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Philippine National Report on Bamboo and Rattan

Merlyn N. Rivera
Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), College, Laguna, Philippines

The Philippine archipelago, composed of 7,100 islands, is located between latitudes 5oN and 21oN and longitudes 116oE and 127oE. It is bordered by the Luzon strait to the north the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Celebes Sea to the south, the Sulu and South China Seas to the west (FAO, 1995 and World Resources Institute, 1994). It has a total land area of 30 million ha, 53 percent (15.88 m. ha) of which is forest land (Philippine Forestry Statistics 1996). Land is classified as alienable and disposable, unclassified and forest lands. Forest lands are categorized into reservation, timberland, national parks, military and naval reservation, civil reservation and fishponds. There are approximately 69 million Filipinos (Philippine Statistical Yearbook, 1997). Two thirds of the population live in rural areas. The total labor force in 1993 was 26.8 million (13.0 million in urban areas, and 13.8 million in rural areas) with 10 percent unemployed (de Los Angeles and Ygrubay, 1992). Almost all the lowland area suitable for intensive cultivation are occupied (ADB, 1994). Landless people are forced to migrate to the steep uplands where they convert forests to farms through slash and burn cultivation and the most notable result is forest degradation. In 1994, it was estimated that deforestation occurs at a rate of 100,000 ha per year. Because of the rather sad plight of the environmental and socio-economic conditions of the people within the forest lands, utilization of resources must be sustainably reached. Among the resources found within these forest lands are bamboo and rattan. Bamboo and rattan have proven to be vital resources in terms of its contribution to the national economy and ecological stability of the Philippines. Bamboo stands out among woody plants because it possesses unique qualities and offers a wide array of uses. The bamboo culm has long been tapped as an inexpensive source of housing materials, furniture, handicraft, banana props, fishpens and other innumerable products. The young shoots of certain species are gathered for food. The rhizomes in its roots help prevent soil erosion and control floods. Through the years, the uses of bamboo have largely diversified and benefited many industries. Because of its large fibers, it is also a good material for pulp and

paper. Its short rotation of about 4-6 years is a distinct advantage over fast growing tree species because of quick turn over in terms of investments. In spite of its myriad of traditional uses, the main reasons for the classification of bamboo as a "minor forest product" or "secondary timber" have been enumerated by Bello and Espiloy in 1995. These include the following: 1.) abundance of wood from natural forests in the past particularly the lesser known or commercially less accepted species for the reproduction of reconstituted panel products; and 2.) constraints in cultivating bamboo which may be monocarpic, fire tender and easily bruised. In the Philippines, bamboo has diverse, functional and traditional uses. It underlies so much of Philippine culture that it is part of many ceremonies, traditions and beliefs. Philippine culture is also replete with myths and tales about bamboo. For example, the first Filipino man ("lalaki") and woman (babae") came from a piece of bamboo according to a Visayan myth. Various instruments be it wind, string or percussion are made out of bamboo while split and unsplit bamboo are used in Philippine folkdances. Examples of these are "tinikling", "singkil", and "subli". Bamboo is also part of Philippine folk games. The "palo sebo," a greased bamboo pole with a small bag of prize money or toys tied at the end is a game always played during fiesta time. "Luksong kawayan" or high jump also uses bamboo poles or sticks as hurdles. Bamboo has likewise taken a very important role as a traditional weapon during times of war. During the Spanish era, bamboo mats were rolled to appear like cannons and were mounted on carts. On Sept. 2, 1896, a Filipino band composed of bamboo musical instruments were used to fool their enemies by attacking the Spanish garrison. In ancient times, furniture was usually made of bamboo. These include "papag" (bed), "bangko" (bench), and "aparador" (cabinet). On the other hand, basketry is probably the oldest bamboo handicraft in the Philippines. Bamboo baskets are produced for all sorts of uses. Bamboo is also used in many ways for food and food preparation. Bamboo containers are used to steam rice, the staple food of the Filipinos. Bamboo shoots are either cooked as food or pickled and is considered as a delicacy in many places. However, this aspect of bamboo utilization has not yet been developed as an industry. Bamboo kitchen utensils are carved from bamboo while split bamboo is woven and laminated to make plates. In rural areas, "banggerahan or paminggalan" still serve as cupboards where dishes are dried and kept. Bamboo skewers are commonly used to roast pigs while thinner sticks are used for barbeques such as pork, chicken, innards, hotdogs, bananas and sweet potatoes. In agriculture, bamboo is used as props for banana and vegetables, baskets for packaging fruits, fish and vegetables, agricultural implements and construction of animal drawn carts for transporting farm products. Bamboo is also used as dibble sticks in planting. In early agriculture, bamboo was used for fetching water from rivers, deep wells or surface wells. Bamboo is also used extensively as an indigenous material for soil and water conservation technologies. Check dams use woven bamboo strips between the pegs while bush or stones are placed against the dams upper side. In protecting river/stream banks, bamboo can be planted to stabilize water while holding the soil in place and reducing water flow. In the 1570s, when the Spaniards arrived in the country, the typical Filipino house or "bahay kubo" was built with a framework of bamboo poles and walls of split cane woven like a mat. Rattan on the other hand, is one of the countrys most important resources that have been constantly depleted. The continuing loan of the industry in the 70s, 80s, and 90s have resulted in heavy extraction of the resource.

It is considered of economic importance to the Philippines because of the revenues generated through forest charges which in 1996 amounted to P13.94M (PFS, 1996). Furthermore, the rattan industry contributes significantly to the economy in generating foreign exchange, income and employment of dependent groups. In 1996, the export of nontimber manufactured articles, including rattan articles amounted to US$40 million (Lapis, 1998). Rattan is used as a raw material in the manufacture of furniture, baskets, and other handicraft items.


A. Bamboo Resources In the past, bamboo production area would only refer to bamboos naturally growing in the forest and in "natural stands" in private lands. However, today, bamboo plantations have become dependable sources of raw materials for some segments of the bamboo industry (Table 1). The Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB), through the UNDP-FAO Bamboo Research and Development Project established 57 ha of bamboo pilot plantations in six different sites of the country with 8 to 11 ha per site. Eight commercial species are being tried in the pilot plantations. These are the following: Bambusa blumeana (kauayan tinik); Bambusa vulgaris (kiling); Bambusa sp. (bayog); Bambusa sp. (laak); Dendrocalamus asper (giant bamboo); Gigantochloa levis (bolo); Gigantochloa atter (kayali); and Schizostachyum lumampao (buho). The plantations are located in Rosario, La Union (Region 1); Pampanga Agricultural College (PAC), Magalang, Pampanga (Region 3); Dumarao, Capiz (Region 6), Minglanilla, Cebu (Region 7), Malaybalay, Bukidnon (Region 10); and Bislig, Surigao del Sur (CARAGA). In Davao Province in Mindanao, thousands of hectares of lands were planted to laak (Bambusa sp. 2). These were meant for the demand for banana props. Jose Pastor of Isla Verde, Batangas established a 50-ha kauayan-tinik (Bambusa blumeana) plantation. The bamboos were being used by the family in producing furnitures. In Pililla, Rizal, Domingo Alfonso has a 20-ha kauayan-tinik (Bambusa blumeana) plantation. The family is producing high-quality furniture which they supply to department stores, i.e. Rustans, and SM stores and also for export. Based on the information from various sources the total available bamboo resources in terms of area covered and annual estimated available bamboo poles for harvesting and utilization were analyzed according to the nature of origin (Table 2). The computation showed that there is at least a total of about 39,211 to 52,711 ha of production area for erect bamboos with an expected production of approximately 29 to 52 million harvestable poles per year. Of these volume, about 65 to 68 percent will come from forestlands, 22 to 25 percent from natural stands, 5 to 5.5 percent from private plantations and 3 to 4 percent from government plantations. This data is rather high compared to the figures presented in Table 3 where only 626,889 pieces of bamboo were gathered from forestlands in 1996. Rojo in 1996 prepared a list of Philippine bamboos toxonomically recognized and/or published by various authors (Table 4). In that same year, Rojo reported that there are now 62 species of bamboos growing in the Philippines (Table 5). However, it seems that there are only 21 species of bamboos endemic to the Philippines. Six of these are also native to other countries. Of the endemics, those not found elsewhere but in the Philippines, seven belong to the genus Schizostachybum of which five are climbing and are erect. The rest belong to other genera, of which three are erect and five are climbing. Thus, most Philippines bamboos that are native to the country are mostly climbing (10

species) and only five species are erect ones. The predominance of climbing bamboos over the erect ones of both endemic and native species has an implication on the supply of culms available for commercial use. At present, the climbing bamboos although abundant in terms of the number of culms are used for kaing or basket making and native fences which are priced lower than the products manufactured from erect bamboos. Of the native and erect bamboos, only four species are of economic and commercial importance (Rojo 1996). These species are: Dendrocalamus (Bambusa species) merrillianus, Shizostachyum lima, S. lumampao and (Bambusa spec. 2) philippinensis. Nevertheless, domestication of introduced bamboos have long been done and are used commercially. The commercially useful bamboos are shown in Table 6. It should be noted that of the twelve species listed only 2 or 3 are native and/or endemic species. B. Rattan resources Rattan is a climbing palm with numerous thorns or spines, hairs, and bristles scattered all over the plant. Some rattans have leaves with extended whip-like structure, the cirrus, which is an extension of the midrib. Others have the flagellum, which is also whip-like, that arises from the axil of the leaf sheath. The cirri and flagella enable the palm to climb adjacent trees for support (PCARRD, 1985). Rattans are observed to be growing throughout the country from Batanes to Tawi-Tawi islands (Table 7). They are found from near sea level and medium elevations in the old and second growth forest but never in the open fields (Pongkaluang, 1987 as cited by Rimando, 1996). Generally, most rattan species have a wide altitudinal range although there are some species, which tend to have specific ranges (Lapis 1995). The most widely distributed of the Philippine rattan species is ditaan (Daemonorops mollis). This is followed by Tandulang parang (Calamus usitatis) which is found in Batan Island, Babuyan Island, Zambales, Laguna, Quezon, Camarines Norte and Sorsogon. Palasan (C. merrillii) ranks third in distribution and is generally found in the mountain ranges of Sierra Madre, Cordillera, Kitanglad, Isarog, Halcon and Caraballo. Limuran (C. ornatus var. philippinensis) is well distributed in Luzon, particularly in the mountains of Laguna, Bicol, Quezon, Rizal, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur and Sorsogon. The distribution of rattan in four provinces was studied by Tandug (1984). The study areas included Palawan, Laguna, Agusan del Sur and Davao del Norte. There were 27 species found, six of these are of commercial value. The harvestable cane of the mature plants is about 4 to 16 percent per hectare. The remaining rattan stands comprise mostly of wildlings. Limuran was dominant in the survey areas with about 1689 lineal meters per hectare. Species of the genus Korthalsia are found in Quezon, Leyte, Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur. The Plectocomias are found in Palawan, Bukidnon and Leyte. The inventory on timber and NTFP (which included bamboo and rattan) was done by the Philippine-German Forest Resources Inventory Project and was completed in 1988 (Tables 7 & 8). The same inventory indicated the rattan species which include 69 known rattan species. These are distributed according to genera as follows: 48 for Calamus, 14 for Daemonorops, 5 for Korthalsia and 2 for Plectocomia. Of these 69 species, 12 are commercially significant. But according to Lapis (1995) there are 91 rattan species found in the Philippines - distributed as Calamus, 70; Daemonorops, 14; Korthalsia, 5; and Plectocomia, 2. Among the 45 species of Calamus, 32 are endemic. In the genus Daemonorops, 12 of the 14 species are endemic. In Korthalsia, two of the five species are endemic and in Plectocomia, one of the two species is endemic. Among these one genera, Calamus is the largest and most widely distributed throughout the country. However, with the increasing demand for rattan poles, the above mentioned inventory cannot guarantee the annual sustainability level of rattan.

According to the DENR Master Plan for Forestry Development (1990), the demand for small and large diameter sized rattan poles by year 2000 may reach 437.2 million (Table 9). It is assumed that there is a decrease of 5 percent in the annual growth of exports (1996 - 2000) due to competition with Indonesia. However, an increase in growth rate was projected at 8 percent per annum for the years 2010 to 2015. The increase was due to the expected new markets which might have been found and developed. With regards to rattan production areas 90 percent of the raw materials comes from the wild. These natural stands now face rapid depletion because of rampant timber harvesting, conversion of forest areas into other land uses and the unregulated cutting of rattan which reduces regeneration. Alarmed by the dwindling supply of raw materials, the rattan cottage and furniture manufacturers alerted the government of an imminent collapse of the industry. As an immediate response, development of plantations was initiated to possibly rescue the industry from decline. In 1977, the then Forest Research Institute now ERDB, established the initial trial planting of commercial species of rattan in Pagbilao, Quezon. At present, about 200 ha are planted with palasan (Calamus merrillii) and limuran (Calamus ornatus var. Philippinensis). Having shown the feasibility of growing rattan artificially, the National Development Corporation through the Rattan Development Company, ventured into the first commercial and industrial rattan plantation in Mindanao. The plantation is located within the concessions of Paper Industries Corporation (PICOP) and the Bislig Bay Lumber Company in Surigao del Sur. The total plantation established in a period of eight years (1984-1992) was 5,185 ha. Another private company, the Swedish Match Hillshog Philippines, Inc., in cooperation with the Provident Tree Farms, Inc., established a 50-ha plantation in Mindoro Island and 150-ha plantation in Talacogon, Agusan province. In both companies, the species planted were only palasan and limuran. In 1983, the Iloilo National College of Agriculture established a 3-ha rattan plantation. Solitary type rattan species found in the vicinity were used as planting materials (Lapis, 1996). In the same report of Lapis, a 4-ha farm planted during the pre-war times was mentioned to still be the source of rattan poles for domestic use with Taguiti (Calamus vidalianus) being cultivated. Furthermore, under DENR reforestation program which started in 1989, various rattan plantation development projects were contracted throughout the various regions.


A. Bamboo 1. Propagation techniques Bamboos can be propagated either by sexual ( reproductive ) or asexual (vegetative) means. Sexual propagation is by means of seeds. However, this is not popular in the country due to the irregularity and rarity of flowering of common bamboo species. Nevertheless, some species like buho (Schizostachyum lumampao) flower gregariously. According to studies made on Kayauan tinik (Bambusa blumeana), even if seeds are available, these are mostly infertile and viability is low. Vegetative or asexual propagation makes use of different parts of bamboo plants as propagation material. There are various methods of vegetative propagation described by various authors, ERDBDENR/FAO/UNDP (1994) and PCCARD (1991). These are as follows: a. Clump division The safest method is by clump division. This is normally used for bamboo species which are difficult to propagate. This method is also preferred when there is a need for rapid growth. However, this method is laborious and affects the productive capacity of the clump. b. Basal Culm Division or Offset

This method makes use of the rhizomes and the portion of the culms. It is commonly used in the monopodial or nonclump forming bamboos. It can be applied to some sympodial bamboo species with loose clumps such as "Anos" (S. lima) and "Buho" (S. Lumampao) because these are difficult to propagate either by culm or branch cutting. c. Culm cutting This uses segments of culm (cuttings) bearing buds or fascicles of branches. Cuttings are extensively used to propagate bamboo of the genera Bambusa, Dendrocalamus and Gigantochloa. d. Branch cutting This method ia an alternative method of propagating rhizomatous branch producing bamboos like "Bayog" (D.asper), "Kauayan tinik" ( B. blumeana), kauayan kiling, (B. vulgaris) and other similar varieties. e. Branch Marcot Culm cutting This method is similar to culm cutting method. However, it induces first the rooting of branches by marcotage, before the culm is cut into one-node pieces for planting. f. Tissue culture This involves the development of new plants from plant tissues in artificial media under aseptic conditions. Dr. Alfinetta Zamora of the Institute of Plant Breeding at UPLB has developed satisfactory protocols for machiku (D. latiflorus), calcutta bamboo (D. strictus) and "Buho" (S. lumampao). g. Airponics It is a method of accelerating the growth of plants in oxygen-rich environment without soil (Maravilla, 1996 ). The plant root zone is suspended in a growing chamber and intermittently pulse misted with a nutrient solution. Propagation of bamboo through this method is still very new. The facility of airponics plant propagation system (APPS) is located in Sta. Barbara, Iloilo, Central Philippines. Given these various propagation methods, the most common method practiced in the country is culm cutting with some procedural variations found practical and effective by individual propagators. This is applied to the most common commercial species such as "Bayog", "Kauayan tinik"," kauayan kiling", "Bolo", aak", and "Kayali." For giant bamboo and "Bayog," branch cutting and branch marcotting have been employed, respectively ( Gigare et al. 1992 and Alfonso, D. 1990). Offset method is found to be effective in propagating buho where culm cutting is not so successful. Tissue culture derived plants of Dendrocalamus strictus and Schizostchyum lumampao have been produced and seedlings have been trial planted and are now vigorously growing in the field (Zamora and Gruezo, 1992). Maravilla (1996) reported that branch cutting of giant bamboo has been successfully propagated through APPS. 2. Plantation establishment a. Site requirements The growth and development of bamboo depends on water, sunlight, nutrients and other growth requirements. However, these growth requirements vary from one species to another. Nevertheless, these important requirements as forwarded by some authors (PCARRD 1992, Malvas 1995, Hoang et al. 1992 and MPFD 1990) hold true for Philippine bamboo. b. Site preparation

The Bamboo Farming Manual published by the ERDB-DENR/UNDP/FAO (1994), PCARRD (1989), Pinol et al.(1991), Lapis et al. (1987), Hoang (1991), and Malab et al. (1996) describe the various steps in the preparation of planting site for bamboo: i. Sketching or mapping and delineation of area It is important to sketch the main features of the planting site to assess the accessibility of the area to water sources and determine the location, size and form of the plantation ii. Staking Four corners of the plantation should be marked with long poles. If the plantation is too large, it should be divided into compartments measuring 100m x 100m. iii. Field layout The recommended spacing for most commercial bamboo species and other large clump and culm bamboo is from 7m x 7m to 10m x 10m. For medium size clump bamboos like laak and boho the spacing is 4m x 5m. For riverbank and enbankment stabilization planting quincunx system is suggested at a closer spacing of 5m x 5m. iv. Clearing Weeds and unwanted vegetation is removed from the area. Depending on vegetation site, complete clearing or strip clearing may be done. For riverbank or hillside planting, spot clearing is recommended for least soil disturbance. v. Planting hole preparation The planting hole which is prepared in advance should be wide enough to accommodate the propagules either rooted or directly planted. The suggested dimension of the planting hole is 50 cm wide and 40 cm deep. c. Transporting/Hardening of planting stock Hardening of the plants prior to transporting for outplanting which is about 4 to 6 months after potting is recommended. Loading and unloading of potted propagules is carefully done to avoid damage especially to the roots and new shoots. d. Planting Planting of bamboo in plantation can be done either by direct planting of cuttings or by outplanting the nurseryraised propagules. e. Plantation maintenance and silvicultural treatments i. Fertilization Although bamboo can grow in harsh conditions, it is sometimes necessary to apply fertilizer to provide the plants the nutrients necessary for optimum growth, especially in very poor and marginal areas. Fertilizer application which is about 200 to 300 gm of complete fertilizer is done at planting time and every 3 to 4 months thereafter. Organic fertilizer such as cow dung and chicken manure is also recommended. ii. Watering

When rainfall is irregular and plants show signs of wilting during the first few months after planting, watering is deemed essential. iii. Mulching To reduce moisture loss from the soil and from the plant, mulching is recommended. This entails covering the hills and the plant with grasses and other organic materials. iv. Replacement of mortality Replacement of plants that have died should be done as soon as possible because the growth of the replanted plants may be suppresed by the older plants. v. Weeding and brushing Regular weeding and brushing is done during the first two years of plantation establishment to eliminate competition for light, water and nutrients from other vegetation. vi. Thinning Thinning is done three years after planting to remove damaged, defective and dead culms. More space is provided for the growth of new shoots and for better facilitation of management activities. vii. Pruning Pruning of lower branches of the culms is recommended to provide access to the clums during fertilization and harvesting. viii. Protection Establishment of firebreaks along the boundaries and compartment of plantations especially during dry months is recommended to prevent fires. Planting of fast growing fire resistant species is also recommended. Fencing the plantation perimeters should be done if grazing animals like cattle, goats, carabao are prevalent in the area. Rodents are common pests which damage shoots and young culms. Termites also destroy roots and lower portions of the culm. Other bamboo pests commonly observed are cottony cushion mealy bug, bamboo scale, locust, leaf roller, tussick, moth and aphids. Bamboo diseases include tar spot, leafspot, leaf rust, culm blight, and other physiological diseases. Commercial rodenticides, insecticide and fungicide can be applied to control these pests and diseases. However, none of these have been reported to be in widespread proportion to pose a serious problem. f. Bamboo Harvesting Systems/Methods Harvesting is of great importance because it is the culmination of all production activities and efforts. There are two known methods or systems of harvesting as practiced in the country: i. Selective cutting This is the most common and traditional practice where only the selected culms or poles of some specific age are harvested.

ii. Clear cut or blanket method All poles/culms regardless of age are cut leaving only the very young culms and shoots. However, this system is practiced in very limited areas and for specific purpose. This method is known to be applied in laak species (Bambusa sp. 2) which are used as banana props. Factors to consider in harvesting bamboo Culm age

Generally, most of the commercial bamboo species are harvested between 3-5 years old. Cutting time/season

Dry season is the best time to harvest bamboo when the culms are lowest in terms of starch content level making it less susceptible to powder post beetle attack. No shoot emergence also occurs during this time, hence shoot damage is evaded. Cutting height

Cutting of poles/culms should be done as close as possible to the ground preferably after the first node for maximum pole utilization and growing space management. Distribution

Culms to be harvested should be uniformly distributed within the clump periphery. This allows even spacing of the culms to be left and eventually of the new shoots that will emerge. Harvesting Treatment for Old Unmanaged Bamboo Clumps Due to inappropriate harvesting practices and absence of proper management, most of the existing bamboo stands have become dense and congested. However, these bamboo stands can be reinvigorated and improved by hilling-up of the soil occupied by the clumps and through fertilizer application. Thinning/cleaning can also improve productivity. There are two known methods of thinning old clumps - horse shoe and cross pattern methods. B. Rattan Rattan planting stocks can be propagated either from seeds or vegetatively (FORI, 1986). If seeds are used, the following activities are pursued: 1. Seed Collection/Seed Extraction Only ripe rattan fruits are collected and the best season to collect is from October to November. Seeds may be extracted from the fruit either by crushing with the hands or by soaking in water. 2. Planting Stock Production Removal of the hilar cover is done to reduce the germination time from 365 days to 2 days. The breakthrough was done by the then Forest Research Institute (FORI) now ERDB which successfully germinated palasan seeds in two days only with 96.5% germination. It rattan wildlings are collected, these should be not more than 30 cm. tall.

Collection must be done during the rainy season. Fertilizer application at a rate of 5-7 grams complete fertilizer per seedling is recommended. Gradual exposure to sunlight for at least three months before outplanting in the field is necessary. Production of rattan planting stock by vegetative means is possible. However, these methods are not as popular as the use of seeds. Cuttings, suckers/aerial roots and tissue culture are presently used in some research studies. 3. Plantation establishment a. Selection of Planting Site Rattan requires the presence of vegetation as shade when young and support as its matures. The following are areas suitable for rattan development: brushlands or tracts of forestlands generally covered with trees which are not scheduled for reforestation within the next 10 years. recently logged over-areas (with residuals second growth forests not scheduled for re-logging within the next 10 years areas accessible for easier management and supervision

b. Site preparation Soil analysis is done to know the soil condition of the site and determine the kind and dosage of fertilizer necessary for rattan growth. Underbrushing, staking and preparation of holes are also done. c. Outplanting Transporting the seedlings/planting materials to the planting site should be done with utmost care and least disturbance. Distance of planting should be 5m x 5m. Furthermore, rattans should be planted .5m to 1m away from the trunk of the existing tree/brush. d. Maintenance Ring weeding of a radius of 50 cm around the plant for a period of 2 years is recommended. On the other hand fertilizer application is done one month after planting then once a year for three years at a rate of 10 gm. per plant. 4. Harvesting Kilmer (1994) reported that there has been little if any change in the technologies used for collecting rattan poles. Harvesting is usually done by a team of two harvesters. One climbs the trees to loosen the "grip" of long canes while the other stays on the ground to pull and cut using a bolo the cane into poles. Virtucio 1988 reported that in the harvesting and trimming process, as much as 32 percent of the merchantable length might have been wasted. Wastage occurs when long canes cannot be pulled down from the forest canopy in one piece. These are cut so that only the accessible parts can be harvested.


1. Major Products and Uses

Bamboo Generally, bamboo products are classified as primary (poles, shoots and stumps), secondary or semi-processed (sawali, splits, sticks, boards) and finished products (handicraft, furniture and ready to cook/eat shoots). Primary and secondary products are inputs for various industries including housing, fishing, agriculture and manufacturing while finished products are directly channelled to end-users in both domestic and export markets for direct consumption (OIDCI, 1997). Primary Products a. Poles - The most common shape of the full culm is usuallly tapered from the butt to the tip. b. Shoots - This is the emerging portion of the rhizome that becomes the culm/pole, a number of bamboo shoots are edible. c. Stump - This is the portion of the bamboo plant/clump left after harvesting. Secondary Products a. Sawali Bamboo mats are made by plaiting splits. The matting is used for interior walls partitions, ceilings doors and windows and for exterior walls. Mats are produced in a variety of shapes and patterns. b. Splits The term split is used for any shape smaller than a quarter of the culm. Generally, splits are not used as building components but are woven into mats or made into lashing. c. Boards Bamboo boards are commonly used for flooring walls and even roofing. A board consists of culm that has been cut and unfolded until it is almost flat. Finished Products a. Furniture Furniture made of bamboo include sala set, dining tables, corner and center tables, cabinets, beds, lounging chairs, sofa beds and rocking chairs. b. Handicraft These are non-traditional products made of indigenous raw materials like wood, rattan, bamboo, buri, abaca and handwomen, fibers. Products of the handicraft industry include trays, brooches, pen holders, wall decor, boxes, decorative baskets, vases, fans, and fancy items. c. Processed foods Bamboo shoots throughout Southeast Asia are eaten fresh, pickled or diced. Processed bamboo shoots from various producing countries are being exported to more than 20 countries including the Philippines.\

2. The role of bamboo in the construction industry, fishing, agriculture and pulp/paper industry
Bamboo is a popular construction material for low cost houses among the Filipinos especially those living in the countryside. Its popularity is due to several reasons which include 1) abundance of material, 2) simple tools may be used in building a house, 3) existence of traditional skills and methods necessary for construction, and 4) the bamboo house which can easily be built is well ventilated, sturdy and earthquake resistant. Inspite of these reasons, there are difficulties faced by the users in processing and mechanically fabricating bamboos due to its physical characteristics. These are the variation in dimensions, crookedness of the culms, non-uniformity of internodes and uneveness of taper. Bamboo is developed into various product lines for the construction industry (OIDCI 1997) and this include packaged "Bahay kubo", sawali sheets, bamboo roof (shinges), bamboo spokes and bamboo splits. There are likewise new products such as panel boards, plyboo, sawali board, plyboard, and laminated board which are potential substitutes for plywood and lawanit. Table 10 shows the uses, product lines, and survey areas according to various sources.

Table 10. Bamboo survey areas and construction use/product lines. SURVEY AREA PERCENT USAGE OF POPULATION 95% of rural population USE/PRODUCT LINE

Camarines Sur (Lopez, 1997) Central Visayas (Alino, 1989) 1997 OIDCI survey

house posts, doors, stairs, bridges, windows, cooking area, sink, gates, fences, scaffolding animal pens, out houses, storage areas home dwellings

48% of interviews

packaged "bahay kubo" "sawali sheets bamboo roof (shingles) bamboo spokes bamboo splits panel boards, plyboo, sawali board, plyboard, laminated board

There are also novel products manufactured from bamboo which may have an important role in the construction industry in the very near future (OIDCI, 1997) as shown in Table 11.

Table 11. New bamboo manufactured products. PRODUCT Bamboo parquet block Bamboo particle board DESCRIPTION composite material made of wood vencers and bamboo slots combination of ipil-ipil wood and bamboo particles glued, and pressed to form a board urea formaldehyde is used to glue bamboo mats

Resin-bonded bamboo mat Corrigated bamboo sheet (CBS) Bamboo plyboard

woven, glued and hot pressed bamboo slivers in the fabricated corrugated mold pre-painted panel board made basically out of waste plastics, rice hull ash and bamboo

In Northern Philippines, mussel cultivators and fishpen operators are two major bamboo users for this industry. One hundred thirty-five cultivators have an annual culm requirement of 13,500 bayog poles and 8 fishpen operators need 25,500 kawayan tinik (B. alumeana) culms per year. Bamboos used in the fishing industry are not treated with preservatives. Prolonged immersion in water has a preservative effect on the culms. The other uses of bamboo in the fishing industry include rafts, traps/coral, fishpen, boat outriggers, fish shelters, stakes and fishing rods. Bamboo poles are used as props to support fruit-bearing bananas. The species used as props are: "kawayan tinik" (B. alumeana), "bolo" (G. levis), "Laak" ( 2), and "Kayali" (G. atter). Drying and preservation techniques applied on bamboo for construction are also done for bamboos used as banana props. Bamboo is an important raw material for pulp and paper manufacture. Bamboo was used by the Bataan Pulp and Paper Mills Inc. (BPPMI) in the late 1960s for the production of quality printing and writing paper. However, after a number of years of operation the company shifted to logging residues from Mindanao. In 1993, a small paper factory in Calamba, Laguna utilized bamboo to produce pulp which was processed into incense paper for export to Taiwan. Rattan There are two major product types in the rattan marketing system: - 1) raw materials which include poles and splits which have undergone first stage processing like scraping drying and splitting and the wicker and core which have gone through second stage processing and 2) finished products which include furniture and handicrafts in varying designs, market outlets and uses (Pabuayon, et. al. 1996). Novel Method in improving rattan products Simple dip treatment

The Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRRDI) has developed a method of reducing fungal staining of the poles consequently increasing pole quality/value (Kilmer, 1994). This treatment which involves dipping freshly cut poles in a solution of water and fungicide (sodium pentachloraphenate) can be applied in the forest and is most effective when done immediately after harvesting. 3. State of bamboo and rattan handicrafts in the country

Majority of the countrys regions are engaged in bamboo handicraft production. Because bamboo is readily available, it is crafted into various household items/commercial articles for both local and foreign markets. Common items include trays, lampshades, fancy baskets, brooches, napkin rings, pen holder, jewelry boxes, flower vases. In Northern Philippines, the basket making industry is distinctly separated from handicrafts because a lot of people are specializing in kaing (basket) making. Three towns in Pangasinan exclusively produce these two product lines. The annual bamboo requirement of the 611 basket makers is about 97,760 culms. Rattan handicrafts are much less dependent than furniture on having large quantities of high quality, large diameter rattan poles available. Filipino designers and manufacturers have gained a well justified reputation for innovation in the use of alternative materials and the production of higher value handicraft products. The total value of Philippine handicraft exports was held relatively stable from 1989 through 1992 (Table 12). The US was the primary recipient of these products accounting for nearly 50 percent of total exports in 1992.

Table 12. Philippine handicraft exports. EXPORTS (IN US$ THOUSANDS) 1989 Bags and Baskets (Mixed material) Articles of Basketwork or wickerwork TOTAL 57963 52612 n.a. 43021 63691 1990 65133 1991 n.a. 1992 78058




Source: Philippine Trade Statistics as cited by OIDCI 1997. 4. Standard of Classification for Bamboo and Rattan In marketing bamboo raw materials, there seemed to be inadequate or lack of common classification standards (Rivera 1996). Bamboo was purchased based on length, diameter size, straightness of pole and age/maturity. Manufacturing firms of high end products usually have standards which they keep when purchasing rattan raw materials to ensure high quality manufactured products. These standards are shown in Table 13. However, the other buyers do not observe these criteria.

Table 13. Criteria used by manufacturers in purchasing rattan raw materials. SPECIES CRITERIA CONDITION ALLOWANCE

Size (diameter) 1 1/8" down Kalapi (C. ornatus var. philippinensis full dry single scrape half dry single scrape with bolo marks with skin 1 3/16 full dry, single scape half dry, single scape with bolo marks with skin Grade/Class BC Class: Acceptable one side black all side black shrinkage (maximum of 1 foot) about 2 pinholes per foot or maximum of 20 per pole D Class Acceptable all side black shrinkage (maximum of 2 feet) pinholes per feet Not acceptable more than 2 feet shrinkage flat flat 1 1/16" 1 1/16" flat (no allowance) 1 1/16" 1 1/16" 1 1/16"

Broken Brittle

Full of pin holes especially if concentrated on nodes

Palasan (C. merrillii)

All sizes

full dry, single scape half dry, single scape

flat 1 1/16" 1 1/16"

Grade/Class ABC Class

with skin, single scape one side black


(maximum of 2 feet) all sides black (maximum of 1 feet) shrinkage (maximum of 6 inches) about 20 pinholes/pole

Not acceptable

more than 6 inches shrinkage Broken Brittle Twisted Full of pinholes especially if concentrated on nodes

Source: Rivera, 1988


Bamboo export mainly consisted of basket/basketware (92.47%) and furniture (7.41%). For basket/basketware, 28.08 million pieces valued at US$39.93 million were exported to various countries with USA as the biggest buyer of volume valued at US$ 21.46 million. Other buyers include Japan, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Spain and others (1996 Philippine Forestry Statistics). Bamboo was also reported by the 1996 Philippine Forestry Statistics to have been exported with a volume of 19,000 kg. valued at US$43,000 FOB compared to 1995 exports of 9,000 kg. valued at US$22,000 FOB. On the other hand, there were reports that 293 seats of bamboo valued at US$12,188 FOB and US$13950 CIF were imported from Thailand and Vietnam in 1996 (1996 PFS). Likewise the same source reported that a total of 98,065 kg. of bamboo valued at US$57,575 FOB and US$57484 CIF were imported mostly from Indonesia, Hongkong, Thailand and Vietnam.

Participants in the Bamboo Sector The bamboo sector involves various participants ranging from licensees, gatherers, manufacturers, factory workers, traders and consumers. They are not mutually exclusive such that a market participant may be involved in various activities at varying extent. Determination of the total number of market-participants may not be possible due to various reasons (OIDCI, 1997). First is the proliferation of small unregistered firms and informal market transactions. Another reason is that some firms also handle non-bamboo materials and products which may be listed under non-bamboo firms. Lastly, the dynamism of the market prompts participants to shift to other products and/or economic activities. Pabuayon and Espanto in 1997 as cited by the 1997 OIDCI document report that there are more than 70,000 participants including licensees, processors, exporters, manufacturers and workers (Table 14). The same table shows that there are 171 participants including bamboo - based firms but exludes workers involved in gathering, manufacturing and trading. Characteristics of Market Participants Based on a survey of participants in the Cordilleras and Western Visayas as presented in Table 15, all of the respondents have gone to school with majority of the workers having attended the secondary and vocational levels. Workers include both males and females with most of them depending on bamboo activities as a primary source of income. However, annual income from bamboo except for traders and manufacturers is low for gatherers with an average of P5000. The same is experienced by raw material producers and furniture workers with an income of P5000 - 10000 per year. Raw material traders and handicraft workers earned an average of P15000 per annum. Product flow through various market levels An survey done by Navera in 1996, shows that there are two sources of bamboo. These are from natural stands and plantations. The survey revealed that half of the 73 bamboo enterprises interviewed obtained their bamboo poles from natural stands while the rest obtained their poles from local traders. Sixty percent (60%) of the firms sell their finished products directly to households and the rest to exporters and other manufacturers. On the other hand, Rivera et. al. 1996 described the various market channels involved for raw materials and selected finished products such as bamboo poles, mats, sala set, mirror frames etc. in Iloilo, Negros Occidental and Abra (Figures 1, 2, 3). The various services rendered at a given channel were also listed together with the value addition incurred at each respective channel. B. Rattan In general, the rattan industry contributes significantly to the economy in generating foreign exchange, income and employment of dependent groups. In 1996, the export of non-timber manufactured articles, including rattan articles, amounted close to US$40M. This amount however, is smaller compared to 1993 figures where exports reached US$73M (Lapis, 1998). Determination of the exact number of people involved in the rattan production, marketing, manufacturing and exporting is rather difficult because of the existence of unregistered and small firms. Nevertheless, various reports provide an indication of the number of people employed by the industry. Table 16 shows the estimated number of firms and workers in the gathering, trading, manufacturing and exporting activities in the rattan industry while Table 17 presents the respective wages received by the workers. Participants in the Rattan Sector

Because of the difficulty of coming up with the total number of participants in the rattan sector only site specific socio-economic information have been generated. Aquino (1993) provided the characteristics of the disadvantaged groups in the bamboo and rattan sectors (Table 18). Furthermore, Table 19 presents the characteristics of rattan manufacturers firm size, in Luzon and Cebu while Table 20 shows the general characteristics of rattan based handicraft sellers and buyers in Quezon and Metro Manila. On the other hand, the distribution and characteristics of rattan traders by type of product is shown in Table 21. Lastly, Tables 22 and 23 show the general characteristics of bamboo and rattan based furniture and handicraft manufacturer-exporters. Market Channels The marketing system of rattan raw materials in terms of five channels was summarized by Kilmer in 1994 (Figure 4). The first channel shows the flow of products from the gatherers to the small scale manufacturers who produce for their local markets. These manufacturers purchase from cutting group leaders or from gatherers. Drying and scraping is done by them and simple products are manufactured for direct sale to the public. The major part of local manufacture is based on orders placed by consumers before production begins. Channels 2 to 5 are oriented toward the export market although a small portion is channelled to local consumers. Rivera in 1988 described the marketing system of rattan raw materials which followed a general trend (Figure 5). A permittee hires an authorized representative or contractor who in turn hires natives or local folks to do the actual harvesting. The poles are then transported to the permittees stockyard and finally to the middlemen who supply the furniture/handicraft manufacturers. Pabuayon et. al. (1988) described the marketing channels of rattan furniture and handicraft products from raw form into finished form. Raw materials are obtained from concessionnaires or traders (Figure 6). These are then sold to furniture handicraft manufacturers or contractors. Finished products are distributed through several channels before reaching the final end-user. Prices by Product Type and Quality

At a given market level, bamboo prices differ by species and quality, the latter differentiated by diameter size and length. In a study made by Maligalig and Saguin (1990), it was reported that in some cases, poles are traded assorted or unclassified while others simply classify bamboo poles as big or small. In a 1996 survey by Rivera, et. al. It was revealed that higher grades commanded better prices and lower grades, lower prices. The prices in pesos (P) per pole at the producers and traders levels are shown in Table 24:

Table 24. Price of bamboo raw materials at the producers and traders level. BAMBOO TYPE Class A (10 - 15ft) Class B (6 - 9ft ) Class C (4 - 5 ft) PRODUCER (P) 25.00 14.00 6.00 TRADER (P) 45.00 31.67 11.33

Poser (1000) Split (6 ft, 50s) Split (8 ft, 50)

100.00 28.12 47.50

120.00 46.62 67.50

Rattan Rivera 1988 and Pabuayon 1988 computed for the profit rates (before taxes) of rattan traders and manufacturers (Table 25). Profits for traders ranged from -2 to 329 percent of the total cost per truckload or container van while manufacturers of furniture obtained 49 percent of the total cost compared to the 32 percent obtained by handicraft manufacturers. On the other hand, traders of rattan furniture obtained a higher profit margin than traders of handicraft. Table 25. Profit rates (before taxes) of rattan traders and manufacturers, Philippines. OPERATOR Traders of rattan poles (1989) b/ Quirino Pampanga Quezon Palawan Leyte Samar Agusan Davao Manufacturers (1986-87) Furniture d/ Handicraft e/ Traders of rattan products (198687) Furniture f/ Handicraft g/ PROFIT (PESOS) a/ Per truckload or container van c/ 163,849 3,528 74,501 21,004 53,346 (2,604) 1,944 37,025 Per month operation 416,556 31,340 Per month operation 49 32 329 3 161 46 32 (2) 2 7 % OF TOTAL COST

40,389 69,601

73 52

a/ Exchange rates: US$1.00 - P20.34 for 1986-87 and US$1.00 - P21.20 for 1989. b/ Averages for different species (palasan, kalapi, tumalim, and limuran) and from different destinations with the Philippines c/ 12,500 poles per truckload and 9,000 poles per container van d/ For major manufacturing centers (Cebu, Pampanga and Manila) e/ For Pangasinan only f/ For Angeles, Pangasinan and Manila g/ For Baguio, Angeles and Manila

In a study by UNAC, PBSP in 1993 (Table 26), the price, cost and income structure of rattan cutting contractors in Amas, Palawan was obtained. However, the annual net income could not be estimated because the study reported net profit data on a per pole basis for only one particular shipment. Kilmer (1994) reported that a inch x 10 feet rattan pole is priced from P3.50/piece to P7.25 per piece (Table 27). Table 27. Price structure of a 3/4 x 10 ft rattan pole from a Palawan forest to a Manila Manufacturer. MARKET LEVEL Gatherer Group leader at collection center Provincial trader in Puerto Princesa, Palawan Wholesaler/Trader in Manila 3.50 5.50 7.50 9.25 SELLING PRICE

Source: Kilmer Interviews, September, 1994 Value Addition As the materials move along the market chain to a higher level, prices, generally increase due to value addition associated with services performed and profit associated with services performed and profit or margins of market intermediaries. In survey of Rivera et. al. (1996) the respective shares of the market participants both in cost and profit involved in the production and sale of some selected bamboo finished products are shown below. It can be observed that greater value occurs at the manufacturing stage due to inputs and profit margin.

Table 28. Cost and profit shares of market participants in the production and sale of selected bamboo finished products. MARK PARTICIPANTS P Gatherer Producer Cost Producer Profit Manufacturer Cost Manufacturer Profit Product Value 20 48 30 105 47 250 % 8 19 12 42 19 100 P 25 100 270 5 400 % 6 25 68 1 100 P 10 20 30 90 150 % 7 13 20 60 100 SOFA PALAY STORAGE SINGLE BED

POLICY AND LEGISLATION Bamboos found in forest lands are considered and lumped with other non-wood (minor) forest products. Therefore, collection and harvesting is governed by DENR Policies and Regulations as specified for in the Revised Forestry Administrative Order No. 11 dated September 14, 1970 wherein cutting permits should be secured prior to collection and harvesting. The Annual Allowable Cut (AAC) of a permittee is guided by the following formula: AAC = Ap x Ar x 4 where: Ap = area covered by permit (ha.) Ar = number of clump per hectare 4 = number of culms harvested per chump It is assumed that a clump could yield 4 culms per year. Bamboos collected from forest lands are also subject to forest charges pursuant to DAO 40 dated November 8, 1994. The forest charges which are based on RA 7181, species and FOB market price of forest products are shown below: Table 29. Bamboo forest charges. COMMON NAME SPECIES RATE (P/PIECE)

Kawayan kiling/tinik Bayog Boho/Bolo Other species of erect bamboo All climbing bamboo

6.00 3.00 2.00 1.50 .50

Bamboos harvested from Industrial Tree Plantations and private lands covered by titles are exempted from payment of forest charges. Bamboo has also been included in the list of species recommended for the Forestation Program of the DENR. It has also been considered for DENR watershed rehabilitation and soil erosion control projects. It is also used by the DENR in the community based forest management program.

Policy controlling or regulating interval and/or external trade of bamboo

Aside from the cutting permit and forest charges to be paid for bamboo collected from public lands, DENR monitors movement and transport of bamboo by requiring a Certificate on Non-Timber Forest Product Origin (CNFPO). This is specified in DENR Administrative Order 59 dated September 30, 1993. Bamboo harvested from industrial tree plantations and private or titled lands are exempted provided they are certified by the DENR Community Environment and Natural Resources Office. However, some irregularities may be experienced since even those coming from public lands may still be certified coming from private lands. This may be the reason why DENR Statistics on harvest and forest charges remain underestimated, thus losses in terms of government revenue and unsustainable harvesting practices. As far as import/export regulations are concerned, bamboo poles are prohibited for exportation except for scientific or testing purposes and need export clearance from the government as provided for by the amended rules and regulations implementing Presidential Decree 930. For exporters of manufactured bamboo products, general procedures required for exportation such as securing export clearance, standardization and inspection, payment of inspection fees, submission and registration of export declaration must be complied with. Importation of bamboo poles for commercial purposes is not allowed except for non-commercial purposes such as pearl farm fencing. Nevertheless, these policies should be reviewed to encourage bamboo plantation development and consequently, support the development of the bamboo based industries. Policy controlling or regulating access to rattan Rattan gathering is controlled by the DENR since the government has jurisdiction over forest resources where rattan thrives. Before one can have access to these rattan resources a rattan cutting concession, an annual cutting concession and an annual cutting license should first be obtained. The concession agreement specifies certain geographic boundaries where rattan may be collected. Concessions are generally granted to individuals, private companies or indigenous cultural communities (ICCs). The government have also started granting ancestral domain claims to ICCs which gives them the right to sustainably use the resources including rattan found within their claims. As of 1996 (PFS, 1996), the government has issued a total of 355 rattan cutting contracts covering 3.2M ha to individuals, corporations and ICCs for the purpose of managing rattan resources.

All concessionaires are required to file harvesting plans with the local/regional DENR offices to limit their harvesting to a calculated annual allowable cut specified in the concession agreement. They are also required to pay a Rattan Special Deposit Fund for reforestation which will be used to carry out the reforestation activities within the concessions. It is currently set at P0.50 per linear meter for poles over 2 cm. in diameter and P0.20 per linear meter for smaller poles. Forest charges are also paid by the concessionnaires to DENR. Forest charges are set at rate equal to 10 percent of the market price of the product in Manila. However, Kilmer in 1994 observed that effective rates for the largest poles are somewhat lower than the 10 percent target. For more common small poles, effective rates can reach as high as 26 percent or 100 percent of the price received by the gatherer. Shipping documents such as the Certificate of Minor Forest Products (CMFOs) are required from traders. Kilmer 1994 reported that the cutters and traders have developed a system of reducing the local charges to an affordable level. While the DENR is reportedly trying to clean up the forest charge collection system, the effective collection of full forest charges would have the effect of increasing the market price of small diameter poles and further weakening the position of Filipino manufacturers in international markets. The evasion of forest charges also has the effect of undermining the DENR ability to control and even monitor the amount of cutting being done. The data on the volume of harvest is determined on the basis of the same documents which serve as the basis for the collection of forest charges thus, underestimation of cut is highly possible.

Policies on biological protection and genetic conservation

As far as biological protection and genetic conservation of bamboo and rattan are concerned various government policies and DENR administrative orders have been formulated and implemented (Lapis, 1998). These are as follows: 1. RA 7586 (1992)

An act providing for the establishment and management of Natural Integrated Protected Areas System. 2. DAO 25 (1992)

The National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) implementing rules and regulations focusing on the twin objectives of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. 3. PD 1586 (1978)

Establishment of Environmental Impact Statement System 4. DAO 21 (1992)

Revision of rules and regulation on EIS System 5. DAO 96-37 (1996)

Revisions of DAO 21 (1992) to further strengthen the implementation of the Environmental Impact Statement System. 6. EO 247 (1995)

Prescribing guidelines and establishing a regulatory framework for the prospecting of biological and genetic resources, their by-products and derivations for scientific and commercial purposes. 7. DAO 96-20 (1996)

Implementing rules and regulations on the prospecting of biological and genetic resources.

Relevant studies under consideration

The forest charges presently obtained from the permittees may not reflect the true value of the commodity produced, in this case, bamboo and rattan. These products come from forest or public lands and are charged according to diameter size, species and length. However, the other inputs to production have not been considered particularly the use of the land and the total economic value of the commodity. A study is being prepared to review and assess the present forest charges pegged on bamboo and rattan with consideration of the various valuation methods to arrive at the true value of bamboo and rattan. INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY Various government and non-government agencies/entities, state colleges, universities, and international agencies have in one way or the other undertaken research and development activities to encourage and promote the bamboo and rattan sectors.

Research activities on bamboo and rattan are being undertaken by state colleges and universities in coordination with government and private sectors. These include the University of the Philippines at Los Bas (UPLB), Benguet State University (BSU), Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU), Nueva Viscaya State Institute of Technology (NVSIT), Tarlac College of Agriculture (TCA), Palawan National Agricultural College (PNAC), Panay State Polytechnic College (PSPC), Mindanao State University (MSU) and Visayas State College of Agriculture (VISCA).

AGENCY College Industry and Technology Center (CITC) Role in Bamboo and Rattan mandated to encourage and promote the establishment of micro cottage, and small enterprises and improve product quality and productivity towards global competitiveness for generating employment and livelihood opportunities Both under DENR and support the R & D activities of the forestry sector in the technical socio-economic and marketing aspects of raw materials

Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB) Ecosystems Research and Development Sector (ERDS)

Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI)

Under Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and undertakes R & D relating to technical socio-economics and marketing aspects of forest products particularly on postharvest and utilization. Under DOST and is responsible for technology commercialization and promotion Under DOST and responsible for R & D evaluation monitoring providing financial, support and promoting linkages among R & D institutions and individuals A major agency which has a number of bureaus and attached agencies which directly affect the bamboo and rattan industry. It coordinates, promotes, facilitates the country trade industry and investment activities. Recognize and strengthen Philippine Statistical System. Its objective is to achieve the development of an orderly statistical system capable of providing timely, accurate, sufficient and useful data to suit planning, programming and evaluation needs of all sectors of the Philippine economy

Technology Application and Promotions Institute (TAPI) Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources and Development (PCARRD)

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

National Statistical Coordinating Board (NSCB)

Non-Government Organization NAME Philippine Bamboo Society Baguio Benguet Chapter ROLE Supports the activities of the Philippine Bambusetum in Baguio. There are only 11 officers and members dominated by women with only one male member. Membership comes from government offices, NGOs, academe and private entities. Non-stock, non-profit organization which focuses on Bamboo Development Project. It aims to complement existing wood furniture production optimize use of widely materials and skilled work force and penetrate new markets. Cooperative organized by IFMA for undertaking profit making initiatives. It focuses on penetrating the export market through complementation and specialization among members

Iloilo Furniture Manufacturers Association (IFMA)

Iloilo Manufacturers Multipurpose Cooperative (IMMPC)

Aklan Furniture Makers Association

Bamboo Development Cooperative in Davao Philippine Business for Social Progress Responsible for implementing marketing programs that link livelihood activities for rural communities for equitable markets. One of the major components is the transfer of technologies including marketing and business technologies to the clients. Organizes trade fairs where Filipino exporters may participate. The center consist of product officers who assist foreign buyers in their inquiries and maintains a permanent exhibit of Philippines export products including bamboo and rattan based products

Center of International Trade Expositions and Mission, Inc. (CITEM)

Industry Associations NAME OF AGENCY Chamber of Furniture Industries of the Philippines FUNCTIONS/SERVICES PROVIDED Group of furniture exporters whose mission is to promote the continued growth of the Philippine furniture industry. It also provides direction to its development efforts. Serves as a forum for industry related issues Non-stock, non-profit organization which aims to contribute to the growth of the Philippine handicraft industry by promoting handicrafts in both local and international markets An umbrella private sector representative organization with 139 sectoral trade associations which provides trade opportunities and buyerseller matching services for its members and foreign buyers. It also mounts overseas missions and hosts incoming missions. Some bamboo and rattan manufacturer-exporters are members of the chamber This is an industry association composed of private sector exporters. It is a non-stock, nonprofit service foundation which seeks to facilitate exporters access to trade information and technical services towards expanding and diversifying markets. It also aims at organizing Philippine exporters into a persuasive collective advocate for policy and administrative reforms

Philippine Chamber of Handicraft Industries

Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industries

Confederation of Filipino Exporters Foundation

needed to transform the country into a progressive nation. It provides trade opportunities and buyerssellers matching services and regular publications. It also has regional networks. Some bamboo and rattan manufacturer exporters. European Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines The only European bilateral chamber represented in the Philippine and represents the interest of all European countries as well as those Filipino members. ECCP provides a full range of services including personalized buyer-seller matching and circulation of trade opportunities through the regular publication

Cebu Furniture Industries Foundation Chamber of Cottage Industries of the Philippines Christmas Decor Producers and Exporters Association of the Philippines

Private Sector
NEPA-Q-MART Industries Bamboo Production Pilot Project headed by Atty. Nereo J. Paculdo Gives out bamboo seedlings free of charge. However, on the 4th year five seedlings for every seedlings will be given back to NEPA-Q-MART to again be distributed to other participants Sells ready to plant bamboo propagules and offers a training package on bamboo propagation Provides technical assistance on bamboo growing. He is known as amboo king" who started organizing farmers cooperative since 1989

Kawayan Farm c/o Engr. D.J. Alfonso

Mr. M. Caasi of Davao

Issues and Concerns, Recommended Solutions and R & D Strategies for the Bamboo and Rattan Sectors ISSUE/CONCERN RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS R & D STRATEGIES

BAMBOO Production
Lack of concerted planned effort for bamboo

plantation development delineation of areas for bamboo development formulation of guidelines in reforestation projects strengthened IEC campaign adequate technology transfer mechanisms provision of support services (credit technical assistance markets) provision of incentives premature harvesting as an offshoot of increased demand physiological properties-end product matching species-site matching maintenance of Bambuseta

R & D on physiological aspects vis a vis market research

limited social acceptance of bamboo increased IEC researches on the perception, attitude and extension strategies and other IEC approaches market research with some linear programming applications

inadequate support services

establishment of strategically located buying stations accessible to all actors in the bamboo industry organization of industry associations/societies market linkaging/ networking through GO, NGO, private/industry sectors

unorganized marketing system

comprehensive market research

unfavorable market developments e.g. decline in demand for banana propping materials no standards for grading and classification of raw materials

diversification of uses of bamboo species

market research species/product matching

development of grading and classification standards for raw materials

R & D on grading and classification standards

products limited to traditional uses commercialization of new bamboo products development of state-of-theart technologies conduct of seminars, workshops, trainings sponsored by government and/or industry associations R & D on product development designs

annual allowable cut (AAC) conduct of policy studies to determine the AAC based on species, growth, yield, clump development in relation to climatic and edaphic factors

Information Systems
inadequate information system information systems analysis establishment of a centralized repository of bamboo database on production, management, marketing, utilization

RATTAN Production
lack of concerted effort on rattan plantation delineation of rattan seed plantation establishment of

development poor replanting programs if any, by gatherers

production areas development of support facilities for producers of raw materials CBFM approach gatherers must be encouraged and assisted in developing their replanting programs through CBFM CBFM approach

indigenous commercial species of phenotypically superior strains

policy studies

long period of production

CBFM - incorporation of rattan with agroforestry development schemes provision of alternative sources of livelihood

R & D to determine the age of maturity for rattan poles in relation to the physiological properties demanded by the market pilot testing of livelihood projects

value addition community enterprise development organization of cooperatives/ associations Impact studies on: gender socio-economic parameters environmental parameters dependence of gatherer groups on advance payments from outside traders and purchasing agents establishment of a central marketing center same as NATRIPAL in Palawan. It reduces the extent to which gatherers are controlled by individual purchase contracts. Gatherers are more free to work according to their own schedules against longer term contracts with the marketing organization while remaining file to sell their poles to other buyers when a more profitable opportunity appears in the short run (Kilmer, 1994)

poaching and illegal harvesting limited/inadequate preservation techniques CBFM approach technology development R & D efforts on efficient and effective preservation technologies

inadequate tenurial rights to solicit increased and sustained participation in maintaining productivity of rattan areas

provision of ancestral domain claims to indigenous people empowerment of communities

researches on tenurial rights

Information Systems
unorganized information on rattan resources

establishment of a centralized repository of rattan database on production, management, marketing, utilization

information systems analysis

ineffective government policies on the cutting, transporting and monitoring of rattan and rattan activities assessment of existing policies on - length of poles marketed - allowable cut assessment of administrative feasibility of policies inappropriate forest charges updating of forest charges resource inventory economic valuation studies weak linkage between government and private sector strengthening research collaboration among government and private institutions for a holistic approach to rattan production and utilization policy studies

Table 1. List of existing bamboo plantations in the Philippines





Luzon Isla Verde, Batangas City Pililia, Rizal Agno, Pangasinan Pangasinan Coron, Palawan Del Monte, Bulacan Bula, Camarines Sur Jose Ma. Pastor Alfonso Domingo Doctor's Farm NEPA Q-Mart Francisco Fernada Sighn Bambusetum Mike Laya Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Bayog and Botong Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik and Kauayan Buddha Laguna Various Private Groups K. Tinik, Giant bamboo and 80% Laak 4 890a/ 50 20 5 50 5 20

Sub-total Visayas Murcia, Negros Occ. Murcia, Negros Occ. Murcia, Negros Occ. Isabela, Negros Occ. La Castellana, Negros Occ. Manapla, Negros Occ. Cadiz, Negros Occ. Victoria, Negros Occ. Moises Padilla Negros Occ. Valladolid, Negros Occ. Dingle, Iloilo Duenas, Iloilo Anilao, Iloilo Guimaras Sub-total Mindanao Panabo, Davao N. Davao del Norte Panabo, Davao N. Davao del Norte Davao del Norte TADECO Nest Farm DAPECOL WADECOR F. S. Dizon & Sons Inc. Spiny, Laak, Lunas Spiny, Laak, Lunas Spiny, Laak, Lunas Spiny, Laak, Lunas Spiny, Laak 140 161 303 80 110 R. Jalandoni T. Trebol N. L. Agustin Farms R. Suatenco Ferria Farms Lamata Farms Mirasol Maravilla Farms Feria Farms Mayor Presbitero Hermontt Enterprise Paterno Larida Maravila Enterprise SMILE Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Kauayan Tinik Giant Bamboo Giant Bamboo 160 20 30 5 14 14 10 10 7 2 8 10 10 12



Davao del Norte Davao del Norte Davao Davao del Norte Davao del Norte Pandadan, Tagum D. N. San Isidro, Nabunturean D. N. Piang Village, T'boli S. Cot. Mati, Davao Oriental Compostela, Montevista D. N. Sub-total Grand Total

AMS-FC Davao del Norte SFC, Davao del Norte CFI, Agusan del Norte Davao Fruits Corp. Twin River Plantation Inc. Caasi Farm Caasi Farm P. R. Virrey Rabat CBMC

Spiny, Laak Laak Laak Laak Laak Laak Kayali Laak Tini, botong Laak

100 5 12 434 132 5 10 2 5 186 1,685 3,040

Sources: Virtucio and Rivera (1995), Pastor (1995), Alfonso (1995), Caasi (1994), Uriarte and Marquez, C. (1995), Basada et al 1997, and Binoya 1997 consultant 1997 a/ Based on the 255,000 seedlings planted as of February 1997 through Kawayan: Yaman Laguna Project by private individuals and organizations at survival rate of 70% and 200 planst/ha

bookUa.xls sheet 2

Table 2. Estimated total aggregate area planted to erect bamboos and pole/culm production in the Philippines from various sources a/

Estimated Total Source/Origin Aggregate Area Planted (Has) Has % of Total

Estimated Total Number of Clumps (in million) Clumps % of Total

Estimated Total Culm Productivity per year (in million) Culms % of Total

Forest Lands

20,500 34,000

52.3 64.50

4.10 6.80

68.70 64.5

20.5 34.0


Government Plantations Private Plantation


5.7 - 4.2

0.2236 -

3.7 - 4.2

1,118 -



7.7 -5.8

0.337 -

5.1 - 5.8

1,520 -





"Natural Stand" b/


34.3 - 25.5

1.343 2.687

22.5 25.5

6,715 13,435



39,211 52,711


5.9703 10.5416


29,817 52,653


a/ Estimated by the consultant

b/ Existing bamboo stands found growing sporadically or in patches in the backyards and/or along riverbanks in either public or private land not covered by forest and established plantations.

priceUc.xls sheet 2

Table 3. Extent, distribution and production of bamboo from forest lands, 1996, Philippines. Region Bamboo produced (pc)

CAR Abra Benguet Ifugao Kalinga-Apayao

29,474 14,369 942 33 14,130

I Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur

82,370 42,400 39,970

III Zambales

1,500 1,500

IV-A Quezon

950 950

V Albay Camarines Sur

58,913 3 58,910

XI Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Oriental Saranggani Province South Cotabato TOTAL

453,682 377,343 14,206 49,050 8,653 4,430 626,889

Source: 1996 Philippine Forestry Statistics

bam/Ua.xls sheet 1

Table 4. Number of Philippine Bamboos taxonomically recognized and/or published by various authors. Authors/Number of Species Genera Gamble (1916) Arundinaria Bambusa Cephalustachyum Chimonobambusa Dendrocalamus Dinochloa Gigantochloa Guadua Phyllostachys 1 5 1 2 4 + 1 var. 1 Merrill (1923) 1 5 + 1 var. 1 1 4 1 1 Santos (1986) 7 + 1 var. 1 3 3 1 Pancho and Obien (1988) 3 6 +1 var. 3 3 PCARRD (1991) 3 14 + 2 vars. 1 4 4 2 3

Pleioblastus Pseudosasa Pseudostachyum Racemobambos Sasa Sasaella Schizostachyum Shibataea Sphaerobambos Thyrsostachys Yushania TOTAL 19

10 25

10 25

1 8 1 26

1 1 18

11 1 1 1 47

Table 5. Bamboos reported found in the Philippines as of 1996 (Rojo, 1996) Scientific Name 1. Arundinanaamabilisauct. 2. A. arqenteostriata (Regel) Ohwi 3. A, graminea (Bean) Makino Common Name ... Variegated dwarf bamboo Taimin-chiku or tsusichiku Dwarf bamboo Loleba India Bamboo Habit Erect Erect Erect Uses Ornamental Ornamental Ornamental

Origin Chile



4. A^ pygmaea (Miq.) Mitt. 5. Bambusa atra Undley 6- B. bambos (L.) Voss Syn. B. arundinacea (Retzius) Wilid. B. spinosa Roxb. 7. B blumeana J. A. & J. H. Schultes Syn. B. spinosa Roxb. sensu MeiTill

Erect Erect Erect

Ornamental Basketry, handicraft Multipurpose: edible shoots, household uses, basic construction material


New G Southe

India t China

Kauayan tinik


Multipurpose: edible shoots, basketry, constructuon material, household uses, pulp and paper

Native Sunda Philipp

B pungens Blanco Bambus arundo Blanco 8. B. comuta Munro Syn. B. horsfieldii Munro Lopa Erect Household use

Native Vizcay

9. B. dolichoclada Hayata 10. B.dolichomerithalla Hayata 11. B. floribunda Nakai 12. B. merrilli Gamble
13. B. multiplex (Lour.) Raeuschel ex. J. A. & J. H. Schultes Syn. el nana Roxb. B. alaucescens (Wilid.) Sieb. Ex Munro 14. B. oldharnii Munro 15. B. tulda Roxb.

Chinese bamboo Taiwan bamboo Memll bamboo

Erect Erect Erect Erect

Construction purposes, agricultural tools, windbreaks


Ornamental; in Taiwan as blow pipes Endem Ornamental Household use

Probab Philipp



Excellent hedges and as ornamental

Construction purposes Oldham bamboo 16. B. tuldoides Munro Syn. B. ventricosa McClure 17. B. utilis Lin Spineless India bamboo Buddha bamboo Erect 18. el vulaaris Schrader ex Wendland (There exist three groups of this species namely: green culm group, yellow culm group and Buddha's belly group called wamin in Burma). 19.Cephalustachvum mindorense Gamble 20. Chimonobambusa falcata Mak. 21. Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f.) Backer ex Heyne Syn. D. merrillianus (Elmer) Elmer sensu Dransfield & Widjaja (1995) Erect Taiwan useful bamboo Kauayan-kiling Windbreaks, for farm implements, building and supporting poles, edible shoots. The most used of all bamboos, rather rarely used as construction material because it is susceptible to powder post beetle attack. Erect Erect Construction, edible shoots, household use, handicrafts, windbreaks

Ornamental, hedges, handicrafts, farm implements


Mindoro bikal or bakto Subscandent or semi-erec

Can probably used for making kaing

Ornamental --Erect Building material for houses: edible shoots Erect

Giant bamboo

22. D. aiganteus Wallich ex Munro

Giant bamboo


Construction material, edible shoots, thich culm wall good for production of bamboo boards, etc. as well as for ornamental puroposes. Most important for its young shoot which is considered delicious, also household use and construction purposes.

Southern Burma and Western Thailand

23. D. latifloms Munro (This species was introduced in the 1970's. Gamble's D. latiflorus was reduced by Merrill to G. levis) 24. D. memllianus (Elmer) Elmer. (In the sense of Dransfield and Widjaja thus species is reduced to D. asper). Syn. D. parviflorus Hack. Construction material, farm implements Bayog (Note: Bayog, as we have known it , does not botanically belong to Dendrocalamus. It is tentatively designated as Bambusa spec. 1) Solid bamboo 26. Dinochloa dielseana Pilger 27. D. elmeri Gamble 28. D_ luconiae (Munro) Merr. Syn. D. aguilarii Elmer D. scandens var. angustifolia Merr. 29. D_ oblonga S. Dransf. 30. D. palawanensis (Gamble) S. Dransf. No known uses. 31. D, pubiramea (Blume) 0. Kuntze Climbing Climbing Palawan bukaui Palawan bikal Climbing For fences, basketry, household use. Tagisi Elmer bikal Osiu Erect Erect Machiku Erect

No precise origin. Distributed from Bu

Endemic to the Philippines

25. D. strictus (Roxb.) Nees

Widespread and native in India, Nepal Endemic to the Philippines Endemic to the Philippines Used for many purposes such as building materials, furniture, basketry, mats, agricultural implements, rafts and wares. General purpose Native to Borneo and the Philippines

. Endemic to Palawan Endemic to Palawan

Native, also Bormeo

Maybe put to use as bikal Bukau Maybe put to use as bikal Climbing Climbing General purpose, baskets


32. Giaantochloa after (Hassk.) Kurz 33. G. levis (Blanco) Memll Syn. Dendrocalamus curranii



Building materials, household utensils, basketry, handicrafts. Construction of rural houses, furniture, rafts, fish traps, fish pens, outriggers, edible shoots.

Origin is unknown. Cultiva Philippines (Davao).

Bolo, botong, patong Gamble D. scribneriana Merr. 34. Guadua anaustifolia Kunth


No known origin. Common and Western Borneo.

Ornamental 35. G. anaustifolia Kunth var. bicolor Londofto --36. Phyllostachys aurea Carr. Ex A. & C. Riviere Syn. P_ bambusoides Sieb. & Zucc. var. aurea Makino 37. P. humilis Muroi 38. P_ niara (Lodd. Ex Lindi.) Munro 39. P. pubescens Maze! ex H. de Leh. 40. Pleioblastus aroentostraitus auct. forma akebeno 41. P.chino Makino forma eleaantissimus forma pumilus forma pyamaeus --42. P. distichus Muroi & Okamura Black bamboo 43. P_ fortunei auct. cv. fortunei Erect Ornamental Erect Edible shoots. --Ornamental, also musical instruments and handicrafts, walking sticks and pipe stems. Running bamboo Erect --Erect Erect Ornamental garden plant, also hedges, walking sticks, umbrella handles, novelties Ornamental

Colombia Colombia

Probably originated from t and Japan


Introduced probably from C

Warm temperate part of Ch Japan Ornamental

Edible bamboo Akebono-nesasa Kamoro-sasa Gori-dake Ke-oroshimasasa

Erect Ornamental Erect Ornamental Erect Ornamental

Japan Japan Japan Japan

Ornamental Oroshima-chiku Erect Japan



44. Pseudosasa amabilis auct. 45. Pseudostachvum polymorphum Munro

Cha'Dkonchuck Bayto

Erect Erect

Ornamental Ornamental

Japan Japan

46. Racemobambos hirsuta Hoittum 47. Sasa kurilensis (Rupr.) Mak. Et Shibata --48. S. nipponica Mak. 49. S. palmata Nakai 50. Sasaella ramosa (Mak.) Mak. Et Shibata 51. Schizostachvum brachviadum Kurz (Reduced to S. lima sensu Memll). 52. Schizostachvum brachviadum Gamble 53. S, diffusum (Blanco) Merr. 54. S. fenixii Gamble 55. S^ lima (Blanco) Merr. Syn. sl zollinaeri Merr. S. hallieri Gamble B. lima Blanco 56. S^ lumampao (Blanco) Merr. Syn. S^ hirtiflorum Hack. S^ mucronatum Hack. 57. S. luzonicum Gamble 58. S. textorium (Blanco) Merr. Syn. S. merrilli Gamble Climbing Fences, other uses. Climbing Erect Bikal Puser Anos Erect Could be put to use as bikal Could be put to use as bikal Climbing Boho Erect For sawali-making, basketry, fences, flutes, handicraft and many other uses. Material for housign, like sawali-making, musical instruments, fishing rods, etc. Miyakozasa Chimakizasa Uzumazasa Chisimazasa Erect Ornamental Japan, Chile Japan Erect Erect Erect Ornamental Ornamental Ornamental Japan, Chile Japan, Chile Climbing General purpose Palawan and


Ornamental, split culms for roofing, handicrafts, props, etc.

South-East A Java, Celebes

Bohong dilau Climbing

Maybe put to use as bikal

Endemic to th

Sometimes for kaing making Curran bikal

Endemic to th

Endemic to th

Native to Bor Solomon Is. A

Endemic to th

Endemic to th

Endemic to th

Luzon bikal Kalbam\ng

59. S. toppinaii Gamble 60. Sphaerobambos philippinensis (Hayata) Keng f. (formerly Arundinaria niikatavamensis Hayata).

Topping bikal Laak (Note: the Laak which Mr. Caasi extensively used in his bamboo farm in Davao does not botanically belong to Sphaerobambos but now tentatively designated as Bambusa spec. 2.) Thailand bamboo

Climbing Erect

May be put to use as bikal General purpose, banana props, used as kauayan-kiling

Endemic to the Philippines

Endemic to the Philippines (Davao

Utod 61. Thrsostachvs siamensis Gamble House construction, household uses, baskets, handicrafts, chopsticks, pulp and paper, ornamental windbreak Erosion control, ornamental in low temperature area Erect

Native to Burma and Thailand wh

Erect 62. Yushania niitakavamensis (Hayata) Keng f. (formerly Arundinaria niikatavamensis

Native to Taiwan and the Philippin and above altitude)

Table 6. Twelve economically important Philippine bamboos according to UNDP/FAO Bamboo R & D Project conducted by the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB) Scientific Name Common name

1. Bambusa blumeana 2. B. Vulgaris 3. B. spec 1 (Dendrocalamus merrillianus)

Kauayan tinik Kauayan-kiling Bayog

4.Dendrocalamus asper
Giant bamboo 5. D. Latiflorus Machiku (called Botong in Davao) 6. Gigantochloa levis Bolo, botong 7. Schizostachyum lumampao 8. S. lima (Blanco) Merr. Buho 9. S. brachycladum Kurz Anos 10. G. Alter(Hassk.)Kurz Bulo Padi 11. B_ dolichoclada Hayata Kayali 12. B_ oldhami (Munroe) Me Clure Look Moroku-Chiku . Table 9 PROJECTED DEMAND FOR RATTAN POLES BASED ON PROJECTED VALUE EXPORTS, 1990-2015 a/








Value of Exports (US$'000,000)







336.3 b/

Rattan poles (million lm) Large Diameter Rattan (40% of requirement) Small Diameter Rattan (60% of requirement)






















a/ Raw materials requirement is based on 1.3 lm of rattan for every US$1.0 sales. b/ Estimate of annual growth of export value from 1996 to 2005 decreases to 5% annually due to competition from Indonesia

c/ From 2006 to 2015, the estimate of annual growth increases to 8%. It is expected that new markets will have been foun developed. Source: DENR. 1990. Master Plan for Forestry Development (Rattan)

priceUc.xls sheet3

Table 15. Socio-economic characteristics of bamboo participants, lloilo. Negros Occidental and Abra. 1995

Producers of raw materials Education: Elementary Secondary to College Annual income from bamboo (P): P5.000 and below P5.001 to 20,000 Other sources of income Farming Non-Farming 7 5 4 4 10 4

58 42 57 43 71 29

Gatherers Education: Elementary Secondary to Vocational Household size: 1-6 7-9 Member involved in bamboo activity: 1-4 None Annual income from bamboo: P3.000 and below Greater than P3.000

9 9 15 3 12 6 8 3

50 50 83 183 67 33 73 27

Trader Education: Elementary

Secondary to College Household size: 1-6 7-12 Member involved in bamboo activity: 1. 7 None Annual income from bamboo: PI 0,000 and below PIO.OOI-30,000 P30,000-50,000

7 20 18 9 7 10 8 7 4

26 74 67 33 63 37 42 37 21

Manufacturers Annual income from bamboo: 25 PI0,000 and below 4 PIO.OOI-20,000 3 Greater than P20.000 9 Labor Force Sex: Male Female Education: Elementary Secondary to Vocational Primary source of income: Bamboo activities Farming and others Annual income from bamboo: PI 5,000 and below Greater than PI 5,000 Source of basic data: Rivera and Austria, 1996 Table 17. Wages received byworkers in rattan gathering, trading, manufacturing and exporting, Philippines.

19 56

35 15 28 8 35 8 21 20 65 19 81 81 19 51 49

Gathering Kilmer (1994)

100 ($4.00) a/

101.33 b/

Trading Manufactured Products: Furniture/Handicraft Kilmer (1994) Manufacturing

100 ($4.00) c/ Full-time-51.17 Part-time - 47.17 Piecework - 50.00 Average 45.50

101.3 b/ 55.00-56.00

Furniture: Pabuayon, 1. M. et. al. [1986-87]

Lapis (1998)

Average - 40.50

Handicraft: Pabuayon, 1. M. et. al. [1986-87]

Full-time - 40.33 Piecework - 31.00 Average - 35.67

Geonzon, Z. L. [1987]

55.17 d/


Kilmer (1994)

100 ($4.00) C/

101.33 b/

Lapis (1998)

299.7 e/

a/ Kilmer, G. D. (1994) - Based on an estimated total earning of $3.3 million/year or $220/worker and work of average of 4 days/month (55 days/year) (Exchange rate used in the study: P25/US$1.00) b/ Average legislated minimum wage for 1993 c/ Based on total earnings of $60M for a total of 100,000 workers, with working days of 150/year (Exchange rate used in the study is same as a/ d/ Based on daily average receipts of weavers of round, oval and pyramid shaped baskets in Tayabas, Quezon. e/ Based on a daily earnings of P650.000 for 2169 workers. Foreign Exchange Rates: 1986: P20.40/US$1.00 1987: P20.56/US$1.00 1993: P26.73/US$1.00

Table 18



Number Location Average age Household size Housing

Major occupation Land ownership Farm area Farm output Cash income/year Prop. of income from B & R B & R activities Rice yield Fertilizer use

15,000 rural villages, foothills 29 5 temporary/semi-permanent farming no legal claims: forest areas 2.17 ha (uplands) home use

undetermined rural villages 35 6 temporary/semi-permanent farming alienable & disposable, titled 2.33 ha (palins) home use and sale P33.522

P20.642 14% 16% cutting, hauling, primary processing cutting, lopping, culm, topping, hauling 2.35 tons none to minimal

1.7 tons none to minimal Source of basic data: Aquino, D. (1993); Table 3 from Pabuayon (1995)


Number reporting Average age (years) Year established 1970-75

20 42

25 42

1976-80 1981-85 1986-87

3 7 5 -

5 10 5

Type of ownership Single proprietor Partnership Corporation 19 1 5 20

Type of business management Owner Hired 19 1 5 24 1

Average capital (P 000) Initial Present

(n=20) 41 189

(n=5) 494 1,413 130 412

Educational attainment Elementary a/ High school b/ College College graduate Post-graduate c/ 2 6 2 9 1 5 2 6 2 14 1

a/ Includes both elementary graduate and below b/ Between first year high school and high school graduate c/ One with some units in graduate studies.

Source: Geonzon, Z. L. (1988)

characUc.xls sheet 1


CHARCTERISTICS Number reporting Manila Angeles Pampanga Baguio

FURNITURE 18 6 9 3 -

HANDICRAFT 37 15 12 10

ALL 55 21 21 3 10

Average age (years) Average years in business Years established 1975-1980 1981-1987

35 5

36 5

36 5

7 11

9 28

16 39

Type of respondent Wholesaler-retailer Retailer Exporter 2 15 1 3 28 6 5 43 7

Type of ownership Single Proprietorship Corporation 18 32 5 50 5

Nature of operation a,b/ Purchase from source upon order of costumer Maintain a given level of stock 8 27 35 17 20 37

Average capital (P'000)




Membership in association a,c/ CFIP PCCI Others None 1 2 15 3 2 32 1 3 4 47

Other sources of income a,b/ Selling wood furniture/handicraft and other products made of buri, shell, bamboo and macrame Others (garments, electric appliances, farming, airfreight forwarding) 3 7 10 15 21 36

a/ Number reporting


b/ Some respondents gave more than one answers c/ CFIP - Chamber of Furniture Industries of the Philippines PCCI - Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industries Others include FOBAP, Hardkins, etc. Source: Pabuayon, I. M., G. G. Rosario and I. H. Manalo (1988) characUc.xls sheet 2

Table 22 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF B/R-BASED FURNITURE MANUFACTURER-EXPORTERS, PHILIPPINES CHARACTERISTICS Business status Corporation Partnership Total Year established Before 1970 1970-1975 1976-1980 1981-1985 1986-1991 Total Capital Equity 1 1 2 5 4 13 (n=13) 8 8 15 38 31 100 12 1 13 92 8 100 NUMBER REPORTING PERCENT (%)

(million pesos) Number of employees (ave) Permanent staff Contractual staff

12.78 342 89 253

Professional Membership a/ CFIP ECCP PhilExport CITEM PCCI Cebu FIP Valenzuela Chamber of Commerce

(n=13) 11 5 7 1 1 1 1 85 38 54 8 8 8 8

Major Export Markets

USA, European countries, Japan, Australia, Middle East, etc.,

Major Export Products

Rattan-based furniture, or a combination of rattan/wicker-metal, bamboo, leather, wrought iron-based furniture and accessories

Major raw and intermediate materials/ goods used 100% raw materials Combination of raw materials (less than 100% domestic) 11 85 2 15

No imported materials With imported materials

5 8

38 62

Business Plan Sales Expansion Diversification

a/ Total may not add to 100% due to multiple answers

Utilization of Free Capacities Penetration of new markets with present products in European countries, Japan, Middle East, USA, Germany, etc.

Source: International Trade Group/BBTP-Philippine German Export Export Development Project, DTI (1994) Furniture Industry Sector Profile charac.Uc.xls s3

Table 23 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF B/R-BASED HANDICRAFT MANUFACTURER-EXPORTERS, PHILIPPINES CHARACTERISTIC Business status Corporation Partnership Total Year established 1973 1983-1984 Total Capital Equity (million pesos) (n=4) 3.3 2 2 4 2 2 4 NUMBER REPORTING

Number of employees (ave) Permanent staff Contractual staff

70 26 44

Professional Membership a/ PCHI BCCP PhilExport CITEM Phil. World Trade Foundation

(n=4) 2 2 1 1 2

Major Export Markets

USA, Europe, Japan, Australia, Asia Potteries, baskets, placemats and accessories, tin containers, decors

Major Export Products

Major raw and intermediate materials/ goods used 100% raw materials Combination of raw materials (less than 100% domestic) 2 2

No imported materials

Business Plan Sales Expansion Diversification

Utilization of Free Capacities Penetration of new markets with present products in European countries, Japan, Middle East, USA, Germany, etc.

a/ Total may not add to 100% due to multiple answers Source: International Trade Group/BBTP-Philippine German Export Development Project, DTI (1994). Christmas/Holiday Decors and Basketwares - Industry Sector Profile

charac.Uc.xls sheet 4

Table 26 Price, Cost and Income Structure of Amas, Palawan, Philippines, September 1993
Item 1 1/8 - 1 1/4" Cost Percent Cost 3/4 - 1" Percent Cost 5/8" Percent Cost 1/2" Percent

Per pole

Selling price a/





Buying price a/









Transport 1 b/ Scraping c/ Bundling d/ Cash-in-site e/ Cash-in-CENRO f/ Forest charges g/

0.59 0.50 0.50 0.09 0.25 0.67

6.17 5.23 5.23 0.94 2.62 7.01

0.59 0.40 0.50 0.09 0.25 0.67

7.41 5.03 6.28 1.13 3.14 8.42

0.59 0.30 0.50 0.09 0.25 0.67

10.07 5.12 8.53 1.54 4.27 11.43

0.59 0.25 0.50 0.09 0.25 0.67

11.11 4.71 9.42 1.69 4.71 12.62

Transport 2 h/ Cash-in-pier Brooke's Point i/ Arrast re-Brooke's point j/ FOB k/ Cash-in-pier Manila l/ Transport 3 m/ Arrast re-Manila n/

















0.12 0.69

1.26 7.22

0.12 0.69

1.51 8.67

0.12 0.69

2.05 11.77

0.12 0.69

2.26 12.99

0.09 0.42 0.05

0.94 4.39 0.52

0.09 0.42 0.05

1.13 5.28 0.63

0.09 0.42 0.05

1.54 7.17 0.85

0.09 0.42 0.05

1.69 7.91 0.94

Total Expenses o/









Income (loss)/ROI









a/ In Philippine pesos per pole; based on a shipment of 6,000 limuran poles (12 ft) to Manila. b/ From harvest area to association's warehouse, P600 for jeepney rental of 1,000 pole capacity and P0.50 per pole for a carabao-led bamboo cart. c/ Drying and straightening d/ Classifying and cutting of poles into appropriate sizes, 50 poles in each bundle. e/ "Grease money" of P500.00 paid to the CENRO Inspector who determines the species, diameter and volume in lineal meters f/ P1,500 paid to the CENRO for processing the necessary documents for the transport of rattan. g/ P4,000 for the total volume of 6,000 poles assessed at 8,000 lineal meters, i. e, P0.50 per pole. h/ P2,000 for transport from the warehouse to Brooke's Point pier i/ "Grease money" of P1,500 divided as follows: P500 for DENR, P500 for the Philippine Ports Authority and P500 for the Coast Guard j/ Total of P714. k/ P4,150 for 6,000 poles not placed in container. l/ "Grease money" of P500 paid to DENR and PPA personnel. m/ From the Manila pier to the buyer's warehouse n/ P300 at the Manila Pier o/ Includes the buying price. Note: Amas is a rattan gatherers association awarded a rattan cutting contract by the government.

Source of basic data: UNAC, PBSP (September 1993)

priceUc.xls sheet 1