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Constant Envelope Modulation

Schemes
Constant Envelope Modulation
Amplitude of the carrier is constant,
regardless of the variation in the
modulating signal
Better immunity to fluctuations due to fading.
Better random noise immunity
Power efficient
They occupy larger bandwidth

EE 552/452 Spring 2007
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)

The frequency of the carrier is changed
according to the message state (high (1) or low
(0)).


Continues FSK


Integral of m(x) is continues.




) ) ( 2 2 cos( ) (
)) ( 2 cos( ) (
}

+ =
+ =
t
f c
c
dx x m k t f A t s
t f A t s
t t
u t
0) (bit T t 0 ) 2 2 cos( ) (
1) (bit T t 0 ) 2 2 cos( ) (
b 2
b 1
= s s A =
= s s A + =
t f f A t s
t f f A t s
c
c
t t
t t


One frequency encodes a 0 while another frequency
encodes a 1 (a form of frequency modulation).
FSK Bandwidth
Limiting factor: Physical capabilities of the
carrier
Not susceptible to noise as much as ASK








Applications
On voice-grade lines, used up to 1200bps
Used for high-frequency (3 to 30 MHz) radio transmission
used at higher frequencies on LANs that use coaxial cable
30/45
Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK)
The most common form of FSK is Binary FSK (BFSK)
Two binary values represented by two different frequencies
( f
1
and f
2
)




less susceptible to noise than ASK
used for
1. up to 1200bps on voice grade lines
2. high frequency radio (3 to 30MHz)
3. even higher frequency on LANs using coaxial cable

=
0 ), 2 cos(
1 ), 2 cos(
) (
2
1
binary t f A
binary t f A
t s
t
t
0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
f
2
f
2
f
1
f
1
f
2
f
1
f
2
f
2
f
2
f
1
f
2
32/45
Multiple FSK (MFSK)
More than two frequencies (M frequencies) are used
More bandwidth efficient compared to BFSK
More susceptible to noise compared to BFSK
MFSK signal:
element signal per bits of number L
elements signal dif f erent of number M
f requency dif f erence the f
f requency carrier the f
f M i f f
where
M i t f A t s
L
d
c
d c i
i i
=
= =
=
=
+ =
s s =
2
) 1 2 (
1 ), 2 cos( ) ( t
33/45
Multiple FSK (MFSK)
MFSK signal:




Period of signal element

Minimum frequency separation


MFSK signal bandwidth:




element signal per bits of number L
elements signal dif f erent of number M
f M i f f
where
M i t f A t s
L
d c i
i i
=
= =
+ =
s s =
2
) 1 2 (
1 ), 2 cos( ) ( t
d d d
Mf f M W 2 ) 2 ( = =
period bit T period element signal T LT T
b s b s
: : , =
) ( 2 / 1 2 ) /( 1 2 / 1 rate bit Lf T f LT f T
d b d b d s
= = =
34/45
Example
With f
c
=250KHz, f
d
=25KHz, and M=8 (L=3 bits), we have the
following frequency assignment for each of the 8 possible 3-bit data
combinations:








This scheme can support a data rate of:

KHz Mf W bandwidth
KHz f
KHz f
KHz f
KHz f
KHz f
KHz f
KHz f
KHz f
d s
400 2
425 111
375 110
325 101
275 100
225 011
175 010
125 001
75 000
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
= = =

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Kbps Hz bits Lf T
d b
150 ) 25 )( 3 ( 2 2 / 1 = = =
d c i
f M i f f ) 1 2 ( + =
35/45
Example
The following figure shows an example of MFSK with M=4. An input
bit stream of 20 bits is encoded 2bits at a time, with each of the
possible 2-bit combinations transmitted as a different frequency.
d c
d c
d c
d c
d c i
f f f i
f f f i
f f f i
f f f i
f M i f f
3 4 11
3 10
2 01
3 1 00
) 1 2 (
4
3
2
1
+ = =
+ = =
= =
= =
+ =
FSK Coherent Detection


Noncoherent FSK


Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in FSK
Minimum frequency-shift keying
Minimum frequency-shift keying or minimum-shift keying (MSK) is
a particularly spectrally efficient form of coherent FSK. In MSK
the difference between the higher and lower frequency is identical
to half the bit rate.

As a result, the waveforms used to represent a 0 and a 1 bit differ
by exactly half a carrier period. This is the smallest FSK
modulation index that can be chosen such that the waveforms for 0
and 1 are orthogonal.

A variant of MSK called GMSK is used in the GSM mobile phone
standard.
MSK modulation


MSK reception


Minimum Shift Keying spectra



Relationship between baud rate and bandwidth in FSK
Gaussian Minimum frequency-shift keying


Gaussian minimum shift keying or GMSK is a continuous-phase
frequency-shift keying modulation scheme.

It is similar to standard minimum-shift keying (MSK); however the
digital data stream is first shaped with a Gaussian filter before being
applied to a frequency modulator.

This has the advantage of reducing sideband power, which in turn
reduces out-of-band interference between signal carriers in adjacent
frequency channels.
GMSK spectral shaping


GMSK spectra shaping


EE 552/452 Spring 2007
Simple GMSK modulation and
demodulation

Digital GMSK demodulator