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Marketing should not be looked upon in a vacuum or in isolation. It is an essence taking a view of the whole business organization and its ultimate objective concern for marketing must penetrate all areas of the enterprise. Market survey in todays competitive world is a must for every organization. This project is a study of market potential of Washing Soap The rational behind this particular study is to find out the present market scenario of various brands & to find out the corporate need and perception. It was a pleasurable experience to conduct a research on behalf of Two-Wheeler pertaining to the study of the Automobile Sector. Conclusion and there by recommendation has been arrived at by proper and justified interpretation of the result derived from the above said analytical tools and techniques.

Preparing a project of this nature is an arduous task and I was fortunate enough to get support from a large number o persons. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to all those who generously helped in successful completion of this report by sharing their invaluable time and knowledge. It is my proud and previledge to express my deep regards to Respected Principal Sir Dr.J.P.N. Pandey , Head of Department Dr. Anand Tiwari , Mrs. Shikha Urmil Khan and Miss Deepti Patel Department of Business Management , Govt. Autonomous Girls P.G. College of Excellence Sagar for allowing me to undertake this project. I feel extremely exhilarated to have completed this project under the able and inspiring guidance of Miss. Deepti Patel she rendered me all possible help me guidance while reviewing the manuscript in finalising the report. I also extend my deep regards to my teachers , family members , friends and all those whose encouragement has infused courage in me to complete to work successfully.

MEETA JAIN B.B.A IInd Semester IInd Batch


Date : I declare that the project report titled " WASHING SOAP" on Market Segmentation is nay own work conducted under the supervision of Miss.Deepti Patel Department of Business Management Govt. Girls P.G. College of Excellence Sagar. To the best of my knowledge the report does not contain any work , which has been submitted for the award of any degree , anywhere.

MEETA JAIN B.B.A IInd Semester IInd Batch


The project report titled "TWO-WHEELER " been prepared by Miss. Meeta Jain BBA IInd Semester , IInd Batch under the guidance and supervision of Miss. Deepti Patel for the partial fulfillment of the Degree of B.B.A.

Signature of the Supervisor

Signature of the Head of the Department

Signature of the Examiner

TOPIC TITLE 1. 2. 3. Preface Acknowledgement Declaration of the Candidate

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10 11 12 13 14 15

Certificate Introduction of Toothpaste History of Toothpaste Marketing Segmentation Swot Profile of Toothpaste Scope of the Study Limitations Research Methodology Data Analysis & Interpretation Conclusion Bibliography Questionaire

1 Toothpaste Industry 1.1 Overview Indian oral care industry (including toothpaste and toothpowder) is about Rs. 35 billion. Colgate and HUL contribute around three fourth of the total market. Other major players include Dabur and Anchor group together contributing around 15% of total market.

1.3 Consumer Behavior World over the oral care market is largely represented by toothpaste and toothbrush. Other products in this category include mouthwash, sprays and oral rinses. In India, there is a significant presence oftoothpowder as well. Many other people in India still clean teeth with traditional products like neem twigs, salt, ash, tobacco or other herbal ingredients. Recent studies have indicated dual usage (powder and paste) in 10% of rural households. The younger generation is increasingly shifting to toothpaste even in rural areas. In relative terms, penetration of toothpowder is higher in North and toothpaste in South. This could be due to higher education, purchasing power and urbanization in the South. Indian urban toothpaste per capita consumption is about 92 grams per month compared to 219 grams of China; and only 7% of Indian urban class brush twice a day compared to 86% in Malaysia. Thus there is tremendous scope for growth of doing business in India. Toothpaste industry growth has been low as compared to other products. For market leader Colgate, in 2007 growth had been around 12%. For same brands like Babool the market growth was as high as 50%. As per India Infoline Sector report, about 60%

of toothpaste in India is sold on family platform; there is single toothpaste for the entire family. Specialized toothpaste such as for children has been available in India only in last 2-3 years (mainly imported products) and usage is extremely low. About 35% of toothpaste is sold on cosmetic propositions. These are targeted mainly at young consumers and upper urban class on the proposition of fresh breath, white teeth and functional benefits of controlling plaque, preventing cavity etc. There is a niche market (5% of total) for toothpaste with therapeutic benefits. Toothpaste is also segmented based on product attributes as White, Gel, Herbal, etc. Some products are also available as a combination of both Whites and Gel. World over toothpaste positioned on anti-cavity platform, contains fluorides. Excessive usage of fluoride can cause a disease called Fluoresces, to which children are particularly vulnerable. In India, there is a strong societal aversion to fluoride toothpaste. Price wise, toothpastes can be segmented as Economy, Regular and Value-added segments. The price range varies from Rs.15-20 for a 100 gm pack in the economy segment to Rs.30-35 for a 100 gm pack in the Regular Segment to Rs.50 for a 100 gm pack in the medicated/value added segment.

2 Intended Positioning 2.1 Methodology

The various mass media forms, namely television, newspapers, radio and internet, are the main source of influencing a customer. Hence, we went through the marketing campaigns, both print and electronic, that the various toothpaste companies have launched to market their brands and position their products. The intended positioning was essentially derived from this study. While doing the study, the advertisements were not just studied at their face value but the purpose of their various claims was also understood. This helped us come up with the intended positioning of the various toothpastes based on a variety of different parameters. Six brands namely; Close up, Colgate, Pepsodent, Vicco, Meswak and Amar were identified. About 24 products under these six brands were studied as per the methodology described above. 2.2 Results The table below shows summary of the primary research on intended positioning. Various attribute parameters are classified into distinct categories. Same is done for emotion level positioning parameters. This cluster map is then subjected to grouping so as to find common parameters for given brand or common brands for given parameters. The table is sorted, so that product with large number of parameters comes to top, while parameter which is used by maximum products comes to left. This reveals a grouped cluster map. Some conclusions that can be made by this map are The products on the top of the table have either large number of independent

market segments or have failed to position on limited attributes or parameters. The products at the bottom of the table are those, who have very niche or limited market or have positioned themselves using few attributes or parameters. Similarly parameters on the left are very common or functional parameters; hence used by many brands/products Parameters on the right of the table are those used only by few products for product differentiation.

8 3 Actual Positioning 3.1 Methodology Having done the intended positioning it is important for us to study the actual positioning and analyze where products/brands gone right or wrong have. The methodology involved collecting perception data from actual customers. Given that we have analyzed 24 products, considering we get information from 20 customers of each product, we would have to analyze about 480 feedbacks. We took feedback from customers in following way Personal interviews (mainly in hostels and within campus) Online survey However, given the size of sample, it is difficult to give concrete recommendations or suggestions to individual products. 3.2 Results The results of the survey and interview are shown on the same cluster map of intended positioning to point the difference. For various products we see a significant difference between the intended and actual positioning.

4 Recommendations Within the limitations of sample size of survey on actual positioning, we would like to

make following recommendations to the various products.

Some general observations Close up- Uniquely perceived on the basis of color and cool image and hence the 11 company should bank on it rather than conventional attributes like strong teeth with which it is not associated with. Colgate brands (excluding Cibaca): Colgate has a very strong brand image to the

extent that people perceive it as an Indian brand. However, this has resulted in there being no differentiation between the various products of Colgate. Hence, Colgate needs to look into the differentiating aspect between them.

Appendix 1 Colgate Presently, Colgate, India is marketing the following nine varieties of toothpaste: 1.Colgate Dental Cream 2.Colgate Total 12

3.Colgate Max Fresh 4.Colgate Kids Toothpaste 5.Colgate Fresh Energy Gel 6. Colgate Herbal 7.Colgate Cibaca Family Protection 8.Colgate Advanced Whitening 9.Colgate Active Salt Based on the various advertisements, following can be inferred about the segmentation and positioning of the various varieties of Colgate toothpastes. Note that Colgate being a very old player in the industry does not try to market itself as a toothpaste brand as it is already perceived as one. Also, Colgate has been traditionally thought to be value for money. 1.1Colgate Dental Cream Segmentation/Target: When marketing the Dental Cream, Colgate has the whole toothpaste market as its target. Being one of the oldest varieties of Colgate toothpaste, the Colgate Dental Cream has been marketed as a synonym for toothpaste. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Colgate Dental Cream positions itself as toothpaste that has the necessary calcium and minerals to provide decay protection, strong teeth, germ protection and fresher breath. Lately, with competition from indigenous vegetarian toothpastes, Colgate Dental Cream has also positioned itself as an always 100% vegetarian toothpaste.

Emotion based positioning The tagline of is advertisements, Trusted by generations to make teeth stronger, clearly aims to position the Dental Cream as a toothpaste that has been used over generations and hence creating a kind of emotional attachment with the toothpaste.

13 1.2Colgate Total 12 Segmentation/Target: Colgate total 12 claims to provide a 12-hour protection from germs. It also provides a range of technical reasons for its superiority as compared to other toothpastes. Hence, this variety of Colgate toothpaste is targeted at the educated urban people who brush their teeth twice. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Colgate Total 12 has been projected as the most advanced toothpaste that provides 12 hour germ protection even after eating and drinking by building a protective shield around the teeth. It also tries to position itself higher in terms of reliability of its claims by telling the consumers that its formula is a patented one and the toothpaste is the most recommended one by the dentists. Emotion based positioning Colgate Total 12 has a strong attribute based positioning with no real emotional based positioning intended. 1.3Colgate Max Fresh Segmentation/Target: Colgate Max Fresh, with its multiple flavors, seems to target the

youth. It also associates brands like iPod and sports like Kayaking with it through the means of gifts/prizes which further enforces the belief that Colgate Max Fresh is for the youth. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Colgate Max Fresh positions itself on the basis of freshness. The tagline A new dimension of freshness brings home this very point. Emotion based positioning No real emotional based positioning intended. 1.4Colgate Kids Toothpaste Segmentation/Target: This variety of toothpaste is clearly, as even the name suggests, targeted at kids. The advertisements and packing of the toothpaste further suggests that it is meant specifically for the smaller kids.

Positioning: Attribute based positioning Colgate Kids Toothpaste positions itself on the basis of taste. Emotion based positioning The Kids Toothpaste tries to position itself based on emotions which is apparent in its tagline Makes fighting cavities fun. It also provides the names of familiar

cartoon characters like Tweety and Bugs Bunny to the various flavors that it markets and hence associating the tastes with the feelings of kids towards these cartoon characters. 1.5Colgate Fresh Energy Gel Segmentation/Target: Colgate Fresh Energy Gel is clearly aimed at the youth. Its sleek toothpaste cover and the picture of a young couple on it unambiguously emphasize this point. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Colgate Fresh Energy Gel, as the name itself suggests, basis its marketing strategy on the toothpaste providing freshness. It positions itself as a gel (note that here it tries to differentiate itself from a toothpaste) for fresh breath and strong/white teeth. Emotion based positioning The emotional positioning of Colgate Fresh Energy Gel is implicit by the way of the photo of the couple on the toothpaste pack and in the advertisements. It obviously wants to strike a chord with the young, and also the budding, couples of the country. 1.6 Colgate Herbal Segmentation/Target: Colgate Herbal targets the traditional and the naturalist market which is pretty apparent from the name as well as the tagline Strong teeth, healthy gums, naturally and the use of squirrel as the central character in its advertisements.

Positioning: Attribute based positioning

15 Colgate Herbal positions itself based on basically only one attribute, i.e. being herbal. Emotion based positioning No real emotion based positioning is intended. 1.7Colgate Cibaca Family Protection Segmentation/Target: As the name itself suggests, this variety of Colgate toothpaste targets families. Positioning: Attribute based positioning The toothpaste positions itself in a very standard way by claiming to provide strong teeth and fresh breath. Emotion based positioning The emotion based positioning of the Cibaca Family Protection is strong as it targets families. Even when harping about its attributes, the advertisement brings in the notion of the family (Strong teeth, fresh breath for your family) and hence a strong sense of emotional positioning is apparent.

1.8Colgate Advanced Whitening Segmentation/Target: Colgate Advanced Whitening specifically targets people with plague problems as the toothpaste claims to provide whiter teeth within 14 days. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Unique positioning as it is very focused on specific attributes like restoring natural whiteness, preventing stains from adhering and fighting plague. Though other toothpastes claim to provide stronger teeth none so directly claims to provide whiter teeth. Emotion based positioning No real emotional based positioning intended.

16 1.9Colgate Active Salt

Segmentation/Target: This variety of toothpaste targets customers with orthodox thinking who believe that salt is good for teeth. Positioning: Attribute based positioning The attribute that forms the basis of this variety of salt is that it has active salt. The toothpaste hence also positions itself alongside the other toothpastes that claim to fight gums and result in healthy gums and teeth. Emotion based positioning Colgate Active Salt aims to strike a cord with traditional people who think that salt is good for teeth.

18 2.2Amar strong toothpaste

Segmentation/Target: Within the targeted customer base of Amar, the strong variety toothpaste is aimed at people with preference for cinnamon taste. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Amar strong distinctly positions itself based on its unique cinnamon taste and the associated strong aspect of the spice. 2.3Amar white toothpaste Segmentation/Target: Within the targeted customer base of Amar, the white variety toothpaste is aimed at people with plague problems. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Amar white claims to be a solution for plague problems. Apart from this, it positions itself distinctly from the other members of the Amar toothpaste family by providing a mint flavor. 2.4Amar strong sachets Segmentation/Target: Within the targeted customer base of Amar, the sachets are aimed at people with low income and daily wage workers who have a very small but consistent buying capacity. Positioning: Attribute based positioning The paste is same as Amar strong differing only in the size (25 grams) and cost.

3.2Pepsodent 2 in 1 Segmentation/Target: Pepsodent 2 in 1 targets basically the youth who along with the germ fighting also want fresh breath.

Positioning: Attribute based positioning A unique combination of paste and gel in one toothpaste. Long lasting protection: Its advanced germi-check formula fights germs evenhours after brushing to give superior protection. Long Lasting freshness: Its germi-check gel gives lasting freshness. Emotion based positioning Gel for fresh and original flavor combined with germi check paste makes brushing fun rather than a chore and teeth stronger. 3.3Pepsodent Complete 10 Segmentation/Target: Pepsodent Complete targets the entire consumer base. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Pepsodent Complete fights 10 problems of your mouth which no other toothpaste does. Basically an all-in-one toothpaste Emotion based positioning No real emotion based positioning intended. 3.4 Pepsodent Whitening Segmentation/Target: Pepsodent Whitening targets consumers who are

more concerned about the whiteness of their teeth.

Positioning: Attribute based positioning Healthy white teeth for your family. Emotion based positioning No intended emotion based positioning. 3.5 Pepsodent Regular Segmentation/Target: Pepsodent regular targets families. Positioning: Attribute based positioning Long lasting germ protection for your family. Emotion based positioning The fact that one toothpaste is complete in itself to serve the purpose of entire family. 3.6Pepsodent Center Fresh Segmentation/Target: Pepsodent has come up with a new variant Pepsodent Center Fresh capturing the segment which wants germ protection as well as fresh breath Positioning:

Attribute based positioning The new variant is positioned as a toothpaste that fights germs and also with mouthwash. Now promoted heavily through TV and Print, this brand now adopts the tagline "Protection Outside Freshness Inside". This is the first time Pepsodent is venturing outside its domain of germ protection. Theoretically, Pepsodent is diluting its core positioning of germ protection by adding one more feature. i.e. Freshness. Emotion based positioning The brand has used visual imagery to promote the new differentiation of Mouthwash. The color scheme and the analogy with Swimming Pool... all support the new thrust

of mouthwash with in the toothpaste. But the marketing idea doesnt stop there. The brand uses visual proof of the presence of the attribute inside the toothpaste which can be physically seen by the customer. Hence three is a physical evidence of mouthwash within the toothpaste. Such visual evidences provide the brand a powerful support and can be even considered to be a brand element. Some Advertising Campaigns and Strategies used by HLL to promote Pepsodent Pepsodent was launched in 1993. It has experimented with its positioning allthrough its life. Initially Pepsodent was launched in the highly successful "long lasting protection for hours after brushing" platform. It was the first toothpaste with a unique anti-bacterial agent to address the consumer need of checking germs even hours after brushing. In 1999-2000 Pepsodent tried to fight the market leader Colgate by shifting to Benefits of

germ fighting rather than Process of germ fighting. But the positioning failed and Pepsodent had to come back to the old positioning by 2001. Targeting Rural India Hindustan Lever Ltd pushed oral care brand Pepsodent in rural India with a countrywide pitch aimed at 10,000 villages initially. The campaign, propagated the benefits of oral care to around 13 million children by end2002, improved volumes and also created a benchmark in the industry, an HLL official said. The penetration of toothpastes is very low in rural India, so it is a very big market not only for us but also for other toothpaste manufacturers. Along with an offer of free dental check-ups, HLL is also planning to organize health camps involving villagers to fortify its campaign. To promote Pepsodent, we will also offer free samples to the villagers to try out the product and offer discount coupons on wrapper redemption schemes, marketing manager of the oral care division said. Pepsodent included the germ indicator to its pack in 2002, which allowed consumers to see the efficacy in fighting germs for themselves. As a follow-up, in October 2002, Pepsodent offered Dental Insurance to all its consumers to demonstrate the confidence the company has in the technical superiority of the product. Pepsodent then came with dental insurance was considered the first of its kind dental insurance scheme through its oral care brand, Pepsodent. The scheme, being launched through a partnership with the New India Assurance, offers a dental insurance of Rs 1,000 on purchase of any pack of Pepsodent. Under this initiative, Pepsodent offers its

consumers insurance cover against expenses for the extraction of teeth due to caries and pediodontitis. However, the scheme involves some amount of paperwork. Consumers wanting to avail of the scheme are required to send in a proposal form which is available in all Superior Pepsodent packs of 100 and 200 gms along with the wrapper of the toothpaste. To make the claim, the consumer will have to send in three wrappers of Pepsodent along with medical certificates and bills which will be assessed by New India 23 Assurance. However, the policy will not compensate claims for cosmetic dentistry or loss of tooth due to accidents. Besides, the age limit of the consumer has an upside of 50 years. HLL said it would bear the entire cost of the insurance under this scheme. Pepsodent connects directly with kids and their parents. Pepsodent has always worked in the direction of an overall awareness of dental health. The re-launch campaign in October 2003 widened the context to "sweet and sticky" food and leveraged the truth that children do not rinse their mouths every time they eat, demonstrating that this makes their teeth vulnerable to germ attack. HLL then came with the famous Dishum dishum campaign. The insight for this campaign was that Mothers were really worried about the eating habits of their kids. From that insight came the Big Idea " let Pepsodent fight germs for You". The campaign and the smart pricing virtually killed the regional brands in the oral care market.

Pepsodent knew that they should expand the total market of tooth paste and decided to increase the market by increasing the usage of the product. Thus came theBhoot campaign. It aimed at educating consumers on the need for germ protection through the night.

4 Close-up Presently, Close-up, India is marketing the following three varieties of toothpaste: Red gel Vitamin fluoride system Close Up Lemon Mint Toothpaste Milk Calcium nutrient 4.1Red gel Vitamin fluoride system Segmentation/Target: It is clearly aimed at the youth. Its sleek toothpaste cover and the picture of a young people on it unambiguously emphasize this point. Positioning: Attribute based positioning: It has positioned itself being toothpaste with vitamins fluoride system which helped in

white teeth, strong teeth and fresh breath for a longer period of time. Emotion based positioning: It was the first gel based toothpaste launched in India so they started a new revolution of gel based toothpaste. They wanted that the customer insight should be that people are conscious about their breath and want to get close with each other with confidence. Based on this insight the brand was positioned on the Fresh Breath platform with an image of being cool. 4.2Close-up Lemon Mint Toothpaste Segmentation/Target: the segmentation is same as first product but just to create a different appeal among the brand it has created a different product with different color and other ingredients. Positioning: Attribute based positioning: Close-up Lemon Mint, gel toothpaste with the whitening benefits of lemon. It has flavor of lemon mint which help in giving freshness for a longer period of time as mint is a sign of freshness. Along with that this toothpaste helps in better and stronger teeth.

25 Emotion based positioning: No real emotional based positioning intended.

4.3Close-up Milk Calcium Segmentation/Target: The segmentation is same as first product but just to create a different appeal among the brand it has created a different product with different color and other ingredients. Positioning: Attribute based positioning: Close up Milk Calcium Nutrient with a new "centre-filled" gel. It is revolutionary new toothpaste with the goodness of milk calcium in an industry-first core-in-sheath format, with white milk calcium nutrient on the inside and a refreshing blue gel on the outside. Emotion based positioning: It a positioning done for specific customers for more freshness and customers desiring nutritious teeth.

5 Vicco 5.1 Vicco Vajradanti Vicco Vajradanti offers this unique formula in a dental care paste that has natural astringent, antiseptic, and analgesic properties. These ingredients also stimulate and reinforce gums, while resisting plaque formation. It gives you strong gums, which makes your bite mighty,

which no cosmetic toothpaste can ever give. Due to proven medicinal properties of its active ingredients, the Government has permitted manufacturing of Vicco products under Ayurvedic Drug Licence. The recipe for Vicco Herbal Toothpaste comes from the Indian system of holistic medicine (Ayurveda) which aims to restore and maintain health through natural means. Segmentation/Target: The target is the family people and the people who are health conscious and inclined towards ayurveda and herbal care. Positioning Attribute based positioning: It is positioned as an ayurvedic product which cleans, protects and strengthens teeth. It has got 20 pure herbal extracts long established by Ayurvedic herbal tradition to be good for teeth, mouth and gums. Emotion based positioning: The positioning is done in such a way it gives you strong gums, which makes your every bite mighty, which no cosmetic toothpaste can ever give. It is focusing more on ayurvedic which helps in better teeth.

6 Meswak

Segmentation/Target: Meswak was first launched in 1988 and generated with a rare

combination of ancient scripture and modern science. It basically targets consumers seeking natural benefits in their toothpaste and is used by vegetarians, religious and health conscious people. Positioning: Attribute based positioning The astringent and bactericidal properties of Meswak help reduce tooth decay, fight plaque and prevent gum disease. Imagine Toothpaste that's a rare combination of Ancient Wisdom and Modern Science. Imagine Toothpaste containing a natural herbal ingredient in renowned ancient scriptures, and provided 70 different health benefits for the entire body. This Toothpaste is scientifically proven to help strengthen gums, prevent tooth decay, eliminate bad breath, and ensure strong teeth all at once. Emotion based positioning Some of the ad slogans of meswak are: Sadiyon ka khazana ab aasan hai apnana in 1998, Meswak apnaiye, vishwas phelaiye in 1999, Formula sirf Bharat ke pass hai in 2002 These taglines cater to emotional based positioning promoting that consumers will be proud to use an Indian brand. Hence, competing with multinational brands.

7 Primary Survey 7.1 Questionnaire


As we observe, the survey data is very biased. The youth segment is also very dominant in the demographics. This has been the reason why some of the products show failure in positioning. For example, Vicco Vajradanti is targeted to old and aged population, who stresses on herbal composition; however survey results have been unable to capture such results. Behaviour

As observed, less than 30% of sample brush twice daily.

Substantial part of sample, 25% believed that toothpaste help improve their social image. Thus shows importance of emotion level positioning in toothpaste