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FIELD REPORT OF SALT RANGE

By

AHMER IQBAL

Department of Earth and Environmental sciences Bahria University, Islamabad

2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Glory and thanks to Allah (SWT) who guides us in darkness and help us in difficulties and due respect of Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) who enable us to recognize our creator, without Allah blessing it was impossible to complete our report. Afterward I would like to thanks my parents who loved and helped me in my studies and understand my struggling during studies and without their prayers i wouldnt been successful in my studies. I would like to thanks Sir Anwar Qadir, Sir Hamad and Sir Salim Shahzad for come along with us to the field trip and to share their practical knowledge and words of wisdom with us, and taken us to Khatas Raj and Khewra mine for enjoyment and for pleasant stay at Kalar Khar. Special thanks to Dr. Zafar and Department of Earth and Environmental sciences who arranged for us an educational trip that was delightful and knowledgeable at the same time.

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF FIGURE LIST OF TABLE i v vi

1.0

INTRODUCTION
1.1 General Introduction of Salt Range 1.2 Location and Accessibility 1.3 Project Area 1.4 Fieldwork 1.5 Objectives 1.6 Equipment Used 1.7 Scope of study 1.8 Software Used

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1 3 4 4 4 5 5 5

2.0

PHYSIOGRAPHY
2.1 Topography 2.2 Plateau 2.3 Languages 2.4 Culture 2.5 Major Tribes 2.6 Historical Place 2.7 Population 2.8 Food and Health 2.9 Relief 2.10 Weathering 2.11 Soil 2.12 Climate 2.13 Rainfall 2.14 Altitude ii

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6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9

2.15 River 2.16 Drainage 2.17 Water Resources 2.18 Source of Irrigation 2.19 Fruit Crops 2.20 Livestock 2.21 Fauna and Flora 2.22 Dense Forest

9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10

3.0

TECTONICS AND STRATIGRAPHY


3.1 Previous Work 3.2 Regional Tectonic Setting 3.2.1 Geodynamics of Himalaya 3.2.2 Main Fault System in NW-Himalaya 3.3 Structural Setting 3.3.1 Active Thrust System of the Salt Range 3.3.2 Deformation in Salt Range 3.3.3 The Central Salt Range 3.3.4 The Eastern Salt Range 3.4 Geology and Stratigraphy of Salt Range 3.4.1 General Geology of Salt Rang 3.4.2 Generalized Stratigraphy of Salt Rang

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11 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 24 24 25

4.0

FIELD OBSERVATION
4.1 DAY 1 4.1.1 Area Zaryala 4.1.2 Literature Overview for the Area 4.1.3 Features Observed Formations Stylolite iii

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30 30 30 32 32 32

Litho-log making 4.2 DAY 2 4.2.1 Area Kajula 4.2.2 Literature Overview for the Area 4.1.3 Features Observed Coal Foramtion & Mines Litho-log making Correlation of litho-log Ball and Pillow Structure Joints measurements by Circle Inventory Method 4.3 DAY 3 4.3.1 Area Karuli 4.3.2 Literature Overview for the Area 4.3.3 Features Observed Geological Mapping Marking Contact Topsheet Khewra Gorge 4.4 DAY 4 4.4.1 Area Sardhai Village 4.4.2 Literature Overview for the Area 4.4.3 Features Observed Formations presences Sakesar Limestone observation

35 42 42 42 43 44 46 48 49 51 53 53 54 56 56 57 59 60 61 61 61 62 62 63

5.0

CONCLUSION

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6.0

REFERNCES

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LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1.1 Location map showing the Salt Range study area (box) and selected regional Figure 1.2 General Geology and division of salt range (After E.H Pascoe; 1919). Figure 1.3 Location, Accessibility and Road Network from Islamabad to Kalar Kahar(Google Maps). Fig 3.1 Northeast counters clockwise movement of Indian Plate. Figure 3.2 The Regional Map of Pakistan showing the major Tectono morphic Terrains (After Kazmi and Rana, 1982). Figure 3.3 locations of the main thrust systems and subdivision of Himalaya (After Kazmi and jan, 1982). Figure 3.4 Index map showing the location and generalized Structure of the Salt Range area (modified from Baker and others) Map 3.5 Continuity of lithologies in Eastern, Central and Western Salt Range, (after E.H. PASCOE, 1919). Figure 3.6 Cross section of Salt Range and Potwar Plateau and also shows deformation in the Salt Range (after E.H. PASCOE, 1919). Figure 3.7 Different stratigraphic units and structural features i.e. wedge shaped geometry, Basement normal fault and the deformational style of the roof sequence Figure 3.8 Balanced cross section showing present day structure along D-D' in the Eastern Salt Range (B) Balanced and restored structural cross section shows that about 17 km shortening has occurred along D-D' Figure 3.9 General geological succession of salt range. Figure 4.1 Contact between Kamlial and Chorgali Figure 4.2 Stylolites in rock fragment of Choregali at Zaryala Figure 4.3 Presence of micro fossils Assilina in limestone. Figure 4.4 Spheriodal weathering of Rock fragment. Figure 4.2 Outcrop exposed section of Kamlial Formation Figure 4.3 Lithosection of Kalial Formation (west) Figure 4.4 Contact between Kamlial and Chinji Formation. Figure 4.5 Escarpment face and dipping face of Kamlial Formation at Khajula. Figure 4.6 Coal mine drilled perpendicular to Bed

Figure 4.7 Vertically drilled coal mine Figure 4.8 Cross section showing coal extraction in the area. Figure 4.9 Lithosection of Kamlial Formation (east) Figure 4.13 Correlation of west and east Kamlial Formation. Figure 4.10 Ball and Pillow Post Depositional Sedimentary Structure. Figure 4.11 Massive Sandstone and Weathered rock fragment. Figure 4.12 Measuring Joint Length within three meter diameter. Figure 4.13 Mine tailing with sulfur smell, and have pyrite and heavy mineral. Figure 4.14 Contact between Warcha and Nammal Figure 4.15 Massive sandstone with Mud Streak shows parting lineation. Figure 4.16 Weathered rock fragment of limestone. Figure 4.17 Succession of formations at far Karuli. Figure 4.18 View of Formations from Sardhai Village Figure 4.19 Sakesar Nodular limestone at Sardhai Village Figure 4.20 Presence of fossils, Nummulites and shell fragments in Sakesar Limestone.

LIST OF TABLE
Table 3.1 The generalized stratigraphy of the salt range. Table 4.1 Facies recording for west Kamlial. Table 4.2 Facies recording for east Kamlial. Table 1.3 Joints measurement readings. Table 2.4 GPS readings for contact of different groups.

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CHAPTER 1
1.1 General Introduction of Salt Range

INTRODUCTION

The name Salt Range, owing to the second largest mineral salt (Sodium Chloride) deposits in the world, is given to the hill system situated in the Northern Punjab province of Pakistan, in Jhelum, Chakwal, Khushab and Mainwali Districts. The Salt Range confined between latitude 32 18 to 33 06 and longitude 71 50 to 73 is a hill system in the Punjab province of Pakistan, making the southernmost border of Himalayas. It is an east-west trending thrust front about 175 km long. It forms an impressive scarp, from 250-1520 m in altitude. Sakesar top is the highest point (1524 m). Salt range is confined between 32 18' to 33 06' latitudes and 71 50' to 73 45' longitudes. The range is approximately 186 miles (300 km) long from east to west, and its width, in the central and eastern parts, is from 5 to 19 mile. The Khabeki and Kallar Kahar are some important lakes. The Salt Range contains the great mines of Khewra, Warchha and Kalabagh, which yield vast supplies of salt, gypsum and coal.

Figure 1.1 Location map showing the Salt Range field area (box) and selected regional

First time the name Salt Range was used in 1808 by Elphinston, a British Envoy, when he observed the extraction of salt in the area. The salt deposits of the area were deposited as a
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result of the evaporation of Tethys Sea and formation of Indus plains from collision of Indian plate with Asian plate resulting from continental drift (Scotese and Christopher, 2001). The Salt Range is one of the most important geological regions in Pakistan. It is easily accessible and displays a wide variety of geological features and paleontological remains. It has therefore, been rightly called as field museum of geology. The Salt Range represents the outer rim of the Himalayas and forms southern border of hydrocarbon bearing Potwar basin. It derives its name from the occurrence of gigantic deposits of rock salt. Salt range represents a 175 km long ENE-WSW trending strip at the southern edge of Potwar Plateau, making an abrupt escarpment against the Punjab plains in south. Strata in the Salt Range generally dip northward. The deformational style of the Salt Range is typically marked by broad synclines and long, narrow anticlines (Davis & Engelder, 1985). The Salt Range is essentially an East-West trending elongated narrow trough bounded on the east by the River Jhelum and on the west by the River Indus. Beyond the River Indus at Kalabagh, it takes a sharp turn to run almost in a North-South direction. The entire mountainous belt has, therefore, previously been differentiated into the Cis-Indus Salt Range and Trans-Indus Salt Range and now known as The Salt Range and Trans-Indus Salt Range, respectively.Sedimentary rocks and the fossils preserved there give a complete record of the geological and biological history of the earth. The rock layers in the area have been tilted vertically, even inverted in some places, so that the older, fossil strewn layers now lie on the surface (Shaw, 1989). A stratigraphic succession from Precambrian to recent is exposed in Salt Range. It represents an open book of geology with richly fossiliferous stratified rocks that include Permian carbonate succession with brachiopods, Lower Triassic ammonoid bearing beds and Lower Tertiary marine strata composed of age diagnostic foraminifera (Sameeni, 1997). Geographically, the Salt Range covers the area of Jhelum, Khushab and Mianwali districts. Salt Range is divided into three parts: 1. Eastern Salt Range 2. Central Salt Range 3. Western Salt Range Tilla Jogi to Warcha, Warcha to Nilawahan, Nilawahan to Mari Indus,

Figure 1.2 General Geology and division of salt range (After E.H Pascoe; 1919)

Due to the excellent exposures and a more or less complete stratigraphic sequence of Phanerozoic rocks, the area is rightly called as Field Museum of Geology. Internationally it has generated interest among the scientists for its Permian / Triassic boundary, Pre-Cambrian Cambrian sequence and abundance of Permian, Mesozoic and Tertiary fauna. In addition a number of Sedimentary minerals occur in the area at different places, the most important are salt, gypsum, anhydrite, coal, silica sand and fire clay. Salt-Range facies in the Kohat area are more basinward and were affected in the Early to Middle Eocene during the early stages of the Himalayan orogeny. The unconformity predictions and stratigraphic chart helped in the under- standing of the regional geology and were key to the sequence and seismic stratigraphy. 1.2 Location and Accessibility The world famous Salt Range is located between latitude 32-33 North and longitude 70-72 East The area around the vicinity of the Kalar Kahar from Eastern Salt Range to Central Salt Range is our field study area. The project area is located 129 Km SE from the Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. It is easily accessible by Motorway (M-2) from the capital of country and other cities like Sargodha and Lahore.

Salt Range

Figure 1.3 Location, Accessibility and Road Network from Islamabad to Kalar Kahar(Google Maps)

The Salt Range is connected to major cities of Pakistan through National Highway and Motorway. The Eastern Salt Range is accessible from Kallar Kahar. 1.3 Project Area Project area is located in the Eastern and Central part of Salt Range and the making lithological section of Zaryala and Khajula area. While Geological Mapping of Karuli area and geological study of sardahi village and adjoin areas. 1.4 Fieldwork A four day Fieldwork was carried out from 25th April to 28th April, 2012. Our target location was Kallar Kahar.We stayed at the Kallar Kahar local hotel and went there through buses hired by university. The journey was pleasant and smooth, and the main objective was to study Geological and Stratigraphical feature of Eastern and Western salt range.

1.5 Objectives The Main objective of the field was to do: Geological Mapping Making Lithological units and section Facies Analysis Lithological Correlation Stratigraphical relationship Observing sedimentary structures Out Crop and Formation thickness measurement Interruption in sequences, Marking Unconformity Understanding Environment of Deposition of Formations.

1.6 Equipment Used On field we were provided by; GPS for identifying latitude and longitude Brunten Compass to Measure dip and strike Hand lens for differentiating between grain size and fossils Geological hammer for collecting samples Inch Tape for measuring Formation thickness

1.7 Scope of study The field work entails the following objectives; Geological mapping of the selected area Recognizing key structural elements and patterns. To learn how to locate ourselves on topographic sheets. Measurements of dip and strike of rock units. Making Lithosetion and facies analysis.

1.8 Software Used Software used for making Lithosection was Sedlog a free ware program available on internet from their web site.

CHAPTER 2
2.1 Topography

PHYSIOGRAPHY

Geographically placed in the Salt Range and the Potwar plateau, the physical features of Chakwal are typical of the region. The south and southeast is mountainous and rocky, covered with scrub forest, interspaced with flat lying plains; the north and northeast consist of softly undulating plains, with patches of rocky areas, known as Khuddhar in the local dialect, ravines and gorges, and some desert areas. Sand stone and lime stone are the common rock types of Salt Range (Khan, 1960 & Chaudhary et al., 2001). The sand stone is laminated by white or cream, dark red or purple brown colors. Most of the soil of Salt Range is heavily salt infested, as the water from brine springs deposits salts on the soil, all along its route. According to Said (1951) the weathering of pure lime stone leaves no perceptible soil as Calcium Carbonate is carried away in solution by rain water. The weathered surface of the rock is left with sharp projections and numerous hollows and is exceedingly irregular, so sheet rock and boulders are found on the hill sides. In places where lime stone is not so pure, being mixed with shale, and clay or sand and produces some amount of soil. The soil in the weathered lime stone portions forms the thin and shallow layer and is very fertile (Ahmad, 1964). Most of the soil present in valleys between Range Mountains is water eroded soil. Soil lying between the Salt Range and river Jhelum is heavily saline due to run off water during rainy season (Qadir et al., 2005) and most of the areas are rich in salinity (Afzal et al., 1999) 2.2 Plateau The Potwar Plateau and the Salt Range region are located to the south of the mountainous north and lie between the Indus River on the west and the Jhelum River on the east. Its northern boundary is formed by the Kala Chitta Ranges and the Margalla Hills and the southern boundary by the Salt Ranges. 2.3 Languages Punjabi is the native language of majority of the people of district. Other languages spoken are Hindko, Potohari and Urdu.

2.4 Culture The culture of Chakwal is primarily based on the way of living as taught in Islam; but owing to the fact that Chakwal before independence was an area where a large number of Hindus lived, it is influenced by Hindu rites, rituals and even ideas. The people of Chakwal live a simple and straight life as enjoined by their religion. 2.5 Major Tribes The tribes, clans and castes that inhabit in this area are the Kahuts, Kassar, and MairMinhas in the east, the Awans in the Salt Range, Khokhar, Rajputs ,Gondal ,Mekan, Bhatti, Jalap and Khiwa tribes, Pathans, Gujars, Syed, Arain, Kashmiris and Punjabi Sheikhs (including the famous Sahgal family). 2.6 Historical Place Katas Raj is a 3000-year-old town sacred to the Hindus and lies about 5 kilometres west of Choa Saidan Shah on the Choa-Kallar Kahar road. Its importance is derived from the fact that it contains over 100 temples built over a period of more than 1000 years by its Hindu Rajas. 2.7 Population Population in the area is widespread on the outcrops and plain areas in different villages in the project area such as Wahali, Watli, Choa Saidan Shah. The main occupation of the people is agriculture and poultry. Some peoples are involved in mines, in government jobs and in private sector. Literacy rate is relatively low in the area. 2.8 Food and Health The food which the people of projected area consume is basically simple too. In the rural areas vegetables, lentils or meat, cooked very simple in butter or ghee is eaten with Roti(bread) baked from wheat flour or sometimes with rice. There is a considerable use of milk and its products. In the urban areas the staple food is the same, but continental food has also made a place for itself. Fried and roasted meat, sandwiches, patties, pizza and burgers are well liked. 2.9 Relief The absolute relief of the area is moderate. The maximum elevation in Eastern Salt Range is 800m above mean sea level and minimum level less than 600m. In Central Salt Range the
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maximum elevation is 1115m above mean sea level while the minimum level is less than 600m. Maximum relief in the project area is 840 m. 2.10 Weathering There are different styles of weathering present in our project area depending upon the lithology and relief. Karren structure (solution weathering in Sakesar Limestone), spheriodal weathering in Kamlial Formation and Warchha sandstone and honeycomb and chopboard weathering in Jutana Formation are present. 2.11 Soil The soil present in the area is of two types. Soil at hill topes Soil in the depressions

Soil at the hill top is formed due to in-situ weathering and provides leveled soil patches for cultivation of different crops whereas soil present in depressions is carried physically by water in the form of alluvium. This alluvium is the main source for cultivation. Most of the soils in District Kallar Kahar range from slitloam to loam with PH ranging from 7-9. Soil Type (Also shown in map). 2.12 Climate The field area lies in a semi-arid humid climate zone. The mean annual rainfall for District Jhelum is 960 mm. Temperatures are usually less in summers as compared to the adjoining plain areas and rarely overstep 440C. During winters temperature usually remains between 0oC to 23oC. For District Jhelum, mean maximum temperature is 31.2C and mean minimum temperature is 13.4C. Kallar Kahar lies in the subtropical region and its climate is typical of the area, with the exception that it varies a little on the cooler side, owing to its elevation, from central Punjab. Winter temperatures normally range between 4 C and 25 C, and summer temperatures average between 15 C and 40 C and may go up to a maximum of 15 C.

2.13 Rainfall Most of the rain is confined to the months of July, August and September. A much lesser amount is received in January and February. The summer rains are due to moon soon, while winter rains are associated with the western disturbances. Sakesar hill and the adjoining areas of soon valley receive maximum rain fall because of their height. (Ahmad, 1964). Winter rain is generally well distributed as compared to summer rain (Ahmad et al, 2007). 2.14 Altitude Area of Salt Range is located in subtropical region, its height ranges from 250 to 1520 m (Chaudhary, 1969). The highest point of range is Sakesar (5010 ft). Throughout its length the Salt Range has steep cliffs to the south (Ahmad, 1964). 2.15 River The main river flow in the Eastern Salt Range is the Jhelum River, and all the other Nalas flowing in the area falls in it. River Bunhar or Nala Bunhar falls in River Jhelum. Many waterfalls are also present in the project area. 2.16 Drainage The drainage is mostly dendritic to parallel and generally controlled by lithology and structure. The canals and rivers in the project area shed their coarser load at the foot hills in the form of boulders and pebbles. 2.17 Water Resources Salt Range runs in two parallel lines of hills separated by a distance of about 5 miles. These hills consist of a number of parallel ridges. These ridges include several high level valleys. The water from these hills finds no outlet and is collected in the valleys forming salt lakes. There are four lakes i.e. Kallar Kahar Lake which lies close to northern slope of range in District Chakwal. Uchali, Khabaki and Jahlar lakes are present in soon valley, District Khushab (Ahmad, 1964). These lakes are of prime importance as these wet lands are the winter sites of rare or vulnerable water fowls, specially the white headed duck (Nawazish et al, 2006). The wells situated with a short distance of these salt lakes have sweet drinking water, showing that the saline water of lakes does not affect the underground water (Ahmad, 1964). There are

streams in the area, which flow between the mountains, near Sodhi and Kanhati. The nearby areas are irrigated by this water. 2.18 Source of Irrigation Chakwal is an un-irrigated, or what is called Arid in local language, area, and there is no major canal system in the district like those, which exist in the other parts of the Punjab. However, a number of small dams have been constructed in the district, which irrigates a small acreage of cultivated land through water channels. 2.19 Fruit Crops Major Field crops of the area include Citrus, Almond, Apple, Olive etc 2.20 Livestock The rich hilly prairies and grazing lands of Chakwal provide a very good environment for sheep and cattle rearing. The majority of the farmers maintain their own sheep and goat herds and cattle. 2.21 Fauna and Flora The species which exist in various areas of Chakwal district are Grey partridge, Black partridge, Chakore See partridge. There is a very wide range of plant and animal species in the district. Plants species which are most abundant in the district are Kau (Olea cuspidata), Phulai (Acacia modesta), Sanatha (Dodones viscosa), Gurgura (Monotheca buxifolia), and Pataki (Gymnospo Riaroyleana). 2.22 Dense Forest The Chakwal Forest Division is spread over an area of 150250 acres which includes 375 km roadside and 40 km rail side plantations. At present a total of 92382 acres of the district are under reserve forest and 57,868 acres are under unclassified forest. The main reserve and unclassified forests in the district are at Diljabbah, Surullah, Drangan, Karangal, Gandala, Dalwal, Makhiala, Dandot, Chinji, Kot Kala, Simbli, Nurpur, Bagga, Sammarqand and Thirchak.

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CHAPTER 3
3.1 Previous Work

TECTONICS AND STRATIGRAPHY

In the Salt Range, the pioneering work is done by E.R. Gee (1935, 1945) who dedicated almost his entire geological career to the study of the salt Range. His work was related to solving the controversy regarding the age of the Saline Series and producing a geological map. Davies and Pinfold (1937) completed a comprehensive study of Lower Tertiary larger foraminifera of the Salt Range. Waagen (1882-1885, 1895) worked on the brachiopods of the Permian of the Salt Range and Fatimi (1973) studied the ceratitids of the Triassic of the Salt Range and TransIndus Surghar Range. He also worked on stratigraphic nomenclature on the Salt Range as did Shah (1977). Kummel and Telchert (1966, 1970) illustrated Permian brachiopods and described the detailed stratigraphy of the Permian rocks while Grant (1966) described trillobites. Haque (1956) described the smaller foraminifera from the Tertiary formations of the western Nammal Gorge, Salt Range. Afzal (1997) completed his doctoral thesis on the planktonic foraminifera of the Paleogene and establshed a planktonic biostratigraphy for the Patala Formation of the Salt Range and Surghar Range (Afzal & von Danials, 1991: Afzal & Butt, 2000). Sameeni (1997) completed his doctoral thesis on the Paleogene biostratlgraphy of the Salt Range under UNESCO IGCP-286, headed by Prof. Lukas Hotinger of Basel Unlversity, Switzerland, and established an alveolinid biosstratigraphy for the Eocene succession of the salt Range (Sameeni & Butt, 1996, 2004; Sameeni & Hotfinger. 2003). Ashraf and Bhatti (1991) worked on the nannofossils of the Patala and Nammal Formations of the Khairabad area of the western Salt Range. 3.2 Regional Tectonic Setting The Himalaya, the world's youngest and highest mountain chain, has emerged during ongoing collision of the Indo-Pakistan and Eurasian plates. It is generally believed that the collision began in middle to late Eocene (Stcklin, 1974; Stoneley, 1974; Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975). The Eaurasian plate is composed of three broad geological domains, which from north south are the Laurasian, Tethyan and Gondwanian domain. During the late paleozoic all these domains were part of the super continental mass called as Pangea, that was surrounded by a universal ocean, the Panthalassa. An arm of Panthalassa Ocean, Tethys formed a wedge between the northern and southern parts of the Pangea. By late Triassic, Pangea has split into

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two super continents, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south, separated by the Tethys seaway (Qayyum, 1991). The record of NW Himalayan tectonics is preserved in an extensive apron of late paleogene to Quaternary sedimentary succession exposed in the outer Himalayan foothills and adjacent Indo-Gangentic Plain of northern Pakistan and India. The onset of molasse sedimentation is a response to initial orogenic activity in the Himalaya, and is represented by the mixed fluvial/deltaic and near-shore marine facies of the Murree/Dharamsala/Dagshai/Kasauli Formations of the lesser Himalaya (Gee, 1989). In the central Himalayas there are four major thrust zones: the Trans-Indus Suture Zone, Main Central Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), and Main Frontal Thrust. These zones mark the progressive southward migration of the thrust front, and are generally considered responsible for the major component of structural underplating and crustal shortening along the advancing edge of the Indian Plate (Qayyum, 1991). 3.2.1 Geodynamics of Himalaya The geodynamic processes of seafloor spreading, continental drifting, and collision tectonics resulted in the formation of the Indian Ocean and the Himalayas surrounding the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent (fig. 3.1). Both of these features evolved when a plate of the earth crust carrying the Indo-Pakistani landmass rifting away from the super continent Gondwana about 130Ma age. As a consequence, the Indian continent in the south and Asian plate in the north started shrinking. This shrinkage and continental drift was facilitated by the consumption of Neo-Tethys, opening up of the Indian ocean behind, the transform motion along Owen fracture zone located towards southwest of the indo-Pakistani subcontinent. Propelled by the geodynamic forces, the Indian plate traveled 5000 km northern and eventually collided with Eurasia (Iftikhar 2008). The subduction of the northern margin of the Indian plate finally closed of Neo Tethys and the Indian Ocean assumed its present widespread expanse. This collision formed the Himalayas and the adjacent mountain ranges. During the closure of Neo Tethys Ocean, intraoceanic subduction generated a series of arcs, namely Kohistan-Ladakh, Nuristan and Kandahar. The arc magmatism occurred for a period of 40Ma, after which the back-arc basin was finally closed and the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc was accreted onto the Eurasian plate forming an Andean type continental margin. The collisional boundary is referred to as the Main Karakoram thrust (MKT) in the late cretaceous (102 75Ma). This collision time is also
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supported by the fact that Indo-Pakistani subcontinental was rapidly drifting at a rate of 15cm per year northward relative to Australian plate and Antarctica plate about 80Ma age from 53Ma to the present (fig. 3.1), the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent seemed to have moved northward at much slowed rates of 4 to 6cm per year. The abrupt slowing is considered to be a consequence of the collision with Eurasian during the Early Tertiary (Iftikhar 2008).

Fig 3.1 Northeast counters clockwise movement of Indian Plate

After the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc docked with the Eurasian plate to the north, the subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath Kohistan-Ladakh Arc was still continued and resulted in the complete consumption of the leading edge of the Indian plate that finally collision with remnants of Kohistan-Ladakh Arc (Iftikhar 2008). 3.2.2 Main Fault System in NW-Himalaya On the basis of four regional fault systems, the Pakistani Himalayas can be divided into five litho-tectonic terrains, which are characterized by distinctive stratigraphy and physiograghy.
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From north to south these three gross geological belts and the major fault system separating them are as given and described respectively (Iftikhar 2008). Karakoram Block Main Karakoram Thrust Kohistan Island Arc Main Mantle Thrust Northern Deformed Fold and Thrust Belt Main Boundary Thrust Southern Deformed Fold and Thrust Belt Salt Range Thrust and Trans Indus ranges Punjab Foredeep

Figure 3.2 The Regional Map of Pakistan showing the major Tectono morphic Terrains (After Kazmi and Rana, 1982).

3.2.2.1 Main Karakoram Thrust The Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) is a major tectonic feature in northern Pakistan formed as a result of the collision between the Karakoram block in the north and the kohistan Island Arc
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in the south. The MKT was previously named as the Northern Suture. The Arc-Karakoram contact, sometime called the northern mega shear, or MK, corresponds to the reactivation of the Shyok Suture by the Thrust. According to (Tahir kheli, 1979; 1982 and Ganser, 1981), it formed during late cretaceous (Iftikhar 2008). 3.2.2.2 Main Mantle Thrust The MMT bounds the KIA to the south and the Indian Plate to the north. It formed as a result of collision and subduction of Indian Plate underneath the KIA during Eocene time (fig.3.2). The Mian Mantle Thrust dips northwards, between 25o and 45o and is the southernmost thrust involving lower-crust crystalline rocks of the Indo-Pakistani shield. The MMT, which borders its northern margin, exhibits major swing in its trend towards northeast giving rise to a reentrant with the (KIA) sequence. This reentrant is called Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif and is composed of more than 15 km thick Proterozoic gneisses and schist (fig. 3.2) (Iftikhar 2008).

Figure 3.3 locations of the main thrust systems and subdivision of Himalaya (After Kazmi and jan, 1982).

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3.2.2.3 Northern Deformed Fold and Thrust Belt The northern deformed fold and thrust belt lays Main Mantle Thrust and is a belt of heavily deformed sedimentary, metasedimentary and igneous rocks (fig.3.2). This belt stretches from kurram area in the west near Afghan border up to the Kashmir basin in the east. The northern fold and thrust belt is bounded by Main Boundary Thrust separating it from the southern deformed fold and thrust belt (Iftikhar 2008). 3.2.2.4 Main Boundary Thrust The Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) represents the southwards migration of Himalayan deformation from the site of MMT. From northeast to southwest, it extends along the front of the northern fold and thrust belt around Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxes (fig 3.2). It carries the Precollision Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary and Meta sedimentary rocks of the northern deformed fold and thrust belt in its hanging wall and post-collision folded Miocene forelandbasin deposits in its footwall. The MBT zone is comprised of a series of parallel or en-echelon thrust faults dividing the northwest Himalayan sequence into a deformed sedimentary southern zone or foreland, and a deformed and metamorphosed northern zone or the hinterland zone (Iftikhar 2008). 3.2.2.5 Salt Range Thrust and Trans Indus Ranges In northern Pakistan most of the youngest thrusting has occurred along the frontal thrust system in Salt Rang along Salt Range Thrust (SRT) in the east and in Trans-Indus Ranges thrust in the west (fig.3.2). The frontal thrust system has accommodated about 20km of shortening in Salt Range and 10km in the Trans-Indus ranges along this thrust front the Eocambrian Salt Range Formation in the Salt Range; Permian rocks in the Surgar Range and the Cambrian Jhelum Group rocks in the Khisor Range, are thrust over the Punjab Foredeep in the south (Iftikhar 2008). 3.2.2.6 Punjab Fore deep The Punjab Plain lies south of the Salt and Trans-Indus Ranges and overlain Quaternary sediments and is the present day depocenter for the eroded debris of the Himalayan chains in the north. A prominent elements in the Punjab Plain is the Sargodha High, a Basement ridges that trends obliquely to the Salt Range, but parallel to the overall Himalayan trend. Its trend is

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defined by both the exposed basement rocks of the Kirana Hills and by a Pakistan-India border. It is an expression of a recently activated intercontinental thrust (Iftikhar 2008). 3.2.2.7 Kalabagh Fault This fault forms the western margin of the Salt Range and extends NNW from near Mianwali for a distance of 120km. It has been described as an active dextral wrench fault associated with several recorded earthquake epicenters (Kazmi 1979). 3.2.2.8 Jehlum Fault This is a left-lateral fault which is at the eastern margin of the salt range. 3.3 Structural Setting Structurally, the salt range is the result of tectonic forces imposed during the later phase of the Himalayan orogeny in late Cenozic time: the occurrence of the thick, incompetent salt Range Formation at the base of the sedimentary sequence has strongly influenced the structure. The Salt Range and Potwar Plateau are part of the active foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the Himalayas of northern Pakistan (Jaum and Lillie, 1988; Gee, 1989; Pennock and others, 1989). The Salt Range is an east-northeast Active Thrust System of the Salt Range trending thrust front approximately 175 kilometers (km) long that rises abruptly from the Jhelum River plain. Most of the thrusting in the Potwar occurred during the Miocene and Pliocene (Raynolds and Johnson, 1985; Burbank and Raynolds, 1988). To the west, the Salt Range bends northward, where it is bound by a major north-trending, strik e-slip fault (Baker and others, 1988; McDougall, 1988; McDougall and Khan, 1990; McDougall and Hussain, 1991). At the eastern end of the range, complex thrusts pass into northeast-trending anticlines (Pennock and others, 1989). To the north, the Salt Range merges with the Potwar Plateau, which is a lowrelief upland except where dissected by the Soan River and its tributaries (Yeats and others, 1984).Within the Salt Range, the structure consists of a narrow zone of intensely folded, faulted, and uplifted rocks, which contrasts with the open folds of low-structural relief of the Potwar Plateau; the sedimentary rocks south of the Salt Range thrust lack structural deformation (Yeats and others, 1984). The up thrown block of the thrust brings to the surface the Salt Range Formation along the southward-facing edge of the over thrust block, which contains evaporites of late Precambrian or Early Cambrian age. These evaporites underlie the Potwar Plateau and form a zone of decollement for regional thrusting (Butler and others, 1987; Jaume and Lillie, 1988; Pennock and others, 1989).Overlying the evaporites of the Salt Range
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Formation is an unusually well exposed sedimentary record of Cambrian, Permian, and younger strata (Gee, 1980, 1989; Yeats and others, 1984). Rocks of Ordovician through Carboniferous, Late Cretaceous, and Oligocene ages are absent, and major unconformities exist in the area (Shah, 1980). North of the Salt Range thrust, this sedimentary sequence dips steeply to the north and is preserved in the subsurface of the Potwar Plateau (Leathers, 1987; Baker and others, 1988). Drilling immediately south of the Salt Range has shown that Cambrian to Eocene rocks are absent (Baker and others, 1988); therefore, the coal bearing Patala Formation is not present south of the Salt Range thrust.

Figure 3.4 Index map showing the location and generalized Structure of the Salt Range area (modified from Baker and others)

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3.3.1 Active Thrust System of the Salt Range The Salt Range is separated from the Himalayan foothills by the Potwar Plateau, nearly 150 km of slightly elevated (about 270 m) land with very little topographic relief. The roughly ENE-WSW trending Salt Range is bounded by the right-lateral Kalabagh Fault in the west (Gee, 1945; 1947; McDougall, 1985; Leathers, 1987; McDougall and Khan, 1990) and the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxis in the east. The Hazara- Kashmir syntaxis is formed by several fault blocks bounded by forward-and-rearward verging thrusts at the eastern margin of the Potwar Plateau (Johnson et al., 1986). The Salt Range Thrust, which is the leading edge of a dcollement within Eocambrian evaporites, brings Phanerozoic strata over late Quaternary fanglomerates and Jhelum River alluvium (Yeats et al., 1984). Some Author argued that preexisting basement faults played an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau. Faruqi (1982) interpreted the extensive lateral extension of salt as the remnant of a large, ruptured and discharged salt dome.After the MBT zone under the Kala Chitta Range to the north was locked some 2 Ma age, compression was transferred to the platform sequence to the south of the MBT (M. Ghazanfar 1999).

Map 3.5 Continuity of lithologies in Eastern, Central and Western Salt Range, (after E.H. PASCOE, 1919)

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Fig. 3.6 Cross section of Salt Range and Potwar Plateau and also shows deformation in the Salt Range (after E.H. PASCOE, 1919)

3.3.2 Deformation in Salt Range The deformational style of the Salt Range is typically marked by broad synclines and long, narrow anticlines similar to those in other shallow dcollement fold-and-thrust belts, underlain by salt (fig. 3.7). The roof sequence is very gently folded into box folds and is moderately faulted by both forward and back thrusts. Folding becomes more complex towards the leading edge of the thrust system and faulting is more abundant in the west. The overall structure at the leading edge of the Salt Range thrust front is increasingly complex (M. Ghazanfar 1999) The deformation in the Salt Range can be subdivided into 4 types (M. Ghazanfar 1999). i. E-W imbricate thrust the lowest of which is the Salt Range thrust which brings the entire sequence over the Quaternary fanglomeates. ii. N-S or oblique transverse normal faults related to extension. These bring up the oldest Salt Range Formation to the surface providing easy dissection and creation of the wellknown gorges. iii. Strike slip dextral high angle faults at the margins of the Salt Range providing for the southward transport of the range. Salt diaper structures forming salt plugs along the strike slip fault in the west and eastwards providing the upward push under the low pressure regions created by the erosion of deep
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gorges. This latter push has created tight N-S salt cored anticlines separated by broad synclines.

Figure 3.7 Different stratigraphic units and structural features i.e. wedge shaped geometry, Basement normal fault and the deformational style of the roof sequence

3.3.3 The Central Salt Range In the Central Salt Range, deformation within the roof sequence is minor. The roof sequence is very gently folded into a series of small salt cored anticlines near the leading edge. These anticlines are generally bounded by minor normal faults. Near the leading edge, there is a back thrust that brings Salt Range Formation over either the Jhelum Group or the Nilawahan group. This back thrust may have developed late in the geological history to build topography in order to maintain the forward motion of the roof sequence. A total shortening of 27 km occurred in the central Salt Range (Fig. 3.7). About 5.5 km of shortening, 20% of the total, has been accommodated within the duplex structures under the roof sequence. Almost 1.7 km of shortening, 6% of the total shortening, has been accommodated within the roof sequence. Approximately 20 km, 74 % of the total shortening, have been accommodated across the northern ramp. The newly recognized duplex structure in the central Salt Range extends more than 40 km along strike. Seismic lines show the dcollement of this structure gradually stepping up section. First, a gentle 10 ramp within the Salt Range Formation repeats part of the salt section and then a 300 ramp further steps up and repeats the platform sequence. Section balancing shows that approximately 5.5 km and 3.3 km of shortening have accumulated along

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these structures in the western and eastern parts of the central Salt Range, respectively. These structures formed before the basement normal fault. The overall internal deformation and shortening within the roof sequence in the central Salt Range generally increases towards the east. Overall shortening decreases towards east. The largest component of shortening has been accommodated across the northern ramp. There is a 3 km decrease of total shortening within the central Salt Range towards the east. There is 1.7 km of total shortening within the roof sequence in the western and 3.0 km in the eastern part of the central Salt Range, respectively. It seems that about 1 km of the difference in shortening within the roof sequence has been compensated across the ramp towards the west. That is why the position of the frontal ramp is farther south in the western part of the central Salt Range (Qayyum, 1991). 3.3.4 The Eastern Salt Range The S shaped zone is, in fact, transitional zone fault bend fold geometry to fault propagation fold geometry. The zone developed due to the marked difference in the shortening within the thrust wedge (Qayyum, 1991). The surface geology in the eastern part of Salt Range is marked by the two NE-SW oriented back thrusts within the roof sequence. The northern back thrust is quite persist, extends further in the northeast direction, and is called the Dil jaba fault (krangal thrust). The southern back thrust has been named the Chail fault. It is local fault and dies out in both NE and SW directions, across the section line (Qayyum, 1991). An important observation is that in the eastern Salt Range. Unlike to the west, the northern ramp is located approximately in line with basement normal fault observed in central Salt Range (fig 3.8). This suggests that the timing of the ramping of the roof sequence in eastern Salt Range should be consistent with the initial ramping of the roof sequence over the basement normal fault in the Central Salt Range (Qayyum, 1991). Dil jaba fault, in general, brings Salt Range Formation and, at places, Chinji and Murree Formation over the Nagri Formation. Some Authors considered the Dil jaba fault have initiated as a passive back limb thrust (Qayyum, 1991). A minimum of about 17 km of shortening has occurred along this section line. Approximately 15 km of shortening, 89 % of the total, has been accommodated across the northern ramp,
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while approximately 1.8 km of shortening, 11 % of the total, and has been accommodated within the roof sequence (fig 3.8B). Section balancing also indicates that approximately 0.8 km of shortening, 4 % of the total shortening within the roof sequence, has been accommodated along the Dil Jabba and Chail thrusts. (Qayyum, 1991)

Figure 3.8 Balanced cross section showing present day structure along D-D' in the Eastern Salt Range (B) Balanced and restored structural cross section shows that about 17 km shortening has occurred along D-D'

In the Eastern end of the range, erosion was intense during the Late Cretaceous and Late Eocene-Oligocene time. As a result, in Jogi Tilla only a thin Lower Permian and EocenePaleocene sequence occurs between the Cambrian and unconformable Miocene sediments, whereas is in Chambal and in the main range immediately west of Jalalpur, the Murree Formation directly overlies the upper member of Cambrian succession (Burbank, 1983). The broad, open synclines and close, often faulted anticlines of the plateau are bounded to the northwest by the Dil jaba-Karangal Thrust, which terminates near Choa Saidan Shah. It is replaced by one of the similar trend, but of opposite throw, repeating the complete sequence in the Gandhala Valley to the southwest (Gee, 1989).

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3.4 Geology and Stratigraphy of Salt Range 3.4.1 General Geology of Salt Rang This east west trending fold belt comprises the low rolling hills and valleys of uplifted KohatPotwar Plateau, the Salt Range and westward extensions. It is about 85km wide and extends for about 200km. It is a discrete structural zone bounded in the north by north dipping Main Boundary Thrust. Southward the Salt Range Thrust, Kalabagh Fault and Surghar Thrust from southern boundary. West and eastward it is terminated by Kurram Thrust and Jhelum Fault. (Kazmi & Jan).

Figure 3.9 General geological succession of salt range.

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3.4.2 Generalized Stratigraphy of Salt Rang A sedimentary sequence ranging from Eocambrian to Recent is exposed in the Salt Range and Kohat-Potwar Plateau. The exposures of Mesozoic and earlier rocks are largely confined to the southern margin of Salt Range, Surghar Range and Khisor Range. These comprise Eocambrian evaporites (Salt Range Formation) and shallow marine to non-marine lower to Middle Cambrian sequence of dolomites, shales and sandstone (Jhelum Group) that are unconformably overlain by a thick Permian clastic and carbonate succession (Nilawahan and Zaluch Groups). The angular unconformity at the base of Permian is characterized by the wide spread Tilchar boulder beds (Tobra Formation). Para conformity separates the Mesozoic shelf (Tredian and Datta Formations) and shallow marine deposits (Mianwali, Kingriali, Shinwari, and Samana Suk Formations from Paleozoic Sequence. The exposed Mesozoic sequence is thickest in the western Salt Range which is more then 1,000m thick but it has been greatly attenuated eastward due to erosion and overlap by Cenozoic sequence. There are minor unconformities indicating disruption in sedimentation and in the foreland sedimentary basin during the Mesozoic.The Cenozoic sedimentary rocks consist of a 125 to 400m thick Paleogene sequence, deposited in various types of environments, ranging from shallow marine (Lockhart, Nammal, Sakesar, Chorgali, Kohat Formations), marine to continental (Hangu, Kuldana Formations), marine to logoonal (Patala Formation). In the western Salt Range, there is a significant angular unconformity above the Cretaceous. In the western part of Salt Range there is angular unconformity (Surghar and Khisor Ranges) they overlie Triassic/Jurassic rocks. The stratigraphic sequence is highly fossiliferous. The
generalized stratigraphy of the salt range is shown in table below.

Table 3.1 The generalized stratigraphy of the salt range. Thickness 120450 m Environm ent

Formations S I W A L I K

Lithology Conglomerate with subordinate interbeds of sandstone, siltstone/ clay. Clay and sandstone intercalated. Monotonous cyclic alterations of sandstone & clay. 25

Fossils Vertebrates Poorlyfossiliferous

Age Late PlioceneEarly Pleistocene Middle Pliocene

S O A N DHOK PATHAN

Terrestrial

1330 m

Vertebrates

Terrestrial

G R O U P

NAGRI C H I N J I

3001200 m

Sandstone with subordinate clay & conglomerate. Red clay & subordinate brown grey sandstone (Argillaceous facies) Purple gray & dark brick red sandstone and interbeds of hard purple shale and purple Intra formational conglomerates. Spheroidal weathering & heavy minerals. (Tourmaline) Dark red & purple clay and purple gray & greenish gray sandstone with subordinate intraformational conglomerates.

Vertebrates Crocodiles Vertebrates Crocodiles Turtles Lizards Aquatic birds Water deer

Early Pliocene

Terrestrial

750 m

Late Miocene

Terrestrial

R A W A L P I N D I G R O U P

KAMLIAL

90

Mammalian fossils

Middle-late Miocene

Continental fluvial

MURRE

180600

Plant remains Silicified wood Fish remains Frogs bones

Early Eocene

Continental fluvial

CHORGALLI

150

SAKESAR

70-150

NAMMAL

100

PATALA

90

LOCKHART

60

Major unconformity Foraminifera s Shale and limestone. Mullusks 1. Shale Ostracodes 2. Dolomitic limestone Assilina and shale Numulities Globigerina Foraminifera Nodular Limestone with s chert in upper part and Mullusks subordinate marl. Echinoids Foraminifera Shale, marl and s limestone. Mullusks Foraminifera Shale and marl with s subordinate limestone Mullusks and sandstone Oestracodes Medium to massive Foraminferas bedded limestone Corals (Kohat). Mollusks 26

Early Eocene

Shallowdeep marine

Early Eocene

Shallow marine Deep marine Deep marine Shallow marine

Early Eocene

Late Paleocene Early-middle Paleocene

HANGU

90

Medium bedded nodular limestone with minor gray marl & shale in lower part (potowar) Fine to coarse grained sandstone with gray shale intercalations in upper part. Also coal seams locally.

Echinoids Algae Nummulities Assilina Foraminieraf er-as Corels Gastropods Bivalves

Early Paleocene

Marine

KAWAGARH

90

LUMSHIWAL

80-120

CHICHALI

55-70

Major unconformity 1. Tuskail Tusk member consists of thick to massive bedded Globotruncan limestone. a 2. Challorsilli member Pseudotextul thin to medium bedded ar-ia limestone with shale marl. Thick bedded to massive Brachiopod sandstone with silty Gastropod sandy gluconitic shale Ammonoid towards base. Gluconitic sandstone and Brachiopod gluconitic shale in lower Belemnoids part. Ammonoids Unconformity Medium to thin bedded Brachiopods limestone with subBivalves ordinate marl Gastropods Thin to well bedded Bouliceras limestone with nodular species. marl, clacrious & non Corals calcarious shales and Bivalves Quartzose. Brachiopods Sandstone, siltstone, shale and mudstone with irregularly distributed No fossils glass sand and fire clay horizons. Unconformity Thin to thick dolomite and dolomitic limestone with dolomitic shale & marl in upper part. 1.Khatkiara member consists of massive thick 27 Brachiopods Bivalves Crinoids Acritarchs Spores

Late cratecious

Shallow marine

Early-middle cretaceous Late Jurassic to early cretaceous

Shallow marine ShallowDeep marine

SAMANA SUK

186

Middle Jurassic

Shallow marine

SHINAWARI

400

Early-middle Jurassic

Marine

DATTA

212

Early Jurassic

Deltaic

KINGRIALI

76-106

Late Triassic Middle Triassic

Shallow marine Non marine

TREDIAN

76

bedded white sandstone 2. Landa member consists of sandstone and shale. 1. Narmia member consists of limestone, shales with interbeds of sandstone. 2. Mittiwali member consists of fine grained limestone with amnoids. 3. Kathwai member consists of limestone in upper and dolomire in lower part. Brachiopods Ammonids Notiloids Echionoids Crinoids Foraminifera s Osteracodes Bivalves Conodonts Fish remains pollens

fluvial deposits

MIANWALI

121

Early Triassic

Shallow marine

CHIDRU

64

Paraconformity Limestone with calocarious sandstone & Cyclolobus small phosphitic nodules

Late Permian

Shallow marine

Z A L U C H G R O U P N I L A W A H A N G R O U P

WARGAL

174

Limestone and dolomite of light to medium gray color.

Brachiopods Bivalves Gastropods Ammonides Tylobites Crinoids Foraminifera Bryozoans Brachiopods Bivalves Unfossilifero us Plant remains Fish scales Some plant fossils. Brachiopods Bivalves Bryozoans Ostracoda Striatopodoca r-pitus. Protohaploxy

Middle to late Permian (Xenodiocus)

Shallow marine

AMB

80

Sandstone, limestone and shale.

Early-middle Permian

Shallow marine

SARDHAI

65

Lavender clay with minor sandstone& siltstone beds. Fine-coarse grianed sandstone with interbeds of shales. Also have coal seams. Sanstone with occasionally thin pebbly beds & subordinate shales. Marks Permian glaciations. A. Tillitic facies with 28

Early Permian

Shallow marine

WARCHA

26-180

Early Permian

Terrestrial fluvial

DANDOT

50

Early Permian Early Permian

Marine Glaciofluvi allacustrine-

TOBRA

133

marine sandstone. B. Fresh water facies with few or no boulders. Also siltstone & shale faceis alternating. C. Complex diamictite facies with sandstone & boulder beds.

p-inus.

marine.

KISHORE J E H L U M

50

BAGHANWA LA

100116

JUTANA

80

G R O U P

KUSSAK

70

KHEWRA

150

3-15

SALT RANGE

80

650

Major unconformity Bedded shale with dolomite & gypsum. No fossils Massive white gypsum with few dolomite beds. Red shale and clay Trace alternative with flaggy fossilsi.e sandstone of several tracks, trails colors. A. Dirty white massive Lingulella dolomite Fuchs. B. Light green hard Botsfordia massive sandy dolomite Granulata. Greenish gray gluconoitic Neobolus micaceous sandstone, Warthi. silitstone interbeddded Redlichia with some dolomite. noetilingi. Purple sandstone & different shades of red No fossils. sandstone. Few trilobites Top Massive sandstone Bottom shale 1. Sahwal Marl member. A. Dull red marl beds with some salt seams. B. Bright red marl with gypsum, dolomite and Khewrite. 2. Bandar Kas Gypsum member have massive Gypsum with minor dolomite and clay. 3. Billianwala Salt member has Fe red marl with thick seams of salt.

Early middle cambrain

Arid tidal

Early middle cambrain Late early cambrainearly middle Cambrian Late early Cambrian

Shallow marine

Shallow marine Shallowdeep marine

Early Cambrian

Shallow marine

Pre Cambrian

Shallow marine

29

CHAPTER 4

FIELD OBSERVATION

We traveled from Islamabad along the motorway passing through Khallar-Kahar to Zaryala near Choa Saidan Shah City where our field started at day 1. Day 2 we visited Khajula where several coal mines were present. Day 3 we went to karuli for Geological Mapping and Khewra Mine and on Day 4 we went to Sardhai Village for measuring out crop and Formation study. The detailed work and description of visited localities of field is described below Day wise. 4.1 DAY 1 On 25th April 2012 nearly late morning we reached our first field spot where we stopped in village and walked further to our destination, where our Instructor told us about field objective and detail information about the area and formation present. 4.1.1 Area Place: Latitude: Zaryala 320 46 24

Longitude: - 750 53 00 Elevation: 2503 feet

4.1.2 Literature Overview for the Area Let us Overview the literature for the Stratigraphy before proceeding further. The Formation observed in this area is Kamlial and Chorgali of recent age with unconformity present between them. I. Kamlial Formation is of Miocene Age, the formation is comprised of dark grey to greenish sandstone (about 75 %) interbedded with dark red to maroon colour siltstone and subordinate intraformational conglomerates. The formation also contains the tourmaline and garnet and high proportion of the metamorphic rock fragments than the murree formation (Abbassi and khan 1990). It contains the high proportion of the intraformational conglomerates in form of well channelized cross bedded lenses and beds usually at the base of large sandstones bodies. The conglomerates are also intraclasted within the sandstone bodies. They are formed of rounded to sub rounded pebbles of

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caliche or calcite and some clay and silt flakes in calcareous sandy matrix. These deposits have formed due to sub aerial of flood plains deposits resulting in precipitation of calcite from the carbonate rich ground water. II. Chorgali Formation is of Lower Eocene Age, In Salt Range; the formation is divisible into two parts. The lower part consists of shale and limestone, while the upper part is mainly limestone. The shale of the lower part is greenish grey and calcareous, and the limestone is light grey and argillaceous. The most striking feature of the lower part is the appearance of a porcellaneous limestone band in the middle of the unit near Kalar Kahar, which gradually thicken westward, at the expense of the underlying and overlying shale, till the lithology of this unit become essentially limestone is white or cream color and well bedded (Abbassi and khan 1990). The formation is distributed in Eastern Salt Range, Kala Chitta Range. It is 150m thick at Chorgali pass and vary in thickness when moving farther. The Chorgali Formation is fossiliferous particularly in the lower part. It contains foraminifers, ostracods and mollusks. The foraminifera have been studied in detail from the formation. Their preservation is poor in many parts of the unit. The following foraminifers are reported from the lithobiosection. Assilina granulosa, Assilina, Nummulites. III. Chinji Formation The terms Chinji Zone of Pilgrim (1913) and Chinji Stage of Pascoe (1963) for stratigraphic units consisting of interbedded sandstone, silty clay and siltstone were later on reformed as Chinji Formation. The type section is exposed near the Chinji village The Chinji Formation in the Potwar plateau is dominantly composed of bright red and brown orange siltstone inter bedded with ash-gray sandstone (siltstone to sandstone ratio = 4:1 in the type section). The interbedded in-channel and overbank siltstone sequences are 10-50 meter thick. Major Sand bodies are multi storeyed with individual storys generally 5-10 meter thick that are complexly stacked both vertically and laterally (Willis and Behrensmeyer, 1994). From the Kohat plateau, the Chinji Formation is described with reference to four units (Meissner et al., 1974). The bottom unit consists of inter bedded sandstone, silty clay and siltstone followed by a unit predominantly composed of sandstone containing subordinate beds of siltstone and silty clay. The next unit is also composed of sandstone, siltstone and silty clay and the topmost unit is mostly silty clay and claystone containing yellowish-gray, medium to coarse grained sandstone at the base.

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4.1.3 Features Observed Things which we observe were Lithology, Bedding, Colour, and Lamination, Grain size, Fossils, weathering and different Facies analysis to predict the paleo-environment, deposition and Sequence of the Formation. We learnt how to measure the thickness of beds and also how to make the Litho section. Stop 1:Here we observed Two Formations. Looking to formations we have Kamlial Formation on Top while Chorgali Formation on bottom. Observing Kamlial formation it has sandstone, Mudstone, Intra-formational Conglomerate. This formation is of Molasses Deposits i.e., the sediment of this formation was deposited during Orogeny of Himalaya Mountain building. Sediment was eroded from the top mountain and was deposited in foreland basin in Orogeny. Two Molasses deposits Result, Kamlial Formation have greenish Lose sediment and Murre Formation has reddish compacted sediments. Kamlial Formation is fluvial deposits; green sand show channel deposit while reddish mud shows flood plain deposits and has Heavy Minerals Tourmaline and epidote. Fluvial deposits usually lack of fossils.

Kamlial

Choregali

Figure 4.1 Contact between Kamlial and Chorgali

32

Chorgali Formation consists of Limestone, and is present below Kamlial Formation. Limestone deposits in shallow water environment which make Chorgali shallow marine deposits. Fossils present were Assilina, Nummulites which are micro fossils. Oligocene age is missing between Eocene and Miocene, where it shows Sequence Boundary is developed between them; During Eocene shallow marine environment was present. As time passed the regression started, sea started to move distal side and fluvial channel started to flow which result in deposition of Kamlial formation in Miocene age. In between them Oligocene age is missing which Mark the start of Sequence boundary between them. Stop 2:Next moving little further along track we observed rock fragment of limestone of Chorgali Formation, Where fossils like Assilina and Nummulites were present we also observed stylolite (fig 4.2 and 4.3). Stylolites are serrated surfaces at which mineral material has been removed by pressure dissolution, in a process that decreases the total volume of rock. Insoluble minerals like clays, pyrite, and oxides remain within the stylolites and make them visible. Stylolites can be recognized by change in texture of the rock. They occur most commonly in homogeneous rocks, carbonates, cherts, sandstones, but they can be found in certain igneous rocks and ice.

Figure 4.2 Stylolites in rock fragment of Choregali Formation at Zaryala

33

Figure 4.3 Presence of micro fossils Assilina in limestone.

Figure 4.4 Spheroidal weathering of Rock fragment.

34

Their size varies from microscopic contacts between two grains (microstylolites) to large structures up to 20 m in length and up to 10 m in amplitude in ice. Stylolites usually form parallel to bedding, because of overburden pressure, but they can be oblique or even perpendicular to bedding, as a result of tectonic activity (Park and Schot, 1968), and Spheroidal weathering of rock (fig 4.4). Spheroidal weathering is a type of chemical weathering that creates rounded boulders of rocks. Stop 3:Last task for the day was to prepare litho-section or Graphic Logs of the formation that was assign to us in a group. Let me give you brief introduction to what is Litho-section and how it is prepared. Basics of Litho-Logs Litho-logs are visual representations of the information you collect about the outcrop. It should summarize the following: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Thickness of units (vertical axis) Texture (average grain size-horizontal axis) Lithology Sedimentary structures Fossils Diagenetic features Contacts between units There may also contain additional descriptions, notes, and measurements and so on if required. Guidelines for logging a section I. Examine the outcrop from a distance to establish where the major changes and breaks in Sediment types are. Sketch a general view of the outcrop showing the major breaks and geometry of the units you see. II. Establish and describe accurately the most typical sediment types (facies). Usually you will have 5-6 fundamental types and a lot of variations. Describe the most characteristics types (facies). Name these facies with pre-established codes or make up your own mnemonic ones. Keep the description short and to the point. You can do this
35

in paragraph form illustrated with sketches and photographs and/or you can set up a summary table. In the description make sure you note the following. Lithology: Composition of grains and cement and matrix. Mean grain size, sorting, shape, fabric. Degree of cementation or weathering. Bedding geometry: Thickness, including lateral variation. Are beds sheet-like, lenticular, etc.? Nature of upper and lower boundaries (erosional, sharp, gradational, etc...) Sedimentary Structures: Describe internal and external structures, including their dimensions, orientations, spatial variation, etc. If difficult to see, collect a sample for laboratory analysis. Fossils: Identify body and trace fossils, and collect samples if possible. Record variation in size and shape, abundance and spatial distribution, orientation, sediment fossil and fossil-fossil associations, nature of preservation. III. Measure (from the bottom up) and describe the most characteristic exposed vertical sections. Such sections will be composed of stacked up beds (units, facies associations) containing the sequences of facies you have selected, but some will show variations from the types you have selected and described in detail. So as you measure and describe the sequence, note the facies you encounter pointing out any differences from the type you selected (for example average grain size, slightly different sedimentary structures, paleo-currents directions, and so on). Note that facies associations (units) may repeat several times in the section and they may be separated by erosional or other major breaks. Carefully note these facies associations and the breaks. They represent respectively the environments and changes that occurred during deposition. Try to describe things as you see them without bias. However in the field you may start formulating an idea of what type of environment and hydrodynamic conditions produced the sediments. III. Once you have collected your field data, draw up your logs following the examples provided, indicating diagrammatically the sediment unit you have identified, thickness, grain size, sedimentary structures and other major features, using standard symbols or
36

making your own if needed. Make sure that your log has a legend describing the meaning of the symbols used. Add any extra measurement you made such as paleocurrents directions fossils if any, and brief explanatory additional notes. You may add very simple sketches of unusual features that are difficult to de scribe in words. Use a shorthand facies symbols in a column. Make sure that your log is to scale (Nichol, 1999). Following the above rule for making litho-section we recorded the different facies within Kamlial Formation as taught by teacher how to identify it. The procedures we adopted there was as follow: Observed the Formation From bottom to top. Identifying the lithology Then tracing the intra formational beds of each Formation After tracing the beds we measure each bed thickness within the Formation by measuring tape in meters and feet Looking for Sedimentary structure Identifying any fossils if present Looking for grain size See the contact present between beds The same procedure is adopted for the whole section. Finally we recorded the Formation parameter step by step on notebook to sum up lithosection. Observed Facies The measured section of Kamlial Formation (fig 4.5) from bottom (Facie 1) to top (Facie 6) are shown in (Table 4.1) below. Starting from bottom there was sandstone coarse to medium grey color which is grain supported, sub rounded to sub angular and is poorly sorted. This was just noted without measuring its thickness as an examples instructed by teacher at the field. Further measured are given below.

37

Figure 4.5 Exposed section for making litho-log of Kamlial Formation

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Table 4.1 Facies recording for the given area

Parameter

Facie 1

Facie 2

Facie 3

Facie 4

Facie 5

Facie 6

Lithology

Sand Stone

Sand Stone

Intraformational Conglomerate

Sand stone

Massive Sand Sand Stone Stone with Conglomerate

Grain Size

Fine to Medium

Coarse

Clast supported

Coarse

Coarse to Medium

Fine to Medium

Weathered Color

Grey

Blackish grey

Greenish black

Blackish

Blackish grey

Greenish black

Original Color

Greenish

Grey

Light Reddish

Greenish

Light Grey

Greenish and Reddish

Structure

Planer

planar

Planar 1.21m s.st

Thickness

1.6m

1.52m

0.3m

8.8m

3.8cm

0.60m Cong. 4.57m s.st 0.60m Cong

Lamination

Maroon to Red -

Fossils Base Contact

Erosional

Sharp

Sharp

Sharp

Gradational

Sharp

39

Figure 4.6 Lithosection of Kalial Formation (west)

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Stop 4:While ending the field for day one, we were shown calcareous tufa white in color opposite to Kamlial Formation where we measured our facies for litholog. Tufa is a variety of limestone, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from ambient temperature fresh water bodies. Calcareous tufa should not be confused with tuff, a porous volcanic rock with parallel etymological origins (Pedley, 1990). The tufa present here is localized, can be seen only in few meter area and we were told how tufa accumulated here. Behind Kamlial formation we have Chorgali Limestone present, during deformation stages i.e., before, during or later the water with high calcium content stood there for quite long time as a result, dissolved limestone of chorgali formation was precipitated and hence formation of calcareous tufa results. We also observed the sequence of Formations from older to younger starting from Chorgali of Eocene and Kamlial and chinji Formation of Miocene age (Fig 4.7).

Figure 4.7 Contact between Kamlial and Chinji Formation.

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4.2 DAY 2 First part of the day was dedicated for litho-log making, and then further we observed the sedimentary structure present in the vicinity of area followed by measuring of joints. Coal mines were also observed some were abandoned while other was operating, extracted coal waste was polluting the nearby dam by surface and subsurface runoff. A visit to Katas Raj was made at the end of day. 4.2.1 Area Place: Latitude: Khajula 320 45 54

Longitude: - 720 57 00 Elevation: 2659 feet

4.2.2 Literature Overview for the Area I. Patala Formation In the eastern part of the Salt Range, Paleocene coal-bearing rocks unconformably overlies Cambrian and Lower Permian rocks. The Cambrian rocks (Baghanwala Formation) consist of beds of pale-red to moderate-reddish-brown siltstone inter bedded with mudstone and fine- to medium-grained sandstone (Ghauri, 1979; Khan and Khan, 1979). The Lower Permian rocks (Tobra Formation and Warchha Sand-stone) consist of interbedded mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate that were deposited during the glaciation of Gondwana (Wynne, 1881; Medlicott, 1886; Middlemiss,1892; Reed and others, 1930; Reed, 1942; Schindewolf, 1964;Teichert, 1967; Ghauri, 1977; Law and Hussain, 1989).In the eastern and central parts of the Salt Range, the coal-bearing Patala Formation overlies and is associated closely with the Hangu Formation and Lockhart Limestone . The Hangu Formation (0 90 meters (m) thick) consists of light-gray, burrowed, slightly calcareous beds of fine to medium grained sandstone, which are usually flat or ripple bedded and inter bedded with siltstone, dark gray mudstone, and minor amounts of carbonaceous shale. The Lockhart Limestone (570 m thick) consists of dusky-yellow, nodular, skeletal wacke stone to pack stone. II. Kamlial Formation (see 4.1.2 part I)

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4.2.3 Features Observed Things which were observed was ball and pillow structure, how to measure rock joints and litho-section in west side of eastern salt range. Coal mines, Formation dipping trend, and water catchment area of near dam. Stop 1:We were briefed about the formations present in the area and dipping angle of beds. Kamlial Formation was exposed throughout the area and was dipping north. Far end at north side where Kamlial formation is dipping, at its base we have Chorgali exposed it show that Kamlial formation have it lower contact with Chorgali Formation. The front side of Kamlial Formation (Fig 4.8) is escarpment face while dipping bed side is dipping face. An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that occurs from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations. The surface of the steep slope is called a scarp face. Scarps are generally formed by one of two processes: either by differential erosion of sedimentary rocks or by vertical movement of the Earth's crust along a fault (faulting) Most commonly, an escarpment is a transition from one series of sedimentary rocks to another series of a different age and composition. When sedimentary beds are tilted and exposed to the surface, erosion and weathering may occur differentially based on the composition. Less resistant rocks will erode faster, retreating until the point they are overlain by more resistant rock (Easterbrook, 1999).

Figure 4.8 Escarpment face and dipping face of Kamlial Formation at Khajula.

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Secondly we were told that all nearby coal mines are extracting coals from Patala Formation. The coal bearing formation in north side (where we were standing) is at greater depth because Kamlial Formation is exposed, below it Chorgali, Sakeser, Nammal and then Patala Formation.

Figure 4.9 Coal mine drilled perpendicular to Bed.

Figure 4.10 Vertically drilled coal mine.

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While at the other side of road i.e., south side we have Nammal and Sakesar Formation exposed and coal formation lies at less depth and extraction is less costly thats why most workable mines are in south side. In north side all these Formations are dipping north while in south side all these Formations are dipping south, thus making anticlinal structure. Mostly mine were drilled perpendicular to bed of Chorgali formation while some were drilled vertically; possible cross section for coal extraction of the area is shown in (Fig 4.11). Limestone is best for mining because the bed is hard and its core is highly compacted, no chances to collapse.

Figure 4.11 Cross section showing coal extraction in the area.

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Stop 2:Our task was to prepare litho-log for the expose Kamlial Formation. We have to measure bed thickness and record the facies within each bed, same procedure as it is done on day one. The expose Formation have sand stone with intra-formational conglomerate. The recorded facies is show below in (Table 4.2) followed by litho-section on next page.
Table 4.2 Facies recording for the given area

Parameter

Facie 1 Conglomer ate

Facie 2 Sand Stone Med. bedding Fine to Medium (well compacted) Blackish grey

Facie 3 Conglomera te / Sand Stone Coarser(poo r-ly sorted)/ Medium

Facie 4

Facie 5

Facie 6 Claystone /s.st

Lithology

Mudstone

Sand Stone

Clast Grain Size supported coarser

Fine

Medium (fryable)

Fine/ coarser

Weathered Color

Blackish

Greenish black

Blackish red

Blackish grey

Blackish and Reddish Light

Original Color

Light Reddish Cross bedding 0.7m

Grey

Greenish/ reddish

Light cream red

Light Grey

Reedish/ Grey

Structure

0.4m/ 1.4m -

Thickness

0.5m

2.1m/0.3m

0.6m/

0.5m

Lamination Fossils Base Contact

Gradational

Sharp

Sharp

Gradational

Gradational

Sharp

46

Figure 4.12 Lithosection of Kamlial Formation (east)

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Correlation By correlating the western side facies which were observed on day one with the eastern side facies that was measured on day two of Kamlial formation some differences was observed. We saw that as we move toward east the thickness for each bed of formation decrease, which maybe show pinching of bed as we move Far East. Also changes of facies from planer to cross bedding and siltstone were present between sandstone layers (Fig 4.13 on the next page). Cross-bedding is formed by the downstream migration of bedforms such as ripples or dunes in a flowing fluid. The fluid flow causes sand grains to saltate up the upstream ("stoss") side of the bedform and collect at the peak until the angle of repose is reached. At this point, the crest of granular material has grown too large and will be overcome by the force of the depositing fluid, falling down the downstream ("lee") side of the dune. Repeated avalanches will eventually form the sedimentary structure known as cross-bedding, with the structure dipping in the direction of the paleocurrent (Boggs, 2006).

48

Figure 4.13 Correlation of western and eastern measured Kamlial Formation.

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Stop 3:At this point we saw ball and pillow structure on sandstone bed. Ball-and-pillow structures are post depositional features which are masses of clastic sediment that take the form of isolated pillows or protruding ball structures. These soft-sediment deformations are usually found at the base of sandstone beds that are inter bedded with mudstone. It is also possible to find ball-and-pillows in limestone beds that overlie shale, but it's less common. They are normally hemispherical or kidney shaped, and range in size from a few inches to several feet (Allaby and Allaby, 2010).

Figure 4.14 Ball and Pillow Post Depositional Sedimentary Structure.

What we observed coarser sandstone having ball and pillow structure present, at base these structure are bigger while on top these are relatively smaller. Seven to eight inch of silt stone are overlying these ball and pillow structures. The sand stone is coated with thin layer of pebbles.

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Stop 4:As told by our instructor to observe the different features which can be identified and note it, the observation of different lithologies. Massive sand stone is present at base, and moving upward we saw thin bedded sand stone with minor lamination of clay these sand stone are coarser and have through cross bedding. Above sand stone we have ball and pillow structure present, followed by mudstone and sand stone beds as moving upward (Fig 4.15 Left). And weathered boken rock fragment of Kamlial formation was present at base nearby (Fig 4.15 Right).

Figure 4.15 Massive Sandstone (L) and weathered rock fragment(R).

Stop 5:Here we learnt how to measure joints section present on an exposed formation by Circle Inventory Method. It is a technique by which we do joint analysis on exposed bed, by measuring its orientation and length of indivual joints present in three meter diameter area. The minimum diameter requirement for Circle Inventory Method is three or less. We do Circle Inventory Method on exposed surface at define intervals. We were given task to apply Circle Inventory Method to nearby location and measured it. After finding out good exposure of joints we drawn three meter diameter on bed and within the diameter we noted the joints orientation and length which are given in (Table 4.3):-

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Figure 4.16 Measuring Joint Length within three meter diameter.

Table 2.3 Joints measurement radings

Circle Inventory Method Station 1 Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Orientation N 10 W N 700 W N 850 W N 450 W N 650 W N 330 W
0

Length 2.9 m 0.7 m 1.9 m 1.1 m 0.4 m 2.3 m

After noticing these values we can plot it on histogram or rose diagram, further how to plot these value werent explained to us. Stop 5:Enough with field geology, we were given brief introduction about hydrogeological and environmental impact due to mining for nearby dam which is polluted by extracted material of mines. All the water is flowing through this mountainous region as surface and subsurface runoff to the stream down end (Talian Dam). Extracted material of coal mines called mine
52

tailing have sulfur, pyrite and heavy mineral present in it, when water passes through these mines tailing (fig 4.17) it mix up these elements and contaminate the dam and groundwater. So planning is required to dispose these mines tailing in a better way so it doesnt pollute the hydrological cycle of the area.

Figure 4.17 Mine tailing with sulfur smell, and have pyrite and heavy mineral.

4.3 DAY 3 Geological mapping was done throughout the day by observing lithology of the area, marking their contact, using GPS and identifying our self on toposheet with the help of GPS navigated latitude and longitude. Then extending mapping to far from Khewra gorge and observing the geology and features of exposed side road formations. In the end a visit to Khewra mine world biggest salt mine. 4.3.1 Area Place: Latitude: Karuli 320 40 58

Longitude: - 720 46 35 Elevation: 2259 feet

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4.3.2 Literature Overview for the Area I. Nammal Formation: The Nammal Formation is a soft formation and generally very poorly exposed at the base of the steep cliffs, formed by the much harder Sakesar Formation. Its lower boundary is most often poorly exposed but the field data indicates that it is a gradational boundary. Its upper boundary is also gradational but conformable. The Nammal Formation consists of bluish grey, medium bedded marls with shale and limestone beds. It has a nodular appearance and is highly fossiliferous. It is 16 meters thick in the Landa Psha section and 18 meters thick in the Makarwal section of the Surghar Range. The Nammal Formation is interpreted to have been deposited in a shallow marine carbonate environment (Tectostrat, 1992). Based on molluscs and foraminiferal fauna, the Nammal Formation is dated as Late Paleocene to Eocene. II. Warchha Sandstone: This formation consists of red to brown colored friable, thick bedded and cross-bedded sandstone alternating with red to maroon color shale/clay and siltstone units with subordinate carbonate beds (Figure 4.3). The sandstone is medium to coarse grained. Often the matrix is slightly calcareous. In the Khisor Range, the formation contains less mudstone and the sandstone is generally coarse grained to gritty, whereas in the central and eastern Salt Range the formation is built up of a more or less regular alternation of sandstone and mudstone units (Tectostrat, 1992). In the Saiyiduwali section of the Khisor Range, this formation directly overlies Tobra Formation and is overlain by Sardhai Formation with a transitional contact. Its thickness is 147 meters in the Saiyiduwali section of the Khisor Range. The formation is thought to have been deposited in a fluvial to floodplain environment of deposition (Tectostrat, 1992). No diagnostic fossils are known from this formation. Based on stratigraphic position, an early Permian age is inferred. III. Kussak formation: It was first named as Obolus beds by Waynne (1878) and later Neobolus beds (Waynne 1885), this formation was named Kussak group by Noetling (1894). This name has been formalized as Kussak Formation by the Stratigraphic Committee. The Kussak Formation rests disconformity over Khewra Sandstone, marked by a widespread, thin conglomerate developed at the base of the Kussak Formation.The Formation only consists of grey, silty and sandy, glauconite shale with some sandstone intercalations and few black shale layers. The thickness of the formation is 75 m at type locality, and locally more than 200 m in the southern
54

Punjab plain. The sediments of the Kussak Formation are thought to be the result of a marine transgression. The basal conglomerate represents an unconformity. The bioturbation, abundant presence of glauconite and the marine fauna which has been reported (Schindewolf and Seilacher, 1955) of the overlying sediments, point to a shallow marine environment of deposition. The formation is 53m thick in the

Saiyiduwali section. Shah (1977) has reported its thickness in the Khisor Range to be 55 meters.The age of the formation, based on paleontological information in the eastern part of the Salt Range, is late early Cambrian or early Middle Cambrian (Teichert, 1964). IV. Khewra Sandstone: The Khewra Sandstone predominantly consists of purplishbrown, thick-bedded, fine to medium grained, well-sorted sandstone with sparse clay bands and concretionary layers in the upper part. Lower part of the formation consists of red, thin bedded mudstone and fine grained sandstone. Sedimentary structures in the lower part include trough and planar cross lamination, ripple marks and mud cracks. In the upper part planar cross bedding and trough cross bedding occasionally with bidirectional fore sets are seen throughout the sequence. The formation is more than 70 m thick in the Saiyiduwali section. Its base is not exposed and its upper contact with the Kussak Formation is disconformable. Shah (1977) has reported the exposed thickness of the Khewra Sandstone in the Khisor Range as 60 meters. The persistent red color, the sedimentary structures and the absence of fossils point to a fluvial depositional environment. It must be noted that Schindewolf and Seilacher (1955) have described arthropod tracks that are compared with tracks of small Trilobites. If this is correct, along with th e occurrence of minor amounts of glauconite grains, suggests the presence of marine tongues interbedded in the continental sediments. Based on the stratigraphic position and the occurrence of the above mentioned arthropod tracks, an early Cambrian age is assumed. V. Salt Range formation: The formation is exposed along the outer periphery of Salt Range from Kalabagh in the west to Eastern Salt Range. Both Precambrian and Cambrian ages have been assigned to the salt range formation on the basis of Superposition as there is no definite paleontological evidence available. However its age is referred to as Eocambrian by recent authors. In the sub-surface the Salt range formation has been encountered in Potowar (Dhulian and Adhi). Gypsiferous deposits of possible Eocambrian age, in the Hazara District north of Main Boundary Thrust

55

(MBT), indicated the original evaporate basin may also have extended substantially further north. 4.3.3 Features Observed Familiarizing our self with toposheet and marking contact between formations and plot it on toposheet with the help of latitude and longitude reading from GPS. Observing the formations and sedimentary structure present in it followed by succession of formations present at end of Karuli. Stop 1:Here we were briefed about geological mapping and why toposheet is being used. A toposheet is a shortened name for 'Topographic sheet'. They essentially contain information about an area like roads, railways, settlements, canals, rivers, electric poles, post offices etc. According to their usage, they may be available at different scales (e.g. 1:25000, 1: 50000 etc., where the former is a larger scale as compared to the latter). They are made on a suitable projection for that area and contain lat-long information at the corners. Thus any point on it can be identified with its corresponding lat-long, depending upon the scale (i.e. if the scale is large, more accurate lat-long). Toposheet have contours which join equal elevation points and show relief. It have latitude on x-axis while longitude on y-axis. Then we located our self on toposheet, here are the steps what we have done it: Scale of Latitude and Longitude was larger; we divided it into smaller scale i.e., in minute and seconds by dividing it with the measured length on either side of the sheet. Then we draw a line which joins the equal value on either side of sheet which was a result of above step, making it into grids. Readings from GPS were plotted on sheet by first plotting latitude and extend the line then we plot longitude and extend the line, where these two line intersect that was our identified location for stop one. Next it was to mark the contact between formations on toposheet, by reading GPS value at that contact and plotting it as it was done in previous step. And finally coloring the lithology with respect to formation.

Six groups were given task to note the contact reading; two groups went east, two wests and other two north side respectively. Unluckily we were assigned to go west side and by climbing
56

far upward there werent any contact present cause it was only one foramtion. However the readings of contact from other group member is plotted on toposheet with readings at stop 4. Stop 2:Here we observe the contact between Warchha sandstone and Nammal limestone Formations. The GPS value for these contact are: Latitude: 320 40 52

Longitude: - 720 46 26 Elevation: 2229 feet

Warchha sandstone is at bottom while Nammal Formation is on top. Warchha sandstone is red in color at present location and has cross bedding structure.

Nammal

Warcha

Figure 4.18 Contact between Warcha and Nammal Formations.

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Stop 3:Here we observed massive sandstone with parting lineation. The GPS reading at this location is: Latitude: 320 40 54

Longitude: - 720 46 22 It is Massive sandstone with mud streak present in it. It shows parting lineation Parting lineation (also known as current lineation or primary current lineation) is a subtle sedimentary structure in which sand grains are aligned in parallel lines or grooves on the surface of a body of sand (or lithified as a sandstone). It is useful as a main indicator of the lower part of the upper flow regime bed form and the direction of these lineations is used as a paleo current indicator. It is meanwhile widely accepted that parting lineation forms in the turbulent, viscous boundary layer immediately above the sediment-water interface. Parting lineation is restricted to coarse silts as well as to fine- and medium-grained sands. The structure very rarely occurs in coarser sediments. Parting lineation forms in very different depositional environments. Yet the structure is not only restricted to the marine environment, it can also form in river sediments, especially on point bars (Picard et al., 1969).

Figure 4.19 Massive sandstone with Mud Streak shows parting lineation.

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Stop 4:Here we have marked the contact between Warchha and Eocene limestone Formation, and noted the GPS readings and plotted it on toposheet. The GPS reading for this contact is:Latitude: 320 40 36

Longitude: - 720 46 23 At last all the readings from GPS of different groups that were taken at contact between formations (Table 4.4) were plotted on toposheet and were colored with respect to lithology. The finalized geological map is attached on next page.
Table 4.4 GPS readings for contact of different groups.

Observation Latitude Longitude

Group 1 32 40' 36 72 45' 57

Group 2 32 40 52 72 46 26

Group 3 32 41' 22" 72 46' 44"

Group 4 32 41 22 72 46 44

Further we saw excessive joints in limestone due to weathering, which have caused numerous broken rock fragments in the area, due to which new alluvium deposition is taking place in the area.

Figure 4.20 Weathered rock fragment of limestone.

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Stop 5:At the end of the field day far from Karuli, we observed the succession of formations present here. From bottom to top we have Salt range, Khewra, Kussak, Warchha and Nammal Formations. Salt Range formation has loose material and has been eroded.

Warchha

Nammal
Kussak

Khewra s.st

Salt Range

Figure 4.21 Succession of formations at Karuli.

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4.4 DAY 4 It was final day for field work, we measured the bed thickness and record the facies present in between them and measure the strike and dip of the formation. Suddenly the rain stopped our field work early and we moved backed to Islamabad. 4.4.1 Area Place: - Sardhai Village Latitude: - 320 41 01 Longitude: - 720 42 43 Elevation: - 656 feet 4.4.2 Literature Overview for the Area Review of the previous study done on the formation present in the area. I. Sakesar Formation: - The Sakesar Formation is developed throughout the Surghar Range and the Salt Range and is a hard prominent cliff-forming formation. The formation maintains a relatively uniform character throughout the area. It consists of grey, medium to thick bedded limestone, alternating with thin marl beds. Some intervals are light grey to white and consist predominantly of marly limestone. In the middle and upper part of the formation, chert concretions are common. The entire formation is highly fossiliferous. Foraminifera are very abundant. Its thickness in the Landa Psha section is 128 meters whereas in the Makarwal section of the Surghar Range, its thickness is 300 meters. Its lower contact with Nammal Formation is conformable whereas its upper contact with Chinji Formation of the Siwalik Group is unconformable. The Sakesar Formation is reported to have been deposited in open marine carbonate depositional environment (Tectostrat, 1992). Based on the foraminiferal fauna, the Sakesar Formation can be dated as Early Eocene. II. Sardhai Formation: - The Sardhai Formation consists of soft, blue-greenish, lavender colored clay with minor amounts of fine grained sandstone beds in the upper part and light brown, nodular carbonaceous beds in the middle part of the formation. In the Khisor Range, the formation consists of dark grey shales with thin flaggy fine grained sandstone and limestone beds. The formation is 36 meters thick in the Saiyiduwali
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section. Shah (1977) has reported its thickness from the Khisor Range to be 50 meters. The formation has conformable upper and lower boundaries. The formation is thought to have been deposited in a lacustrine environment (Tectostrat, 1992). In the Khisor Range, the occurrence of Bryozoans and Brachiopods (Fatmi, 1973) from the limestone beds suggests a restricted marine environment of deposition. Based on the above mentioned fossils, an early Permian age is assigned to this formation. III. Rest formation was same as previous day mentioned it in section 4.3.2.

4.4.3 Features Observed Each group was assigned the location to measure the formation characteristics and observing the overall formation present in the area. Stop 1:It is the place where we first arrived for the field at day four; we saw formations that were same as day three but we have presence of Sardhai and Sakesar Formations in the area.

Figure 4.22 View of Formations from Sardhai Village

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Stop 2:We were assigned the location to measure the Sakesar limestone thickness that was exposed near road side, the Formation was steep but we managed to measure the thickness of the Formation.

31.7 ft

Figure 4.23 Sakesar Nodular limestone at Sardhai Village

We also recorded the strike and dip for the Formation and observed the facies present in limestone Formation. We observed and noted the following characteristics: Location: - Along the Road side (Second group) Latitude: 320 40 51

Longitude: - 720 43 01
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Strike:- N360 E Lithology:-

Dip:- 250 NW

Massive Nodular Limestone (Sakesar Formation)

Thickness: - 31.7 feet or 966 cm. Weathered color:- blackish grey Original color:- Creamy and ligh Grey Joints:- Highly Jointed Fossils:- Fossiliferous presence of Nummulites, Assilina and shell fragments (Fig 4.24) Depositional Environment: - Shallow marine.

Figure 4.24 Presence of fossils, Nummulites(up) and shell fragments(down) in Sakesar Limestone.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

The salt range is the result of tectonic forces imposed during the later phase of the Himalayan orogeny in late Cenozoic time: the occurrence of the thick, incompetent salt Range Formation at the base of the sedimentary sequence has strongly influenced the structure. The Salt Range and Potwar Plateau are part of the active foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the Himalayas of northern Pakistan Within the Salt Range, the structure consists of a narrow zone of intensely folded, faulted, and uplifted rocks, which contrasts with the open folds of low-structural relief of the Potwar Plateau. As we move from Eastern to Central Salt Range the structures become complex. The Salt Range contains the exposures of Precambrian Salt Range formation to recent deposits. The distribution of rock types and their internal sedimentary features indicate that the most Formations in the Salt Range was deposited in shallow-marine, and fluvial environments i.e., Molasses deposits. Due to the excellent exposures and a more or less complete stratigraphic sequence of Phanerozoic rocks, the area is rightly called as Field Museum of Geology. Salt range have richly fossiliferous stratified rocks that include Permian carbonate succession with brachiopods, Lower Triassic ammonoid bearing beds and Lower Tertiary marine strata composed of age diagnostic foraminifera. The detail study of fossils can help to understand the deposition and environment. Numerous coal mines are present in the field area; coal is being extracted from Patala Formation by drilling through Limestone beds of Eocene age. Presence of coal seams beds and mines shows that the area has enormous potential of coal and hydrocarbon exploration and is economically important. Due to excessive mining, the extracted materials are not disposed of properly which contaminate the surface and groundwater, concerning environmental impact to area. Correlating the facies of west and east Kamlial formation of Eastern Salt range it shows that there is change in facies, bed thickness decreases and energy of environment changes too, from planer bedding to cross bedding.

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CHAPTER 6

REFERNCES

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