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Introduction to Manufacturing Processes

INME 4055 Manufacturing Processes

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

General Information
Course number: INME 4055 Course title: Manufacturing Processes Credit hours: 3 Instructor: Pedro O. Quintero Aguil Office: L-100 B Office hours: Tue and Thu 12:30-2:00, Wed 12:30-2:30 E-mail: pedro.quintero@upr.edu

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Assessment
The course will be assessed in the following manner:
Partial Exams (3) 60% Class Attendance / Participation 10% (*) Quizzes / Homework 5% Final Exam 25% * After the second absence one (1) point will be deducted for each nonauthorized absence.

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Grades
Final grade range 100 90 89 80 79 70 69 60 59 - 0 Final letter grade A B C D F

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Attendance
Attendance and participation in the lecture are mandatory and will be considered in the grading process. Students should bring all the required materials to be used during the lectures. Students are expected to keep up with the assigned reading and be prepared to answer questions on these readings during lectures.

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

References
Textbook: Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, Serowe Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid, Prentice Hall, 5th ed. 2007. Other References:
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Serowe Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid, Prentice Hall, 2001. Manufacturing Processes and Equipment, George Tlusty, Prentice Hall, 2000. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, John A. Schey, McGraw Hill, 3rd ed., 2000. Introduction to Manufacturing Processes and Materials, Robert C. Creese, Marcel Dekker, 1999. Principles of Manufacturing Processes, J. Beddoes and M.J. Bibby, Arnold Publishers, 1999. SME Tool and Manufacturing Engineering Handbook, SME Press, 1989 Volumes 1-7
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Exams
Exam will be conducted during lectures periods at the assigned classroom on the date specified by the lecturer with at least two weeks in advance. The only items allowed for use during the exams are calculators, pencils, pen, and ruler. Neatness and order will be taken into consideration and may affect your grade.

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Tentative Course Schedule


Outline Introduction to manufacturing Review of materials science Review of behavior of materials and deformation Surfaces and tribology Statistical process control Process capability Casting Solidification and structures Heat transfer on molds Fluid flow Bulk deformation Rolling Forging Extrusion Sheet metal forming Introduction to polymer processing Microfabrication and interconnections Contact Hours 2 4 4 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 4

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

What is Manufacturing?
Manufacturing is the process of converting raw material into products; it encompasses the design and fabrication of goods by means of various production methods and techniques.
from Latin, manu factus, meaning made by hand

Manufacturing represents ~ 20% to 30% of the value of all goods and services produced in industrialized countries. Because a manufactured item has undergone a number of changes during which the raw material has become an useful product, it has added value ($$$).
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Manufacturing Processes
Processing operation:
raw material is transformed into individual parts

Assembly operation:
individual parts are combined together to form an specific product

Manufacturing may produce:


Discrete products: individual parts or pieces (nails, gears, steel balls, engine blocks) Continuous products: may be cut into individual pieces, becoming discrete products (wire, metal sheet, pipe)
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Manufacturing activities must


Meet design requirements and specifications Use the most economical and environmentally friendly methods Incorporate quality into each stage Be flexible to respond to changing market demands Keep updated with state of the art materials and production methods Be viewed as a large system in which all components are interrelated Work with customers to get timely feedback for continuous improvement Constantly strive for higher productivity
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Product Design and Concurrent Engineering


Product design is critical because ~ 70 to 80% of the cost of product development and manufacture is set at the initial design stages. Design requires a clear understanding of functions and performance of the product. Traditionally, design and manufacturing have taken place sequentially rather than concurrently or simultaneously. Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach integrating the design and manufacture of products with the view toward optimizing all elements involved in the life cycle of the product. Goal is to minimize design and changes as well as the time and costs involved in taking the product from design concept to production and introduction to market.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

75% of the recurring manufacturing cost is determined by the design


Material Cost Purchase Part Cost Process Cost 75% Design Production Setup 13% Material Management 6% Process Management 6% 25% Fabrication

and within the design process


INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

100

80% of Product Cost / Performance Committed

100

80 60

80 60

40 20 0

40

20 0 Simulation Specification Partitioning & Tradeoff Start

Decided within first 20% of Design Cycle


Prototype Verification Logic Design Physical Design End

80% of the cost and performance is committed in the first 20% of the design cycle
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Customer Requirements Capture Conceptual Design (Trade-Off analysis)

Product Design - Life Cycle


A customer gives you the requirements, or Marketing determines the requirements through interactions in the market place with customers and competitors

Specification Design Verification and Qualification

Bid Bid = Cost estimate against the specification


Specification = Engineerings response to requirements

Does the design fulfill specification and requirements?

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Production Marketing

Manufacturing
Marketing Sales Redesign Maintenance Training Service Warranty

Sustainment

End of Life

When customer is finished with the product, what happens to it?

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Requirements Capture

Product Development Life Cycle


Conceptual Design and Specification

http://www.williamson-labs.com/design.htm

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Conceptual Design and Specification

Design Implementation

Verification

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Product Flow and Development Process

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

DFX: X=Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service


Design and manufacturing should never be viewed as separate disciplines. DFM is a comprehensive approach to production of goods that integrates the product design process with materials, manufacturing methods, process planning, assembly, testing, and quality assurance. Engineers must acquire a fundamental understanding of the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of materials, production methods, and machinery/equipment.
Variability in machine performance, dimensional accuracy, surface finish, processing time, effect of processing method on quality
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Product Assembly
After individual parts have been manufactured, they are assembled into a product. Assembly is an important phase of the overall manufacturing operation and requires consideration of the ease, speed, and cost of putting parts together. Products must be designed so that disassembly is possible with relative ease and little time. DFMA recognizes the inherent and important interrelationships among design, manufacturing, and assembly.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Product Design for Assembly

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Design Principles for Economic Production


Designs should be as simple as possible to manufacture, assemble, disassemble, service, and recycle. Materials should be chosen for their appropriate design and manufacturing characteristics as well as for their service life. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish specified should be as broad as permissible. Secondary and finishing operations should be minimized.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Sustainable Manufacturing and Product Life Cycle


The present and potential adverse effects of manufacturing activities, their damage to the environment, and their effect on the quality of human life are now well recognize.
In response a wide range of laws and regulations have been and continue to be promulgated by governments and international organizations.

Efforts have been more successful when there is value added, such as reducing energy requirements or substituting materials that have cost and environmental design benefits (DFR and DFE). Sustainable Manufacturing is the realization that natural resources are vital to economic activity and that energy and materials management are essential to ensure that resources are available for future generations.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Guidelines for Sustainable Manufacturing


Reducing waste of materials at their source by refinements in product design and the amount of materials used. Reducing the use of hazardous materials in product and processes. Ensuring proper handling and disposal of all waste. Making improvements in waste treatment and in recycling and reuse of materials. Cradle-to-Cradle philosophy which encourages the use of environmentally friendly materials and designs. By considering the entire life cycle of a product, materials can be selected and employed that have a minimal real waste.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Product Life Cycle (PLC)


PLC consists of the stages that a product goes through, from design, development, productions, distribution, and use; to its ultimate disposal and recycling. A product typically goes through five stages:
Development, involving much time and high costs Market introduction Growth, with increasing sales volume and lower manufacturing cost per unit Maturation, volume peaks and competitive products begin to appear Decline

Product Life Cycle Management (PLCM) is defined as the strategies employed by the manufacturer as the product goes through its life cycle.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Selecting Materials
The types of materials generally used in manufacturing are:
Ferrous metals: carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels Nonferrous metals: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, titanium, low-melting alloys (lead, zinc, and tin), and precious metals Plastics: thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers Ceramics: glass ceramics, glasses, graphite Composite materials: reinforced plastics, metal-matrix and ceramic matrix, honeycomb structures; (these are known as engineered materials). Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, metal foams, amorphous alloys, semiconductors.

Material Properties:
Mechanical properties: strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, elasticity, fatigue, creep Physical properties: density, specific heat, CTE, conductivity, melting point Manufacturing properties: determine whether they can be processed (cast, formed, shaped, machined) with relative ease.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Selecting Manufacturing Processes


A wide range of manufacturing processes are used to produce a variety of parts, shapes, and sizes. There are more than one method of manufacturing a part from a given material. Each process has its own advantages, limitations, production rates, and cost.

Various methods of making a simple part: (a) casting or powder metallurgy, (b) forging or upsetting, (c) extrusion, (d) machining, (e) joining two pieces. INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Broad Categories of Processing Methods


Casting: Expendable molding and permanent molding Forming and shaping: Rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet forming, powder metallurgy Machining: Turning, boring, drilling, milling, shaping, grinding Joining: Welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding, adhesive bonding, mechanical bonding Micromanufacturing and nanomanufacturing: Surface micromachining, dry and wet etching, electroforming Finishing: lapping, polishing, deburring, surface treating, coating, plating

Manufacturing engineers are constantly challenged to find new solutions to production problems as well as finding means for significant cost reduction.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Part Size and Dimensional Accuracy

Size, thickness, and shape complexity of a part have a major bearing on the process selected. The size and shape of manufactured products vary widely.

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Lean Manufacturing
Major assessment of each activity of a company regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of its operation. Efficiency of the machinery and equipment used in the operation while maintaining and improving quality. Number of personnel involved in a particular operation. A thorough analysis in order to reduce the cost of each activity. Lean aims at continuously improving the efficiency and profitability by removing all types of waste from its operation. Agile manufacturing indicate the use of the principles of lean production in a broader scale.
ensure flexibility so that it can quickly respond to changes reconfigurable machines and modular components
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Total Quality Management


Tradition: inspection of part after manufacturing = quality assurance
Inspect to insure parts conform to specifications and standards (dimensional tolerances, surface finish, mechanical and physical properties.

Modern approach: Quality cannot be inspected into the product; it must be built into it from the early stages through all subsequent stages. We need to control processes not products! Ultimately, the major goal is to prevent defects from occurring rather than to detect defects in products.
SPC, Control Charts DOE
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Manufacturing Costs and Total Competitiveness


Manufacturing costs represent ~40% of a products selling price. Total cost of manufacturing consists of: cost of materials, tooling, labor, fixed and capitals costs. Wide disparity in manufacturing labor costs. Outsourcing is the practice of taking internal company activities and paying an outside firm to perform them.

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

General Trends in Manufacturing


Materials:
Better control of material composition, purity, and defects Enhancement of overall properties, manufacturing characteristics, reliability Semiconductors, nanomaterials, nanopowders, shapememory alloys

Processes, Equipment, and Systems:


Computers, controls, robots, automated inspection, sensors, expert systems Simulation and modeling are becoming widely used in design and manufacturing resulting in the optimization of processes with better prediction of the effects of relevant variables.

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Manufacturing Activities
Product design (conceptual, requirements, specifications) Selecting materials Selecting manufacturing processes Process design Customer satisfaction Quality control Regulations (EPA, OSHA, ISO) Lean Manufacturing
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Top Down Design


A complex problem is decomposed into simpler problems and so on until each of the problems is solvable Then we integrate the solutions together

INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt. The second, to divide each of the difficulties under examination into as many parts as possible, and as might be necessary for its adequate solution. The third, to conduct my thoughts in such order that, by commencing with objects the simplest and easiest to know, I might ascend by little and little, and, as it were, step by step, to the knowledge of the more complex; assigning in thought a certain order even to those objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence.
Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences Rene Descartes, 1637 INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.

Summary
Manufacturing is the process of converting raw materials into products be means of a variety of processes and methods. Product design is an integral part of manufacturing, as evidenced by trends in in concurrent engineering and DFX. A key task is to select appropriate materials and optimal manufacturing methods, given product design goals, process capabilities, and cost considerations. Ensuring product quality is a concurrent engineering process rather than a last step in the manufacturing of a product. Lean production and agile manufacturing are approaches that focus on the efficiency and flexibility of the organization. Manufacturing engineers have the major responsibilities regarding all the above aspects.
INME 4055 Pedro Quintero, Ph.D.