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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum


Technology and Livelihood Education
Learning Module

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION AND


MAINTENANCE

EXPLORATORY COURSE
Grades 7 and Grade 8
TABLE OF CONTENTS

What Is This Module About ? ................................................................................... 2

How Do You Use This Module ............................................................................... 4

LESSON 1 – Prepare Electrical Supplies, Materials and Tools……….5 - 45

LESSON 2 – Perform Mensuration and Calculation …………...……46 - 74

LESSON 3 – Interpret Technical Drawing and Plans…………....….75 - 93

LESSON 4 – Maintain Tools and Equipment …………………..….94 - 127

LESSON 5 – Practice Occupational Safety and Health……………. 128 - 158

ANSWER KEYS ................................................................................................ 159 - 169

Acknowledgment........................................................................................................... 170

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 1


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Is This Module About?

Welcome to the world of Electrical Installation and Maintenance!

This Module is an exploratory course which leads you to Electrical Installation


and Maintenance National Certificate Level II ( NC II)1. It covers 5 common
competencies that a Grade 7 / Grade 8 Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) student
like you ought to possess, namely:

1) Prepare electrical supplies, materials, and tools;


2) Perform mensuration and calculations;
3) Interpret technical drawings and plans;
4) Maintain tools and equipment; and
5) Practice occupational health and safety

These 5 common competencies are covered separately in 5 Lessons. As shown


below, each Lesson is directed to the attainment of one or two learning outcomes:

Lesson 1 – Prepare electrical supplies, materials, and tools


LO1. Identify electrical supplies, materials, and tools needed in electrical/wiring
installation
LO 2. Request appropriate supplies, materials, and tools for a specific job
LO 3. Receive and inspect electrical supplies, materials and tools

Lesson 2 – Perform Mensuration and Calculations


LO 1. Select measuring tools and instruments
LO 2. Carry out Measurements and Calculations

Lesson 3 – Interpret Technical Drawing and Plans


LO1. Analyze signs, symbols and data
LO2. Interpret technical drawings and plans

Lesson 4 – Maintain Tools and Equipment


LO 1. Check condition of tools and equipment
LO 2 Perform basic preventive maintenance
LO 3 Store tools and equipment

1NATIONAL CERTIFICATE (NC) is a certification issued to individuals who achieved all the required units of competency for a national
qualification as defined under the Training Regulations. NCs are aligned to specific levels within the PTQF. (TESDA Board Resolution
No. 2004-13, Training Regulations Framework)

NATIONAL CERTIFICATE LEVEL refers to the four (4) qualification levels defined in the Philippine TVET Qualifications Framework
(PTQF) where the worker with:
a. NC I performs a routine and predictable tasks; has little judgment; and, works under supervision;
b. NC II performs prescribed range of functions involving known routines and procedures; has limited choice and complexity of
functions, and has little accountability;

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 2


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Lesson 5 – Practice Occupational Health and Safety
LO 1. Identify hazards and risks
LO 2 Evaluate risks and hazards
LO 3 Control hazards and risks

Your success in this exploratory course on Electrical Installation and Maintenance


is shown in your ability to perform the performance standards found in each learning
outcome.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 3


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Use This Module?

This Module has 5 Lessons. Each Lesson has the following parts.

 Learning Outcomes
 Performance Standards
 Materials/Resources
 Definition of Terms
 What Do You Already Know?
 What Do You Need to Know?
 How Much Have You Learned?
 How Do You Apply What You Learned?
 How Well Did You Perform?
 How Do You Extend Your Learning?
 References

To get the most from this Module, you need to do the following:

1. Begin by reading and understanding the Learning Outcome/s and Performance


Standards. These tell you what you should know and be able to do at the end of this
Module.
2. Find out what you already know by taking the Pretest then check your answer
against the Answer Key. If you get 99 to 100% of the items correctly, you may
proceed to the next Lesson. This means that you need not go through the Lesson
because you already know what it is about. If you failed to get 99 to 100% correctly,
go through the Lesson again and review especially those items which you failed to
get.
3. Do the required Learning Activities. They begin with one or more Information
Sheets. An Information Sheet contains important notes or basic information that you
need to know.
After reading the Information Sheet, test yourself on how much you learned
by means of the Self-check. Refer to the Answer Key for correction. Do not hesitate
to go back to the Information Sheet when you do not get all test items correctly.
This will ensure your mastery of basic information.
4. Demonstrate what you learned by doing what the Activity / Operation /Job Sheet
directs you to do.
5. You must be able to apply what you have learned in another activity or in real life
situation.

6. Accomplish the Scoring Rubrics for you to know how well you performed.

Each Lesson also provides you with references and definition of key terms for your guide.
They can be of great help. Use them fully.

If you have questions, ask your teacher for assistance.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 4


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LESSON 1

Prepare Electrical Supplies, Materials,


and Tools

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to
do the following:

LO 1. identify electrical supplies, materials, and tools;


LO 2. request appropriate supplies, materials, and tools for a
specific job; and
LO 3. receive and inspect electrical supplies, materials and
tools.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 5


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Definition of Terms

Ampere - a unit of measure of electric current

Circuit - the path of electric current from the source to the components and goes
back to the source

Kilowatt - a unit of power which is equivalent to 1000w

Conductor - a wire or a cord which provides path for current flow

Resistance - the quality of electric current measured in ohms that resist the flow of
current

Hot wire - a wire through which current flows

Insulator – material used to cover electric wires which may be made from plastic,
rubber, or asbestos.

Tools - are implements used to modify raw materials for human use
Corrugated plastic conduit (CPC) - commonly known as flexible non-metallic
conduit or the “moldflex”

Metallic Conduits- metal raceways that was classified into four; rigid steel conduit
(RSC), intermediate metallic conduit or tubing (IMC or IMT), electrical metallic
conduit or tubing (EMC or EMT) and the flexible metallic conduit (FMC)

Non-metallic conduits- plastic conduits or raceways designed to be a channel of


wire that are classified as; rigid non-metallic conduit or the PVC, the flexible non-
metallic or CPC, and the surface plastic molding

Connectors and Adapters - accessories that are used to connect from boxes to
conduits or raceways to the other boxes in the electrical system

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 6


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 1

Prepare electrical supplies, materials, and tools

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Tools and materials are identified as per job requirement.


 Tools are classified according to its function as per job requirement.
 Materials are classified according to its uses on a specific project.
 Tools and materials are selected.

Materials/ Resources

1. Utility box 8. Electrical Wires 15. Switch Plates


2. Connectors 9. Corrugated Plastic Conduit (CPC) 16. Cut-out boxes

3. Male Plug 10. Receptacles


4. Fuse 11. Fuse Panel/ Safety switch
5. Junction Box 12. Square boxes
6. Conduits 13. PVC conduit
7. Circuit Breaker 14. Switches

TOOLS:
1. Long Nose Pliers 9. Hacksaw
2. Stubby Screw Driver 10. Diagonal cutting pliers
3. Wire Stripper 11. Half-round file
4. Portable Electric Drill 12. Round file
5. Philips Screw Driver 13. Spirit level
6. Combination Pliers
7. Hammer
8. Electrician’s Knife

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 7


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about preparing electrical supplies,
materials and tools. Take this test.

Pretest LO 1

Directions: Read the statement carefully and identify what is being described or defined.
Choose your answer from the words inside the box.

Long Nose Pliers Circuit Breaker Hammer

Electrician’s Knife Utility box Portable Electric Drill

Philips Screw Driver Connectors Wire Stripper

Male Plug Fuse Combination Pliers Junction Box

Stubby Screw Driver Conduits

______________1. This is used for griping, holding, cutting electrical wires and cables
and even small nails. Usually used by linemen in doing heavy tasks.

______________2. Used for cutting and holding fine wires. This can reach tight space or
small opening where other pliers cannot reach and also used in making terminal loops of
copper wires.
______________3. This has a cross tip resembling a positive (+) sign. It is used to drive
screws with cross slot heads.

______________4. This is tools used in driving or pounding and pulling out nails.

______________5. A tool used for removing insulation of medium sized wires ranging
from gauge #10 to gauge #16.

______________6. A small drilling machine with a chuck capacity of ¼‖ to 3/8‖. It is used


in making holes on metal sheets and concrete walls.

______________7. Comes in either Standard or Philips screw driver with short shank or
blade and shorted handle used to turn screws in tight space where standard screw driver
cannot be used.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 8


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
______________8. Used by linemen to remove insulation of wire and cables in low and
high voltage transmission lines.

______________9. Is a device inserted to a convenience outlet to conduct electric


current. A flat cord is attached to it on one end and the other end is connected to a
current consuming instrument or appliance.

______________10. This is a circuit protective device that automatically blows and cut
the current when an over load or short circuit happens.

______________11. This is a rectangular shaped metallic or plastic (PVC) material in


which flush type convenience outlet and switch are attached.

______________12. Are electrical materials used as the passage of wires for protection
and Insulation.

______________13. Are used to attach metallic or non-metallic conduit to the junction


or utility boxes.

______________14. This is a protective device used to automatically cut off the current
when trouble in the circuit such as short circuit or over load occurs.

______________15. Is an octagonal shaped electrical material where the connections or


joints of wires are being done. It is also where the flush type lamp holder is attached.

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-
100% of the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If
not, do the next activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills
required for mastery.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 9


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check .

Information Sheet 1.1

Electrical Tools and Equipment

Electrical task can be accomplished systematically to save time, effort, and


resources. Most of the work cannot be done using bare hands. To do the task, electrical
tools or equipment are needed to perform the job. This lesson will discuss the function/use of
each tool or equipment used in electrical wiring installations.

The following are common electrical tools and equipment needed in the installation
of electrical wiring.

I. SCREW DRIVERS. These


tools are made of steel
hardened and tempered at the
tip used to loosen or tighten
screws with slotted heads.
They come in various sizes
and shapes.

A. Standard/Flat Screw Driver.


The blade tip is wedge-shaped
and resembles a negative (-)
sign. This is used to drive
screws with a single slot head.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 10


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
B. Philips Screw Driver. This
has a cross tip resembling a
positive (+) sign. This is used
to drive screws with cross slot
heads.

C. Stubby Screw Driver. It


comes in either Standard or
Philips screw driver with short
shank or blade and a shorted
handle used to turn screws in
tight space where standard
screw driver cannot be used.

D. Allen Screw Driver/Wrench.


This could be in the shape of a
screw driver or a wrench. Its
function is to drive screw with
hexagonal slot head.

II. HAMMERS. These are tools A


used in driving or pounding
and pulling out nails. They are
made of hard steel, wood,
plastic or rubber. The following
are types of hammer:
A. Claw hammer
B. Mallet(rubber head)
C. Ballpeen hammer
B C
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 11
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
III. PLIERS. These made from
metal with insulators in the
handle and are used for
cutting, twisting, bending,
holding, and gripping wires and
cables.

A. Combination Pliers (Lineman’s


Pliers). This is used for
gripping, holding, and cutting
electrical wires and cables and
even small nails. They are
usually used by linemen in
doing heavy tasks.

B. Side Cutting Pliers. This type


of pliers is used for cutting fine,
medium and big wires and
cables.

C. Long Nose Pliers. This is used


for cutting and holding fine
wires. This can reach tight
space or small opening where
other pliers cannot reach and
also used in making terminal
loops of copper wires.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 12


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
IV. Wire Stripper- A tool used for
removing insulation of medium
sized wires ranging from
gauge #10 to gauge #16.

V. Electrician’s Knife. This is used


by linemen to remove
insulation of wire and cables in
low and high voltage
transmission lines.

VI. Portable Electric drill. A small


drilling machine with a chuck
capacity of ¼‖ to 3/8‖. It is
used in making holes on metal
sheets and concrete walls.

Portable electric drill

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 13


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
VII. Hacksaw. This tool is used to
cut metal conduit and armored
cable.

Hacksaw

Electrical Supplies and Materials

Electrical materials are developed and constructed for a special purpose such as to:

1. control the flow of current in an electrical circuit;


2. carry electrical current from the source to the load or current consuming apparatus;
3. hold and secure wires to its fixtures inside and outside houses and buildings; and
4. protect the houses, buildings, appliances’ and instruments from any destruction and
damage.

The following are the most commonly used electrical materials.

MATERIALS AND DESCRIPTION PICTURES

Convenience outlet- a device that acts as


a convenient source of electrical energy for
current consuming appliances. It is where
the male plug of an appliance is inserted
and usually fastened on the wall or
connected in an extension cord. It maybe Surface type (duplex)
single, duplex, triplex or multiplex and could
be surface type or flush type.

Flush type (duplex)

Male plug- a device inserted to a


convenience outlet to conduct electric
current. A flat cord is attached to it on one
end and the other end is connected to a Male
current consuming instrument or appliance. plugs

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 14


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Lamp holders- devices that hold and
protect the lamp and are also called as
―Lamp Sockets/Receptacles‖. These come
in many designs and sizes. They are
classified as flush, hanging (weather Flush type Hanging (chain)
proof/chain) and surface types.

Surface type Hanging (weather)

Switch - a device that connects and


disconnects the flow of electric current in a
circuit. There are many shapes, designs, Surface type
and types and they are classified as
hanging, flush, and surface types.

Flush type Hanging type

Fuse - a circuit protective device that


automatically blows and cut the current
when and over load or short circuit
happens. Knife blade Cartridge Plug type

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 15


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Circuit Breaker - a protective device used
to automatically blows and cuts the current
when trouble in the circuit such as short
circuit or overload occurs.

Circuit breaker

Junction Box - an octagonal shaped


electrical material where the connections or
joints of wires are being done. It is also
where the flush type lamp holder is
attached. This could be made of metal or Plastic
plastic (PVC) Polyvinylchloride.

Metal

Utility Box - a rectangular shaped metallic


or plastic (PVC) material in which flush type
convenience outlet and switch are attached.

METAL PLASTIC

Flat Cord- Is a duplex stranded wire used


for temporary wiring installation and
commonly used in extension cord
assembly. It comes in a roll of 150 meters
and with sizes of gauge # 18 and gauge #
16 awg (American wire gauge).

Flat cord

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 16


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Electrical Wire/Conductor- electrical
material that could be:

a. Stranded wire which is made of multiple


strands joined together to make a single a. Stranded wire
wire.

b. Solid wire is made of a single strand of


copper or aluminum wire. These are used
in wiring installation inside and outside the b. Solid wire
buildings.

Metallic conduit
Conduits/Pipes- electrical materials used
as the passage of wires for protection and
insulation. These could be rigid metallic,
flexible metallic conduit (FMC), rigid non-
metallic (PVC), and flexible non-metallic or
corrugated plastic conduit (CPC) Flexible Non-metallic conduit or corrugated
plastic conduit (CPC)

Rigid Non-metallic conduit (PVC)

Clamps- electrical materials used to hold


and anchor electrical conduits in its proper
position.
Metal clamp Plastic clamp

Connectors- used to attach metallic or


non-metallic conduit to the junction or utility
boxes. Metal connector Flexible non
metallic connector

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 17


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
COMMON WIRE SPLICES AND JOINTS

Introduction

As a student in Electrical Installation and Maintenance you should acquire the


important knowledge and skills in wire splices and joints and should be familiar with the
actual application of every splice and joint. This will serve as your tool in performing actual
wiring installation. Of course, another factor is the knowledge in interpreting and analyzing
the wiring diagram especially if the circuit is complicated.

The following are the Common Electrical Wire Splices and Joints.

Rat Tail or Pig Tail. This kind of joint is Y-splice. This method of wrapping is
commonly used to join two or more generally used on small cables because
conductors inside the junction box. It is the strands are flexible and all can be
suitable for service where there is no wrapped in one operation.
mechanical stress when wires are to be
connected in an outlet box, switch, or
conduit fitting

Knotted tap. This is used where the tap Plain tap joint. This is used where the
wire is under heavy tensile stress. tap wire is under considerable tensile
stress circuit.

Aerial tap. This is used as a temporary tap Duplex cross joint. This is a two-tap
wire turned simultaneously and is used
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 18
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
usually done in constructions sites. The where the two tap wire is under heavy
easy twist will facilitate tap wire movement tensile stress.

Western Union Short-tie Splice. This is


the most widely used splice or joint in
interior wiring installation to extend the Western Union Long Tie. This is used
length of wire from one point to another. extensively for outside wiring to extend
the length of wire from one end to
another.

Wrapped Tap or Tee Joint. This is


Cross joint. The same application is done
used on large solid conductors where it
as in plain tap and the only difference is
is difficult to wrap the heavy tap wire
that this tap is a combination of two plain
around the main wire.
taps place side by side with each other.

EXTENSION CORD

An extension cord is a span of flexible electrical power cable with a plug on one end
and multiple sockets on the other end. It comes in several varieties to suit the needs of the
user. One of the most important considerations is the power handling capacity to make it
safe and functional.

Electrical gadgets are product of modern technology to make our life better. The
number of electrical gadgets available at home and in offices may exceed the existing
convenience outlet installed in every room. The best remedy to address the insufficiency of
available outlet is to use an extension cord especially if the electrical gadgets need to
operate at the same time.

REMINDER

Be careful in buying an extension cord. You have to look for the Department of Trade
and Industry (DTI) markings. The Product Standard (PS) or Import Commodity Clearance
(ICC) markings on it signify that the product passed the DTI standard for safety and quality.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 19


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Sample pictures of extension cords using different materials

How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 1.1

Direction. Identify each of the following tools/materials

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 20


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity

Operation Sheet 1.1

SKINNING OF WIRE USING DIFFERENT


TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

DIRECTION. Given are sets of tasks and their corresponding pictures, practice those using
appropriate tools and materials. Your performance will be judged using the following criteria:

PERFORMANCE RUBRICS:

CRITERIA 1 2 3 4
Accuracy

Workmanship

Proper handling of
tools

Speed

Legend:

1- Poor 2- Fair 3- Good 4. Excellent

SCALE DESCRIPTION POINTS

4 Excellent 93-100

3 Good 86-92

2 Fair 79-85

1 Poor 78 and below

o Accuracy- the ability to follow the procedures/directions with precision.


o Workmanship- the art, skill and finality of work.
o Proper handling of tools- the ability to apply proper handling of tools for a given
task.
o Speed- efficiency of work.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 21


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
TOOLS:
1. Combination Plier
2. Side cutting plier
3. Long nose plier
4. Wire stripper
5. Electrician’s knife

MATERIALS:
Solid and stranded copper wires of different sizes; #14, #12, #10

Tasks Pictures of the Tasks

1. Skin a wire using an electrician’s


knife, about 1 to 1 ½ inches long.

2. Skin a wire using combination and


side cutting pliers about 1 ½ inches long.
Make sure that there will be no knick (
deep cut across the wire) on your
skinned wires.

3. Remove insulators using wire stripper


about 1 to 1 ½ inches long

Operation Sheet 1.2A

A CONNECTING SKINNED WIRES TO WIRING MATERIALS

OBJECTIVE: To be able to properly connect skinned wires to bulb receptacles,


convenience outlets, switches, or any other wiring materials.

TOOLS
1. Combination pliers
2. Side cutting pliers
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 22
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
3. Long nose pliers
4. Wire stripper
5. Electrician’s knife
6. Phillips screw drivers
7. Flat screw drivers

MATERIALS:

 Electrical wires used in Activity 1.1

PROCEDURE:

Follow procedure on the table below

1. Make terminal loops using long nose


pliers from your skinned wires of
about 1 to 1 ½ inches long.

2. Connect the skinned wire to screw


terminals of the bulb receptacle.

*Be sure that the wire loop is to be


connected or attached to the
terminal screw in clockwise
direction.

3. Insert the loop to the screw and


tighten it to the convenience outlet.

*Be sure that the wire loop is to be


connected or attached to the
terminal screw in clockwise
direction.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 23


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4. Insert the loop to the screw of the
switch and tighten it.

*Be sure that the wire loop is to be


connected or attached to the
terminal screw in clockwise
direction.

5. Insert the loop to the screw of the


fuse terminal and tighten it.

*Be sure that the wire loop is to be


connected or attached to the
terminal screw in clockwise
direction.

Operation Sheet 1.2B

SPLICING OF WIRES

DIRECTIONS: Below are pictures of common wire splices and joints used in electrical
wiring installations. Practice doing the task by following the steps given. Your performance
will be judged using the rubric:

Steps in splicing a rat tail joint

Steps Figures

1. Strip the wire insulator at the


ends of the conductor to be
joined at about 50 mm. Clean
both wires to be joined.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 24


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2. Place the two ends of bare
wire in crossed position.

3. Then, twist the bare


conductors about five to seven
times.

Steps in splicing western union long- tie joint

Steps Figures

1. Strip the wire ends for about


75 mm.

2. Place the wires in crossed


position about mid halfway
from the insulation.

3. Make four to six long twists of


wires.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 25


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4. Wrap each side of the wire for
about four to five turns as
shown in figure 4.

Steps in splicing aerial tap joint

Steps Figures

 Strip the tap wire end about 75


mm. and the main wire end
about 25 mm.

 Place the wires in crossed


position intersecting about 5
mm from the insulation of the
tap wire and the main wire.

 Bend the tap wire over the


main wire making a long twist.

 Turn the tap wire around the


main wire making four to five
turns.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 26


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 1.2

A. Direction: Inside each piece of puzzle are jumbled letters. Arrange these letters to
form the correct word on types of joints and splices/wire connections.

1. 2.
T A A P
A A
I

T T I
N

L
L R
D L O L C
P N

C R
E

E I

4.
U P X S
3. Y P
S S
1.__________________________________
2.__________________________________
3.__________________________________
4.__________________________________

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Operation Sheet 1.3A

INTRODUCTION

Underwriter’s knot is one of the skills needed in making an extension cord. It is


neither a joint nor a splice but a knot that is made in an extension cord. Its purpose is to
relieve the strain on small wires of the cord and binding screws of convenience outlets and
male plug.

For you to make a quality and safe output you have to strictly follow the given
procedure in making an underwriter’s knot. Below is the procedure.

You will be rated by the use of this performance rubics.

PERFORMANCE RUBRICS:

CRITERIA 1 2 3 4
Accuracy
Workmanship
Proper handling of
tools
Speed

Legend:
1- poor 2- fair 3- good 4. Excellent
SCALE DESCRIPTION POINTS
4 Excellent 93-100
3 Good 86-92
2 Fair 79-85
1 Poor 78 and below

Materials:

 Flat cord no.18 AWG


Tools:
 Side cutting
 long nose
 combination pliers
 Wire stripper/electrician’s knife

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 28


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Procedure and picture:

1. Split the end of the flat cord about 8


centimeters long.

1. Bend the left strand of the cord and


place it at the back of the main cord
following the arrow.

2. Bend the right strand of cord. Place


it at the back of left strand and over
the main cord.

3. Insert the right strand cord inside


the loop made by left strand cord.

4. Pull both strands of the flat cord to


tighten the knot.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 29


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Operation Sheet 1.3B

PROJECT PLAN IN MAKING AN EXTENSION CORD

INTRODUCTION

You might be wondering why there are several projects which are not completely
done. Well, there are several reasons why this happens. It might be out of budget or not
properly planned. So, this Lesson will help you achieve the desired quality project.

A project plan is necessary before undertaking any project because it serves as


your guide in accomplishing an activity. It will give you an idea what needs to be done, how
much to spend and what procedures to undertake.

A well prepared project plan saves time and cost of materials. Below is a sample
project plan of an extension cord. This format can also be used in preparing a plan for other
projects in the future.

Project Plan - (Making an extension cord)

Name of Student:_________________________ Year & Section:__________________


I. Name of Project: Extension Cord Assembly Date Started: ___________________
Date Finished: __________________

II. Objective:

a. Demonstrate how to make an extension cord.


b. Observe safety measures while doing the project.

III. Sketch/Drawing:

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 30


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
IV. Materials Needed:

Qty. Unit Description Unit Cost Total Cost

1 pc. Convenience Outlet (surface type Php 40.00 Php 40.00


duplex)

3 meters Flat Cord # 18 AWG Php 12.00 Php 36.00

1 pc. Male Plug Php 15.00 Php 15.00

2 Pcs. Eyelet Wire Connectors Php 1.50 Php 3.00

TOTAL COST OF MATERIALS Php 94.00

+ cost of labor (approximately 20%-30% of cost of materials) Php 28.00


(30%)

SELLING COST PHP 122.00

Sample Pictures of Materials Needed

Flat Cord Male Plug Eyelet wire connectors Convenience Outlet

V. Tools and Equipment Needed:

1. Standard/Flat Screw Driver


2. Philips Screw Driver
3. Long Nose Pliers
4. Side Cutting Pliers
5. Electrician’s knife/ Pocket knife
6. Continuity Tester or Multi-tester

VI. Procedure:

1. Prepare the plan.


2. Gather all necessary materials, tools and equipment needed.
3. Insert cord into the male plug, split the cord wires about 8 centimeters long.
4. Remove insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long with a pocket knife as if
sharpening a pencil. Be careful not to cut any strand.
5. Scrape bare wire with the back of the knife until shiny. Twist the wire stands.
6. Tie the underwriter’s knot.
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 31
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
7. Make a loop on terminal wires and connect the wires to the screw of the male
plug. The loop should go with the thread clockwise direction.
8. Split the cord wires at the other end about 4 centimeters long, then follow
procedure no. 4.
9. Connect the wires to the connectors.
10. Open the convenience outlet then remove the screw.
11. Insert the wire connectors to the screws, tighten it and return the cover.
12. Check the continuity and test the extension cord.

How Well Did You Perform?

Find out by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely.


Remember it is your learning at stake!

Criteria for Assessment:

PERFORMANCE RUBRICS:

CRITERIA 1 2 3 4
Accuracy
Workmanship
Proper handling of
tools
Speed

Legend:
1- Poor 2- Fair 3- Good 4. Excellent
SCALE DESCRIPTION POINTS
4 Excellent 93-100
3 Good 86-92
2 Fair 79-85
1 Poor 78 and below
o Accuracy- the ability to follow the procedures/directions with precision.
o Workmanship- the art, skill and finality of work.
o Proper handling of tools- the ability to apply proper handling of tools for a given
task.
o Speed- efficiency of work.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 32


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 2

Request appropriate supplies, materials, and tools for a


specific job

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Needed materials and tools listed as per job requirement.


 Materials and tools are requested according to the list prepared.
 Requests are done as per company standard operating procedures (SOP)
 Unavailable materials and tools are substituted and provided without
sacrificing cost and quality of work.

Materials/ Resources

1. Inventory form
2. Requisition form
3. Job order form
4. Borrower’s form

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 33


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about requesting appropriate
supplies, materials, and tools for a specific job. Take this test.

Pretest LO 2

Direction: Match the forms in Column A with the corresponding descriptions in

Column B. Write the letter of your answer.

Column A Column B

1. A document generated by a user _____ a. Inventory of Materials Form


department or storeroom-personnel to
notify the purchasing department of
items it needs to order, their quantity,
and the time frame
2. The raw materials, work-in-process _____ b. Requisition Slip Form
goods and completely finished goods
that are considered to be the portion of a
business's assets that
are ready or will be ready for sale
3. A form use to request for tools and _____ c. Job Order/ Work Order Form
equipment
to be used for a particular job. is a
written
instruction to perform a work
4. A written instruction to perform a work _____d. Borrowers Form
according to specified requirements,
within specified timeframe and cost
estimates.

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-
100% of the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If
not, do the next activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required
for mastery.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 34


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 2.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 2.1

DIFFERENT TYPES OF FORMS

Correctness of the entry of different forms used in electrical work is necessary in


order to acquire right, complete and accurate number of materials and tools needed in a
specific electrical job. Here are samples of different forms used in electrical work.

1. Purchase requisition is a document generated by a user department or storeroom-


personnel to notify the purchasing department items it needs to order, their quantity, and the
timeframe. It may also contain the authorization to proceed with the purchase. This is also
called purchase request or requisition.

REQUISITION SLIP FORM

Name:
Project:
Location:
Classification:
Purpose:
NO. QUANTITY UNIT DESCRIPTION UNIT TOTAL
COST COST

_______________ ______________ _____________ _____________


REQUISITIONER TEACHER HEAD PRINCIPAL

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2. Inventory are raw materials, work-in-process goods and completely finished goods
that are considered to be the portion of a business's assets that are ready or will be
ready for sale. Inventory represents one of the most important assets that most
businesses possess, because the turnover of inventory represents one of the primary
sources of revenue generation and subsequent earnings for the company's
shareholders/owners.

INVENTORY OF MATERIALS FORM

Name:

Section:

School:

Shop lab.:

Purpose:

Tools/ No. of No. of not No. of No. of No. of


Equip- Qty. Functional Functional Condemn- Borrowed Missing
ment but able
Repairable

________________ ______________ ________________ _______________


REQUISITIONER TEACHER HEAD PRINCIPAL

Date:_______________________

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
3. Job order or Work Order form is a written instruction to perform a work according to
specified requirements, within specified timeframe and cost estimates.

SAMPLE OF JOB ORDER FORM OR WORK ORDER FORM

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4. BORROWER’S FORM is a form used to request for tools and equipment needed for
a particular job. It indicates the department that the borrower is connected, the date,
the job that is to be done, who is the person to approve the request, when it was
returned and if it was in good condition.
EQUIPMENT BORROWERS FORM
(Revised 31August2010; Accomplish in duplicate)
REQUEST NO: __________________ (do not fill up this item) DATE: _________________________
MR / MS ______________________ ___________________________ ____________________
(Please encircle) SURNAME GIVEN NAME MIDDLE
______________________ ______________________ _____________________
ADDRESS: CONTACT NO. E-MAIL ADDRESS:
Please check:
□ Student Student No. _______ ______________ Subject: _____________________
□ Dept Faculty Employee No. ____________________
□ Dept.
REPS/Staff Department College:___________________________________________
□ Others Office Address. ______________________________________________
Accompanying DGE-TCAGP Member: _________________________________________________
PURPOSE: __________________________________________________________________________
INTENDED PERIOD OF USE: ________________ to __________________ LOCATION:
_________________
CHECKLIST OF REQUESTED ITEMS *:

* If more than 8 items, provide another attachment.


** Do not fill this part; to be countersigned by authorized staff upon receipt and return.

RECOMMENDING APPROVAL (for DGE students): ________________________________


Thesis Adviser/Faculty-in-Charge)
Borrower’s Name in Print and Signature This is to certify that:
Date: ___________________________________ 1. I have read, understood, and agreed to the “Terms of
(Fill this portion only during the time of borrowing.) Use for AG&ST Equipment” (back of this page).
2. I received the above listed equipment(s) completely and
APPROVED: in good order.
________________________________ 3 JR.. I swear to use the above listed equipment(s) with
due
JUAN DELA CRUZ JR., Dr. Eng. care and diligence.
AG&ST Lab Coordinator 4. In case of damage or loss, I shall be responsible for
repair or replacement:
APPROVED:
_______________________________________ ________________________________
JUAN DELA CRUZ JR., Dr. Eng. (Borrower’s Name over printed name)
Chair, DGE and Director, TCAGP
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
To be accomplished upon return of equipment
Date returned: _________________________
All items in good condition? ____ YES ____ NO, (If no, please attach damage report)
Any missing item? _____ YES ____ NO, Please describe: ________________________________
Received by: _________________________________

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 2.1

Directions: Accomplish the table.

COMMON TYPES OF
FORMS DESCRIPTION PURPOSE
1.

2.

3.

4.

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Activity Sheet 2.1

DRAMATIZATION/ROLE PLAY

OBJECTIVE:

To be able to understand and perform how to make requisition of supplies,


materials, and tools for a specific job

Materials:
 Borrower’s Slip/ Form
 Different electrical supplies and materials in the laboratory

Tools:
All available tools to be requested in the dramatization

Persons Involved:

Minimum of 3 students (1 will act as the tool keeper and the others are the
borrowers)

Time limit:

7 to 10 minutes

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 40


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 3

Receive and inspect electrical supplies, materials, and tools

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Received and inspected materials and tools as per quantity and


specification based on requisition.
 Tools and materials are checked for damages and manufacturing defects.
 Materials and tools received are handled with appropriate safety devices.
 Materials and tools are set aside to appropriate location nearest to the
workplace.


Materials/ Resources

1. Sample of official receipt form


2. Delivery receipt form

What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about receiving and inspecting
electrical supplies, materials, and tools. Take this test.

Pretest LO 3

Direction:

A. Complete the missing word to complete the three key words in receiving a
shipment or supplies and materials:

1. Is it _____________________?

2. Is it _____________________?

3. Is the piece count _________?

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 41


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
B. Answer the following questions and write the correct answer on the space provided.

1. Who is responsible for requesting inspection for damaged goods and


packaging? ________________________________

2. What should you do with the copy of your request for inspection?
_______________________________________________

3. What should a person do with the findings of the inspection?

________________________________________________

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 3.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 3.1.

Information Sheet 3.1

RECEIVING AND INSPECTING FREIGHT SHIPMENTS

One of the tasks of a supply officer or logistics officer is the purchase of the
company’s supplies, materials and anything that the company needs. But his duty does not
end in just purchasing but also in receiving the deliveries of what he purchased.

In receiving the deliveries, understand that you need to ensure that the right
materials and supplies were delivered and all in good condition without defects.

A. When you receive a shipment, ask the shipper the following questions:

1. Is it for me? Check the delivery receipt for the consignee's name and address. If
your agency has more than one location, make sure the goods are for this exact
address. Check the freight to see if it is the same as described on the delivery
receipt. Look at the label on each item to make sure the shipment belongs to you.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 42


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2. Is it damaged? Do not sign the receipt before inspecting for damage. Check for
holes, water, stains, and tears. Pick up cartons if you can. Check for rattling. Listen
for something broken inside. Check to see if any package has been opened or if the
sealing tape has been tampered with.

3. Is the piece count correct? Count the pieces and match the number on the
delivery receipt to the number you have counted. If the shipment is on a pallet,
check to make sure the pallet is solid with no voids inside the stack. If the shipment
is shrink or stretch wrapped, make sure the wrap hasn't been cut and pieces
removed. Sign only for the type of unit you receive. For example: two pallets. Don't
sign for the number of packages that are supposed to be on the pallet. However, if
time permits or the pallet is not banded or shrink wrapped, count the packages, and
only then sign for the number of packages.

B. If your delivery doesn't check out, do one of the following:

1. Refuse shipment if it isn't yours, if the shipment does not meet the terms specified by
your agency, or is damaged to the point where it no longer has a value.
2. If yours, and only partially damaged or short, accept it and note exceptions on the
delivery receipt.

C. How to note exceptions:

1. Damage Notations: Be specific. Describe the damage accurately. Pinpoint the


locations of all defects. If you can see the damage, have the driver wait while you
open and inspect the packages. Write down the number and identity of the damaged
pieces. This is called a "joint inventory."

2. Shortage Notations: If part of shipment is missing, write the number of pieces


actually delivered on the delivery receipt and circle it. Then write down the number of
pieces missing and note them as "short."

3. Signatures: Write down all exceptions on both copies of the delivery receipt. Have
the driver sign both copies of the delivery receipt in his full name (not initials or
nicknames). After the driver signs, you sign also. Write your agency's name, your
full name, the date, and the time of day.

D. Follow these steps when requesting an inspection:

1. The receiving person is responsible for requesting the carrier to inspect the damaged
goods and packaging. The formal request should be made by phone right after
discovering any loss or damage.

2. After the phone request, make a request for inspection by the carrier in writing. Note
the date and time of your previous phone call and the person contacted. Keep a
copy of your request letter on file.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 43


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
3. Once contacted about damage or shortage, the carrier may waive inspection and tell
you so. If so, write down the name of the person who waived the inspection, and the
date and time of waiver. Then conduct your own detailed inspection. Write up your
findings in a report and attach it to the file. If you can, take photographs to confirm
your inspection report.

How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 3.1

a. Complete the missing word to complete the three key words in receiving a
shipment or supplies and materials:

1. Is it _____________________?
2. Is it _____________________?
3. Is the piece count _________?

b. Answer the following questions and write the correct answer on the space
provided.

1. Who is responsible for requesting inspection for damaged goods and


packaging? ________________________________
2. What should you do with the copy of your request for inspection?
_________________________________________________
3. What should a person do with the findings of the inspection?
_________________________________________________

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 44


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Activity Sheet 3.1

DRAMATIZATION ON RECEIVING SUPPLIES, MATERIALS, TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

I. OBJECTIVE

To practice how to receive and inspect supplies and materials for a specific job

II. PERSONS INVOLVED

1 student to act as supply officer/ tool and 1 student will act as delivery personnel

III. SITUATION

The delivery man arrived to deliver the electrical supplies and materials. The supply
officer (the other student) will inspect before receiving the supplies and materials.

Congratulations! You did a great job! Rest


and relax a while then move on to the next
lesson. Good luck!

REFERENCES

 Philippine Electrical Code. 2000 Edition.


 Cardenas, Elpidio.1989, Fundamental and Elements of Electricity.
Philippines: national Bookstore.
 http://sam.dgs.ca.gov/TOC/3800/3861.htm
 http://electrical.about.com/od/electricaltools/tp/top16electricaltools.htm

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 45


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LESSON 2

Performing Mensuration and Calculation

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to
do the following:

LO 1. select measuring tools and instruments; and


LO 2. carry out measurements and calculations.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 46


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Definition of Terms

Amperage (Amps) - a unit of measurement of electrical current flow

Ampere - a unit of measurement which describes the amount of electric current


passing a certain point at a particular time

Centimeter - hundredth of a meter

Inch - a portion of a foot, which is an English unit of linear measurement

Megger - an instrument used to measure the insulation resistance of conductors or


wire. It gives measurement in ohms or meg-ohms

Millimeter - one-thousandth of a meter

Multi-tester - an electrical measuring instrument used to measure the voltage, the


resistance or the current of a circuit. It is connected either through parallel or series
with the circuit depending on what to measure

Ohm - the unit of measurement used to express resistance

Ohmmeter - an instrument used to measure resistance in ohms

Volt - a unit of measurement of electrical pressure or voltage

Voltmeter - an instrument specially designed for measuring voltage

Wire Gauge - used to measure the diameter of magnetic wire

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 47


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 1

Select Measuring Tools and Instruments

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Measuring tools and instruments are selected/ classified as per object to be


measured on job requirements.
 Measurements are obtained according to job requirements.
 Computation of resistance, current, and voltage using Ohms Law are
obtained.

Materials/ Resources

1. Ruler 8. Activity Sheets


2. Push-pull tape rule
3. Multi-meter
4. zigzag rule
5. Wire gauge
6. Micrometer caliper
7. Vernier caliper

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 48


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about selecting measuring tools
and instruments. Take this test.

Pretest LO 1

I. Direction: Match the electrical measuring tools and instruments in Column A


to their descriptions in Column B. Write the letter of your answer in the space
provided before each number.

Column A Column B

_____1. A. Voltmeter

B. Volt-ohmmeter
_____2.

C. Micrometer

_____3.

D. Clamp Ammeter

_____4.

E. Wire gauge

_____5.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 49


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
II. Multiple Choice:
Direction: Choose the correct answer and write only the letter on your answer
sheet.

1. An instrument used to measure the amount of electrical current intensity in a


circuit.
a. Voltmeter
b. Ammeter
c. Micrometer
d. Ohmmeter
2. A pocket sized tool used to test the line wire or circuit if there is current in it.
a. Test light
b. Wire gauge
c. Ruler
d. Pull-push rule
3. A measuring tool used to measure the length of an object in centimeter and
inches.
a. Test light
b. Wire gauge
c. Ruler
d. Pull-push rule
4. It is used to measure the diameter of wires/conductors in circular mils. It can
measure small and big sizes of wires and cables.
a. Voltmeter
b. Ammeter
c. Micrometer
d. Ohmmeter
5. It is used to measure the voltage, resistance and current of a circuit. It connected
in parallel or series with the circuit depending on what to measure.
a. Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter
b. Micrometer
c. Ohmmeter
d. Ammeter

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 50


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 1.1

MEASURING TOOLS AND INSTRUMENTS

Measurement is the process or the result of determining the ratio of a physical


quantity, such as a length, time, temperature, etc., to a unit of measurement, such as the
meter, second or degree Celsius. The science of measurement is called metrology.
The English word measurement originates from the Latin mēnsūra and the
verbmetiri through the Middle French mesure.

Electrical measuring tools and instruments are sensitive and delicate so extra care is
necessary in handling them. These are used to measure currents, voltages, resistances,
wattages and other important elements in electrical works. This topic, will tackle the
function/use of each measuring tool and instrument used in doing a electrical task. Different
kinds of measuring tools and precision measuring instruments are as follows:

Measuring tool/instrument Description

Test Light is a pocket size tool used to test the


line wire or circuit if there is current in it.

Micrometer is used to measure the diameter of


wires/conductors in circular mils. It can
measure small and big sizes of wires and
cables.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 51


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Wire Gauge is used in determining the size of
wires/conductors. The gauge ranges from 0 to
60 awg ( American wire gauge).

Ruler/foot rule is a measuring tool used to


measure length, width and thickness of short
flat object and in sketching straight lines

*A ruler/rule is a tool used in, for


example, geometry, technical drawing,
engineering, and carpentry, to measure lengths
or distances or to draw straight lines. Strictly
speaking, the ruler is the instrument used
to rule straight lines and the calibrated
instrument used for determining length called
a measure. However, common usage calls both
instruments rulers and the special
name straight edge is used for an unmarked
rule.

Pull-Push Rule is a measuring tool used to


measure the length of an object in centimeter
and inches

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 52


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Ammeter is an instrument used to measure the
amount of electrical current intensity in a circuit.
The unit of measure is ampere (a). It is
connected along or series to the circuit.

Voltmeter is an instrument used to measure


electrical pressure or voltage of a circuit. The
unit of measure is volt (v). This is connected
across or parallel to the circuit.

Clamp Ammeter is also called tong-tester. It is


used to measure current flowing in a conductor.
It is clamped or hanged in a conductor.

Volt-Ohmmeter (VOM) otherwise called as


Multi-tester; is used to measure the voltage,
resistance and current of a circuit. It is
connected in parallel or series with the circuit
depending on what to measure.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 53


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 1.1

Text Twist:

A. Directions: Inside Box A are jumbled letters. Arrange the letters to form words
pertaining to electrical measuring tools and instruments. Then write the words
inside Box B.
Box A Box B

1. GEWIGREAU 1.

2. MVLTETEOR
2.

3. AACMPLMMTREE
3.
4. RPPULLUSHULE-

4.

B. Directions: Describe at least two of your answer in activity A.


1.__________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2.__________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 54


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity

Activity Sheet 1.1

Directions: Using a pull-push rule measure the length, width, and thickness/height of
teacher’s table and blackboard eraser. Write your answer inside the corresponding box.

Measurement Measurement Measurement of


thickness/height
Object to be of length of width

Measured Inches Centi- Inches Centi- Inches Centi-

Meter meter meter

1. Teacher’s
table

2. Blackboard
eraser

3. Teacher’s
cabinet

4. Door of the
classroom

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 55


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 2

Carry out measurements and calculations

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Numerical computations are self-checked and corrected for accuracy.


 Accurate measurements are obtained according to job requirements.
 Identified and converted systems of measurements to job requirements.
 Measured work pieces according to job requirements.

Materials

1. Paper
2. Ball pen
3. Ruler
4. Push-pull tape
5. Steel rule
6. Activity Sheets

What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about carrying out measurement
and calculations. Take this test.

Pretest LO 2

A. Directions: Write the equivalent value of the given unit.

_______ 1. 1cm is _____ mm

_______ 2. 1 yard is _____ inches

_______ 3. 1dm is _____ cm

_______ 4. 10mm is _____ cm

_______ 5. 1foot is _____ inches

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
B. Directions: Write the correct unit abbreviation of the following:

_______ 6. Centimeter

_______ 7. Meter

_______ 8. Decimeter

_______ 9. Yard

_______10. Feet

C. Directions: Convert the following:

1. 10 feet = ________cm
2. 70 cm = ________mm
3. 15 inches = ________ ft
4. 5 meters =
________ yard

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 57


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 2.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 2.1.

Information Sheet 2.1

SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT

A system of measurement is a set of units which can be used to specify


anything can be measured.

These are common units of measurement used in making layout and


installation of electrical materials:

A. Linear measures

1. English system provides the creative way on how people can measure
by themselves. For example, people measure shorter distance on the ground
with their feet. They measure long distances by their palms which is equal to a
yard.
 Inch
 Yard
 Miles

2. Metric system is a decimalized system of measurement. It exists in


several variations with different choices of base units. Metric units are widely
used around the world for personal, commercial and scientific purpose.
 Millimeter
 Centimeter
 Decimeter
 Meter

B. English units and each equivalent

 12 inches = foot(ft)
 1 foot = 3yard (yd)
 1 yard = 36 inches

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
C. Metric units and each equivalent

 10millimeter (mm) = 1centimeter (cm)


 10centimeter = 1decimeter(dm)
 10 decimeter = 1meter

D. English to metric equivalent


 1 inch = 2.54 cm
 1 foot = 30.48 cm
 1 yard = 91.44 cm

E. The centimeter graduation

.5mm 1mm 10mm or 1cm 25 mm or 2.5 cm

The graduation shows that every digit is .5mm

How to read the cm graduation:

1. First graduation is .5 mm
2. Second graduation is 1mm
3. Third graduation is 1.5mm
4. Fourth graduation is 2mm

Note: If the graduation reaches 10mm, it is equivalent to 1cm.

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F. The inch graduation

0 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 inch

1/16 3/16 5/16 7/16 9/16 11/16 13/16 15/16

How to read the inch graduation:


1. First graduation is 1/16
2. Second graduation is 18
3. Third graduation is 3/16
4. Fourth graduation is 1/4, then follow the given scale above.

The inch graduation in a steel rule:

Converting the unit of measurement from English to metric and vice versa

Example:
1. 12 inches = ________ cm Cancel the common unit and apply cross
Since multiplication.

12 inches = 2.54 cm

1 inch

12 x 2.54 cm Perform the indicated operation.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
1
Therefore: 12 inches = 30.48 cm

2. 6 feet = ________ inches


Since
6 feet = 12 inches

1 feet

6 x 12 inches
1
Therefore: 6 feet = 72 inches

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
THE MULTITESTER

INTRODUCTION

The Multitester or multimeter is sometimes called the VOM (voltmeter,


ohmmeter, milliammeter). It is the best instrument that can measure voltage,
resistance and current. It is generally made of two types: the analog and the digital.

A. PARTS OF A MULTI TESTER

POINTER. The
needle-shaped rod
that moves over the
scale of a meter.

Pointer It is mechanically
connected to the
moving coil. it
indicates the
measured values on
the multimeter
scale.

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RANGE SELECTOR KNOB
(Selector switch) makes it
possible to select different
functions and range of the
meter.

Adjustment screw makes it


possible to adjust the pointer
to the zero position of the
scale.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
SCALE is a series of
marking used for reading
the value of a quantity
setting.

SCALE -can have different


types of scale, for voltage
and current readings the
scales have mostly linear
which means equal
division. For resistance
readings, the scale have
logarithmic which means
unequal divisions.

Test probe positive (red),


negative (black) is used to
Zero-ohm
connect the circuit to the
adjustingKnob is
electrical components being
used to zero-in
tested
the pointer before
measuring
resistance.

A. Proper care and maintenance of the multi tester

1. Read manual of instructions on how to operate the multi-tester.


2. In reading the amount of voltage, always start with the highest range to avoid
reading voltage higher than the tester setting.
3. Be sure that the tester is set to the correct range setting: resistance range
when measuring the ohm, voltage range when measuring voltage and
ammeter range when measuring the value of electric current.
4. Always check the condition of its battery. Worn out batteries will damage the
internal setting of the tester.
5. When the tester is not in used or will be stored, set the selector switch to
1000V or to OFF position.
6. Never drop the tester.

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B. How to read the meter scale of the multi tester
To read the resistance range of the multi-tester, the given table below will be
used. The unit of measurement to be used to determine its resistance is ohm.

Range 0-2 2-10 10-20 20-50 50-100 100-200


Range x1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 20
Range
2 5 10 20 50 200
x10
Range x1k 20 50 100 200 500 2K
Range
200 500 1K 2K 5K 20K
x 10k

Pointer deflection

Range setting is X1

Reading is 2.5ohms

Pointer deflection

Range setting is X10

Reading is 25 ohms

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Voltage scale

Range Value/div
Range 10V 0.2V
Range 50V 1V
Range 250V 5V
Range 100V 20V

Voltage scale
Range setting is 10 V
(used 0-10 scale)
Reading is 4.4V

Range Value/div
Range 10V 0.2V
Range 50V 1V
Range 250V 5V
Range 100V 20V

Voltage scale
Range setting is 50V (used 0-10
scale)
Reading is 24V

Range Value/div
Range 10V 0.2V
Range 50V 1V
Range 250V 5V
Range 1000V 20V

Voltage scale

Range setting is 250V (used 0-10 scale)

Reading is 110V

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How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 2.1

PARTS OF MULTITESTER
A. DIRECTION. Given a Multi-\tester below, write the parts indicated by the arrow and give
their functions.

1_______________ 4_________

2_______________ 5____________

3_______________ 6________

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity

Job Sheet 2.1

I. USE MEASURING TOOLS

Supplies and Materials

 Sheet of paper
 Pencil

Tools and Equipment

 Steel rule
 Bench rule
 Metric rule
 Foot rule

Direction: Using any of the given measuring tools, read the actual measurement of
the given samples. Write your answer on the space provided.

Sample Actual measurement in centimeter

Teacher’s Table

Length of eraser

Height of cabinet

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II. READING A VOLTMETER

Indicate the voltage reading of the voltmeter below

Directions: Write your answer on the space provided.

1._______ VOLTS

What is
the
reading?

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2.____VOLTS
AC/DC
Voltage Vhens
What is the
Reading reading?

PANIDA
TECH. 1000 ACV

III. READING AN OHMMETER


A. Indicate the resistance reading of the ohmmeter below.
Direction: WRITE YOUR READING AT THE SPACE PROVIDED.

Resistanc
e Vhens
What is
Reading the
reading
?

Rx1k

PANIDA
TECH.

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1. ____________OHMS

Resistanc
Vhens
e Reading What is the
reading?

Rx1

PANIDA
TECH.

2._______________
OHMS

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Resistan
ce Vhen
Reading What is the
s reading?

Rx1k

PANIDA 3.
TECH.
____________OHMS

Resistan
Vhens
ce What is the
Reading reading?

Rx1

PANIDA
TECH.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4.__________OHMS

IV. ACTUAL READING OF VOLTMETER AND OHMMETER

Directions: Using a volt-ohmmeter measure the voltage of an existing


convenience outlets inside your room, voltage of a dry cells/battery and resistance of
resistors. Write your answer in the space provided.

Device/Component to First Second Third


be Measured

1. Voltage of the volts volts volts


outlets

2. Voltage of a dry volts volts volts


cells/battery

3. Resistance of a ohms ohms ohms


resistors

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Congratulations! You did a great job! Rest and
relax a while then move on to the next lesson.
Good luck!

REFERENCES

 Philippine Electrical Code. Year 2000 Edition.


 Cardenas, Elpidio. 1989, Fundamental and Elements of Electricity.
Philippines:National Bookstore.
 Enriquez, Michael Q., Gantalao, Fred T. and Lasala, Rommel M. 2004,
Simple Electronics. Philippines: Andes Mountain Printers.
 Velasco, Benjamin S. 1994, Electronic Components Testing Simplified.
Philippines: National Bookstore: 1994.
 http://sam.dgs.ca.gov/TOC/3800/3861.htm
 http://electrical.about.com/od/electricaltools/tp/top16electricaltools.htm

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 74


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LESSON 3

Interpret Technical Drawings and Plans

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to
do the following:

LO 1. analyze signs, symbols and data; and


LO 2. interpret technical drawings and plans.

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Definition of Terms

Ampere (I) - the unit of electrical current (coulombs per second)


Caution - indicates some precautionary measures against potential hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, may result to a minor or moderate injury
Danger - specifies hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result to a serious
injury or even death
Isometric - a kind of drawing which shows the object in 3 dimensional views
Joule (J) - a metric unit of energy: watt per second. 1 Kw hr = 2,655,000 ft-lb = 1.341
hp-hr = 3413 Btu = 3,600,000 joules
Kilovolt-ampere (KVA) - a measurement of apparent electric power
Kilowatt hour (Kwhr) - a unit of electrical energy or work performed
Ohm - the unit of electrical resistance (volts/ampere)
Orthographic - a drawing which shows the front top and side view of the object
Volt (E) - the unit of electric pressure or electromotive force which will produce a
current of 1 ampere through a resistance of 1 ohm
Watts (W) and kilowatts (KW) - are units of electric power

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 1

Analyze signs, symbols and data

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Electrical symbols and signs are identified according to job specifications.


 Electrical symbols and signs are determined according to classification or as
appropriate in drawing.

Materials/ Resources

1. Oslo paper 5. Electrical symbols


2. Drawing Pencil 6. Various Company/ industry warning signs
3. Ruler 7. Cartolina
4. Black pen 8. Illustration board

What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about analyzing signs, symbols
and data. Take this test.

Pretest LO 1

Analyze signs and symbols

a. Direction: Match the electrical symbols in Column A with the corresponding


description in column B. Write the letter of your answer in the space provided
before each number.
Column A Column B

_______1. a. Push button

_______2. b. Switch

_______3. c. Wires connected

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
_______4. d. Incandescent lamp

_______5. e. Battery

b. Identify what are the meaning of different signs enumerated below. Write your
answer at the box provided for you.

. _____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 1.1

COMMON ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS

Electrical Symbols are small drawings or pictograms used to represent various


electrical devices in a diagram or plan of an electrical circuit. These symbols are used in
sketching schematic diagrams and electrical plans for numerous types of electrical works.
Practically any electrical fixture found in a house has a symbol that coincides to said fixture
on an electrical wiring diagram. These are very useful guide for an electrician or electrical
contractor, thus, making the wiring easier to install as well.

The following are common electrical symbols used in sketching wiring plan and
diagram.

Symbol Description Symbol Description

Conductor/Wire Ammeter

Terminal Voltmeter

Switch Galvanometer

Fuse Wattmeter

Connected Wires Wires Not Connected

Circuit Breaker Push Button

Cell Bell

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Battery Buzzer

Resistor Speaker

Capacitor Antenna

Diode Male plug

Ground Service Entrance (3


wires)

Lightning Arrester Duplex Convenience


Outlet

Kilowatt-Hour Meter Range Outlet

Power Panel Board Special Purpose Outlet

Lighting Panel Board Weatherproof Outlet

Incandescent Lamp Floor Outlet

Fluorescent Lamp S1 Single Pole Switch

ELECTRICAL SIGNS

Your power tool with its manual may contain "WARNING ICONS" (a picture symbol
intended to alert you to, and/or to instruct you how to avoid a potentially hazardous
condition). Knowing and understanding these symbols will help you operate your tool better
and more safely.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Electrical signs and stickers alert students, workers, and visitors to electrical hazards in
the area. Alerting workers to high voltage areas, electrical hazards, power lines and other
electrical equipment in the area, can help prevent fires and injuries. Proper electrical signs
can inform workers of the dangers in the area.

CAUTION indicates some precautionary


measures against potential hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, may result to
a minor or moderate injury.

SAFETY ALERT indicates that a person


should observe extra awareness

PROHIBITION means that any activity is not


allowed as stated by the symbol.

DANGER specifies hazardous situation


which, if not avoided, will result to a serious
injury or even death.

WARNING specifies a potentially hazardous


situation which, if not avoided, could result to
serious injury or even death.

READ AND UNDERSTAND


INSTRUCTION MANUAL means that a
person should make some reading before
doing any activity.

WEAR EYE PROTECTION indicates that a


person should wear safety goggles or any
related protection for the eyes.

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ELECTRICAL HAZARD indicates that
electrical hazard is present in the area.

VOLTAGE DANGER indicates high voltage


in the area and surrounding equipment.

How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 1.1

Analyze electrical symbols and signs.

A. Directions: Match the electrical symbols in Column A to their corresponding


descriptions in Column B. Write the letter of your answer in the space provided
before each number.
Column A Column B

_______1. a. Push button

_______2. b. Switch

_______3. c. Wires connected

_______4. d. Incandescent lamp

_______5. e. Battery

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B. Directions Fill out the grid with at least five (5) electrical symbols and write their
descriptions.

Symbols Description

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Activity Sheet 1.1

a. Direction: Locate and box the different electrical signs below.

X X X H H H B B O O O O R
P R O H I B I T I O N E S
X X X N S B X S S S G J S
X C R X A B X W W N J J S
X A X W F B X L A L J J X
W U X S E M X D R R J L X
O T X S T M E J N J N L L
O I X S Y G X J I L L L X
O O S S A M X J N L L L X
O N H T L M X J G L L L X
O H L J E M X R R R R R X
O O H P R O H I B A R R X
V H H J T M X S S S S S S

b. Direction: Draw the electrical signs of the following:

1. Safety alert

2. Prohibition

3. Voltage danger

4. Warning

5. Electrical hazard

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 2

Interpret technical drawings and plans

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Necessary tools, materials and equipment are identified according to the


plan.
 Components, assemblies or object are recognized as per job requirement.
 Dimensions and specification are identified according to job requirements.

Materials/Resources

1. Bulb receptacles – 4 pcs.


2. Toggle switch - 2 pcs.
3. Electrical lay-out
4. Ruler

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about interpreting technical
drawings and plans. Take this test.

Pretest LO 2

Directions: Below is a drawing of an electrical plan. Enumerate the number of


outlets, bulbs, one-gang switch, two-gang switch and three-gang switch.

Number of electrical fixtures found in the electrical plan

QUANTITY ELECTRICAL FIXTURES


Lamp outlets
Duplex convenience outlets
Single gang switches
Two gang switch
Three gang switch

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 2.1

ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAM

The flow of current in a conductor or wire can be represented by diagram. There are
two types of diagram: pictorial diagram and schematic diagram.

A. Pictorial diagram is a sketch of electrical circuit that shows the external appearance
of each component. It is much like a photograph of the circuit and uses simple
images of parts.

Sample Pictorial diagram of one bulb controlled by single pole switch using 9 volt
battery source.

B. Schematic diagram is a sketch showing the components of the circuit using


standard electrical symbols. It shows the actual number of components and
how the wiring is routed but not the actual location.

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Diagram A Diagram B

Sample schematic diagrams of one bulb controlled by single pole switch using direct
current (Diagram A) and alternating current (Diagram B) source.

C. Types of Circuit

1. Series Circuit is a circuit in which lamps are arranged in a chain, so that the
current has only one path to take. The current is the same through each load.
Example of this is the Christmas lights. It consists of a number of bulbs that are
connected side by side to meet the voltage requirement which is 220 volts for
alternating current.

Pictorial diagram of Christmas light in series circuit

Schematic diagram of three bulbs connected in series controlled by a single


pole switch.

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2. Parallel Circuit is a circuit in which lamps are connected across the wires. The
voltage across each load on parallel circuit is the same. The advantage of using
parallel circuit is that even if one of the lamps fails, still the remaining lamps will
function.

Pictorial diagram of two bulbs connected in parallel circuit controlled by a


single pole switch.

Schematic diagram of three bulbs connected in parallel circuit controlled by a


single pole switch.

ELECTRICAL PLAN

Electrical plan is a graphical presentation of electrical wiring connections to install


in a particular house or building. It indicates the position of electrical fixtures such as
convenience outlets, switches, lightings, door bells, and others to be installed.

Sample electrical plan of

Single family dwelling

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Number of electrical fixtures found in the electrical plan:

QUANTITY ELECTRICAL FIXTURES

8 pieces Lamp outlets

8 pieces Duplex convenience outlets

4 pieces Single gang switches

1 piece Two gang switch

1 piece Three gang switch

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How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 2.1

Directions: Draw the schematic diagram of the following:

1. Two bulbs connected in series controlled by a single pole switch using direct current.
2. Four bulbs connected in parallel controlled by a single pole switch using alternating
current.

1.

2.

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Activity Sheet 2.1

Directions: Based on the electrical plan below count the number of electrical fixtures and
then write it in table provided after the drawing.

Number of electrical fixtures found in the electrical plan:

QUANTITY ELECTRICAL FIXTURES

Lamp outlets

Duplex convenience outlet

Single gang switches

Two gang switches

Three gang switches

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Congratulations! You did a great job! Rest and
relax a while then move on to the next lesson.
Good luck!

REFERENCES

LO1
 Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. 1999, Practical Electricity III;
Philippines: Adriana Publishing:.
 Agpaoa, Feleciano. 1991, Interior and Exterior Wiring Troubleshooting;
Philippines National Bookstore.
LO 2
 Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. 1999, Practical Electricity III;
Philippines: Adriana Publishing:.
 Agpaoa, Feleciano. 1991, Interior and Exterior Wiring Troubleshooting;
Philippines National Bookstore.
 Acorda, Aidaida V. and Robles, Rosemarie D. Drafting I & II

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LESSON 4

Maintain Tools and Equipment

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to
do the following:

LO 1. check condition of tools and equipment;


LO 2. perform basic preventive maintenance; and
LO 3. store tools and equipment.

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Definition of Terms

5S - Sort, Systematize, Sweep, Sanitize, and Self-Discipline

Functional tools and equipment - those that are in good condition and can perform
its regular functions

Lubricant - a substance introduced to lessen friction between moving surfaces; also


functions to transport external particle

Lubrication additives- many of the physical properties of various oils and greases

Non-functional tools and equipment - those that are not able to perform its regular
function because of impaired and damage part

Nonpolar solvents - solvents which do not dissolve/are insoluble in water

Pneumatic tool - instrument activated by air pressure

Polar solvents - solvents which dissolve/are soluble in water

Solvent - a component of a solution that dissolves solute and is usually present in


large proportion or amount

Sorting - to sort everything in a work area

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 95


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 1

Check conditions of tools and equipment

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Tools and equipment are identified according to classification/ specification and


job requirements.
 Non-functional tools and equipment are segregated and labeled according to
classification
 Safety of tools and equipment are observed in accordance with manufacturer’s
instructions
 Conditions of PPE are checked in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Materials/ Resources

1. Checklist of tools and materials


2. Functional tools in the shop
3. Non-functional tools in the shop

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about checking conditions of tools
and equipment. Take this test.

Pretest LO 1

Directions: Read each statement and identify what is being described. Choose your
answer inside the circle and write them in the space provided before each number.

Hand tools
Pneumatic floor jack
Screwdrivers
Wrenches

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Pullers
Vacuum cleaner
Air drill
Pneumatic Torque Wrench

Machine/Power tools

___________1. Uses compressed air to flow into the jack cylinder and causes the ram
to extend and raise the vehicle.

___________2. These are tools manipulated by our hands without using electrical
energy.

__________3. Are used to drive, or turn screws. The common type has a single flat
blade for driving screws with slotted heads. The other type has the
cross slotted head.

___________4. A tool used to turn screws, nuts and bolts with hexagonal heads.
―Hexagonal‖ means six-sided. A variety of wrenches are used in the
shop.

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___________5. A tool used to remove gears and hubs from shafts, bushings from blind
holes, and cylinders’ liners from the engine blocks.

____________6. This is used for cleaning the floor and car interiors after service.

____________7. This is lighter than a comparable electric drill. Repeatedly stalling or


overloading does not damage or overheat the air drill.

____________8. A gadget that protects workers from injury or illness caused by


having contact with the dangers/hazards in the workplace, Used by
linemen to remove insulation of wire and cables in low and high
voltage transmission lines.

____________9. This wrench uses compressed air to quickly and powerfully turn nuts,
bolts, and other objects.
___________10. These are tools manipulated by our hands and with the use of
electrical energy

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 1.1

Classification of Tools and Equipment


A tool is a device that can be used to produce an item or accomplish a task, but that
is not consumed in the process. It can be considered as extension of the human hand thus
increasing speed, power, and accuracy and on the other hands equipment includes any
machine powered by electricity.

1. Hand tools are tools manipulated by hands without using electrical energy
such as: puller, hacksaw, pull-push rule, pliers, hammer, and others.

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2. Machine/Power tools are tools manipulated by our hands and with the use
of electrical energy such as: electric drill, grinding wheels, vacuum cleaner
and others.

3. Pneumatic tools are tools or instruments activated by air pressure.


Pneumatic tools are designed around three basic devices: the air cylinder, the
vane motor, and the sprayer.

A. Hand tools
They include screwdrivers, hammers, pliers, wrenches and pullers.
1. Screwdrivers are used to drive, or turn screws. The common type has a single flat blade
for driving screws with slotted heads. The other type has the cross slotted head.

1. Hammers are mostly used tools in the shop. They should be gripped at the end of the
handle.

2. Pliers are specified types of adjustable wrenches. The two legs move on a pivot so that
items of various sizes can be gripped.

3. Wrenches are used to turn screws, nuts and bolts with hexagonal heads. ―Hexagonal‖
means six-sided. A variety of wrenches are used in the shop.

4. Pullers are used to remove gears and hubs from shafts, bushings from blind holes, and
cylinders’ liners from the engine blocks.

B. Machine/Power Tools
1. Electric drill has an electric motor that drives a chuck. The chuck has jaws that can be
opened and then closed to grip a drill kit.

2. Grinding tool can be either bench-mounted or installed on a pedestal. They may either
have a grinding wheel, view wheel, or two grinding wheels.

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3. Vacuum cleaner is used for cleaning the floor and car interiors after service.

C. Pneumatic tools
1. Pneumatic Torque Wrench. This wrench uses compressed air to quickly and powerfully
turn nuts, bolts, and other objects.

2. Air chisel uses reciprocating motion to drive a cutting hammering tool. An air hammer
drives a chisel to cut off a nut that has frozen to a stud. It can be used with a variety of
tools-cutters and punches to do many jobs.

3. Air drill is lighter than a comparable electric drill. Repeatedly stalling or overloading
does not damage or overheat the air drill.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 100


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4. Air racket uses the sockets and attachments from a standard socket set.

5. Pneumatic floor jack uses compressed air to flow into the jack cylinder and causes the
ram to extend and raise the vehicle.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 101


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 1.1

Directions: Inside the tools box are hand, pneumatic, and power tools. Identify and write
them in their corresponding column provided below.

Air Chisel Hammers

Air Racket
Air Drill
Electric drill
Vacuum Cleaner

Grinding wheels

Wrenches

Screwdrivers
Pullers
Hand tools Power tools Pneumatic tools

1. 1. 1.

2. 2. 2.

3. 3. 3.

4. 4. 4.

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Operation Sheet 1.1

A. Basic Maintenance of Electrical Tools and Equipment

To ensure that your electric tools work when you need them, you must take proper
care of them. A good routine of maintenance for your tools is one thing that you can do to
make sure that the tool you need is working when you need it.

1. Clean out the Dust. To make sure that your electric tools are ready to go when you are,
keep them clean and free of dust. Spend some time to clean out the dust every
once in a while on your tools while they are inactive in storage.

2. Check the Cords. Look for tear/cut insulator on the power cords on your electric tools.
This will ensure that your electric tool can get the power that it needs to function
without an accident.

3. Use the right tool correctly. Use tools correctly and for their intended purposes. Follow
the safety directions and operating procedures recommended by the manufacturer.
When working on a circuit, use approved tools with insulated handles.

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4. Protect your Tools. Keep tools and cords away from heat, oil, and sharp objects. These
hazards can damage insulation. If a tool or cord heats up, stop using it. Report the
condition to a supervisor or instructor immediately.

5. Use double-insulated tools - Portable electrical tools are classified by the number of
insulation barriers between the electrical conductors in the tool and the worker.

6. Storing Your Tools- Keep your electric tools stored in their original cases and
containers. This will keep them free of dust and dirt while they are not being used.

Note: proper care of your electric tools is the key to making sure that they last for
many years

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B. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are gadgets to protect workers from injury or
illness caused by having contact with the dangers/hazards in the workplace whether they are
chemical, biological, radiation, physical, electrical, mechanical and others.

These are the common Personal Protective Equipment gadgets:

Hard Hats/ Helmets Gloves

Goggle Mask Work boots Pants

Pictures of electricians working using Personal Protective Equipment

Pictures of Linemen’s working using Personal protective Equipment

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REMEMBER
1. Personal protective equipment should be taken cared as of the other tools
and equipment. Wipe your helmets, gloves, safety shoes before keeping it.
2. It should also be cleaned, kept in proper tool rack/ cabinet.
3. It should be stored in dry places so that it will not have mold build-up.
4. Over-all suites should be washed regularly so that perspirations and other dirt
will be washed clean.

C. Classification of non-functional and functional tools

Tools are very useful to us in our homes especially to our job. But tools that are no longer
functional may cause harm.

A. Make an inventory of functional and non-functional tools in your shop.


B. Classify your tools according to is function.

 Method of identifying non-functional tools and equipment

1. Visual inspection. It refers to the visual observation of an expert on the appearance


of the tools and equipment.
2. Functionality. Vibration or extra noise from the operation means problems on parts
and accessories started to develop.
3. Performance. When there is something wrong with the performance of either hand
tools or equipment they need an immediate repair or maintenance.
4. Power supply (for electrically operated only). Failure to meet the required power
supply, malfunction will occurs in the part of hand tools or equipment.
5. Person’s involved. It refers to the technical person who has the knowledge and
skills about the technology.

 Classifications of tools and equipment according to their uses:

1. Measuring tools
2. Holding tools
3. Cutting tools
4. Driving tools
5. Boring tools
6. Electrical equipment
7. Miscellaneous tools/instrument/equipment

Non-functional tools and equipment are those that are not able to perform its
regular function because of impaired and damage part. Examples of these are the following:

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 106


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Hammer with a broken handle

Screw driver with a broken handle

Long Nose Pliers with


damage jaw

A broken/cut foot rule

Electrical equipment with damage cord


ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 107
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Functional tools and equipment are those that are in good condition and can
perform its regular functions. Examples of these are the following:

Standard screw driver Philips Screw Driver

Combination pliers Long Nose Pliers

Wire Stripper Portable Electric Drill

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 2

Perform basic preventive maintenance

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Lubricants are identified according to types of equipment.


 Tools and equipment are lubricated according to preventive
maintenance schedule or manufacturer’s specifications.
 Measuring instruments are checked and calibrated in accordance
with manufacturer’s instructions.
 Tools are cleaned and lubricated according to standard
procedures.
 Defective equipment and tools are inspected and replaced
according to manufacturer’s specification.
 Work place is cleaned and kept in safe state in line with OSHC
regulations.

Materials/Resources

1. Lubricating oils
2. Lubricating spray
3. Kerosene
4. Detergent
5. Gasoline
6. Clean rugs
7. Paint brushes

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about performing basic preventive
maintenance. Take this test.

Pretest LO 2

A. Directions: Match the cleaning solvents in Column A with their corresponding


uses in Column B. Write the letter of your answer in the space provided before each
number.

Column A Column B
____1. Gasoline a. It is used to wash dust in the
floor, walls.

____2. Kerosene b. It is used to wash/clean


benches, tables, cabinets,
etc.

____3. Thinner c. It is used to remove dust,


grease oil, paint, etc.
____4. Water d. It is used to wash greasy
tools/ equipment.
____5. Detergent Soap and water e. It is used to remove spilled
paint on the floor, walls and
tools.

B. Directions: Choose the best answer from the choices given and write letter of your
answer on the space before each number.

_________1. An action to clean your work place thoroughly so that there is no dust on
floor, machines and equipment?

a. sorting b. sweeping c. sanitizing d. self-discipline

_________2. A condition of training people to follow cleaning disciplines


independently.

a. sorting b. sweeping c. sanitizing d. self-discipline

_________3. An action to identify and eliminate all unnecessary items from your work
place and dispose them.

a. sorting b. sweeping c. sanitizing d. self-discipline

_________4. An action to arrange or put every necessary item in good order so that
s they can be easily picked for use. ‖ A place for everything, everything is
in place‖

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
a. sweeping b. systematizing c. sanitizing d. sorting

_________5. A condition of maintaining high standard of cleaning and workshop


organization at all times.

a. sweeping b. systematizing c. sanitizing d. sorting

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 111


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 2.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 2.1.

Information Sheet 2.1

A lubricant is a substance introduced to lessen friction between moving surfaces. It


may also transport external particles. The property of reducing friction is known as lubricity.

Types and Uses of lubricants

Anti-rust lubricant spray:

o loosen rusted part


o cleans and protect
o drives out moisture
o stops squeaks
o free sticky mechanisms

Wire Pulling Lubricant:

o does not damage insulation


o cling to wire and dries to a
slippery film
o suitable for use with wire or cable
covered with rubber (t, thw, thhn,
etc)
All Purpose Anti Rust Lubricant:

o anti-rust
o lubricating
o rust removal
o decontamination
o conductance
Lubricant Oil and Engine Oil:

o lubricating the gear


o cleans and protect
o drives out moisture

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Silicon Lubricant:

o heat stable
o lubricates
o protects
o reduces friction
o water repellent

Reminders

A good lubricant possesses the following characteristics:

 High boiling point.


 Low freezing point.
 High viscosity index.
 Thermal stability.
 Corrosion prevention.
 High resistance to oxidation.

Types and Kinds of Cleaning Solvents

Solvent is a component of a solution that dissolves solute and is usually present in


large proportion or amount. It can be classified as polar and nonpolar. Polar solvents are
solvents which dissolve/are soluble in water; while nonpolar solvents are solvents which do
not dissolve/are insoluble in water.
Solvents are usually used for cleaning in workshops. They are water, gasoline,
kerosene, thinner and detergent soap.

The table below shows the kinds of cleaning solvent based on their solubility in water.

Cleaning
Solubility in Water Polar Nonpolar
Solvents
a. water soluble x
b. gasoline insoluble x
c. kerosene insoluble x
d. thinner insoluble x
e. detergent soap soluble x

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Uses of Cleaning Solvents
Cleaning Solvents Uses
Gasoline Wash greasy tools/ equipment.
Kerosene Remove dust, grease oil, paint, etc.
Thinner Remove spilled paint on the floor,
walls and tools.
Water Wash dust in the floor, walls, etc.
Detergent Soap and water Wash/clean benches, tables,
cabinets, etc.

5’s Approach in workshop keeping

5’S is a reference to a list of five Japanese words translated into English. This is an
approached of organizing and managing the workplace and work flow with the intent to
improve efficiency by eliminating wastes, improving flow of production, reducing process
delays.

These words are:

Japanese words English translation


Seiri Sort
Seiton Set in order
(systematize)
Seiso Sweep
Seiketsu Standardize (sanitize)
Shitsuke Sustain (Self-discipline)

5’s APPROACH IN WORKSHOP KEEPING

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 114


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Sort Systematize Sweep Sanitize Self-
Discipline

Sorting is an Systematizing is Sweeping is an Sanitizing is a Self-discipline


action to an action to action to clean condition of is a condition
identify and arrange or put your work place maintaining high of training
eliminate all every necessary thoroughly so standard of people to
unnecessary item in good order that there is no cleaning and follow
items from so that they can dust on floor, workshop cleaning
your work be easily picked machines and organization at disciplines
place and for use. equipment. all times. independently.
dispose them.
o A place for
everything
o Everything is
in place

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 2.1

A. Directions: Put a ( ) after each word if the solvent is polar and (X) if it is nonpolar.

1. water ( )
2. kerosene ( )
3. detergent soap ( )
4. gasoline ( )
5. thinner ( )

B. Directions: Identify the lubricants below by writing their names on the space provided.

1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. __________________

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Operation Sheet 2.1

Title: Procedure in Cleaning Tools and Work Area

Instructions: Bring cleaning solvents, rags and brooms, washing pan, electric fan and safety
apparel. Clean tools and work area.
Procedure:
A. Tools
1. Wear protective clothing and goggles.
2. Gather the tools to be cleaned in the designated area for cleaning.
3. Classify the tools to be cleaned according to how dirty they are.
4. Measure and pour enough amount of cleaning solvent to the washing
pan.
5. Submerge the tools in the washing pan.
6. Use paint brush to remove the dirt from the tools.
7. Get the tools from the washing pan and wipe them with rags until dry.
8. Clean and keep all materials used for cleaning.

B. Work Area (Application of 5’s)


1. Wear protective clothing and goggles.
2. If there is dirt on the floor such as paint, used oil, grease, rust, etc.,
remove it first using the appropriate cleaning solvent.
3. Use the broom in cleaning the remaining dirt in the work area and an
electric fan to facilitate the drying of the floor.
4. Assessment: The teacher will assess the students based on the
performance criteria listed below.

PERFORMANCE
LEVEL
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
YES NO NA
1. Were protective clothing and goggles worn at all times?

2. Were tools and equipment free of dust, grease, oil and other
substances?
3. Was the work area dry, free of dust, grease and other
substances?

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4. Were excess cleaning substances cleaned and kept in proper
places?
Satisfactory
Overall Performance
Unsatisfactory

Student’s name: __________________________

Teacher’s comment: ___________________________________________________


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 118


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 3

Store tools and equipment

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Inventory of tools, instruments, and equipment are conducted and


recorded as per company practices.
 Tools are inspected, and replaced after use.
 Tools and equipment are stored safely in accordance with
manufacturer’s specifications or company procedures.

Materials

1. Inventory forms
2. Record book/memorandum
3. Receipts
4. Ball pen and
5. Correction fluid

What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about storing tools and equipment.
Take this test.

Pretest LO 3

Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is not
correct.

For hand tools

1. Clean dirt and debris from tools after each use.


2. Oil metal and wooden parts to prevent rust.
3. Lightly sand rough wooden handles and apply linseed oil.
4. Repair loose handles.
5. Sharpen blades of cutting tools.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
6. Store tools in a clean wet storage area.
7. Protect surfaces of cutting tools in storage.

For equipment

8. Store equipment in a clean wet storage area.


9. Rinse and clean spray equipment after each use.
10. Clean spreaders and check wheel-driven gears.

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 3.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 3.1.

Information Sheet 3.1

Why Maintain Inventory of Tools and Equipment

The most significant point to think at the start of your career is to acquire branded
tools. They must be made out of high-quality steel and manufactured for precision. Special
consideration is given to balance so that the tool/equipment will be properly maintained and
prevent loses. Since the technician must work with his tools daily, regular inventory of
tools/equipment is very significant.

The initial cost of a minimum number of tools is high but there is accompanying
warranty guarantees satisfaction and many years of service. It is better, in the long run, to
start with a few cautiously selected tools that will take care of your most common needs and
then slowly build-up to a complete set. It is sometimes hard to identify and memorize the
huge number of tools and equipment in the workshop, maintaining the inventory record is of
great value.

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Maintaining and Storing Tools & Equipment

An important aspect of any business is the maintenance and storage of tools and
equipment. The investment in tools and equipment is a significant part of the overhead
expenses in any operation. Proper selection and maintenance of equipment are important
factors in managing business. Selecting the proper tool for the job and using the tool
properly will increase efficiency and reduce maintenance problems. Purchase tools, which
are well-made and suited to the intended use. Commercial usage may entail more heavy
duty demands on equipment.

Hand tools:

1. Clean dirt and debris from tools after each use.

2. Oil metal parts to prevent rust.

3. Lightly sand rough wooden handles and apply linseed oil.

4. Repair loose handles.

5. Sharpen blades of cutting tools.

6. Store tools in a clean dry storage area.

7. Protect surfaces of cutting tools in storage.

Power tools:

1. Read and follow the maintenance schedule in the owner’s manual for each piece
of power equipment.

2. Change the oil.

3. Clean the air filter.

4. Lubricate moving parts.

5. Sharpen dull blades or replace worn blades according to the owner’s manual.

6. Replace spark plugs.

7. Drain oil and gasoline before long-term storage.

8. Check electric cords and connections on electric-powered tools.

9. Store tools in a clean dry storage area.

Equipment:

1. Store equipment in a clean dry storage area.

2. Rinse and clean spray equipment after each use.

3. Clean spreaders and check wheel-driven gears.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
4. Clean carts and wheelbarrows after use.

Sample Proper Arrangement and storage of tools and equipment

You can see in the pictures that all tools and equipment are arranged and
stored properly in their own racks. Like for example the screw drivers are arranged by
type and sizes, hammers, saws, c-clamps, etc. are in their racks.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 3.1

Direction: Enumerate the proper maintaining and storing of tool and equipment.

HANDTOOLS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

EQUIPMENT:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 123


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Operation Sheet 3.1

INVENTORY OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT


Instruction: Given the record book/memorandum, receipts, inventory form,
ball pen and correction fluid, conduct inventory of tools and
equipment, identify, record and report damaged tools and
equipment and give repair recommendations if repairable.
Procedure:
1. Secure inventory forms/memorandum receipt of tools and equipment.
2. Study the parts of the Inventory Form.
3. Check whether the list of tools and equipment in the memorandum
receipt tallies with the existing tools and equipment found in the
workshop including their specifications and condition.
4. List down any losses and damages you find while conducting the
inventory
5. Fill out the remarks column of the inventory forms for any losses/
damages.
6. Recommend for replacement of lost tools and equipment and repair of
damaged tools and equipment if reparable.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
SAN FRANCISCO HIGH SCHOOL
Misamis St. Bago Bantay Quezon City

INVENTORY FORM OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

Item
Quantity Unit Description Condition Remarks
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Prepared by:

___________________ Date: _____________________


Name and Signature

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Operation Sheet 3.2

PROCEDURE IN ARRANGING AND STORING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

Instruction: In a specific tool cabinet and a tool rack assigned to you,


arrange and store tools and equipment accordingly.
Procedure:
1. Classify the tools and equipment according to their types.
2. Arrange the tools by their types in the shelves/racks.
3. Place equipment in designated places or location.
Assessment: The teacher will assess you based on the performance criteria
listed below.
PERFORMANCE
LEVEL
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
YES NO NA

1. Were the tools and equipment ready before performing


the task?
2. Were the tools arranged according to their types?
3. Were the equipment placed in their proper location
and arranged according to their types?

4. Were the tools/equipment placed in their respective


location and accessible for use when needed?

Satisfactory
Overall Performance
Unsatisfactory

Student’s name: __________________________

Teacher’s comment: ___________________________________________________


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 126


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Congratulations! You did a great job! Rest and
relax a while then move on to the next lesson.
Good luck!

REFERENCES

LO1
 Philippine Electrical Code. 2000 Edition.
 Cardenas, Elpidio.1989, Fundamental and Elements of Electricity.
Philippines: national Bookstore.
 Philippine Electrical Code. 1992 Edition, Institute of Integrated Electrical
Engineers of the Philippines Incorporated.
 Max B. Fajardo Jr. & Leo R. Fajardo. , 2nd Edition.
 Electrical Layout and Estimate.

LO 2
 Philippine Electrical Code. 2000 Edition.
 Cardenas, Elpidio.1989, Fundamental and Elements of Electricity.
Philippines: national Bookstore.
 Philippine Electrical Code. 1992 Edition, Institute of Integrated Electrical
Engineers of the Philippines Incorporated.
 Max B. Fajardo Jr. & Leo R. Fajardo. , 2nd Edition.
 Electrical Layout and Estimate.
LO 3
 Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineers of the Philippines
Incorporated. 1992, Philippine Electrical Code
 Max B. Fajardo Jr. & Leo R. Fajardo. 2nd edition, Electrical Layout and
Estimate
 Azares, Efren F. and Recana, Cirilo B. 1999, Practical electricity III;
Philippines: Adriana Publishing.
 www.acmehowto.com/howto/maintenance/electrical/
 www.thefabricator.com/safety/safety_article.cfm?id=1095

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LESSON 5

Practice Occupational Health and Safety


Procedures

LEARNING OUTCOMES:
At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to
do the following:

LO 1. identify hazards and risks;


LO 2. evaluate risks and hazards; and
LO 3. control hazards and risks.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 128


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Definition of Terms

Ampere - unit of measurement for electric current

Circuit - the path of electric current

Conductor - a wire or a cord which provides path for current flow


Connectors and Adapters - accessories that are used to connect from boxes to
conduits or raceways to the other boxes in the electrical system

Corrugated plastic conduit (CPC) - commonly known as flexible non-metallic


conduit or the “moldflex”.

Hot wire - a wire through which current flows

Insulator - a plastic, rubber, or asbestos material used to cover electric wires

Kilowatt - a unit of power

Metallic Conduits - metal raceways that was classified into four; rigid steel conduit
(RSC); intermediate metallic conduit or tubing (IMC or IMT); electrical metallic
conduit or tubing (EMC or EMT); and the flexible metallic conduit (FMC)

Non-metallic conduits - plastic conduits or raceways designed to be a channel of


wire that are classified as; rigid non-metallic conduit or the PVC, the flexible non-
metallic or CPC, and the surface plastic molding

Philippine Electrical Code (PEC) - the governing rules and regulations that ensure
safety and fire-free environment

Resistance - the quality of electric current measured in ohms.

Threshold limit value (TLV) - a level to which it is believed a worker can be


exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects.

Acronyms

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PPE - Personal Protective Equipment

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
LEARNING OUTCOME 1

Identify hazards and risks

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Workplace hazards and risks are identified and clearly explained.


 Hazards/risks and its corresponding indicators are identified in with the
company procedures.
 Contingency measures are recognized and established in accordance with
organizational procedures.

Materials/ Resources

Video clips on hazards and risks

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 130


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about identifying hazards and
risks. Take this test.

Pretest LO 1

Direction: Match Column A with Column B. Write the letter only.

A B
_____ 1. Adverse health effect a. is the chance or the probability that a
person will be harmed.
_____ 2. Hazards
_____ 3. Chemical hazards b. caused by organism such as viruses,
bacteria fungi and parasites
_____ 4. Risks
_____ 5, Physical hazards c. Is a source of potential damage,
harm or adverse health effects
_____ 6. Wet floor
_____ 7. Ergonomic hazards d. safety hazard
_____ 8. Psychological hazards e. Vapor or gaseous substance
.
_____ 9.Unsafe work practices f. Slips, falls
_____10.Biological hazards g. hot or cold condition
h. decrease in life span
i. those that are basically causing
stress
j. awkward posture arising from
improper
work methods

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 131


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 1.1

HAZARDS AND RISKS

What is the difference between 'hazard' and 'risk'?

A hazard is something that can cause harm, eg electricity, chemicals, working up a


ladder, noise, a keyboard, a bully at work, stress.

Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse
health effect once to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment
loss.

A risk is the chance, high or low, that any hazard will actually cause somebody harm.

For example, working alone away from your office can be a hazard. The risk of
personal danger may be high. Electrical repair is a hazard. If someone accidentally turned-
on the power the worker’s life will be in a 'high-risk' category.

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Five Basic Workplace Hazards

There are five major types of hazards which can put both your health and your safety at risk.

1. Chemical hazards
2. Physical hazards
3. Biological hazards
4. Ergonomic hazards or job related hazards
5. Psychological hazards or stress

CHEMICAL HAZARDS

If you are working with cleaning products, bleaches, paints, and other
chemical agents, you need to understand what a chemical hazard is as well
as how to protect yourself.

Chemical hazards include:

 liquids such a cleansers,


 acids, and paints
 vapours and fumes such as
 welding fumes
 gases such as carbon monoxide
 products that can catch fire or explode

PHYSICAL HAZARDS

Physical hazards include:

 Machinery
 Electrical power
 Noise
 Power and hand tools
 Working and walking surfaces
 Trip and fall hazards
 Ladders and scaffolds
 Heat and cold
 ventilation

BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Why be careful around ticks, mouse droppings, bird poop and wild animals?
Because you might get sick from working around certain animals, including

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people. Biological hazards include bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and
humans. The risks run from skin irritation and allergies to infections.

Dangers can come from:

• unclean restrooms
• mold and fungus
• bacteria
• insect stings
• animal bites
• poorly stored medical waste

ERGONOMIC HAZARDS

If your job is poorly designed, you can develop long term health problems.
These problems can arise from simple things, like working for long periods in an
awkward position or having to make the same motions over and over again.

Problems can come from:

 lghting
 chairs
 lifting
 repeated movements
 computer screens

PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Those that are basically causing stress to a worker. This kind of hazard
troubles an individual very much to an extent that his general well-being is
affected

Stress can lead to long-term health problems. Headaches, anxiety, and impatience are early
signs of stress.

Workplace causes of stress include:

• heavy workloads
• lack of control over the pace of work
• shift work
• noise
• working by yourself
• fear of job-loss
• conflict with the employer

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What are examples of a hazard?

Example of
Workplace Hazard Example of Harm Caused
Hazard

thing knife cut

substance benzene leukemia

material asbestos mesothelioma

source of energy electricity shock, electrocution

condition wet floor slips, falls

process welding metal fume fever

practice hard rock mining silicosis

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE

One of the most critical among the hazards that one may encounter is the chemical
hazard. Chemical may produce reactions that may endanger ones health and life. This is the
reason why the American Conference of Governmental Hygienist (ACGIH) established a
threshold limit value (tlv).

TLV is the term used by the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists (ACGIH*) to
express the airborne concentration of a material to which nearly all persons can be exposed
day after day, without adverse health effects

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How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 1.1

Given below is the list of common workplace hazards. Write at least three examples of each
type of hazard.

1. Chemical hazard
________________________

________________________

________________________

2. Physical hazard
________________________

________________________

________________________

3. Biological hazard
________________________

________________________

________________________

4. Ergonomic hazard or Job related


________________________

________________________

________________________

5. Psychological hazards
________________________

________________________

________________________

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Job Sheet 1.1

RESEARCH WORK

a. Make an internet research on different hazards and risks.


b. Be able to identify these different hazards.
c. Make a write-up on your research on workplace hazards and risks.

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LEARNING OUTCOME 2

Evaluate hazards and risks

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 Terms of maximum tolerable limits are identified based on threshold


limit values (TLV)
 Effects of hazards are determined.
 OHS issues and concerns are identified in accordance with
workplace requirements and relevant workplace OHS legislation.

Materials/ Resources

1. Threshold limit value table (tlv)


2. Video clips about hazards and risks

What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know about evaluating hazards and risks.
Take this test.

Pretest LO 2

Direction: Multiple Choice: Select the letter of the correct answer.

__________1. The cross disciplinary area concerned with the safety, health and
welfare of people engaged in work or employment.

a.) Waste management b) PEC c) ACGIH d) OHS

__________2. the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and


monitoring of waste materials.

a) Waste management b) PEC c) ACGIH d) OHS

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_________3. TLV means;

a) Threshold limited value b) Threshold live value c)) Threshold limit value

_________4. TWA means:

a) Time-wasted Average b) Time-weighted average c) Total-weighted average

_________5. TLV-C means;

a) Threshold limit value-ceiling b) Threshold limited value-ceiling c) Threshold live


value-ceiling

_________6. One type of hazard that needs careful evaluation before extinguishing

a) Chemical b) Water c) Fire

_________7. It is a fifteen minutes exposure to risk.

a) TLV-STEL b) TLV-C c) TLV-TWA

_________8. Chemicals with lower flash points present a greater ____________.

a) Personal hazard b) flammability hazard c) explosion hazard

_________9. Process where a person identify, evaluate and determine the solution
to the risks.

a) Chemical assessment b) Risk assessment c) Physical assessment

________10. ) Any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of


the atmospheric air, or any discharge thereto of any liquid, gaseous or solid
substances that will or is likely to create or to render the air resources of the country
harmful, detrimental, or injurious to public health, safety or welfare or which
will adversely affect their utilization for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural,
recreational, or other legitimate purposes.

a) Pollution b) atmospheric pollution c) air pollution

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

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What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 2.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 2.1.

Information Sheet 2.1

What is a risk assessment?

Occupational Safety and Health (OHS) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with


protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.

The goal of all occupational safety and health programs is to foster a safe work
environment. As a secondary effect, it may also protect co-workers, family members,
employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities, and other members of the public who
are impacted by the workplace environment. It may involve interactions among many subject
areas, including occupational medicine, occupational (or industrial) hygiene, public
health, safety engineering / industrial engineering, chemistry, health physics.

Risks include acute and chronic health effects, for example, irritation or cancer, and
physical effects such as fires or explosions. The hazards are physical and health hazards.

II. Risk assessment

A. Risk assessment is the process where you:

1. identify hazards
2. analyze or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard
3. determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard

B. Factors that influence the degree of risk include:

 how much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition


 how the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapor, skin contact), and how severe
are the effects under the conditions of exposure

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ACGIH has established TLV's for approximately 850 chemical.

TLVs may appear as:

TLV-TWA or time-weighted average, which is an average eight-hour exposure limit;

TLV-STEL or short-term exposure limit, which is a fifteen-minute exposure limit, or

TLV-C or ceiling, which is a limit which should never be exceeded without protection.

II. Fire and Explosion Hazard Assessment

Fire is one type of hazard that needs careful evaluation before extinguishing it. Not all fire
could be extinguished by water that is why it is necessary that we knew first the cause of fire
before dealing the fire.

1. Flash Point and Method Used: Lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off enough
flammable vapors to ignite. Since flash points vary according to how they are obtained, the
method used must be listed. Chemicals with lower flash points present a greater flammability
hazard.

2. Flammable Limits: Range of concentrations over which a flammable vapor mixed with air
will flash or explode if an ignition source is present. Range extends between lower explosive
limit (LEL) and upper explosive limit (UEL) and is expressed in percentage of volume of
vapor or gas in air (0 – 100%).

Chemicals with a broad flammable range (i.e., range between the LEL and the UEL)
and/or a flammable range in the lower percentages, present a greater flammability hazard.

3. Extinguishing Media: Fire-fighting material for use on substance that is burning, Fire-
fighting material should be indicated by its generic name (e.g. water, foam, dry chemical,
etc.).

III. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and
monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human
activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health,
the environment or aesthetics.
Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on
delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. The management of wastes treats all
materials as a single class, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, and
tried to reduce the harmful environmental impacts of each through different methods.
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations,
for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-
hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the
responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous
commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

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PHILIPPINE CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1999

(Refer to Appendix 1 for elaboration)

The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 under its ―Declaration of Principles” stated
that the State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced
and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.

Declaration of Policies. The State shall pursue a policy of balancing


development and environmental protection. To achieve this end, the frame-
work for sustainable development shall be pursued.

Recognition of Rights. Pursuant to the above-declared principles, the following


rights of citizens are hereby sought to be recognized and the State shall seek to
guarantee their enjoyment.

Definitions.- As used in this Act:

a) “Air pollutant” means any matter found in the atmosphere other than
oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and the inert gases in
their natural or normal concentrations, that is detrimental to health or
the environment, which includes, but not limited to smoke, dust, soot,
cinders, fly ash, solid particles of any kind, gases, fumes, chemical
mists, steam and radioactive substances;

b) “Air pollution” means any alteration of the physical, chemical and


biological properties of the atmospheric air, or any discharge thereto of
any liquid, gaseous or solid substances that will or is likely to create or
to render the air resources of the country harmful, detrimental, or
injurious to public health, safety or welfare or which will adversely affect
their utilization for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural,
recreational, or other legitimate purposes;

c) “Ambient air quality guideline values” means the concentration of air over
specified periods classified as short-term and long-term which are
intended to serve as goals or objectives for the protection of health
and/or public welfare. These values shall be used for air quality
management purposes such as determining time trends, evaluating
stages of deterioration or enhancement of the air quality, and in general,
used as basis for taking positive action in preventing, controlling, or
abating air pollution;

d) “Ambient air quality” means the general amount of pollution present in a

broad area; and refers to the atmosphere’s average purity as

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distinguished from discharge measurements taken at the source of

pollution;

e) “Certificate of Conformity” means a certificate issued by the Department of


Environment and Natural Resources to a vehicle manufacturer /
assembler or importer certifying that a particular new vehicle or
vehicle type meets the requirements provided under this Act and its
rules and regulations;

f) “Department” means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources;

g)“Eco-profile” means the geographic-based instrument for planners and


decision makers which present an evaluation of the environment quality
and carrying capacity of an area. It is the result of the integration of
primary data and information on natural resources and antropogenic
activities on the land which were evaluated by various environmental
risk assessment and forecasting methodologies that enable the
Department to anticipate the type of development control necessary in
the planning area.

h)“Emission” means any air contaminant, pollutant, gas stream or


unwanted sound from a known source which is passed into the
atmosphere;

i) “Greenhouse gases” means those gases that can potentially or can

reasonably be expected to induce global warming, which include

carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, chloroflourocarbons, and the like;

j) “Hazardous substances” means those substances which present either: (1)


short-term acute hazards such as acute toxicity by ingestion,
inhalation, or skin absorption, corrosivity or other skin or eye contact
hazard or the risk of fire explosion; or (2) long-term toxicity upon
repeated exposure, carcinogecity (which in some cases result in acute
exposure but with a long latent period), resistance to detoxification
process such as biodegradation, the potential to pollute underground
or surface waters;

k) “Infectious waste” means that portion of medical waste that could transmit an
infectious disease;

l) “Medical waste” means the materials generated as a result of patient


diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals;

m) “Mobile source” means any vehicle propelled by or through


combustion of carbon-based or other fuel, constructed and operated

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principally for the conveyance of persons or the transportation of
property goods;

n) “Motor vehicle” means any vehicle propelled by a gasoline or diesel engine


or by any means other than human or animal power, constructed and
operated principally for the conveyance of persons or the transportation
of property or goods in a public highway or street open to public use;

o) “Municipal waste” means the waste materials generated from


communities within a specific locality;

p) "New vehicle” means a vehicle constructed entirely from new parts that has
never been sold or registered with the DOTC or with the appropriate
agency or authority, and operated on the highways of the
Philippines, any foreign state or country;

q) “Octane Rating or the Anti-Knock Index(AKI)” means the rating of the anti-
knock characteristics of a grade or type of automotive gasoline as
determined by dividing by two (2) the sum of the Research Octane
Number (RON), plus the Motor Octane Number (MON); the octane
requirement, with respect to automotive gasoline for use in a motor
vehicle or a class thereof, whether imported, manufactured, or
assembled by a manufacturer, shall refer to the minimum octane rating
of such automotive gasoline which such manufacturer recommends for
the efficient operation of such motor vehicle, or a substantial portion of
such class, without knocking;

r) “Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)” means those substances that


significantly deplete or otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner
that is likely to result in adverse effects of human health and
the environment such as, but not limited to, chloroflourocarbons, halons
and the like;

s) “Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)” means the organic


compounds that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the
food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health
and the environment. These compounds resist photolytic, chemical and
biological degradation, which shall include but not be limited to dioxin,
furan, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides,
such as aldrin, dieldrin, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, toxaphere
and chlordane;

t) “Poisonous and toxic fumes” means any emissions and fumes which are
beyond internationally - accepted standards, including but not limited to
the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values;

u) “Pollution control device" means any device or apparatus used to prevent,


control or abate the pollution of air caused by emissions from identified
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 144
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pollution sources at levels within the air pollution control
standards established by the Department;

v) “Pollution control technology” means the pollution control devices,


production process, fuel combustion processes or other means that
effectively prevent or reduce emissions or effluent;

w) “Standard of performance" means a standard for emissions of air pollutant


which reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the
application of the best system of emission reduction, taking
into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any non-air
quality health and environmental impact and energy requirement which
the Department determines, and adequately demonstrates; and

x) “Stationary source” means any building or immobile structure, facility or


installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant.

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How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 2.1

DIRECTIONS: Multiple choice. Write the letter of the correct answer and write it in the
space provided.

_________1. Chemicals with lower flash points present a greater ____________.

a) Personal hazard b) flammability hazard c) explosion hazard d) skin hazard

_________2. Process where a person identify, evaluate and determine the solution
to the risks.

a) Chemical assessment b) Risk assessment c) Physical assessment d) NC


assessment

_________3. Any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the
atmospheric air, or any discharge thereto of any liquid, gaseous or solid substances
that will or is likely to create or to render the air resources of the country harmful,
detrimental, or injurious to public health, safety or welfare or which will adversely
affect their utilization for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or
other legitimate purposes.

a) Pollution b) atmospheric pollution c) air pollution

_________4. The cross disciplinary area concerned with the the safety, health and
welfare of people engaged in work or employment.

a.) Waste management b) PEC c) ACGIH d) OHS

__________5. the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and


monitoring of waste materials.

a) Waste management b) PEC c) ACGIH d) OHS

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Activity Sheet 2.1

A. Do the activity at home or during vacant time

1. Download and watch video presentation on different hazards and risk.

2. Make a short write-up on the video presentation you have watched.

B. Answer the following questions

1. What type of hazard was viewed in the video?

2. What risks were involved?

3. If you are going to evaluate the hazard and risk you had viewed, what
possible recommendations will you give? Why?

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LEARNING OUTCOME 3

Controlling hazards and risks

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

 OHS procedures for controlling hazards and risk are strictly followed.
 Procedures in dealing with workplace accidents, fire and emergencies
are followed in accordance with the organization’s OHS policies.
 Personal protective equipment (PPE) is correctly used in accordance
with organization’s OHS procedures and practices.
 Procedures in providing appropriate assistance in the event of
workplace emergencies are identified in line with the established
organizational protocol.

Materials

1. Personal protective equipment:

 Safety goggles
 Safety shoes
 Safety helmet
 Safety gloves
 Safety shoes
 Safety belt

2. First aid kit

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What Do You Already Know?

Let us determine how much you already know controlling hazards and risks.
Take this test.

Pretest LO 3

A. DIRECTION: Select the correct answer that corresponds to the statement in each
number. Write the correct answer at the space provided

_____________ 1. It includes ear and eye protection, respirators, and protective clothing.
______________2. Changing a piece of machinery (for example, using proper machine
guards) or a work process to reduce exposure to a hazard

______________3. Working a limited number of hours in a hazardous area


______________4. The process where you identify hazards, analyze or evaluate the risk
associated with that hazard, and determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the
hazard.
______________5. Identify the source of the problem

IDENTIFY THE HAZARD ASSESS THE RISK


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
ENGINEERING CONTROL
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL
ELIMINATE HAZARDS

B.DIRECTION: TRUE OR FALSE. In the statements below write true if the statement is
correct and False if the statement is incorrect.

1. General cleanliness in the workplace is an important method of controlling


hazards.
2. Good housekeeping reduces the risk of fire and is cost-effective.
3. Safety signs are method of hazard control.
4. Hygiene (cleanliness) is not so important as a method of controlling hazards
5. Before you leave work, wash/shower and change your clothes when
necessary to prevent bringing workplace contaminants home to your family.

Now check your answers using the Answer Key. If you got 90-100% of
the items correctly, proceed to the next Learning Outcome. If not, do the next
activity/ies again to gain knowledge and skills required for mastery.

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What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 3.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 3.1.

Information Sheet 3.1

3A. HAZARD CONTROL

All workplace hazards (chemical, physical, etc.) can be controlled by a variety of methods.
The goal of controlling hazards is to prevent workers from being exposed to
occupational hazards. Some methods of hazard control are more efficient than others, but
a combination of methods usually provides a safer workplace than relying on only one
method. Some methods of control are cheaper than others but may not provide the most
effective way to reduce exposures.

To control hazards in your workplace you need to identify and understand those
hazards. Your first priority should always be to eliminate the hazards. If the hazards can't be
eliminated, try finding safer ways to carry out those tasks by substituting less harmful
substances or changing the work environment through engineering controls. Also consider
changing how work activities are organized and performed. For example, reduce the time
workers are exposed to a hazard by rotating them to another task.

A. Controlling workplace hazards

Once a hazard has been identified and the risk assessed, control measures should be put
into place.A simple list of control measures can be utilized - the hierarchy of control.

1. Identify the Hazard

Identify the source of the problem

2. Assess the Risk


Risk assessment is the process where you:

o Identify hazards,
o Analyze or evaluate the risk associated
with that hazard.

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o Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control
the hazard

3. Eliminate the Hazard Or Risk

Elimination of a specific hazard or hazardous work process, or


preventing it from entering the workplace, is the most effective
method of control. Eliminating a hazard means removing it
completely.

4. Engineering Control may mean changing a piece of


machinery (for example, using proper machine guards) or a
work process to reduce exposure to a hazard.

5. Administrative Controls

Working a limited number of hours in a hazardous area is an


example of an administrative control for example, job rotation.

6. Substitution is one measure of replacing one hazardous


agent or work process with a less dangerous one. It is
important to consider worker health and safety when work
processes are still in the planning stages.

Provide Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) includes ear and eye


protection, respirators, and protective clothing.

Remember: it is always better to control the hazard as close to the source as possible.
Using personal protection is the least acceptable and least effective of all control
measures.

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How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 3.1

DIRECTIONS: Select the correct answer that corresponds to the statement in each
number. Write the correct answer at the space provided

_____________ 1. It includes ear and eye protection, respirators, and protective

clothing.
______________2. It may mean changing a piece of machinery (for example,
using proper machine guards) or a work process to reduce
exposure to a hazard.

______________3. Working a limited number of hours in a hazardous area


______________4. The process where you identify hazards, analyze or evaluate
the risk associated with that hazard, and determine appropriate
ways to eliminate or control the hazard.
______________5. Identify the source of the problem.

IDENTIFY THE HAZARD ASSESS THE RISK

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

ENGINEERING CONTROL

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL

ELIMINATE HAZARDS

Refer to the Answer Key. What is your score?

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What Do You Need To Know?

Read the Information Sheet 1.1 very well then find out how much you can
remember and how much you learned by doing Self-check 1.1.

Information Sheet 3.2

YOUR HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK

Personal hygiene

Finally, personal hygiene (cleanliness) is also very important as a method of controlling


hazards. Your employer should provide facilities so you can wash and/or take a shower
every day at the end of your shift, no matter what your job is. Wash your skin and hair with a
mild soap, rinse and dry your skin completely to protect it. Washing hands regularly, and
eating and smoking
away from your work
area help to prevent
ingesting
Do not take workplace contaminants.
hazards home with you!
Lack of personal
cleanliness can affect
your family's health.

Your family can be


exposed to hazards
you work with if you
bring chemicals and
other workplace contaminants home with you on your clothes, hair or skin. Before you leave
work, wash/shower and change your clothes when necessary to prevent bringing workplace
contaminants home.

Leave your dirty clothes at work or, if you must wash them at home, wash
them separately — not with the family wash.

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It may seem that the amount of contaminant you can bring home on your clothes or skin is
very small and cannot hurt your family. In reality a small exposure every day for months can
add up to a big exposure. A classic example of this ―spreading the hazard‖ involves
asbestos, where wives of asbestos workers have developed asbestosis from exposure to the
asbestos on their husbands' work clothes. Similarly, children have developed lead poisoning
from exposure to lead which comes home on their parents' work clothes.

If you wear protective clothing at work, such as aprons, laboratory coats, overalls,
etc., these should be cleaned regularly and you should inspect them for holes or areas that
are worn out. Workers who launder these clothes should be trained in the types of hazards
they may work with and how they can be controlled. Inspect your underclothes at home for
any signs of contamination with oils, solvents, etc. If you find any signs, then it means your
protective clothing at work is not effective.

Every workplace should have some kind of first-aid facility

Every workplace should have at least minimal first-aid facilities as well as adequate
personnel trained to provide first aid. First-aid facilities and trained personnel are important
components of a healthy and safe workplace.

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A basic first-aid
facility

1. General cleanliness in the workplace is an important method of controlling


hazards.
2. Good housekeeping reduces the risk of fire and is cost-effective.
3. Good housekeeping measures should be planned when work processes are
in the design stage.
4. Safety signs are not a method of hazard control.
5. Personal cleanliness is an important method of controlling hazards.
6. Your employer should provide facilities so you can wash and/or take a
shower every day.
7. Before you leave work, wash/shower and change your clothes when
necessary to prevent bringing workplace contaminants home to your family.
8. Leave your dirty clothes at work. If you must wash them at home, wash them
separately — never wash your work clothes with your family's wash.
9. Your protective clothing should be cleaned regularly. Inspect your protective
clothing for holes and worn areas that could leave you open to exposures.
10. Inspect your undergarments for signs of contamination.
11. Your workplace should have at least minimal first-aid facilities.

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Process of ensuring that an organization has complied with the preventive measures,
is in a state of readiness to contain the effects of a forecasted disastrous event to minimize
loss of life, injury, and damage to property, can provide rescue, relief, rehabilitation, and

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other services in the aftermath of the disaster, and has the capability and resources to
continue to sustain its essential functions without being overwhelmed by the demand placed
on them.

Preparedness for the first and immediate response is called emergency preparedness.

Always remember that disaster comes in the most unexpected time and place. Being ready
is always a necessity in all circumstances. The government is giving trainings that everybody
needs in all our localities. One should participate in this disaster training so that we will not
be caught unaware when calamity struck.

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How Much Have You Learned?

Self-Check 3.2

DIRECTIONS: TRUE OR FALSE. In the statements below write true if the statement is
correct and false if the statement is not correct

a. General cleanliness in the workplace is an important method of controlling


hazards.
b. Good housekeeping reduces the risk of fire and is cost-effective.
c. Safety signs are method of hazard control.
d. Hygiene (cleanliness) is not so important as a method of controlling hazards.
e. Before you leave work, wash/shower and change your clothes when
necessary to prevent bringing workplace contaminants home to your family.
f. Your protective clothing should be cleaned regularly.
g. Inspect your undergarments for signs of contamination.
h. Your employer should provide facilities so you can wash and/or take a shower
at least once a week.

How Do You Apply What You Have Learned?

Show that you learned something by doing this activity.

Activity Sheet 3.1

POSTER MAKING
DIRECTION: Draw a poster in consonance with the theme ―Control Hazard, Before It
Starts”
MATERIALS:
1. Pencil
2. Poster paint or oil paint or crayon
3. Whole cartolina (yellow)
4. Ruler

TIME ALLOTMENT:
3 hours

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 157


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
How Well Did You Perform?

Find out by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely.


Remember it is your learning at stake!

Speed 20%
10 minutes before/ on allotted time ----------------------------- 20%
1minute up to 10 minutes after the allotted time - 10%
11 minutes and more than the allotted time ------- 05%
Originality 50 %
based on judges deliberation ----------------------------------------50%
Blending of colors 25%
based on judges deliberation ---------------------------------------25%
Good Housekeeping 5%
all the materials were kept clean and the work area
was properly cleaned -------------------------------------------------05%

Total 100%

Congratulations! You did a great job! Rest and


relax a while then move on to the next lesson.
Good luck!

REFERENCES

 Philippine Electrical Code. 2000 Edition.


 Cardenas, Elpidio. 1989, Fundamental and Elements of Electricity; Philippines:
National Bookstore.
 http://sam.dgs.ca.gov/TOC/3800/3861.htm
 http://old.iupac.org/goldbook/TT06915.pdf

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 158


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Answer Keys

LESSON 1
HOW MUCH DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?

PRE-TEST

2. Combination Pliers
3. Long Nose Pliers
4. Philips Screw driver
5. Claw Hammer
6. Wire Stripper
7. Portable electric drill
8. Stubby screw driver
9. Electrician’s knife
10. Male plug
11. Fuse
12. Utility box
13. Conduits
14. Connectors
15. Circuit Breaker
16. Junction box

SELF CHECK

1. rat tail

2. plain tap

3. duplex cross

4. y splice

PRE-TEST

1. b
2. a
3. d
4. c

SELF CHECK

1. Requisition form
2. Inventory form
3. Job order or work order form
4. Borrower’s form

PRE-TEST
a.
1. For me
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 159
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2. Damaged
3. Correct

B.
1. The receiving person
2. Keep a copy
3. Write the findings and if posible, take a picture

LESSON 2
WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?

PRE-TEST

I Matching Type:

1. C
2. E
3. A
4. B
5. D

II . Multiple Choice:

1. B
2. A
3. D
4. C
5. A

LO2- CARRY OUT MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS

A.

1. 10 mm
2. 36 inches
3. 10 cm
4. 1 cm
5. 12 inches

B.

6. cm
7. m
8. dm
9. yd
10. ft

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
C.

1. 304.8 cm
2. 700 mm
3. 1.25 ft
4. 5.468 yd

LESSON 3
PRETEST

LO1: A.

1. b
2. d
3. a
4. e
5. c

B.

1. Warning
2. Read and understand instruction manual
3. Electrical hazard
4. Voltage danger
5. Power panel
6. Circuit breaker
7. Battery

PRE-TEST

LO2:

QUANTITY ELECTRICAL FIXTURES

8 pieces Lamp outlets

8 pieces Duplex convenience outlets

4 pieces Single gang switches

1 piece Two gang switch

1 piece Three gang switch

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 161


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
SELF CHECK

LO1.

1. b
2. d
3. a
4. e
5. c

HOW MUCH DO YOU LEARNED?

SELF CHECK

Electrical Plan and Layout

LO2.

1.

Schematic Diagram of Series Circuit

2.

110V Bulb
Source s

110V
Switch
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF PARALLEL CIRCUIT

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 162


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
HOW DO YOU APPLY WHAT YOU LEARNED?

ELECTRICAL SIGNS

LO1. Analyze electrical symbols and signs.

A.

R
P R O H I B I T I O N E
S G
C A W N
A F A
U E D R
T T E N
I Y G I
O A N
N T L G
L E
O R
V T

B.

a. Safety alert

b. Prohibition

c. Voltage
danger

d. Warning

e. Electrical
hazard

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 163


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
SELF CHECK

Electrical Plan

LO2

QUANTITY ELECTRICAL FIXTURES

19 pieces Lamp outlets

0 Duplex convenience outlet

4 pieces Single gang switches

3 pieces Two gang switches

3 piece Three gang switches

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED?

SELF CHECK

I. Text Twist:
1. Wire gauge
2. Voltmeter
3. Clamp meter
4. Push pull rule
II. Parts of Multi-tester
1. Scale
2. Adjustment screw
3. Range selector knob
4. Pointer
5. Zero-ohm adjustment knob
6. Test probe

LESSON 4
LO1: Check condition of tools and equipment

1. Pneumatic floor jack


2. Hand tools
3. Screw drivers
4. Wrench
5. Puller
6. Vacuum cleaner
7. Air drill
8. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 164
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
9. Pneumatic Torque Wrench
10. Machine/Power tools

SELF CHECK

LO1. Check condition of tools and equipment

Hand tools Power tools Pneumatic tools

1. Screw drivers 1.Grinding Wheels 1.Air Racket

2.Wrenches 2.Vacuum Cleaner 2.Air Drill

3.Pullers 3.Electric Drill 3.Air Chisel

4.Hammers 4. 4.

Pre-Test

LO2: Perform basic preventive maintenance

A.
1. D
2. C
3. E
4. A
5. B
B.

1. b. sweepingi
2. d. self-discipline
3. a. sorting
4. b. systematizing
5. c. sanitizing

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED

Self-Check

LO2. Perform basic preventive maintenance

a.

1. Water (  )
2. Kerosene (X)
3. Detergent soap (  )
4. Gasoline (X)
5. Thinner (X)

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K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
b.

1. SILICON LUBRICANT
2. WIRE PULLING LUBRICANT
3. LUBRICATING OIL/ ENGINE OIL
4. ANTI-RUST LUBRICANT SPRAY
5. ALL PURPOSE ANTI-RUST LUBCANT

WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW?

LO 3: Store tools and equipments

Pre-test

For hand tools;

1. TRUE
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. TRUE
5. TRUE
6. FALSE
7. TRUE

For equipment;

8. FALSE
9. TRUE
10. TRUE

SELF CHECK

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED?

LO3: Store tool and equipment

Hand tools:

1. Clean dirt and debris from tools after each use.


2. Oil metal parts to prevent rust.
3. Lightly sand rough wooden handles and apply linseed oil.
4. Repair loose handles.
5. Sharpen blades of cutting tools.
6. Store tools in a clean dry storage area.
7. Protect surfaces of cutting tools in storage.

Power tools:

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 166


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
1 Read and follow the maintenance schedule in the owner’s manual for each piece
power equipment.
2. Change the oil.
3. Clean the air filter.
4. Lubricate moving parts.
5. Sharpen dull blades or replace worn blades according to the owner’s manual.
6. Replace spark plugs.
7. Drain oil and gasoline before long-term storage.
8. Check electric cords and connections on electric-powered tools.
9. Store tools in a clean dry storage area.

LESSON 5
HOW MUCH HAVE YOU ALREADY KNOW?
PRE-TEST

LO1. Identify hazards and risks.

8. H
9. C
10. E
11. A
12. G
13. F
14. J
15. I
16. D
17. B

SELF CHECK

LO 1: Identify Hazards And Risks

Given below is the list of common workplace hazards. Write at least three examples of each
type of hazard. (Choose only 3 from the given answers below).

1. Chemical hazard

 liquids such a cleansers,


 acids, and paints
 vapours and fumes such as welding fumes
 gases such as carbon monoxide
 products that can catch fire or explode
2. Physical hazard

 Machinery trip and fall hazards


 ladders and scaffolds electrical power

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 167


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
 heat and cold heat and cold
 noise ventilation
 noise working and walking surface
 power and hand tools
3. Biological hazard

 unclean restrooms
 mold and fungus
 bacteria
 insect stings
 animal bites
 poorly stored medical waste
4. Ergonomic Hazard or Job related hazard

 lighting
 chairs
 lifting
 repeated movements
 computer screens
5. Stress

 heavy workloads
 lack of control over the pace of work
 shift work
 noise
 working by yourself
 fear of job loss
 conflict with the employer

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU ALREADY KNOW?

PRETEST

LO 2: EVALUATE HAZARDS AND RISKS

A.

1. Personal Protective Equipment

2. Eliminate hazards

3. Administrative control

4. Asses the risk

5. identify hazard

A. DIRECTION. TRUE OR FALSE. In the statements below write true if the


statement is true and false if the statement is not correct.

1. General cleanliness in the workplace is an important method of controlling


hazards.
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 168
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
2. Good housekeeping reduces the risk of fire and is cost-effective.
3. Safety signs are method of hazard control.
4. Hygiene (cleanliness) is not so important as a method of controlling hazards
5. Before you leave work, wash/shower and change your clothes when
necessary to prevent bringing workplace contaminants home to your family.

B.
1.TRUE
2.TRUE
3.FALSE
4.FALSE
5.TRUE
SELF CHECK

Lesson 2: Evaluate hazards and risks

1. b
2. b
3. c
4. d
5. b

SELF CHECK
LO3: PERSONAL HYGENE
1. TRUE
2. TRUE
3. FALSE
4. FALSE
5. TRUE
6. TRUE
7. TRUE

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 169


K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education
Acknowledgement
This Learning Module was developed for the Exploratory Courses in Technology and
Livelihood Education, Grades 7 and 8 of the K to 12 Curriculum with the assistance of the following
persons:

This Learning Module on ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE NC II was


developed by the following personnel:

MODULE WRITERS

HECTOR M. VALLARTA ROMAN A. CABUSORA JR.


Electrical Technology Coordinator Master Teacher I
San Pedro Relocation Center National High School San Francisco High School
San Pedro,Laguna Bago Bantay, Quezon City

REVIEWERS

GIL P. CASUGA
Chief TESD Specialist

REYNALDO S. DANTES MARIA A. ROQUE


Senior TESD Specialist Senior TESD Specialist

BERNADETTE S. AUDIJE VICTORIO N. MEDRANO


Senior TESD Specialist Principal IV, SPRCNHS

PARALUMAN R. GIRON, Ed.D. BRENDA B. CORPUZ, Ph.D.


Chair, Sub-TWG on K to 10 TA for K to 12 Curriculum

OFELIA O. FLOJO BEATRIZ A. ADRIANO


Retired Assistant Chief, EED, Region IV-A Principal IV, ERVHS

AIDA T. GALURA DOMINGA CAROLINA F. CHAVEZ


VSA II, ACNTS Principal II, MBHS
DOCUMENTORS / SECRETARIAT
PRISCILLA E. ONG FREDERICK G. DEL ROSARIO
K to 12 Secretariat Head Teacher III, BNAHS

EMMANUEL V. DIONISIO LYMWEL P. LOPEZ


Head Teacher III, AFGBMTS Teacher I, AFGBMTS

DANTE D. VERMON JR. CHERLYN F. DE LUNA


Teacher I, AFGBMTS Teacher I, AFGBMTS

JOANNA LISA C. CARPIO ROMANO T. LOPEZ


Teacher I, BNAHS Teacher I, BNAHS

Dir. IMELDA B. TAGANAS


Executive Director, Qualifications Standards Office
K to 12 Learning Area Team Convenor, TLE/TVE

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 170


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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION MAINTENANCE 171
K to 12 – Technology and Livelihood Education