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(Integrated Science)
First Year

At the end of the first year Science Program, the learner shall have
developed the following competencies:
I. Basic Processes in Science
1. Relate how science and technology affect one’s belief, practices, and ways
of thinking

1.1 Give examples of science and technology activities

and/or products that affect one’s daily life
1.2 Discuss the basis of local superstitions, beliefs and/or practices
1.3 Discuss the importance of scientific values in decision making and
problem-solving in daily life
2. Appreciate the contributions of outstanding local and foreign scientists to
science and technology

2.1 Compare the contributions made by outstanding Filipinos and foreign

2.2 Identify desirable qualities of scientists
3. Demonstrate understanding of the basic processes of science

3.1 Make qualitative observations given a situation or material or

when watching events
3.2 Observe characteristics of matter with precision and accuracy by using
appropriate measuring instruments
3.3 Organize qualitative and quantitative data in the form of charts,
tables, and/or graphs
3.4 Compare data to look for patterns and trends
3.5 Interpret data based on observed patterns and trends
3.6 Draw conclusions based on the scientific results

II. Scientific Method

1. Recognize the role of scientific investigations in gathering scientific

knowledge and in improving ways of doing things

1.1 Discuss the scientific research of some scientists which illustrates

how they solve problems
1.2 Apply the scientific method in conducting a simple scientific
1.2.1 Identify the problem
1.2.2 Formulate a hypothesis
1.2.3 Design a procedure to test the hypothesis

1.2.4 Collect data and present them in appropriate format
1.2.5 Observe trends and patterns
1.2.6 Make generalizations / conclusions
1.2.7 Identify limitations and make recommendations for further
Note: Simple or research-based science investigatory
projects should be assigned to the students at the
beginning of the school year
2. Demonstrate safe ways of using the apparatus/equipment in the laboratory
2.1 Use laboratory apparatus appropriately
2.2 Practice precautionary measures in the laboratory
2.3Perform laboratory work following cautiously the warning signs in the
use of chemicals and devices

III. Matter and Its Properties

1. Understand matter in the environment in terms of their properties

1.1 Distinguish solids, liquids, and gases based on observable properties

1.2 Differentiate the observable characteristics of substances and
mixtures, elements and compounds, metals and nonmetals, acids
and bases based on properties such as hardness, conductivity,
malleability/ductility, solubility, specific heat, density, acidity/basicity

2. Demonstrate understanding of physical and chemical changes taking place

in the environment

2.1 Identify indicators of physical and chemical changes

2.2 Analyze the effects of these changes on the environment
2.3 Infer that energy is involved in these changes

3. Understand the properties of matter in terms of its component atoms or


3.1 Use simple models to describe atoms and molecules

3.2 State the molecular theory to explain some properties of matter like
surface tension and capillarity
3.3 Identify the formula of common atoms and molecules
3.4 Explain chemical reactions of substances
3.5 Describe some chemical reactions occurring in the environment
IV. Force and Energy

1. Demonstrate understanding of the nature of force

1.1 Differentiate gravitational, magnetic, electrical and nuclear forces

1.2 Illustrate how pressure is affected by force and area

1.3 Give situations that show the effect of force on motion
2. Understand energy, its forms and transformations

2.1 Discuss work and the advantages derived from machines

2.2 Differentiate the forms of energy
2.3 Give examples of the different uses of energy
2.4 Identify energy sources and how they are transformed and
2.5 Explain energy conservation
2.6 Analyze how energy is transferred from one body to another

3. Show awareness of energy problems

3.1 Discuss the current energy problems

3.2 Propose possible solutions to energy problems
3.3 Investigate some local resources that may be a substitute energy
3.4 Evaluate the energy related technology such as solar cells/panels
appropriate in the community, given criteria
3.5 Practice wise use of energy

V. Living Things and Their Interactions

1. Demonstrate understanding of ecological systems

1.1 Observe the components of our environment

1.2 Differentiate environment from an ecosystem
1.3 Differentiate the kinds of ecological systems
1.4 Compare the different ecological systems to arrive at characteristics
common to all
1.5 Analyze the conditions required by life forms on Earth in order to
1.6 Investigate the conditions of the different kinds of ecosystems in the

2. Understand the interactions between living and non-living things in an


2.1 Illustrate how living things depend on other living things in order to
2.2 Illustrate how living things interact with the non-living components of
the ecosystem
2.3 Explain the cyclic flow of matter in an ecosystem
2.4 Explain the one-way flow of energy in an ecosystem
2.5 Analyze how different ecosystems are interconnected

3. Demonstrate understanding of how human beings disturb the
interrelationship among organisms and between organisms and their

3.1 Discuss the effects of population size/density on resources (e. g.

food, space, carrying capacity)
3.2 Predict what will happen if the Philippine population continues to
increase at its present rate

4. Appreciate the significance of maintaining/restoring the integrity/balance of

an ecosystem

4.1 Analyze how natural resources can be used wisely

4.2 Explain specific technologies for maintaining ecological balance
4.3 Participate in activities to conserve / protect balance in nature

VI. Changes in the Lithosphere

1. Demonstrate understanding of the changes in the lithosphere

1.1 Cite evidences supporting continental drift and seafloor spreading

hypotheses and plate tectonics theory
1.2 Illustrate how folding and faulting of rocks form mountains
1.3 Discuss formation of rocks
1.4 Trace soil formation due to biological, physical, and chemical
1.5 Explain how soil is transferred to other places by different means and
how it affects the environment
1.6 Analyze the causes of the different Earth phenomena (e. g.
earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunami)
1.7 Suggest precautionary measures in cases of earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions, mass wasting, etc.
1.8 Discuss technologies to predict and/or warn people when disasters
VII. Changes in the Hydrosphere
1. Demonstrate understanding of the changes in the hydrosphere.

1.1 Explain the water cycle and how it maintains the quantity of water on
1.2 Observe the different uses of the bodies of water in one’s community
(e.g. domestic, agricultural and industrial, for transportation and energy
generation, as habitat for living things, in changing landforms, and in
maintaining air temperature)
1.3 Classify the bodies of water (e.g. river) according to type and uses
1.4 Conduct scientific investigations on the quality of surface or
underground water and its surrounding environment in terms of fitness
for human consumption and as habitat for water organisms (e.g.

turbidity, salinity, ph, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand,
biological and chemical contamination, bank erosion and
sedimentation, stream depth and flow)
1.5 Explain using a concept map how these factors affect each other
1.6 Analyze how inland human activities affect the quality of coastal waters
including mangrove areas and coral reef ecosystems
1.7 Participate in activities concerning the monitoring and improvement of
the quality of body of water near one’s home or school, over time

VIII. Changes in the Atmosphere

1. Demonstrate understanding of the changes in the atmosphere

1.1 Explain the importance of a coordinate system in locating places on

1.2 Discuss ways by which land, air and water interact
1.3 Describe the different layers of the atmosphere
1.4 Differentiate point and non-point sources of pollution in the community
1.5 Analyze the effects of air pollution.
1.6 Participate in community programs to control air pollution
1.7 Explain why the weather occurs only in the troposphere
1.8 Explain how changes in different atmospheric factors affect the
1.9 Interpret record of weather changes for at least a week
1.10Explain how weather affects the different livelihood in the community
1.11Discuss how weather is predicted
1.12 Explain the occurrence of seasons
IX. The Earth and its Neighbors

1. Demonstrate understanding of the causes and effect of the different

phenomena related to the Sun-Moon-Earth system

1.1 Describe activities on the surface of the Sun

1.2 Explain the characteristics of the Moon and why only one side of it is
1.3 Demonstrate the different motions of the Earth using a model
1.4 Discuss the phenomena that result from the different motions of the
Earth (day and night, seasonal changes)
1.5 Explain how tides occur
1.6 Analyze how tides affect people’s lives
1.7 Explain how eclipses occur and the safety precautions in observing
solar eclipses

2. Demonstrate understanding of the other members of the solar system.

2.1 Explain the occurrence of comet, meteor showers and other
2.2 Identify technologies used in studying other heavenly bodies (e.g.
space telescope, space probes, etc.) and their uses on Earth

3. Understand what lies beyond the solar system

3.1 Explain the distance of stars in terms of appropriate units (e. g.

astronomical unit (AU) and light year)
3.2 Construct constellarium and map to locate other celestial objects