi cng ngh sn xut b tng vi
cht lng tt hn.
Cho nn, c th khng nh rng khi nh gi cng b tng theo TCXDVN 356:2005, hin nay vn cn
phi da vo mc b tng tr khi ngi thit k c quy nh khc hoc sau khi ta c tiu chun/hng dn k
thut ring v nh gi cng b tng theo cp bn B.
3. nh gi cng b tng theo BS 8110 : 1997
Tiu chun Anh BS 8110 : 1997 a ra khi nim cng c trng f
cu
. y chnh l gi tr cng
mu lp phng cnh 150 mm, 28 ngy tui vi cc mu th khng m bo thp hn 5% tng s cc mu
th (hay hn 95% cc mu th m bo). Khi nim cng c trng f
cu
c th tng ng vi cp
bn chu nn B ca TCXDVN 356:2005.
Khi thit k cp phi, cc ti liu ca Anh cng a ra khi nim cng trung bnh (mean strength) c
th tng ng vi mc b tng ca ta (xem [12]).
Quan h ng sut bin dng ca b tng thng chu ti trng tc dng ngn hn theo BS 8110 cho trong
hnh 1. Gi tr tng ng vi cng chu nn tnh ton R
n
(hay R
b
) ca Vit Nam xp x bng 0,45f
cu

(xem [12, 13]).




Hnh 1. Quan h - ng sut bin dng theo BS 8110 (ngun Hnh 2.1, BS 8110:1997)
(Ch thch: h s 0,67 l h s chuyn i t cng mu lp phng ln cng trn
cu kin chu un (kt cu, ging gi tr An ca ta), h s an ton ring m = 1,5)

Vic nh gi cng c trng chu nn f
cu
ca b tng theo BS 5328-4:1990 [8]. iu 3.16.2 ca tiu
chun ny quy nh, b tng xem nh t yu cu v cng nu c 2 tiu ch sau y tha mn (bng 2):
Tiu ch 1: Cng trung bnh (the mean strength) xc nh t 2, 3 hoc 4 cc mu th lin tip lin nhau
phi ln hn f
cu
+ A (vi f
cu
> 20 MPa, A = 1, 2 v 3 MPa, vi f
cu
< 20 MPa, A = 0, 1 v 2 MPa);
Tiu ch 2: Khng mt mu th no c cng b hn f
cu
- A (A = 3 MPa vi f
cu
> 20 MPa, A = 2 MPa vi
f
cu
< 20 MPa).

Bng 2. Cc yu cu v s m bo cng c trng chu nn ca b tng
(a) (b)
Cp b tng C
(Concrete class C)
Nhm cc mu th
Cng trung bnh
ca cc mu th >
fcu + A
Khng mt mu th
no c cng <
fcu A
C20 tr ln (fcu > 20MPa)
2 mu u tin
3 mu u tin
bt k 4 mu lin tip lin nhau
A = 1 MPa
A = 2 MPa
A = 3 MPa
A = 3 MPa
A = 3 MPa
A = 3 MPa
C7.5 n C15 (fcu = 7,5
15 MPa)
2 mu u tin
3 mu u tin
bt k 4 mu lin tip lin nhau
A = 0 MPa
A = 1 MPa
A = 2 MPa
A = 2 MPa
A = 2 MPa
A = 2 MPa

Nh vy, c th ni rng cc yu cu m bo v cng c trng f
cu
(cng vi xc sut m bo 95%) ca
tiu chun Anh khng ging nh s chnh lch gia mc b tng M v cp bn B ca Vit Nam.
= 0,447f
cu

= 0,45f
cu

R
n

x chiu cao vng chu nn
0,9x chiu cao khi ch nht tng ng
4. nh gi cng b tng theo EN 1992-1:2004
Cp bn b tng theo tiu chun Eurocode 2 c k hiu l C, v d C30/37 trong 30 l tr s tnh
bng MPa ca cng chu nn c trng mu tr tui 28 ngy f
ck
(f
ck
= 30 MPa) v 37 l tr s cng
chu nn c trng mu lp phng cng 28 ngy tui f
ck, cub
(f
ck, cub
= 37 MPa). Khi nim cng c trng
trong tiu chun chu u Eurocode 2 cng ging nh BS 8110 hay TCXDVN 356:2005, ngha l cc yu cu
m bo v cng f
ck
vi xc sut m bo ln hn 95%.
Vic nh gi cng b tng phi tun theo EN 206-1 [9] v cc tiu chun lin quan. Yu cu v trung
bnh cc mu th ca EN 206-1 cao hn so vi BS 5328-4:1990 ( MPa f
cub ck
4
,
+ so vi MPa f
cu
3 + ). Tuy
nhin, yu cu v cng mu th thp nht li thp hn so vi tiu chun Anh ( MPa f
cub ck
4
,
so vi
MPa f
cu
3 ). V d, b tng cp C30/37, c cng c trng chu nn mu tr f
ck
l 30 MPa, cng
c trng chu nn mu lp phng f
ck, cub
bng 37 MPa. nh gi, tt c cc mu lp phng c lu 28
ngy theo quy nh ca tiu chun p dng. Cng chu nn t cc mu lp phng cnh 150 mm c
tnh ton nh sau:

Bng 3. nh gi cp bn b tng vi mu lp phng 150 mm [14]
fc, cub fcm, cub Mu lp phng
150 * 150 *150 (mm)
tui
ngy MPa MPa
Ghi ch
1 28 44,6
2 28 39,2 43,2
3 28 45,8
m bo iu kin
v khi lng th
tch (mt )

Ghi ch: fc, cub cng b tng ca mu lp phng, fcm, cub cng trung bnh ca cc mu lp phng.

Theo EN 206 - 1 (bng 14) th cc tiu ch sau cn phi tha mn:
Tiu ch 1: f
cm, cub
> f
ck, cub
+ 4 MPa;
Tiu ch 2: min f
c, cub
> f
ck, cub
- 4 MPa.
V d, vi b tng cp C30/37, theo bng 3:
Tiu ch 1: 43,2 > 37 + 4 = 41 MPa t
Tiu ch 2: 39,2 > 37 4 = 32 MPa t
Nhn xt: b tng t cp bn C30/37.
Nh vy, khi nh gi cp bn b tng theo Eurocode 2 th gi tr trung bnh ca cc mu th (mc b
tng) ch chnh vi cp bn C l 4 MPa i vi mu lp phng.
5. Kt lun
Cc phn tch trnh by cho thy nh gi cng b tng khi kt cu c thit k theo tiu chun
TCXDVN 356:2005, hin nay vn cn phi da vo mc b tng tr khi ngi thit k c quy nh khc. Vic
ny vn phi tin hnh nh vy cho n khi c tiu chun hay hng dn k thut v nh gi cng b
tng theo cp bn.
nh gi cng b tng theo BS 8110:1997 (kt cu thit k theo BS 8110:1997) phi cn c vo BS
5328-4:1990 v cc tiu chun lin quan. S chnh nhau gia cng chu nn c trng f
cu
(cp bn)
vi cng trung bnh cc mu th f
cm
(mc b tng) ln nht l 3 MPa ty thuc vo cp bn.
nh gi cng b tng theo Eurocode 2 (kt cu thit k theo EN 1992-1:2004) phi cn c vo EN
206-1 v cc tiu chun lin quan. S chnh nhau gia cng chu nn c trng mu lp phng f
ck, cub

(cp bn) vi cng trung bnh cc mu th lp phng f
cm, cub
(mc b tng) l 4 MPa.
Bi bo lm r c vic nh gi cng b tng theo cp bn da theo mc b tng ca Vit
Nam nh th no, s khc nhau so vi tiu chun Anh v chu u. Mt s t kin cho rng quan h gia
cp v mc b tng theo TCXDVN 356:2005 l qu ln (thin v an ton) c th b loi b trn quan im
tnh ton kt cu da theo cng chu nn tnh ton R
b
.
TI LIU THAM KHO
1. NILSON, A. H., DARWIN, D. AND DOLAN, C. W. Design of concrete structures, The McGraw-Hill Companies, USA,
2004.
2. TCVN 5574 : 1991 Kt cu b tng ct thp Tiu chun thit k, Nh xut bn Xy dng, H Ni, 1991.
3. TCXDVN 356 : 2005 Kt cu b tng v b tng ct thp Tiu chun thit k, Nh xut bn Xy dng, H Ni, 2005.
4. BS 8110-1 : 1997 Structural use of concrete Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction, British Standard
Institution, UK, 2002.
5. BS EN 1992-1-1 : 2004 Design of concrete structures Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, British Standard
Institution, UK, 2004.
6. ACI 318M 08 Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318M 08) and commentary An ACI standard,
American Concrete Institute, USA, 2008.
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dng, H Ni, 2011.
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compliance of concrete, British Standard Institution, UK, 1990.
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Brussels, 2000.
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12. KONG F. K. and EVANS R. H. Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete, Chapman & Hall, UK.
13. ARYA, C. Design of structural elements Concrete, steelwork, masonry and timber designs to British standards and
Eurocodes, Thirth edition, Son Press, UK, 2009.
14. gmp international GmbH/Inros Lackner AG Quy cch, tnh nng, sn xut v s ph hp ca b tng, Ch dn k thut
thuyt minh s #SS3-TTX-020, D n Nh Quc hi, H Ni, Vit Nam, 2009.