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Maharana Pratap College of Technology









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This project has been written in a simple and understandable manner. It has been compiled systematically to enable one to evaluate the details of the project. In this project report, I have made an attempt to discuss POWER FAILURE ALARM . This report thus includes a brief discussion of, power failure alarm its advantages and uses in recent technology. I express my gratitude towards my teacher, MR. PANKAJ SINGH TOMAR, for their invaluable guidance and support in completing this project. Besides I am thankful to my parents and friends, for their whole hearted co-operation.



Power cuts are not uncommon; in fact they appear to be coming more frequent in some areas. A failure in the power supply to some people causes only a irritant, they may have to reset a clock, but to other people especially business, they can and do cause thousands of pounds of damage. This damage may be in the form of lost food in a fridge or freezer, amounting to hundreds of pounds of lost stock, it may be chemicals, medicines, and electronics. A power cut may have cut the heater off in the greenhouse, a fan off in a computer room, it may have caused a computer to fail, there are hundreds of reasons that you need to know if there is or has been a power failure. Prompt action following any power failure can save you hundreds or thousands of pounds from lost and damaged stock. Sometimes there is need of devices which should intimate us when power goes off, so that we could switch off our devices if they are battery operated or they are getting power from some other limited source [such as for computer using UPS(uninterrupted power supply)]. This circuit can solve our purpose and can intimate us if power supply fails.

In the PCB design of electronics circuit, it is important that one plan and has a checklist of the do's and don'ts before proceeding to do the printed circuit board layout. The understanding of the circuit is critical to the design, for example one needs to understand the maximum current and voltage that are carried by each conductor in order to determine the track width of the conductor and the type of PCB that will be used. The voltage difference between each track will determine the clearance between each conductor. If the clearance is not enough, chances are that the electrical potential between each track will cause spark over andshort circuit the PCB. This will cause functional failure to the product and the safety of the users that are using the product will be compromised.



Most of the power supply indicator circuit needs a separate power supply for themselves. But the alarm circuit presented here needs no additional power supply source. It employs an electrolytic capacitor to store adequate charge, to feed power to the alarm circuit which sounds an alarm for a reasonable duration when the mains supply fails. During the presence of mains power supply, the rectified mains voltage is stepped down to a required low level. A zener is used to limit the filtered voltage to15-volt level.

Mains presence is indicated by an LED. The low-level DC is used for charging capacitor C3 and reverse biasing switching transistor T1. Thus, transistor T1 remains cut-off as long as the m supply is present. As soon as the mains power fails, the charge stored in the capacitor acts as a power-supply source for transistor T1. Since, in the absence of mains supply, the base of transistor is pulled low via resistor R8; it conducts and sounds the buzzer (alarm) to give a warning of the power-failure. With the value of C3 as shown, a good-quality buzzer would sound for about a minute. By increasing or decreasing the value of capacitor C3, this time can be altered to serve ones need. Assembly is quite easy. The values of the components are not critical. If the alarm circuit is powered from any external DC power-supply source, the mains-supply section up to points P and M can be omitted from the circuit. Following points may be noted: At a higher DC voltage level, transistor T1 (BC558) may pass some collector-to-emitter leakage current, causing a continuous murmuring sound from the buzzer. In that case, replace it with some low-gain transistor. Piezo buzzer must be a continuous tone version, with built-in oscillator. To save space, one may use five small-sized 1000F capacitors (in parallel) in place of bulky high-value capacitor C3.

Circuit diagram with Parts list.

T1 can be a 230V primary 6V secondary 500mA transformer. B1 can be a 1A bridge. You can make the same using four 1N 4007 diodes. All capacitors are rated 25V. You can use any general purpose PNP transistor (like BC158,BC177 etc) as Q1.

Typical applications where you can use a loss of power alarm: 1. Cooling tower controllers 2. Boiler controllers 3. Refrigerator 4. Freezer 5. Lab equipment like incubators 6. Chillers 7. Aquariums 8. Air conditioners 9. Security systems 10. Computers 11. Monitor battery backup equipment 12. Medical equipment power failure alarm



Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by the ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it. Thus a particular value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They are omnipresent in electronic circuits. The different value of resistances are used to limit the currents or get the desired voltage drop according to the currentvoltage rating of the device to be connected in the circuit. For example, if an LED of rating 2.3V and 6mA is to be connected with a supply of 5V, a voltage drop of 2.7V (5V-2.3V) and limiting current of 6mA is required. This can be achieved by providing a resistor of 450 connected in series with the LED. Resistors can be either fixed or variable. The low power resistors are comparatively smaller in size than high power resistors. The resistance of a resistor can be estimated by their colour codes or can be measured by a multimeter. There are some non linear resistors also whose resistance changes with temperature or light. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC), positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and light dependent resistor (LDR) are some such resistors. These special resistors are commonly used as sensors. 9


Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a capacitor is the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it. Capacitors offer infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC components or bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive cycle of charging and discharging in AC circuits where the voltage and current across it depends on the RC time constant. For this reason, capacitors are used for smoothing power supply variations. Other uses include, coupling the various stages of audio system, tuning in radio circuits etc. These are used to store energy like in a camera flash. Capacitors may be non-polarized/polarized and fixed/variable. Electrolytic capacitors are polarized while ceramic and paper capacitors are examples of non polarized capacitors. Since capacitors store charge, they must be carefully discharged before troubleshooting the circuits. The maximum voltage rating of the capacitors used must always be greater than the supply voltage.



In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric transfer characteristic, with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline pieceofsemiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals.[1] The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current, including extraction of modulation from radio signals in radio receiversthese diodes are forms of rectifiers. 1N4148 is a high speed switching diode. The switching diodes are designed such that their reverse recovery time is very small compared to ordinary diodes. The typical switching time is 4 nsec. It comes in hermetically sealed leaded glass package. The PIV rating is 100V. The maximum repetitive peak forward current is 450 mA. Other high speed switching diode is 1N4448.


The piezo buzzer produces sound based on reverse of the piezoelectric effect. The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application of electric potential across a piezoelectric material is the underlying principle. These buzzers can be used alert a user of an event corresponding to a switching action, counter signal or sensor input. They are also used in alarm circuits. The buzzer produces a same noisy sound irrespective of the voltage variation applied to it. It consists of piezo crystals between two conductors. When a potential is applied across these crystals, they push on one conductor and pull on the other. This, push and pull action, results in a sound wave. Most buzzers produce sound in the range of 2 to 4 kHz. The Red lead is connected to the Input and the Black lead is connected to Ground.



A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through thesecondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. This effect is calledinductive coupling.If a load is connected to the secondary, current will flow in the secondary winding, and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp) and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus enables an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np.


A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and power. It is composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.w), the bias batteries are reversed for the PNP transistor. The PNP transistor works essentially the same as the NPN transistor. However, since the emitter, base, and collector in the PNP transistor are made of materials that are different from those used in the NPN transistor, different current carriers flow in the PNP unit. The majority current carriers in the PNP transistor are holes. This is in contrast to the NPN transistor where the majority current carriers are electrons.



A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.[3] LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962,[4] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.When a light-emitting diode is forwardbiased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.[5] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current andheat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications


A Zener Diode is an electronic component which can be used to make a very simple voltage regulator circuit. This circuit enables a fixed stable voltage to be taken from an unstable voltage source such as the battery bank of a renewable energy system which will fluctuate depending on the state of charge of t A zener diode is a special kind of diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode, but will also permit it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage, "zener knee voltage" or "zener voltage. he bank. The zener diode behaves as a voltage regulator because, in the reverse bias condition, it has a relatively flat voltage to current curve. That means that the voltage across the diode will be relatively constant even if the current through it varies slightly. In order to achieve stable operation, you should operate in the normal "expected" current range.